Science.gov

Sample records for japanese radish raphanus

  1. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity. PMID:27530819

  2. Structure of a Precursor to the Blue Components Produced in the Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata

    2016-05-27

    The internal blue discoloration in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots has been reported to be a physiological phenomenon after harvest and poses a significant problem for farmers. To avoid this discoloration, the fundamental development of new radish cultivars that do not undergo discoloration and/or improved cultivation methods is required. Elucidating the chemical mechanism leading to this discoloration could help overcome these difficulties. To determine the mechanism underlying this discoloration, this study was designed to probe the structure of a precursor to the blue components generated during the discoloration process. Soaking fresh roots in aqueous H2O2 resulted in rapid blue discoloration, similar to the natural discoloration. Using a H2O2-based blue discoloration assay, the precursor was extracted and isolated from the fresh roots and identified as the glucosinolate, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, via spectroscopy and chemical synthesis. PMID:27128155

  3. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  4. Effects of White Radish (Raphanus sativus) Enzyme Extract on Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wha; Yang, Kwang Mo; Kim, Jung Ki; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Lee, Chang Min; Jeong, Min Ho; Seo, Su Yeong; Kim, Gi Yong; Jo, Wol-Soon

    2012-09-01

    Raphanus sativus (Cruciferaceae), commonly known as radish is widely available throughout the world. From antiquity it has been used in folk medicine as a natural drug against many toxicants. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of radish (Raphanus sativus) enzyme extract (REE) in vitro and in vivo test. The IC50 values of REE in human liver derived HepG2 cells was over 5,000 μg/ml in tested maximum concentration. The effect of REE to protect tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. REE showed their hepatoprotective activities on tacrineinduced cytotoxicity and the EC50 value was 1,250 μg/ml. Silymarin, an antihepatotoxic agent used as a positive control exhibited 59.7% hepatoprotective activitiy at 100 μg/ml. Moreover, we tested the effect of REE on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. REE at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg and silymarin at dose of 50 mg/kg were orally administered to CCl4-treated rats. The results showed that REE and silymarin significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum enzyme markers induced by CCl4. The biochemical data were supported by evaluation with liver histopathology. These findings suggest that REE, can significantly diminish hepatic damage by toxic agent such as tacrine or CCl4. PMID:24278606

  5. A β-Galactosidase from Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Sekimata, Masayuki; Ogura, Kiyoshi; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Yohichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    A basic β-galactosidase (β-Galase) has been purified 281-fold from imbibed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds by conventional purification procedures. The purified enzyme is an electrophoretically homogeneous protein consisting of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kilodaltons and pl values of 8.6 to 8.8. The enzyme was maximally active at pH 4.0 on p-nitrophenyl β-d-galactoside and β-1,3-linked galactobiose. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly by Hg2+ and 4-chloromercuribenzoate. d-Galactono-(1→4)-lactone and d-galactal acted as potent competitive inhibitors. Using galactooligosaccharides differing in the types of linkage as the substrates, it was demonstrated that radish seed β-Galase specifically split off β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked d-galactosyl residues from the nonreducing ends, and their rates of hydrolysis increased with increasing chain lengths. Radish seed and leaf arabino-3,6-galactan-proteins were resistant to the β-galase alone but could be partially degraded by the enzyme after the treatment with a fungal α-l-arabinofuranosidase leaving some oligosaccharides consisting of d-galactose, uronic acid, l-arabinose, and other minor sugar components besides d-galactose as the main product. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16666809

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish. PMID:24937570

  7. Comprehensive analysis of expressed sequence tags from cultivated and wild radish (Raphanus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2× = 18) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. A large collection of radish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been generated but remains largely uncharacterized. Results In this study, approximately 315,000 ESTs derived from 22 Raphanus cDNA libraries from 18 different genotypes were analyzed, for the purpose of gene and marker discovery and to evaluate large-scale genome duplication and phylogenetic relationships among Raphanus spp. The ESTs were assembled into 85,083 unigenes, of which 90%, 65%, 89% and 89% had homologous sequences in the GenBank nr, SwissProt, TrEMBL and Arabidopsis protein databases, respectively. A total of 66,194 (78%) could be assigned at least one gene ontology (GO) term. Comparative analysis identified 5,595 gene families unique to radish that were significantly enriched with genes related to small molecule metabolism, as well as 12,899 specific to the Brassicaceae that were enriched with genes related to seed oil body biogenesis and responses to phytohormones. The analysis further indicated that the divergence of radish and Brassica rapa occurred approximately 8.9-14.9 million years ago (MYA), following a whole-genome duplication event (12.8-21.4 MYA) in their common ancestor. An additional whole-genome duplication event in radish occurred at 5.1-8.4 MYA, after its divergence from B. rapa. A total of 13,570 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28,758 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. Using a subset of SNPs, the phylogenetic relationships of eight different accessions of Raphanus was inferred. Conclusion Comprehensive analysis of radish ESTs provided new insights into radish genome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships of different radish accessions. Moreover, the radish EST sequences and the associated SSR and SNP markers described in this study represent a valuable resource for radish functional genomics studies and

  8. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes. PMID:26672790

  9. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family. PMID:25151309

  10. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:25553270

  11. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  12. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  13. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  16. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  17. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. PMID:23000967

  18. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines. PMID:24315386

  19. Somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, H; Glimelius, K

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and a male-sterile radish line MS-Gensuke ( Raphanus sativus) with the Ogura cytoplasm. Forty-one shoots were differentiated from the regenerated calli and established as shoot cultures in vitro. About 20 of these shoots were judged to be hybrids based on growth characteristics and morphology. Molecular analyses of 11 shoots were performed, confirming the hybrid features. Of these 11 shoots, eight were established as rooted plants in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the nuclear genomes of all analyzed shoots and plants confirmed that they contained hybrid DNA patterns. Their chromosome numbers also supported the hybrid nature of the plants. Investigations of the organelles in the hybrids revealed that the chloroplast (cp) genome was exclusively represented by radish cpDNA, while the mitochondrial DNA configuration showed a combination of both parental genomes as well as fragments unique to the hybrids. Hybrid plants that flowered were male-sterile independent of the presence of the Ogura CMS-gene orf138. PMID:12827437

  20. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  1. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) between the ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in soils and exchangeable Cd was also observed. However, the significantly negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil pH and exchangeable Cd was merely found in pig manure-treated Acid Ferralsols. The increases in HA/FA ratio or pH values in soils after adding organic materials were also responsible for the decrease of Cd availability in soils and uptake by radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals. PMID:27098882

  2. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth. PMID:25531028

  3. Isothiocyanate from the Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) prevents genotoxicity of Zearalenone in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Ouanes, Zouhour; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; Bacha, Hassen; Oueslati, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a naturally occurring contaminant of animal feed that has been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock. Recently some information has become available indicating that ZEN caused cancer or at least increased its prevalence, although the mechanism of action is unknown. Many papers mentioned that exposure to ZEN results in genotoxicity and DNA damage. Therefore, we investigated the chemo-preventive role of 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) extracted from Tunisian Raphanus sativus (radish) on the cytogenetic effect of ZEN in Balb/c mice and in in vitro cultures of mouse lymphocytes isolated from mouse spleen. We determined chromosome aberrations and micronuclei as well as the mitotic index and DNA fragmentation following ZEN treatment alone or in combination with MTBITC. This report is the first to provide evidence of a statistically significant decrease of structural chromosome aberrations and micronuclei associated with an augmentation of the mitotic index and prevention of DNA fragmentation in all mice treated with ZEN-MTBITC and in mouse lymphocyte cultures. The MTBITC alone was safe and succeeded in reducing the toxicity of ZEN by counteracting its deleterious effect, thus protecting against the genotoxicity and clastogenicity from ZEN. PMID:19501672

  4. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, W J; Min, S R; Liu, J R

    1995-07-01

    Hypocotyl segments of 2- to 3-week-old radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. F1 Handsome Fall) seedlings produced yellowish compact calli when cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mgl(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Upon transfer onto medium containing 6-benzyladenine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid, up to 5.3% of the calli gave rise to a few somatic embryos. When subcultured for 3 to 6 months, 7% of the yellowish, compact calli produced white, compact calli which formed numerous embryos. These calli maintained their embryogenic capacity for over 18 months. When cultured on medium containing 0.1 to 3 mgl(-1) 2,4-D, up to 90% of longitudinally sliced somatic embryo halves produced calli with numerous secondary embryos. Embryos were transferred onto medium containing 0.1 mgl(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mgl(-1) abscisic acid where they developed into the cotyledonary stage. Upon transfer onto half-strength MS basal medium, approximately 90% of the embryos developed into plantlets. These plantlets were successfully transplanted in potting soil and after cold treatment they were grown to maturity in a phytotron. PMID:24194314

  5. Antioxidant effect of squeezed juice from black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var niger) in alimentary hyperlipidaemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea; Blázovics, Anna; Hagymási, Krisztina; Kocsis, Ibolya; Kéry, Agnes

    2005-07-01

    Black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) root has been used in folk medicine since antiquity as a natural drug for the stimulation of bile function. According to in vitro studies the squeezed juice from black radish root exhibited significant antioxidant properties. In the present study, the beneficial effect of the black radish juice on some free radical reactions in rats fed with a diet rich in lipids (20% sunflower oil, 2% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid in normal chow) was examined. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and conjugated diene concentrations were significantly higher, while the antioxidant enzyme activities and the free radical scavenging capacity were lower in hyperlipidaemic rats compared with normal controls. Supplementation of the lipid-rich diet with black radish juice resulted in a significant improvement of the parameters mentioned above. Although the exact mechanism of the biologically active compounds in black radish on the lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation is not clear yet, a beneficial effect of the drug was evident in alimentary hyperlipidaemia. PMID:16161062

  6. In vitro biosynthesis of galactans by membrane-bound galactosyltransferase from radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yoshimi; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Yohichi; Nakano, Hirofumi; Kovác, Pavol

    2003-06-01

    We investigated a galactosyltransferase (GalT) involved in the synthesis of the carbohydrate portion of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), which consist of a beta-(1-->3)-galactan backbone from which consecutive (1-->6)-linked beta-Gal p residues branch off. A membrane preparation from 6-day-old primary roots of radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) transferred [(14)C]Gal from UDP-[(14)C]Gal onto a beta-(1-->3)-galactan exogenous acceptor. The reaction occurred maximally at pH 5.9-6.3 and 30 degrees C in the presence of 15 mM Mn(2+) and 0.75% Triton X-100. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values for UDP-Gal were 0.41 mM and 1,000 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), respectively. The reaction with beta-(1-->3)-galactan showed a bi-phasic kinetic character with K(m) values of 0.43 and 2.8 mg ml(-1). beta-(1-->3)-Galactooligomers were good acceptors and enzyme activity increased with increasing polymerization of Gal residues. In contrast, the enzyme was less efficient on beta-(1-->6)-oligomers. The transfer reaction for an AGP from radish mature roots was negligible but could be increased by prior enzymatic or chemical removal of alpha- l-arabinofuranose (alpha- l-Ara f) residues or both alpha- l-Ara f residues and (1-->6)-linked beta-Gal side chains. Digestion of radiolabeled products formed from beta-(1-->3)-galactan and the modified AGP with exo-beta-(1-->3)-galactanase released mainly radioactive beta-(1-->6)-galactobiose, indicating that the transfer of [(14)C]Gal occurred preferentially onto consecutive (1-->3)-linked beta-Gal chains through beta-(1-->6)-linkages, resulting in the formation of single branching points. The enzyme produced mainly a branched tetrasaccharide, Galbeta(1-->3)[Galbeta(1-->6)] Galbeta(1-->3)Gal, from beta-(1-->3)-galactotriose by incubation with UDP-Gal, confirming the preferential formation of the branching linkage. Localization of the GalT in the Golgi apparatus was revealed on a sucrose density gradient. The membrane preparation also incorporated [(14

  7. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. PMID:25618652

  8. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status. PMID:24524755

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  11. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the 'NAU-YH' root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish. PMID:27242808

  12. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the ‘NAU-YH’ root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish. PMID:27242808

  13. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi Wei; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance. PMID:23630327

  14. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish. PMID:26902837

  15. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish. PMID:26902837

  16. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  17. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  18. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  19. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress. PMID:25308099

  20. Transformation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with Agrobacterium harboring a group 3 LEA gene from B. napus.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

    2005-10-01

    A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress. PMID:15843933

  1. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable

  2. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28–14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb–phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars

  3. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program. PMID:22491896

  4. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest. PMID:27099626

  5. Selenium species bioaccessibility in enriched radish (Raphanus sativus): a potential dietary source of selenium.

    PubMed

    Pedrero, Zoyne; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2006-03-22

    An in vitro gastrointestinal method was employed to predict the potential bioavailability of selenium and its species from radish, belonging to the Brassicaceae family, grown in hydroponics media in the presence of inorganic selenium, such as Na2SeO3 and Na2SeO4. A low transformation of Se into organic forms was observed in radish plants grown in Se(VI)-enriched culture media. On the contrary, in those plants exposed to selenite, >95% of the total selenium was found as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMetSeCys). The concentrations of these species in fresh samples remained almost unaltered after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, a high selenium content of Se-methylselenocysteine (65%), previously reported as a cancer chemopreventive species, remained in the potentially bioabsorbable fraction. As these plants usually undergo a short development cycle, these results suggest that radish enriched in selenite could be a good choice as an organoselenium supplement for the human diet and animal feed. PMID:16536627

  6. Isolation and biochemical characterization of two forms of RD21 from cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yayoi; Saika, Hiroko; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami; Tsuji, Akihiko

    2008-12-01

    RD21 (Responsive to desiccation-21) is an Arabidopsis cysteine protease which possesses a granulin-like domain at the C-terminus. Although two forms of RD21 have been identified, consisting of an intermediate form (iRD21) containing a granulin domain and a mature form (mRD21) lacking this domain, the enzymatic properties of these enzymes remain poorly understood. In this study, mRD21 orthologue was purified to homogeneity from the cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). RD21 preferentially cleaved peptide bond that had an aromatic or hydrophobic amino acid at the P2 position. Furthermore, the presence of a polar amino acid at the P1 position enhanced the cleavage susceptibility of the peptide bond, although the importance of the type of amino acid residue at the P1 and P1' positions was not as significant as the residue located at the P2 position. The iRD21 was also identified as an oligomeric form by gel filtration and sedimentation analyses. The expression of RD21 mRNA was initiated by imbibition and continued at almost constant levels during germination. On the other hand, the enzyme activity increased markedly 5 days after imbibition. These results indicate that this elevation of RD21 activity is generated post-transcriptionally. PMID:18838434

  7. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide

  8. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans. PMID:23818061

  9. Thermal denaturation and regeneration of japanese-radish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Y; Morita, Y

    1975-09-01

    Thermal denaturation of Japanese-radish peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.7] was investigated with respect to its spectrophotometric properties and effect on the enzymatic activity. Inactivation of the peroxidase occurred at temperatures higher than 60degrees and involved three processes, i.e., dissociation of protohemin from the holoperoxidase, a conformation change in the apperoxidase, and the modification or degradation of protohemin. The splitting process of protohemin from holoperoxidase as followed by the change in the absorption spectrum at high temperatures coincided with the degrease in the activity, and it was found to be at least biphasic. The regeneration of peroxidase on cooling to room temperature was essentially reversible at neutral pH, while at pH 5 and pH 9 these processes were irreversible. The irreversibility at acidic pH was mainly due to an irreversible change in the conformation of the apoenzyme. The difference spectrum of heat-treated apoperoxidase exhibited a denaturation blueshift with negative maxima at 287 and 294 nm, and the total protein fluorescence quantum yield. qprotein, increased by 20% compared to that of the untreated apoenzyme. On the other hand, the irreversibility at alkaline pH was largely attributable to the modification of protohemin. Apoperoxidase was more resistnat to heat denaturation but the modification or degradation of protohemin in heated enzyme was greater at alkaline pH than at acidic pH. The pyridine-ferrohemochrome spectrum of peroxidase exhibited slight shifts of the maxima of the alpha-band to shorter wavelength on heat treatment, and the paper chromatogram showed the presence of a new derivative other than protohemin. The modified product is probably (2(4)-vinyl-4(2)-hydroxyethyldeuterohemin. PMID:5412

  10. Purification and characterization of cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from cotyledons of daikon radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Yayoi; Ogawa, Kentaro; Saika, Hiroko; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami

    2008-11-01

    Plant cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (CBCP) plays a role in disease resistance and in protein remobilization during germination. The ability of animal cathepsin B to function as a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase has been attributed to the presence of a dihistidine (His110-His111) motif in the occluding loop, which represents a unique structure of cathepsin B. However, a dihistidine motif is not present in the predicted sequence of the occluding loop of plant CBCP, as determined from cDNA sequence analysis, and the loop is shorter. In an effort to investigate the enzymatic properties of plant CBCP, which possesses the unusual occluding loop, we have purified CBCP from the cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) by chromatography through Sephacryl S-200, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and organomercurial-Sepharose. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 28 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. The best synthetic substrate for CBCP was t-butyloxycarbonyl Leu-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl 7-amide, as is the case with human cathepsin B. However, the endopeptidase activity of CBCP towards glucagon and adrenocorticotropic hormone showed broad cleavage specificity. Human cathepsin B preferentially cleaves model peptides via its dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity, whereas daikon CBCP displays both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities. In addition, CBCP was found to display carboxymonopeptidase activity against the substrate o-aminobenzoyl-Phe-Arg-Phe(4-NO(2)). Daikon CBCP is less sensitive (1/7000) to CA-074 than human cathepsin B. Expression analysis of CBCP at the protein and RNA levels indicated that daikon CBCP activity in cotyledons is regulated by post-transcriptional events during germination. PMID:18959767

  11. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. PMID:27239694

  12. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings. PMID:20120479

  13. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Japanese wild radish.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Ono, Mayuko; Uchida, Akira; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Hydrophilic chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins have been isolated from various Brassicaceae plants and are categorized into Class II water-soluble Chl-binding proteins (WSCPs). Although the molecular properties of class II WSCPs including Brassica-type (e.g., cauliflower WSCP, Brussels sprouts WSCP and BnD22, a drought- and salinity-stress-induced 22 kDa protein of rapeseed), a Lepidium-type, and an Arabidopsis-type WSCPs have been well characterized, those of Raphanus-type WSCPs are poorly understood. To gain insight into the molecular diversity of Class II WSCPs, we cloned a novel cDNA encoding a Raphanus sativus var. raphanistroides (Japanese wild radish called 'Hamadaikon') WSCP (RshWSCP). Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of the RshWSCP gene consisted of 666 bp encoding 222 aa residues, including 23 residues of a deduced signal peptide. Functional recombinant RshWSCP was expressed in Escherichia coli as a hexa-histidine fusion protein (RshWSCP-His). Although the RshWSCP-His was expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli, the apo-protein was highly unstable and tended to aggregate during a series of purification steps. When the soluble fraction of RshWSCP-His-expressing E. coli was mixed immediately with homogenate of spinach leaves containing thylakoid, RshWSCP-His was able to remove Chl molecules from the thylakoid and formed a stable Chl-WSCP complex with high hydrophilicity. UV-visible absorption spectra of the reconstituted RshWSCP-His revealed that RshWSCP-His is one of the Class IIA WSCP with the highest Chl a/b ratio analyzed thus far. A semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that RshWSCP was transcribed in buds and flowers but not in roots, stems and various leaves. PMID:23266282

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Root and Identification of Genes Involved in Response to Lead (Pb) Stress with Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)–based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  15. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish. PMID:24014874

  16. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish. PMID:24014874

  17. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. PMID:24231324

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops. PMID:27252709

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops. PMID:27252709

  20. Dual mode diffusion of NaCl in Japanese radish under cooking conditions.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, H; Komiyama, J; Nakanishi, T; Gocho, H

    2007-04-01

    Sorption and diffusion of NaCl in Japanese radish have been studied. The sorption isotherm was obtained at 98 degrees C by the conventional method. The concentration profile by the 1-dimensional diffusion of NaCl in Japanese radish from the 3.0% solution was measured at 98 degrees C with the FRITRUC method involving a foodstuff rod in a thin rubber casing. Fick's diffusion coefficient, D, calculated therefrom showed a threefold variation with a maximum. This variation was quantitatively interpreted by applying a dual-mode sorption and diffusion theory under an assumption that the rate determining step of the diffusion is that in the cell wall. Two thermodynamic diffusion coefficients, D(T)(p) and D(T)(L), where p and L are the species of NaCl sorbed by partition and Langmuir modes, respectively, a parameter, alpha, derived from the local equilibrium relations between the p and L species, and S, the concentration of the Langmuir adsorption site in the cell wall of the radish, were estimated. D(T)(p) was found to be smaller than D(T)(L). As an explanation of the larger D(T)(L), we invoked the higher hydration state of the adsorption site of the L species, being ascribed to residual anionic pectin in the radish than the local environment of the p species. The sorption isotherm showed a convex upward deviation from the linear relation. By using the parameters for the local equilibrium and some assumed parameters, the isotherm was found to be explainable. We suggest possible applications of the present method and interpretation to the diffusion study on the cooking systems comprising varieties of seasoning components and foodstuffs. PMID:17995794

  1. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops. PMID:26025544

  2. Changes in the Levels of Calmodulin and of a Calmodulin Inhibitor in the Early Phases of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Cocucci, Maurizio; Negrini, Noemi

    1988-01-01

    An inhibitor of Ca2+-calmodulin (Cam)-dependent brain phosphodiesterase was present in the soluble fraction of embryo axes from ungerminated radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds. This inhibitor is a Ca2+-dependent, Cam-binding protein; in fact: (a) its effect was strongly reduced by treatment with proteases; (b) the inhibition was counteracted by Cam but not by Ca2+; (c) on gel filtration in the presence of Ca2+, Cam co-chromatographed with the inhibitor. The inhibitor is heat stable and positively charged at pH 7.5. During early phases of germination, the fresh weight and the levels of DNA and RNA of embryo axes increased, the level of the inhibitor decreased, and the level of Cam increased. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited germination, the decrease of inhibitor, and the increase of Cam. Fusicoccin (FC) stimulated the increase in fresh weight but not the increase in the RNA and DNA levels; in this condition, the inhibitor level decreased and the increase in Cam level was higher than in the control. In the presence of both ABA and FC, there was an increase in fresh weight not accompanied by an increase in DNA and RNA levels; Cam increased and, on a fresh weight basis, reached the value of the control. These results indicate that the Ca2+-Cam system was activated in early germination of radish seeds by an increase in Cam and a decrease in the inhibitor levels, that FC, probably through the activation of membrane functions, increased Cam level, and that the ABA inhibition on germination was not mediated by the Ca2+-Cam system. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16666403

  3. Synergistic effect of ethylene inhibitors and putrescine on shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Sim, G E; Chi, G L; Kong, L F

    1996-05-01

    The role of ethylene and putrescine on shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey cv. Red Coat) was investigated. Explants were recalcitrant in culture, but exogenous application of ethylene inhibitor [20-30 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or AgNO3] enhanced shoot regeneration of explants grown on medium supplemented with 2 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. The best regeneration occurred in the medium containing AgNO3 in combination with AVG. Culture medium solidified with agarose in the presence of AgNO3 but not AVG was also beneficial to shoot regeneration. Exogenous putrescine, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had no effect on shoot regeneration. However, regeneration was greatly promoted by 10-25 mM putrescine in combination with 30 μM AgNO3 or AVG. Explants with high regenerability grown in the presence of AgNO3 or in combination with putrescine emanated high levels of ethylene throughout the 21-d culture period. By contrast, AVG or putrescine alone resulted in a decrease in ethylene production. For rooting of shoot cuttings, IAA and IBA at 1-5 mg/l were more effective than NAA. PMID:24178611

  4. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs associated with taproot development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiaohua; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang

    2015-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. To identify the miRNAs associated with taproot development at the whole genome level, we sequenced five RNA libraries constructed from radish taproots at different developmental stages and generated a total of 148M clean reads. Using an integrative bioinformatics analysis, 494 known miRNAs belonging to 434 families and 220 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Combining the differential expression analysis and target prediction, we found that 77 miRNAs were potentially associated with taproot development. Target transcripts generated significant GO terms relating to cell proliferation, root development and hormone-mediated signaling. The KEGG analyses revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, zeatin biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell cycle, MAPK signaling and p53 signaling were closely associated with taproot development. These findings will provide valuable information for further functional verification of miRNAs and their targets in radish taproot development. PMID:26013046

  5. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish (Raphanus sativus var. niger, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Song; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Cao, Ying; Wang, Li; Li, Fang-Jun; Wang, Yi-Fan

    2010-10-01

    The antioxidant and pro-oxidant potential of an extract from red radish, in which the major compounds were acylated pelargonidin derivatives, were assessed with a variety of assays in vitro. The extract appeared to form a complex with Fe(3+) or Cu(2+). It displayed a concentration-dependant reducing power (1.16OD(700 nm) at a concentration of 4mM) and scavenging effect against 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (with IC(50)=1.74 +/- 0.03 mM). It could promote the cleavage of plasmid DNA with Cu(II)/H(2)O(2) or Cu(II) alone. This DNA damage could be inhibited by horseradish peroxidase, catalase, and EDTA, respectively. The extract also showed growth inhibition of Bel-7402 cells at lower concentration. The results suggested that the formation of reactive oxygen species might be involved in the mechanism of DNA damage. The acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish could act as antioxidant and pro-oxidant and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties were relative to the reaction conditions. It might provide novel antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:20600520

  6. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. PMID:26650829

  7. Genotypic effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on fecundity in an annual weed (wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, P.S.; Snow, A.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Rising atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels may lead to microevolutionary change in native plant populations. To test for within-population variation in genetic responses to elevated p(CO[sub 2]), we exposed five paternal sibships of wild radish to ambient and 2X ambient (700 [mu]bar) p(CO[sub 2]) in 3 m open top chambers for an entre growing season. Seeds were planted singly in 2.5 1 pots filled with locally derived, low fertility soil (160 plants per CO[sub 2] treatment). Net CO[sub 2] assimilation increased 25% in vegetative plants and 48% in reproductive plants growing at elevated p(CO[sub 2]). Every flower was hand-pollinated to mimic natural pollination levels. Lifetime fecundity was greater in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatment, but the magnitude of this effect differed dramatically among paternal sibships: seed production increased 13% overall, yet among paternal sibships seed production varied between 0% and 50% more seeds in elevated p(CO[sub 2]) as compared to ambient. Our results suggest that natural selection can occur due to genotypic differences in the CO[sub 2] response. This process should be considered in estimates of long-term effects of elevated p(CO[sub 2]), especially with regard to anticipated increases in primary productivity.

  8. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation. PMID:24176362

  9. Rapid evolution of morphology and adaptive life history in the invasive California wild radish (Raphanus sativus) and the implications for management

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Caroline E; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and demography of invasive populations may be key for successful management. In this study, we test whether or not populations of the non-native, hybrid-derived California wild radish have regionally adapted to divergent climates over their 150-year history in California and determine if population demographic dynamics might warrant different region-specific strategies for control. Using a reciprocal transplant approach, we found evidence for genetically based differences both between and among northern, coastal and southern, inland populations of wild radish. Individual fitness was analyzed using a relatively new statistical method called ‘aster modeling’ which integrates temporally sequential fitness measurements. In their respective home environments, fitness differences strongly favored southern populations and only slightly favored northern populations. Demographic rates of transition and sensitivities also differed between regions of origin, suggesting that the most effective approach for reducing overall population growth rate would be to target different life-history stages in each region. PMID:25567904

  10. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops. PMID:26369897

  11. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops. PMID:26357995

  12. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops. PMID:26357995

  13. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops. PMID:26369897

  14. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed. PMID:26974503

  15. Relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites in a natural gynodioecious population of wild radish, Raphanus sativus L. (Brassicaceae): comparison based on molecular genotyping.

    PubMed

    Miyake, K; Miyake, T; Terachi, T; Yahara, T

    2009-10-01

    In many gynodioecious species, sex determination involves both cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear genes that restore male function. Differences in fitness among genotypes affect the dynamics of those genes, and thus that of gynodioecy. We used a molecular marker to discriminate between hermaphrodites with and without a CMS gene in gynodioecious Raphanus sativus. We compared fitness through female function among the three genotypes: females, hermaphrodites with the CMS gene and those without it. Although there was no significant difference among the genotypes in seed size, hermaphrodites without the CMS gene produced significantly more seeds, and seeds with a higher germination rate than the other genotypes, suggesting no fitness advantage for females and no benefit to bearing the CMS gene. Despite the lack of fitness advantage for females in the parameter values we estimated, a theoretical model of gynodioecy shows it can be maintained if restorer genes impose a cost paid in pollen production. In addition, we found that females invest more resources into female reproduction than hermaphrodites when they become larger. If environmental conditions enable females to grow larger this would facilitate the dynamics of CMS genes. PMID:19678867

  16. Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. Var. niger) diet enhances clearance of DMBA and diminishes toxic effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    N'jai, Alhaji U; Kemp, Michael Q; Metzger, Brandon T; Hanlon, Paul R; Robbins, Melissa; Czuyprynski, Charles; Barnes, David M

    2012-01-01

    Vegetables of the Cruciferae family contain high levels of glucosinolates, metabolites of which are believed to enhance detoxification. Spanish black radishes (SBR) contain 4× more glucosinolates than other crucifers. This study examined whether feeding mice a diet containing 20% SBR for 2 wk could enhance metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and inhibit DMBA-mediated bone marrow toxicity. Expression of Phase I and II detoxification enzymes was significantly greater for mice fed SBR than control diet. Six hours after DMBA administration, the blood levels of DMBA in mice fed the SBR diet were significantly lower than mice fed a control diet. DMBA reduced bone marrow cells in mice fed control diet to a significantly greater extent than mice fed the SBR diet. Colony forming assays demonstrated that mice on the SBR diet had 1) less reduction in lymphoid CFU-preB progenitor cells, 2) greater recovery of CFU-preB progenitor cells at 168 h, and 3) less reduction of CFU-GM progenitor cells at 6 h. Therefore, mice fed a 20% SBR diet for 2 wk had greater expression of detoxification enzymes, faster metabolism of DMBA, and a reduction in DMBA-induced bone marrow toxicity. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that glucosinolates in SBR are protective against acute toxicity. PMID:23061907

  17. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuya; Toda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Michiko; Negishi, Takashi; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT) was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-), bisulfide ([SH]-), and thiocyanate ([SCN]-) ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions. A survey of

  18. Raphanus sativus, Germination, and Inquiry: A Learning Cycle Approach for Novice Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes open-ended experiments with seeds from the common garden radish (Raphanus sativus). The phases of the 5-E learning cycle--Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation--guide this activity series. (Author/MM)

  19. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  20. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  1. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  2. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line ‘WA’ and its maintainer line ‘WB’ by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  3. QTL Analysis Using SNP Markers Developed by Next-Generation Sequencing for Identification of Candidate Genes Controlling 4-Methylthio-3-Butenyl Glucosinolate Contents in Roots of Radish, Raphanus sativus L

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhongwei; Ishida, Masahiko; Li, Feng; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Sho; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    SNP markers for QTL analysis of 4-MTB-GSL contents in radish roots were developed by determining nucleotide sequences of bulked PCR products using a next-generation sequencer. DNA fragments were amplified from two radish lines by multiplex PCR with six primer pairs, and those amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were mixed and sequenced. By assembling sequence data, 1,953 SNPs in 750 DNA fragments, 437 of which have been previously mapped in a linkage map, were identified. A linkage map of nine linkage groups was constructed with 188 markers, and five QTLs were detected in two F2 populations, three of them accounting for more than 50% of the total phenotypic variance being repeatedly detected. In the identified QTL regions, nine SNP markers were newly produced. By synteny analysis of the QTLs regions with Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa genome sequences, three candidate genes were selected, i.e., RsMAM3 for production of aliphatic glucosinolates linked to GSL-QTL-4, RsIPMDH1 for leucine biosynthesis showing strong co-expression with glucosinolate biosynthesis genes linked to GSL-QTL-2, and RsBCAT4 for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase linked to GSL-QTL-1. Nucleotide sequences and expression of these genes suggested their possible function in 4MTB-GSL biosynthesis in radish roots. PMID:23308250

  4. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  5. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  6. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  7. The mechanism for weed suppression by a forage radish cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mid-Atlantic region, forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) winter cover crops planted prior to 1 September suppress winter annual weeds from fall until early April. Little is known about the mechanism of this weed suppression. Published research reports suggest that allelopat...

  8. GROWTH RESPONSE IN RADISH TO SEQUENTIAL AND SIMULTANEOUS EXPOSURES OF NO2 AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequential and simultaneous exposures of radish Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle to 0.8 microliters per liter nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 0.8 microliters per liter sulphur dioxide (SO2) were conducted under both day- and night-time conditions to examine the effects on growth a...

  9. UPTAKE OF CADMIUM FROM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS BY PEAS, RADISHES, AND LETTUCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadium uptake from phosphate fertilizers by radish (Raphanus sativa) lettuce (Latuca sativa) and garden peas (Pisum satium) was investigated in the greenhouse. Fertilizer in all treatments was applied at the rate of 100 P/g soil to pots containing 4kg soil. When reagent grade mon...

  10. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods. PMID:18314243

  11. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  12. The Radish Party

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Jeff; Mildenstein, Tammy; Dungan, Kathy; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Radish Party inquiry is designed to teach the importance and relevance of soil organic matter to young students. In this investigation, students grow radishes in three different kinds of soils: sand, sand plus nutrients, and potting soil (soil that includes organic matter). The experience described here was conducted with first- and…

  13. Phototropism in Hypocotyls of Radish 1

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Koji

    1987-01-01

    When etiolated radish (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus Makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light at 0.05, 0.1, or 1 watt per square meter, the suppression of the growth rate on the lighted side depended on the light intensity. The growth rate at the shaded side was only a little affected by the illumination at 0.05 and 0.1 watt per square meter but considerably suppressed by that at 1 watt per square meter. Upon a continuous unequal bilateral illumination, the growth rate was more strongly suppressed on the side of the higher intensity than on the side of the lower one, resulting in phototropic curvature toward the light source of the higher intensity. It was calculated from correlation analysis of light intensity and growth rate that, on an average, 6.9% of the irradiation applied to one side reached the opposite side. The amounts of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide in hypocotyls subjected to unilateral or unequal bilateral illumination increased much more at the side of the lighted or the higher intensity than at the opposite side. The present study demonstrates that phototropism in radish hypocotyl is correlated with and we conclude caused by a gradient of growth inhibition in the hypocotyl, depending on irradiation-induced amounts of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide. PMID:16665305

  14. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  16. Purification and characterization of dipeptidase hydrolyzing L-cysteinylglycine from radish cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Henri-Obadja; Koizumi, Yukio; Sekiya, Jiro

    2007-12-01

    Dipeptidase activity was detected in the soluble fraction of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledon, and the purified enzyme had a specific activity of 7.32 nkat/mg protein for hydrolyzing L-cysteinylglycine. The dipeptidase was found to be a hexameric metalloenzyme, composed of homological 55 kDa-subunits. This is the first glutathione catabolism-related dipeptidase isolated from higher plants. PMID:18071263

  17. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  18. Toxicity of sodium tungstate to earthworm, oat, radish, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Josie E; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Katherine E; Pittinger, Charles A; Lemus, Ranulfo; Staveley, Jane P; Lee, K Brian; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Due to unknown effects of the potential exposure of the terrestrial environment to tungsten substances, a series of toxicity studies of sodium tungstate (Na(2) WO(4) ) was conducted. The effect on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival and reproduction was examined using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 222. No effect on either endpoint was seen at the highest concentration tested, resulting in a 56-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of ≥586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations). The effect of sodium tungstate on emergence and growth of plant species was examined according to OECD Guideline 208: oat (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). No effects on emergence, shoot height, and dry shoot weight were observed in oats exposed to the highest concentration, resulting in a 21-d NOEC of ≥586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil. The NOECs for radish and lettuce were 65 and 21.7 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations), respectively. Respective 21-d median effective concentration values (EC50) for radish and lettuce were >586 and 313 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (based on shoot height) (confidence level [CL] -8.5-615); EC25 values were 152 (CL 0-331) and 55 (CL 0-114) mg tungsten/kg dry soil. Results are consistent with the few other tungsten substance terrestrial toxicity studies in the literature. PMID:21805499

  19. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  20. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors. PMID:26056784

  1. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors. PMID:26056784

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  4. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  5. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  6. Role of Gibberellins in Stem Elongation and Flowering in Radish

    PubMed Central

    Suge, Hiroshi; Rappaport, Lawrence

    1968-01-01

    The relationship among gibberellins, CCC, vernalization, and photoperiod in the flowering response of radish, Raphanus sativus L., cv. Miyashige-sofuto, was studied. The optimal condition for flowering was vernalization and a 16-hour photoperiod; GA3 had no additional effect. Gibberellin A3 (60 μg total) was not able to induce flowering in nonvernalized plants grown on 8-hour days, but it did increase the percentage of nonvernalized plants that flowered under long days from 60 to 100. Gibberellin content of vernalized seedlings increased within the first 24 hours after seedlings were transferred to the greenhouse. Content reached a peak in the first 4 days after transfer and thereafter remained constant. Essentially no gibberellin was found in 2 day-old non-vernalized (control) seedlings of comparable size to the vernalized ones. Gibberellin content in the controls reached a peak on the fourth day of growth in the greenhouse; thereafter, it decreased steadily. Bolting was inhibited slightly by CCC when applied during vernalization; it was almost completely inhibited when CCC was applied after seed vernalization. Extraction experiments revealed that CCC actually reduced the gibberellin content when applied during or after vernalization. The dwarfing agent, however, had essentially no effect on flowering. We concluded that gibberellins likely play a direct role in bolting of `Miyashige-sofuto' radish, but probably are not directly functional in initiating flowering. Images PMID:16656903

  7. The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na+ and K+ were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ increased; the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na+ was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K+ was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na+ and enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:22977684

  8. Removal of a combination of endocrine disruptors from aqueous systems by seedlings of radish and ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Gattullo, C Eliana; Cunha, Bruno Barboza; Rosa, André H; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are widespread in the environment, especially aquatic systems, and cause dangerous effects on wildlife and humans. This work was aimed to assess the capacity of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seedlings to tolerate and remove two combinations of EDs containing bisphenol A (BPA), 17alpha-ethynilestradiol (EE2), and linuron from four aqueous media: distilled water, a solution of natural organic matter (NOM), a lake water and a river water. Seeds of the two species were germinated in each contaminated medium and, at the end of germination, the seedling growth was evaluated by biometric measurements and residual EDs were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Biometric measurements revealed that the phytotoxicity of the two combinations of EDs depended on the medium used. Radish showed a discrete tolerance in distilled water and lake water but was inhibited in the solution of NOM and river water. Ryegrass was negatively affected mainly in river water. The concentration of each ED appeared significantly reduced in all media in the presence of seedlings of both species, but not in the blanks without plants. In 5 days, radish removed up to 88% of BPA, 100% of EE2 and 42% of linuron, and in 6 days ryegrass removed up to 92% of BPA, 74% of EE2 and 16% of linuron. The considerable removal capacity of radish and ryegrass in all media tested encourages the use of phytoremediation to remove EDs from waters. PMID:24617071

  9. Interaction of Brassinosteroids and Polyamines Enhances Copper Stress Tolerance in Raphanus Sativus

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H2O2, comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored. PMID:22915739

  10. Interaction of brassinosteroids and polyamines enhances copper stress tolerance in raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Oral, H Volkan; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H(2)O(2), comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored. PMID:22915739

  11. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment. PMID:27593272

  12. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  13. Regulation of the activity of Korean radish cationic peroxidase promoter during dedifferentiation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Soo; Choi, Suh-Yeon; Park, Jin-Hyoun; Lee, Dong Ju

    2004-12-01

    Studies of the regulation of the activity of the Korean radish cationic peroxidase (KRCP) promoter during dedifferentiation and redifferentiation are reported here. Histochemical staining with 5-bromo-4-chloro-indolyl glucuronide (X-gluc) showed that only dedifferentiated marginal cells of leaf discs of the transgenic plants, but not of the interior region, were stained blue, as leaf discs were incubated on dedifferentiation-inducing medium from 5 days after callus induction (DACI). The levels of cationic peroxidase activity and of KRCP transcripts in Korean radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. F1 Handsome Fall) were also upregulated by a low ratio of cytokinin to auxin, but not by high concentrations of cytokinin. To identify important cis-regulatory regions controlling callus-specific expression, a series of 5' promoter deletions was carried out with KRCP::GUS gene fusion systems. The data suggest that at least two positively regulatory regions are involved in the KRCP::GUS expression during dedifferentiation induced by a low ratio of cytokinin to auxin: one from -471 to -242 and another from -241 to +196. GUS expression, however, was quickly decreased to a basal level during regeneration of root and shoot. Thus, the downstream region between +197 and +698 seems to be enough to suppress GUS expression of all constructs during regeneration. We further show that the 142-bp fragment (-471 to -328) has at least one cis-element to bind to the nuclear proteins from Korean radish seedlings induced by dedifferentiation. PMID:15596095

  14. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected. PMID:25779084

  15. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

  16. Biology and interactions of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and betasatellites associated with radish leaf curl disease in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emerging whitefly transmitted begomoviruses are major pathogens of vegetable and fibre crops throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mutation, pseudorecombination and recombination are driving forces for the emergence and evolution of new crop-infecting begomoviruses. Leaf curl disease of field grown radish plants was noticed in Varanasi and Pataudi region of northern India. We have identified and characterized two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and associated beta satellite DNA causing leaf curl disease of radish (Raphanus sativus) in India. Results We demonstrate that RaLCD is caused by a complex of two Old World begomoviruses and their associated betasatellites. Radish leaf curl virus-Varanasi is identified as a new recombinant species, Radish leaf curl virus (RaLCV) sharing maximum nucleotide identity of 87.7% with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus-[Bangladesh:2] (Accession number AF188481) while the virus causing radish leaf curl disease-Pataudi is an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus-[India] (CYVMV-IN) (Accession number AJ507777) sharing 95.8% nucleotide identity. Further, RDP analysis revealed that the RaLCV has a hybrid genome, a putative recombinant between Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl virus. Cloned DNA of either RaLCV or CYVMV induced mild leaf curl symptoms in radish plants. However, when these clones (RaLCV or CYVMV) were individually co-inoculated with their associated cloned DNA betasatellite, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in radish plants and induced typical RaLCD symptoms. To further extend these studies, we carried out an investigation of the interaction of these radish-infecting begomoviruses and their associated satellite, with two tomato infecting begomoviruses (Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus). Both of the tomato-infecting begomoviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with DNA satellites, not

  17. Immunotoxicity of zearalenone in Balb/c mice in a high subchronic dosing study counteracted by Raphanus sativus extract.

    PubMed

    Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Abbès, Samir; Abdel-Wahhab, Ma; Oueslati, Ridha

    2010-12-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus) is a cruciferous plant, rich on flavonoids, isothiocyanates, and phenolic acids. They show anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Isothiocyanates and flavonoids have been reported previously to prevent low-sub-chronic dose of zearalenone (ZEN) causing immunotoxicity. The present study focuses on the amelioration of fusarotoxicosis in Balb/c mice by feeding two concentrations of radish extract. The extract at 15 and 30 mg/kg bw, was evaluated to reduce the deleterious effects in immunological parameters of high subchronic doses of 40 and 80 mg of ZEN/kg bw on modulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ZEN consuming mice showed a "dose-related" decrease in weight gain and in the immune relative weights organs. Moreover, Atrophy and lymphoid depletion were seen in the histopathology of spleen. Ingestion of ZEN at either level had a significant effect on total red blood cell numbers and on their relative number of lymphocytes. Likewise, ZEN alters the production of regulatory cytokines and antibody of LPS stimulated mice. By contrast, the additions of radish extract with a low or high dose of ZEN moderately decreased the affected mice and/or the severity of lesions, and all tested parameters were normal or at least near normal levels. In addition, the radish extract alone did not produce any significant changes in all tested parameters compared with the controls. In conclusion, radish extract was effective for the protection of high dose ZEN-immunotoxication in mice and it could contribute to a solution of the ZEN immunotoxicity in humans and in farm animals. PMID:20205508

  18. Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

    Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber

  19. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  20. Anaerobic Accumulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Alanine in Radish Leaves (Raphanus sativus, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.; Thompson, John F.

    1972-01-01

    In leaves, the anaerobic accumulation of alanine was accompanied by a loss of aspartate, and these changes preceded γ-aminobutyrate accumulation and glutamate loss. Changes in keto acid content did not appear to be the cause of amino acid changes. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyrate was due to acceleration of glutamate decarboxylation and arrest of γ-aminobutyrate transamination. Changes in enzyme content did not explain the changes in reaction rates in vivo. Most of the aspartate may be converted anaerobically to alanine via oxalacetate and pyruvate. PMID:16658004

  1. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture. PMID:15793823

  2. Antilithiasic and hypolipidaemic effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on mice fed with a lithogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  3. Induction of primary root curvature in radish seedlings in a static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Yano, A; Hidaka, E; Fujiwara, K; Iimoto, M

    2001-04-01

    Primary roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to an inhomogeneous static magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet, during continuous rotation on a 0.06 rpm clinostat, thereby reducing the unilateral influence of gravity. The roots responded tropically to the static magnetic field with the tropism appearing to be negative. These roots responded significantly (P < 0.05) to the south pole of the magnet. The significant tropic response was found for a magnetic flux density of 13-68 mT, for a field gradient of 1.8-14.7 T/m, and for the product of magnetic field and field gradient of 0.023-1.0 T(2)/m. A small, but insignificant, response of the roots to the north pole has also been found. PMID:11255215

  4. 2,4-D resistance in wild radish: reduced herbicide translocation via inhibition of cellular transport.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Danica E; Cawthray, Gregory R; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-05-01

    Resistance to auxinic herbicides is increasing in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, but in most cases the biochemical mechanism of resistance is unknown. Using (14)C-labelled herbicide, the mechanism of resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations was identified as an inability to translocate 2,4-D out of the treated leaf. Although 2,4-D was metabolized in wild radish, and in a different manner to the well-characterized crop species wheat and bean, there was no difference in metabolism between the susceptible and resistant populations. Reduced translocation of 2,4-D in the latter was also not due to sequestration of the herbicide, or to reduced uptake by the leaf epidermis or mesophyll cells. Application of auxin efflux or ABCB transporter inhibitors to 2,4-D-susceptible plants caused a mimicking of the reduced-translocation resistance phenotype, suggesting that 2,4-D resistance in the populations under investigation could be due to an alteration in the activity of a plasma membrane ABCB-type auxin transporter responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of 2,4-D. PMID:26994475

  5. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on radish production using Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Ruffe, L. M.; Yorio, N. C.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cvs. Cherry Belle, Giant White Globe, and Early Scarlet Globe) were grown in four different CO2 enriched environments, 0.04, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 kPa (400, 1000, 5000, 10000 ppm). Cultivar responses to CO2 treatments varied, where cv. Cherry Belle showed no significant response to CO2 enrichment, cv. Giant White Globe was moderately affected and Early Scarlet Globe was strongly affected. Enrichment at 0.10 kPa led to greater root dry matter (DM) than 1.00 kPa for cv. Giant White Glove, whereas 0.10 kPa produced greater storage root, shoot, and root DM than 1.00 kPa for cv. Early Scarlet Globe. The data suggest that 1.00 kPa CO2 may be detrimental to the growth of certain radish cultivars. Root:shoot ratios tended to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. Water use efficiency (g biomass/kg H2O) increased with increasing CO2 enrichment, up to 0.5 kPa but then declined at the 1.00 kPa treatment. The total nitric acid used to maintain nutrient solution pH was lowest at the 1.00 kPa treatment as well, suggesting a decreased demand of nutrients by the plants at the highest CO2 level.

  6. 2,4-D resistance in wild radish: reduced herbicide translocation via inhibition of cellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Powles, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to auxinic herbicides is increasing in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, but in most cases the biochemical mechanism of resistance is unknown. Using 14C-labelled herbicide, the mechanism of resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations was identified as an inability to translocate 2,4-D out of the treated leaf. Although 2,4-D was metabolized in wild radish, and in a different manner to the well-characterized crop species wheat and bean, there was no difference in metabolism between the susceptible and resistant populations. Reduced translocation of 2,4-D in the latter was also not due to sequestration of the herbicide, or to reduced uptake by the leaf epidermis or mesophyll cells. Application of auxin efflux or ABCB transporter inhibitors to 2,4-D-susceptible plants caused a mimicking of the reduced-translocation resistance phenotype, suggesting that 2,4-D resistance in the populations under investigation could be due to an alteration in the activity of a plasma membrane ABCB-type auxin transporter responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of 2,4-D. PMID:26994475

  7. Contractile effect of radish and betel nut extracts on rabbit gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus (abbreviated in this paper as Rs.Cr) and Areca catechu (Ac.Cr), commonly known as radish and betel nut respectively, are traditionally used in South Asia for different gastrointestinal, gallbladder, and hepatic diseases. There has not been any study to see how they modulate gallbladder contractility. We selected isolated rabbit gallbladder tissue preparations, mounted them in tissue baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37°C, and then recorded the changes in baseline tone of the tissues upon administration of Rs.Cr and Ac.Cr. Both the extracts exhibited concentration-dependent stimulant effect on the baseline tone of gallbladder tissues, similar to carbachol, a muscarinic receptor agonist. The stimulant effect of the extract, as well as that of carbachol, was completely blocked in the presence of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, indicating similarity in the mechanism of action of the extracts with carbachol. The result shows potential of these extracts to contract the gallbladder and to subsequently increase bile secretion, but this remains to be investigated in detail. This study justifies the traditional use of radish and betel nut in different gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:22499720

  8. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  9. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  10. Metabolomic analysis with GC-MS to reveal potential metabolites and biological pathways involved in Pb &Cd stress response of radish roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Shen, Hong; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop. In this study, the metabolite profiling analysis of radish roots exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stresses has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination between control and Pb- or Cd-treated samples. The metabolic profiling indicated Pb or Cd stress could cause large metabolite alteration mainly on sugars, amino acids and organic acids. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of the effects of Pb or Cd stress was performed on the levels of metabolites and gene transcripts from our previous transcriptome work in radish roots. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of integration data demonstrated that exposure of radish to Pb stress resulted in profound biochemical changes including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and glutathione metabolism, while the treatment of Cd stress caused significant variations in energy production, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related pathways. These results would facilitate further dissection of the mechanisms of heavy metal (HM) accumulation/tolerance in plants and the effective management of HM contamination in vegetable crops by genetic manipulation. PMID:26673153

  11. Metabolomic analysis with GC-MS to reveal potential metabolites and biological pathways involved in Pb & Cd stress response of radish roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Shen, Hong; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop. In this study, the metabolite profiling analysis of radish roots exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stresses has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination between control and Pb- or Cd-treated samples. The metabolic profiling indicated Pb or Cd stress could cause large metabolite alteration mainly on sugars, amino acids and organic acids. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of the effects of Pb or Cd stress was performed on the levels of metabolites and gene transcripts from our previous transcriptome work in radish roots. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of integration data demonstrated that exposure of radish to Pb stress resulted in profound biochemical changes including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and glutathione metabolism, while the treatment of Cd stress caused significant variations in energy production, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related pathways. These results would facilitate further dissection of the mechanisms of heavy metal (HM) accumulation/tolerance in plants and the effective management of HM contamination in vegetable crops by genetic manipulation. PMID:26673153

  12. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and early growth of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Hirasaki, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 microT static MF for 6 or 15 d immediately after germination. Control seedlings were exposed to the ambient MF but not the ELF MF. The CO2 uptake rate of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 5 and later was lower than that of the control seedlings. The dry weight and the cotyledon area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 6 and the fresh weight, the dry weight and the leaf area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 15 were significantly lower than those of the control seedlings, respectively. In another experiment, radish seedlings were grown without ELF MF exposure for 14 d immediately after germination, and then exposed to the ELF MF for about 2 h, and the photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate was measured during the short-term ELF MF exposure. The CO2 uptake rate of the same seedlings was subsequently measured in the ambient MF (control) without the ELF MF. There was no difference in the CO2 uptake rate of seedlings exposed to the ELF MF or the ambient MF. These results indicate that continuous exposure to 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) sinusoidal MF with a parallel 48 microT static MF affects the early growth of radish seedlings, but the effect is not so severe that modification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake can observed during short-term MF exposure. PMID:15515039

  13. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences. PMID:25439500

  14. Inhibition of mutagenicity of food-derived heterocyclic amines by sulphoraphene--an isothiocyanate isolated from radish.

    PubMed

    Shishu; Singla, A K; Kaur, I P

    2003-02-01

    The naturally derived isothiocyanate, sulphoraphene [4-isothiocyanato-(1R)-(methylsulphinyl)-1-(E)-butene], isolated from seeds of radish ( Raphanus sativus L., Cruciferae) was investigated for its antigenotoxic effects against a battery of cooked food mutagens (heterocyclic amines) in the Ames Salmonella/reversion assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (frame-shift mutation sensitive) and TA100 (base -pair mutation sensitive) bacterial strains in the presence of Aroclor 1254 induced rat liver S9. Results of the present in vitro anti-mutagenicity studies using the base-pair mutation sensitive strain TA100, strongly suggest that sulphoraphene is a potent inhibitor of the S9-mediated mutagenicity of all the tested heterocyclic amines (60 - 75 % inhibition at a dose of 500 nmol/plate). PMID:12624832

  15. Purification and characterization of a cationic peroxidase Cs in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Soo; Lee, Dong Ju

    2005-06-01

    A short distance migrating cationic peroxidase from Korean radish seeds (Raphanus sativus) was detected. Cationic peroxidase Cs was purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass of the purified cationic peroxidase Cs was estimated to be about 44 kDa on SDS-PAGE. After reconstitution of apoperoxidase Cs with protohemin, the absorption spectra revealed a new peak in the Soret region around 400 nm, which is typical in a classical type III peroxidase family. The optimum pH of peroxidase activity for o-dianisidine oxidation was observed at pH 7.0. Kinetic studies revealed that the reconstituted cationic peroxidase Cs has Km values of 1.18 mM and of 1.27 mM for o-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The cationic peroxidase Cs showed the peroxidase activities for native substrates, such as coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and scopoletin. This result suggested that cationic peroxidase Cs plays an important role in plant cell wall formation during seed germination. PMID:16008083

  16. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  17. Are Radishes Really Allelopathic to Lettuce?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santaniello, Catherine M.; Koning, Ross E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that challenges the claim that sprouting radish seedlings release chemicals into the environment that inhibit germination of lettuce seeds. Reports that although no simple allelopathic demonstration was observed, the experiment provides fertile ground for further experimentation in inquiry-based laboratory experiences. (JRH)

  18. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  19. Modelling gene flow between oilseed rape and wild radish. I. Evolution of chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Chèvre, A M; Adamczyk, K; Eber, F; Huteau, V; Coriton, O; Letanneur, J C; Laredo, C; Jenczewski, E; Monod, H

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of gene flow from crop species to weeds has found a new emphasis over the last years because of the marketing of transgenic crops and the possible selective advantage that crop (trans)gene may confer to the weeds. Several studies focused on the F1 interspecific hybrid production but few data are available on the factors affecting the genetic structure of advanced generations. It depends on the genomic structure of the species concerned as well as on the degree of their genome homology that affect the occurrence of intergenomic recombination. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18), a distantly related weed, is a good model to address such questions. From seven male sterile oilseed rape lines carrying an herbicide tolerance transgene, F1 interspecific hybrids and four advanced generations were produced under field conditions with wild radish as pollinator. Observation of hybrid chromosome numbers across four generations revealed a high variability, especially in the "BC1" generation. A regression model was fitted in order to describe the relationship between parent and offspring chromosome numbers. The effects of generation, transgenic line and selection pressure on the mean relationship were investigated. The first two factors had an influence on the rate of decrease of chromosome numbers, whereas selection pressure resulted in the presence of an additional chromosome in the herbicide treated plants. The model provided a convenient framework for analysing how chromosome numbers evolve over successive hybridization events and it may prove useful as a basis for simulation-based approaches. PMID:17091264

  20. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  1. Purification and sequencing of radish seed calmodulin antagonists phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Polya, G M; Chandra, S; Condron, R

    1993-01-01

    A family of radish (Raphanus sativus) calmodulin antagonists (RCAs) was purified from seeds by extraction, centrifugation, batch-wise elution from carboxymethyl-cellulose, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an SP5PW cation-exchange column. This RCA fraction was further resolved into three calmodulin antagonist polypeptides (RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3) by denaturation in the presence of guanidinium HCl and mercaptoethanol and subsequent reverse-phase HPLC on a C8 column eluted with an acetonitrile gradient in the presence of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and other radish seed proteins are phosphorylated by wheat embryo Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). The RCA preparation contains other CDPK substrates in addition to RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 inhibit chicken gizzard calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase assayed with a myosin-light chain-based synthetic peptide substrate (fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of RCA2 and RCA3 are about 7 and 2 microM, respectively). N-terminal sequencing by sequential Edman degradation of RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 revealed sequences having a high homology with the small subunit of the storage protein napin from Brassica napus and with related proteins. The deduced amino acid sequences of RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and RCA3' (a subform of RCA3) have agreement with average molecular masses from electrospray mass spectrometry of 4537, 4543, 4532, and 4560 kD, respectively. The only sites for serine phosphorylation are near or at the C termini and hence adjacent to the sites of proteolytic precursor cleavage. PMID:8278508

  2. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value

    PubMed Central

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000–2800 cm-1), proteins (1550–1530 cm-1), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  3. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations. PMID:15942756

  4. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  5. Chromium Stress Mitigation by Polyamine-Brassinosteroid Application Involves Phytohormonal and Physiological Strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10−9 M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  6. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from radish: their role in host defense.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, F R; Eggermont, K; Kovaleva, V; Raikhel, N V; Osborn, R W; Kester, A; Rees, S B; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Vanderleyden, J

    1995-01-01

    Radish seeds have previously been shown to contain two homologous, 5-kD cysteine-rich proteins designated Raphanus sativus-antifungal protein 1 (Rs-AFP1) and Rs-AFP2, both of which exhibit potent antifungal activity in vitro. We now demonstrate that these proteins are located in the cell wall and occur predominantly in the outer cell layers lining different seed organs. Moreover, Rs-AFPs are preferentially released during seed germination after disruption of the seed coat. The amount of released proteins is sufficient to create a microenvironment around the seed in which fungal growth is suppressed. Both the cDNAs and the intron-containing genomic regions encoding the Rs-AFP preproteins were cloned. Transcripts (0.55 kb) hybridizing with an Rs-AFP1 cDNA-derived probe were present in near-mature and mature seeds. Such transcripts as well as the corresponding proteins were barely detectable in healthy uninfected leaves but accumulated systemically at high levels after localized fungal infection. The induced leaf proteins (designated Rs-AFP3 and Rs-AFP4) were purified and shown to be homologous to seed Rs-AFPs and to exert similar antifungal activity in vitro. A chimeric Rs-AFP2 gene under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter conferred enhanced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria longipes in transgenic tobacco. The term "plant defensins" is proposed to denote these defense-related proteins. PMID:7780308

  7. Reduced Pressure Alone Does Not Affect the Overall Sensory and Antioxidant Values of Radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, L. H.; Bisbee, P.; Yorio, N. C.; Stutte, G. W.; Richards, J. T.; Birmele, M.; Prior, R. L.; Perchonok, M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Dixon, M.

    Use of reduced atmospheric pressures e g 101 kPa for space exploration can offer several advantages during long duration space missions including reduced launch mass for containment vessels reduced gas leakage reduced resupply costs and increased potential for using transparent materials in greenhouses for a bioregenerative life support system on Mars and on the Moon Limited testing with crop plants at reduced atmospheres has been conducted with results focused on whole plant growth and gas exchange but there are no studies regarding the quality of resulting products This question is of importance not only from the standpoint of food palatability but of potential nutritional and health benefits to the crew To study this we grew radish Raphanus sativus L cv Cherry Bomb Hybrid II plants at three atmospheric pressures 33 kPa 66 kPa and 96 kPa nominal ambient while maintaining oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures constant at 21 kPa and 0 12 kPa respectively After 21 days growth chambers were repressurized and ten plants were harvested within the same time frame of the photoperiod for all three pressure treatments The experiment was repeated three times Arial shoots and storage roots were separated immediately upon removal from growth chambers frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 r C until analysis Six of the ten plants were lyophilized ground to pass a 40 mesh screen and used for determination of the total antioxidant capacity and glucosinolate composition while the remaining four plants were used

  8. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  9. Radish, a Drosophila mutant deficient in consolidated memory.

    PubMed Central

    Folkers, E; Drain, P; Quinn, W G

    1993-01-01

    We have characterized the behavior and genetics of the Drosophila mutant radish (rsh gene). Initial learning of radish flies in two olfactory discrimination tests is high, but subsequent memory decays rapidly at both early and late times after training. Anesthesia-resistant memory (consolidated memory) is undetectable in radish flies 3 hr after training. The mutant shows normal locomotor activity and normal sensitivity to the odor cues and electric-shock reinforcement used in the learning tests. The radish gene maps within a 180-kb interval in the 11D-E region of the X chromosome. PMID:8367473

  10. Transcriptome-based gene profiling provides novel insights into the characteristics of radish root response to Cr stress with next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Ye, Shan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Yang, Jinlan; Feng, Haiyang; Yu, Rugang; Karanja, Benard; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important worldwide root vegetable crop with high nutrient values and is adversely affected by non-essential heavy metals including chromium (Cr). Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying Cr stress response in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technique was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Cr stress. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, there were 30,676 unigenes representing 60,881 transcripts isolated from radish root under Cr stress. Differential gene analysis revealed that 2985 uingenes were significantly differentially expressed between Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr600) libraries, among which 1424 were up-regulated and 1561 down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in primary metabolic process, response to abiotic stimulus, cellular metabolic process and small molecule metabolic process. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, drug and xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 metabolism. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of 12 randomly selected DEGs were highly accordant with the results from RNA-seq. Furthermore, many candidate genes including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors and metal transporters, chelate compound biosynthesis and antioxidant system, were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms of Cr stress response regulatory networks. These results would provide novel insight into molecular mechanism underlying plant responsiveness to Cr stress and facilitate further genetic manipulation on Cr uptake and accumulation in radish. PMID:25873924

  11. Transcriptome-based gene profiling provides novel insights into the characteristics of radish root response to Cr stress with next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Ye, Shan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Yang, Jinlan; Feng, Haiyang; Yu, Rugang; Karanja, Benard; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important worldwide root vegetable crop with high nutrient values and is adversely affected by non-essential heavy metals including chromium (Cr). Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying Cr stress response in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technique was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Cr stress. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, there were 30,676 unigenes representing 60,881 transcripts isolated from radish root under Cr stress. Differential gene analysis revealed that 2985 uingenes were significantly differentially expressed between Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr600) libraries, among which 1424 were up-regulated and 1561 down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in primary metabolic process, response to abiotic stimulus, cellular metabolic process and small molecule metabolic process. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, drug and xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 metabolism. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of 12 randomly selected DEGs were highly accordant with the results from RNA-seq. Furthermore, many candidate genes including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors and metal transporters, chelate compound biosynthesis and antioxidant system, were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms of Cr stress response regulatory networks. These results would provide novel insight into molecular mechanism underlying plant responsiveness to Cr stress and facilitate further genetic manipulation on Cr uptake and accumulation in radish. PMID:25873924

  12. Growth and photosynthesis of plants in response to environmental stress. [Raphanus sativus; Glycine max; Salix nigra; Alnus serrulata; Populus tremuloides

    SciTech Connect

    Greitner, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental stresses generally decrease photosynthetic rates and growth of plants, and alter biomass partitioning. Nutrient deficiency and drought cause root:shoot ratios to increase, whereas the air pollutant ozone (O[sub 3]) causes an opposite shift in carbon allocation. Plants in nature usually grow under suboptimal conditions; therefore plants were raised with O[sub 3] combined with other stresses to analyze the mechanisms whereby multiple stresses influence gas exchange and growth. Physiological and growth responses to stress were determined for radish (raphanus sativus), soybean (Glycine max) willow (Salix nigra), alder (Alnus serrulata) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in laboratory and field trials. In willow, high-nutrient status plants had more visible injury, but a smaller decline in leaf area with O[sub 3] than did low-nutrient plants. Ultrastructure of host plant cells in alder root nodules was disrupted by O[sub 3], suggesting that this air pollutant can affect the ability of plants to acquire nutrients via symbiosis. Biomass and root:shoot ratios decreased with O[sub 3] in radish and soy-bean. Shifts in stable carbon isotope ratios were caused by O[sub 3], and this technique was used to integrate the effects of O[sub 3] on gas exchange over time. In aspen, O[sub 3] enhanced photosynthesis and foliar areas in young leaves of well-watered aspen, partially compensating for declines in older leaves. This effect was more pronounced in plants raised at a high nitrogen level than in N-deficient plants. Carboxylation efficiency decreased in older, but increased in younger leaves with O[sub 3]. Prior exposure to drought reduced effects of O[sub 3] on photosynthesis and leaf area.

  13. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  14. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants. PMID:21448625

  15. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  16. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions. PMID:21166344

  17. Molasses melanoidin promotes copper uptake for radish sprouts: the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Tomura, Hiroki; Yamatsu, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi; Kubota, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for heavy metal contamination, and it is well known that chelators may alter the toxicity of heavy metals and the bioavailability in plants. Our previous work demonstrated that an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively separate melanoidin-like product (MLP) from sugarcane molasses. The aim of this study was to examine the chelating property of MLP and to evaluate the facilitatory influence on the phytoextraction efficiency of Japanese radish. The result showed that MLP binds to all the metal ions examined and the binding capacity of MLP toward Cu(2+) seems to be the highest among them. The metal detoxification by MLP followed the order of Pb(2+) > Zn(2+) > Ni(2+) > Cu(2+) > Fe(2+) > Cd(2+) > Co(2+). Furthermore, in the phytoextraction experiment using copper sulfate, the application of MLP accelerated the detoxification of copper and the bioavailability in radish sprouts. Thus, these results suggest that MLP possesses the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction in the copper-contaminated media. PMID:27239675

  18. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives. PMID:27451227

  19. Isolation and identification of an anti-bolting compound, hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride, responsible for inhibition of bolting and maintenance of the leaf rosette in radish plants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuko; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the bolting (stem elongation from rosette plants) of winter annuals is believed to be induced by an increase in the levels of gibberellin that occurs after a certain period of chilling (vernalization), and a deficiency of gibberellin allows the plant to maintain a rosette style. Lack of direct evidence proving the above assumption in radish plants (Raphanus sativus L.) encouraged us to assume the presence of an anti-bolting compound actively maintaining the rosette habit through inhibition of bolting. Anti-bolting activity was detected in an extract of rosette shoots of radish plants by an assay using seedlings cultured in vitro. The causal compound that strongly inhibited bolting was isolated and identified as alpha-(7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride (16:3 monoglyceride). This compound did not inhibit leaf production at the apical meristem, indicating that it merely inhibits growth at the internode. The compound disappeared completely after vernalization, and bolting occurred thereafter. The results suggest that the release from inhibition by 16:3 monoglyceride induces the initiation of bolting. The possible mechanism by which the compound exerts the activity is discussed. PMID:20601431

  20. Biosynthesis of the carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan proteins by membrane-bound β-glucuronosyltransferases from radish primary roots.

    PubMed

    Endo, Maya; Kotake, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Yoko; Kimura, Kazumasa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2013-12-01

    A membrane fraction from etiolated 6-day-old primary radish roots (Raphanus sativus L. var hortensis) contained β-glucuronosyltransferases (GlcATs) involved in the synthesis of the carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The GlcATs transferred [(14)C]GlcA from UDP-[(14)C]GlcA on to β-(1 → 3)-galactan as an exogenous acceptor substrate, giving a specific activity of 50-150 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). The enzyme specimen also catalyzed the transfer of [(14)C]GlcA on to an enzymatically modified AGP from mature radish root. Analysis of the transfer products revealed that the transfer of [(14)C]GlcA occurred preferentially on to consecutive (1 → 3)-linked β-Gal chains as well as single branched β-(1 → 6)-Gal residues through β-(1 → 6) linkages, producing branched acidic side chains. The enzymes also transferred [(14)C]GlcA residues on to several oligosaccharides, such as β-(1 → 6)- and β-(1 → 3)-galactotrioses. A trisaccharide, α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal, was a good acceptor, yielding a branched tetrasaccharide, α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)[β-GlcA-(1 → 6)]-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. We report the first in vitro assay system for β-GlcATs involved in the AG synthesis as a step toward full characterization and cloning. PMID:24057431

  1. Disinfection of radish and alfalfa seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by a gaseous acetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Latiful, Bari M; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2011-10-01

    Abstract The majority of seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on seeds before sprouting. Treatment with 8.7% (v/v) acetic acid at 55°C for 2-3 h reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella inoculated on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) by more than 5.0 log CFU/g, and a longer treatment time completely eliminated the E. coli O157:H7 population. The E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced to an undetectable level with a gaseous acetic acid treatment for 48 h. After enrichment, no E. coli O157:H7 were found in the alfalfa and radish seeds (25 g). However, these treatments were unable to eliminate Salmonella in both seed types. No significant difference between the germination rates of treated alfalfa seeds and control seeds was found, and germination rates greater than 95% were obtained for the radish seeds. Although chlorine washing is commonly used for seed decontamination, chlorine washing at 200 and 20,000 ppm resulted in a reduction of pathogens by less than or equal to 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, these results suggested that gaseous acetic acid is more effective than chlorine washing in controlling pathogenic bacteria on sprout seeds. PMID:21651341

  2. Comparative physiology of radish populations with differential sensitivity to O sub 3 and SO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cv Cherry Belle) were exposed to 0.10 {mu}l l{sup {minus}1} ozone (O{sub 3}) or 0.50 {mu}l l{sup {minus}1} sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) for 4 h d{sup {minus}1}, 3 d wk{sup {minus}1} for 3 weeks. From these fumigated plants, individuals were selected that were resistant or sensitive to these pollutants. The selected plants were used as parental material in a breeding program to produce lines differing in resistance to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}. Non-selected (NS) plants from the original populations served as controls. Plants selected for O{sub 3} resistance (O{sub 3}R) weighed significantly more than either plants selected for sensitivity to O{sub 3} (O{sub 3}S) or NS plants when exposed to either O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Plants selected for resistance or sensitivity to SO{sub 2} generally had biomass production similar to that of NS plants. Ozone fumigations tended to decrease free sugar concentrations in leaves at early stages of growth in both O{sub 3}R and O{sub 3}S plants, and caused some accumulations of carbohydrates during late stages of growth in O{sub 3}S plants. Allocation of {sup 14}C was significantly lower to hypocotyls and roots of O{sub 3} fumigated O{sub 3}S plants. Allocation to hypocotyls of O{sub 3}R plants was not affected, although both O{sub 3}R and O{sub 3}S plant groups had lower photosynthetic rates due to O{sub 3} fumigation. Ozone did not significantly affect chlorophyll concentrations in leaves of either sensitive or resistant plants, nor was the time of new leaf production affected by fumigation.

  3. Radish seed extract mediates its cardiovascular inhibitory effects via muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we describe the hypotensive, cardio-modulatory and endothelium-dependent vasodilator actions of Raphanus sativus (radish) seed crude extract in an attempt to provide scientific basis for its traditional use in hypertension. The plant extract (Rs.Cr) was prepared in distilled water and was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard analytical procedures. In vivo blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized normotensive rats. Isolated tissue preparations were suspended in tissue baths containing Kreb's solution while acute toxicity study was performed in mice for 24 h. Rs.Cr tested positive for the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and alkaloids and caused a dose-dependent (0.1-3 mg/kg) fall in blood pressure and heart rate of rats that was mediated via an atropine-sensitive pathway. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Rs.Cr showed dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) inhibition of force and rate of contractions. In the atropine-treated tissues, the inhibitory effect was abolished and a cardiac stimulant effect was unmasked which was resistant to adrenergic and serotonergic receptor blockade. In the endothelium-intact rat aorta, Rs.Cr inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions, which was blocked by atropine and Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride while was also absent in the endothelium-denuded preparations. The extract was safe in mice up to the dose of 10 g/kg. The study shows that the cardiovascular inhibitory effects of the plant are mediated through activation of muscarinic receptors thus possibly justifying its use in hypertension. PMID:16448395

  4. Expression of a radish defensin in transgenic wheat confers increased resistance to Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhou, Miaoping; Zhang, Zengyan; Ren, Lijuan; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Boqiao; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

    2011-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Wheat sharp eyespot, mainly caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis, is one of the major diseases of wheat in China. The defensin RsAFP2, a small cyteine-rich antifungal protein from radish (Raphanus sativus), was shown to inhibit growth in vitro of agronomically important fungal pathogens, such as F. graminearum and R. cerealis. The RsAFP2 gene was transformed into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 12 via biolistic bombardment to assess the effectiveness of the defensin in protecting wheat from the fungal pathogens in multiple locations and years. The genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that RsAFP2 was integrated into the genomes of the transgenic wheat lines and heritable. RT-PCR and Western blot proved that the RsAFP2 was expressed in these transgenic wheat lines. Disease tests showed that four RsAFP2 transgenic lines (RA1-RA4) displayed enhanced resistance to F. graminearum compared to the untransformed Yangmai 12 and the null-segregated plants. Assays on Q-RT-PCR and disease severity showed that the express level of RsAFP2 was associated with the enhanced resistance degree. Two of these transgenic lines (RA1 and RA2) also exhibited enhanced resistance to R. cerealis. These results indicated that the expression of RsAFP2 conferred increased resistance to F. graminearum and R. cerealis in transgenic wheat. PMID:21279533

  5. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  6. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  7. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality

  8. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes To Teach Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    To provide practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing data, and writing and documenting results, a professor of statistics has his graduate students in statistics and research methodology classes design and perform an experiment on the effects of fertilizers on the growth of radishes. This project has been required of students…

  9. Survey of viruses present in radish fields in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Korea, recent climate change has caused increased insect populations and migration from neighboring countries. As insect migration increases newly emerging virus diseases have been reported. In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in radish fields to investigate the distribution of common virus...

  10. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  11. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m⁻² day⁻¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. PMID:22304244

  12. Species differences in the gut stimulatory effects of radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Houghton, Peter J

    2005-11-01

    This study describes the gastrointestinal (GI) prokinetic effects of the aqueous extract of radish seeds (Rs.Cr). Rs.Cr, which tested positive for terpenes, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids and saponins, showed a spasmogenic effect in isolated rabbit jejunum and ileum, rat stomach fundus and ileum, and guinea-pig ileum and jejunum. Rs.Cr was around 10 times more potent in the guinea-pig tissues and this effect was resistant to atropine, pyrilamine or SB203186 while the spasmogenic effect in the rat and rabbit tissues was atropine sensitive. The extract exhibited atropine-sensitive GI prokinetic and laxative effects in vivo in mice. In the atropinized rabbit jejunum, Rs.Cr produced a spasmolytic effect independent of Ca(++) or K(+) channels, adrenergic or opioid receptor involvement. Activity-directed fractionation of Rs.Cr yielded four fractions, all showing effects similar to that of the parent extract. Rs.Cr and its fractions were found to be non-lethal up to 10 g kg(-1) in mice for 24 h, except for the petroleum fraction, which showed 50% mortality at high doses. Some known radish compounds (spermine, spermidine, putrescine and sinigrin) were also tested and found to be devoid of any activity. The study shows species-specific spasmogenic effects of radish in rabbit, rat and mouse via muscarinic receptors but through an uncharacterized pathway in guinea-pig tissues. Additionally, a dormant relaxant effect was also seen, while the three polyamines and one glucosinolate from radish were found to be inactive, indicating that the compound(s) responsible for the activities reported remains to be isolated. PMID:16259783

  13. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined. PMID:27193305

  14. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing transforming growth factor β1 level.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Nazarizadeh, Ali; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of the lungs, which leads to death in human. It has been suggested that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) together with oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of the ailment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible curative effects of black radish, Raphanus sativus L. var niger (RSN) on bleomycine (BLM) -induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model. In this study, thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including: (I) positive (BLM) control group, (II) negative (normal saline) control group, (III) sham group (R. sativus extract 150 mg/kg), and (IV-VI) treatment groups. In order to induce pulmonary fibrosis, four groups were treated with a single dose of BLM sulfate (7.5 U/kg) through intratracheal instillation. Treatment groups (IV-VI) received RSN extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) orally a week before and two weeks after the administration of BLM. At the end of the treatment course, blood and lung tissue samples were taken and the measurement of TGF-β1 and histopathological examination of the lung tissues performed. The results showed that RSN, at 300 mg/kg dose, could significantly decrease the serum level of TGF-β1 and severity of the histological lesions as compared to the positive control group. The results of the current study indicate that the components present in the extract can remarkably prevent the aggravation of pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing TGF-β1 level. PMID:26752991

  15. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing transforming growth factor β1 level

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Nazarizadeh, Ali; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of the lungs, which leads to death in human. It has been suggested that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) together with oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of the ailment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible curative effects of black radish, Raphanus sativus L. var niger (RSN) on bleomycine (BLM) -induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model. In this study, thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including: (I) positive (BLM) control group, (II) negative (normal saline) control group, (III) sham group (R. sativus extract 150 mg/kg), and (IV-VI) treatment groups. In order to induce pulmonary fibrosis, four groups were treated with a single dose of BLM sulfate (7.5 U/kg) through intratracheal instillation. Treatment groups (IV-VI) received RSN extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) orally a week before and two weeks after the administration of BLM. At the end of the treatment course, blood and lung tissue samples were taken and the measurement of TGF-β1 and histopathological examination of the lung tissues performed. The results showed that RSN, at 300 mg/kg dose, could significantly decrease the serum level of TGF-β1 and severity of the histological lesions as compared to the positive control group. The results of the current study indicate that the components present in the extract can remarkably prevent the aggravation of pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing TGF-β1 level. PMID:26752991

  16. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  17. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  18. [Effect of fly ash-filtered mud mixture on soil properties and radish yield and quality].

    PubMed

    Xing, S; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Wu, X

    2001-02-01

    Based on pot culture experiment, the effect of fly ash-filtered mud mixture on soil biochemical properties, radish yield and its quality, and heavy metal accumulation in both soil and radish was examined. The mixture was made by mixing fly ash and filtered mud in proportion 1:1(w/w) and adding small amount of inorganic fertilizer. Its Cd, Pb, Cr, As and Hg contents were much lower than those requested by state control criteria. After applying this mixture in a definite amount, no significant accumulation of heavy metals was found in both soil and radish, the pollution index of heavy metals was < 1, the quantities of soil bacteria increased notably, and the activities of soil urease, phosphates and cellulosase also raised significantly. The application of the mixture promoted radish growth and its development and metabolism. The reducing sugar and vitamin C in radish also increased markedly. The results indicated that the use of adequate amounts of the mixture did not cause any obvious heavy metal pollution in both soil and radish, but could improve soil fertility, and raise radish yield and its quality remarkably. PMID:11813414

  19. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  20. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  1. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  2. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  3. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. PMID:18528911

  4. 2014 nationwide survey revealed Turnip mosaic virus, Radish mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus as the major viruses in Korean Radish Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Korea, recent climate change has caused increased insect populations and migration from neighboring countries. As insect migration increases newly emerging virus diseases have been reported. In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in radish fields to investigate the distribution of common virus...

  5. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark. PMID:18771273

  6. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  7. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  8. Effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on biophoton emission from radish root cells.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Anshu; Pospísil, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Biophotons spontaneously emitted from radish root cells were detected using highly sensitive photomultiplier tube. Freshly isolated radish root cells exhibited spontaneous photon emission of about 4 counts s(-1). Addition of hydrogen peroxide to the cells caused significant enhancement in biophoton emission to about 500 counts s(-1). Removal of molecular oxygen using glucose/glucose oxidase system and scavengering of reactive oxygen species by reducing agents such are sodium ascorbate and cysteine completely diminished biophoton emission. Spectral analysis of the hydrogen peroxide-induced biophoton emission indicates that biophotons are emitted mainly in green-red region of the spectra. The data provided by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping technique showed that formation of singlet oxygen observed after addition of H2O2 correlates with enhancement in biophoton emission. These observations provide direct evidence that singlet oxygen is involved in biophoton emission from radish root cells. PMID:20106674

  9. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  10. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  11. L-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Miho; Maruyama, Takuma; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kotake, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Koji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Tryfona, Theodora; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2015-10-13

    The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1 → 3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1 → 6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of L-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-L-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1 → 3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1 → 6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, L-Fuc groups were attached through L-Ara residues as the sequence, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 →. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-L-Fuc-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1 → 6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, L-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1 → 2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal and α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, L-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or L-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides. PMID:26267887

  12. l-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Miho; Maruyama, Takuma; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kotake, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Koji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Tryfona, Theodora; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1→3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1→6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of l-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-l-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1→3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1→6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, l-Fuc groups were attached through l-Ara residues as the sequence, α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-α-l-Araf-(1→. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-l-Fuc-(1→2)-α-l-Araf-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→6)-β-Gal-(1→6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1→6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, l-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1→2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-GlcA-(1→6)-β-Gal-(1→6)-Gal and α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1→6)-β-Gal-(1→6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, l-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or l-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides. PMID:26267887

  13. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  14. Raphanusanin-mediated resistance to pathogens is light dependent in radish and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Moehninsi; Miura, Kenji; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Raphanusanin (Ra) is a light-induced inhibitor of hypocotyl growth that responds to unilateral blue light illumination in radish seedlings. We have previously shown that Ra regulates genes that are involved in common defense mechanisms. Many genes that are induced by Ra are also positively regulated by early blue light. To extend the understanding of the role of Ra in pathogen defense, we evaluated the effects of Ra on radish and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) infected with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) and biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae). Radish and A. thaliana were found to be resistant to both pathogens when treated with Ra, depending on the concentration used. Interestingly, Ra-mediated resistance to P. syringae is dependent on light because Ra-treated seedlings exhibited enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae infection when grown in the dark. In addition to regulating the biotic defense response, Ra inhibited seed germination and root elongation and enhanced the growth of root hairs in the presence of light in radish and A. thaliana. Our data suggest that Ra regulates the expression of a set of genes involved in defense signaling pathways and plays a role in pathogen defense and plant development. Our results show that light may be generally required not only for the accumulation of Ra but also for its activation during the pathogen defense response. PMID:24923677

  15. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  16. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  17. THE EFFECTS OF COUMARIN ON RADISH SEED GERMINATION AND RADICLE ELONGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coumarin is a compound that inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. This inhibitory effect may confer a competitive advantage for the plants that secrete coumarin into the environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydration-dehydration of radish seed in the presence of...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sp. Strain TCF032-E4, Isolated from Fermented Radish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sp. strain TCF032-E4 (= CCTCC AB2015090 = DSM 100358), isolated from a Chinese fermented radish. The total length of the 57 contigs is about 2.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 43.5 mol% and 2,797 predicted coding sequences (CDSs). PMID:26227596

  19. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  20. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN RADISHES AND GARDEN BEETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of garden beet and radish grown under standard agronomic practices. Plots were exposed to small additions of simulated rain with pH levels of 5.7, 4.0, 3.1, and 2.7. The spray to wet simulated ...

  1. EFFECT OF ADDED WATER AND ACIDITY OF SIMULATED RAIN ON GROWTH OF FIELD-GROWN RADISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radish plants were grown in field plots and exposed to simulated rain at four levels of acidity: pH 5.6, pH 4.2, pH 3.5 and pH 2.8. Simulated rain solutions, containing background ions and acidified with a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids, were applied intermittently between...

  2. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  3. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings. PMID:26411013

  4. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  5. Formation and Stabilization of Raphasatin and Sulforaphene from Radish Roots by Endogenous Enzymolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active compounds raphasatin and sulforaphene are formed during the hydrolysis of radishes by an endogenous myrosinase. Raphasatin is very unstable, and it is generated and simultaneously degraded to less active compounds during hydrolysis in aqueous media. This study determined the hydrolysis conditions to maximize the formation of raphasatin and sulforaphene by an endogenous myrosinase and minimize their degradation during the hydrolysis of radish roots. The reaction parameters, such as the reaction medium, reaction time, type of mixing, and reaction temperature were optimized. A stability test for raphasatin and sulforaphene was also performed during storage of the hydrolyzed products at 25°C for 10 days. The formation and breakdown of raphasatin and sulforaphene in radish roots by endogenous enzymolysis was strongly influenced by the reaction medium, reaction time, and type of mixing. The production and stabilization of raphasatin in radishes was efficient in water and dichloromethane with shaking for 15 min at 25°C. For sulforaphene, the favorable condition was water as the reaction medium without shaking for 10 min at 25°C. The maximum yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were achieved in a concurrent hydrolysis reaction without shaking in water for 10 min and then with shaking in dichloromethane for 15 min at 25°C. Under these conditions, the yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were maximized at 12.89 and 1.93 μmol/g of dry radish, respectively. The stabilities of raphasatin and sulforaphene in the hydrolyzed products were 56.4% and 86.5% after 10 days of storage in water and dichloromethane at 25°C. PMID:26175999

  6. Formation and Stabilization of Raphasatin and Sulforaphene from Radish Roots by Endogenous Enzymolysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2015-06-01

    The biologically active compounds raphasatin and sulforaphene are formed during the hydrolysis of radishes by an endogenous myrosinase. Raphasatin is very unstable, and it is generated and simultaneously degraded to less active compounds during hydrolysis in aqueous media. This study determined the hydrolysis conditions to maximize the formation of raphasatin and sulforaphene by an endogenous myrosinase and minimize their degradation during the hydrolysis of radish roots. The reaction parameters, such as the reaction medium, reaction time, type of mixing, and reaction temperature were optimized. A stability test for raphasatin and sulforaphene was also performed during storage of the hydrolyzed products at 25°C for 10 days. The formation and breakdown of raphasatin and sulforaphene in radish roots by endogenous enzymolysis was strongly influenced by the reaction medium, reaction time, and type of mixing. The production and stabilization of raphasatin in radishes was efficient in water and dichloromethane with shaking for 15 min at 25°C. For sulforaphene, the favorable condition was water as the reaction medium without shaking for 10 min at 25°C. The maximum yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were achieved in a concurrent hydrolysis reaction without shaking in water for 10 min and then with shaking in dichloromethane for 15 min at 25°C. Under these conditions, the yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were maximized at 12.89 and 1.93 μmol/g of dry radish, respectively. The stabilities of raphasatin and sulforaphene in the hydrolyzed products were 56.4% and 86.5% after 10 days of storage in water and dichloromethane at 25°C. PMID:26175999

  7. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshazly, M.O.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.; Abdel-mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes’ foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect. PMID:27222746

  8. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, M O; Morgan, Ashraf M; Ali, Merhan E; Abdel-Mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S

    2016-05-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes' foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect. PMID:27222746

  9. [Chromatography-efficacy relation study between HPLC fingerprints and allelopathic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous solution on radish].

    PubMed

    Niu, Min; Liu, Hong-Yan; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yong-qing

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effective components represented by fingerprint contributed to allelopathic effect of different Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous concentration on seeds and seedlings of radish, grey relational analysis was used to establish the chromatography-efficacy relation. The results show that 15 peaks devote high allelopathic contribution to radish seeds and seedlings. The study will provide a new concept for allelochemicals screening and study. PMID:26087550

  10. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  11. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  12. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  13. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  14. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  15. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  16. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  17. [Allelopathic effects of Lycoris radiate on radish, cucumber, tomato and rape seedlings].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Pingzhang; Zhang, Heng

    2006-09-01

    The laboratory test showed that Lycoris radiate water extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of radish, cucumber, tomato and rape. After treated with 0.0125 g x ml(-1) of the extract, tomato seed could not germinate, but the seed germination inhibition rate of rape, radish and cucumber was only 17.73%, 14.97% and 2.65%, respectively. Under the same concentrations of the extract, sprout growth was inhibited more strongly than root growth. L. radiate methanol extract could inhibit the sprout and root growth of endosperm-removed wheat and sorghum, and the effect was stronger for sorghum than for wheat. All of these illustrated that L. radiate extracts mainly inhibited non-photosynthesis activity, but could also inhibit photosynthesis activity to some degree. PMID:17147176

  18. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    PubMed

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat. PMID:15858367

  19. Pharmacological basis for the gut stimulatory activity of Raphanus sativus leaves.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Ghayur, M Nabeel

    2004-12-01

    The crude extract of Raphanus sativus leaves (Rl.Cr) showed a dose-dependent (0.03-5.0 mg/ml) spasmogenicity in guinea-pig ileum and colon. The effect was insensitive to atropine pre-treatment but was completely abolished by pyrilamine indicating involvement of histaminergic (H(1)) receptors. The contractile effect at high doses (3.0-5.0mg/ml) was followed by relaxation. Rl.Cr also enhanced the transit of charcoal meal in mice at 30-100 mg/kg. The petroleum spirit, chloroform and aqueous fractions all showed histaminergic activity in ileum; aqueous fraction being more potent. The study shows the presence of a histaminergic component(s) along with a weak spasmolytic factor thus providing sound mechanistic basis for the traditional use of the plant in constipation. PMID:15507331

  20. Effects of plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Attri, Pankaj; Koga, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the action of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on seeds of Raphanus sativus L. and analysis their growth. Our experimental data shows that Air, O2, and NO(10%)+N2 feeding gases plasma irradiation enhanced plant growth, whereas N2, He and Ar feeding gases plasma irradiation had little influence on plant growth. Moreover, humid air plasma irradiation was more effective in growth enhancement than dry one. More than 2.3 times faster growth was observed by 3 min air plasma irradiation with 40-90% relative humidity. The reactive species generated by plasma in gas phase were detected using optical emission spectroscopy and in liquid phase by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We concluded that OH and O radicals were key species for plant growth enhancement. PMID:27021583

  1. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Controlled Environment: Ethylene Gas Measurement Studies on Radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Suk Bin

    2001-01-01

    Volatile organic compound(VOC), ethylene gas, was characterized and quantified by GC/FID. 20-50 ppb levels were detected during the growth stages of radish. SPME could be a good analytical tool for the purpose. Low temperature trapping method using dry ice/diethyl ether and liquid nitrogen bath was recommended for the sampling process for GC/PID and GC/MS analysis.

  2. Toxicity identification evaluation of anaerobically treated swine slurry: a comparison between Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina A; Silva, Jeannette; Bay-Schmith, Enrique; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion does not efficiently reduce ionic compounds present in swine slurry, which could present a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (surface runoff) and terrestrial ambient (irrigation). The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological characteristics of anaerobically treated swine slurry using acute and chronic (epicotyl elongation) toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus and identification of suspected toxic compounds using the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) method. The evaluation was performed in three phases: physicochemical characterization of the slurry; acute/chronic toxicity testing with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus for each fraction of the TIE (cation and anion exchange columns, activated carbon, pH modification/aeration and EDTA) and identification of suspected toxic compounds. The anaerobically treated slurry contained concentrations of ammonium of 1,072 mg L(-1), chloride of 815 mg L(-1) and metals below 1 mg L(-1) with a D. magna acute toxicity (48h-LC50) of 5.3% and R. sativus acute toxicity (144h-LC50) of 48.1%. Epicotyl elongation of R. sativus was inhibited at concentrations above 25% (NOEC). The cation exchange reduced the toxicity and free ammonia by more than 90% for both bio-indicators. Moreover, this condition stimulated the epicotyl growth of R. sativus between 10% and 37%. In conclusion, the main compound suspected of causing acute toxicity in D. magna and acute/chronic toxicity in R. sativus is the ammonium. The findings suggest the need the ammonium treatment prior to the agricultural reuse of swine slurry given the high risk to contaminate the aquatic environment by runoff and toxicity of sensitive plants. PMID:25190563

  3. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  4. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  5. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts. PMID:19343955

  6. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991

  7. Assessment of the variability in response of radish and brinjal at biochemical and physiological levels under similar ozone exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2011-04-01

    The present investigation was done to evaluate the effects of ambient air pollutants on physiological and biochemical characteristics of radish (Raphnus sativa L. var. Pusa Reshmi) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L. var. Pusa hybrid-6) plants grown in open-top chambers with filtered (FCs) and non-filtered (NFCs) treatments at a suburban site in Varanasi, India. Eight hourly mean concentrations of 11.8, 20.8, and 40.8 ppb for SO2, NO2, and O3, respectively, were recorded. O3 was the most significant pollutant affecting the plant performance. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance declined in both the test plants in NFCs as compared to FCs. Lipid peroxidation was higher in NFCs, but the increase was more in radish compared to brinjal. The constitutive levels of the antioxidants as well as their increments upon O3 exposure were of higher magnitude in brinjal as compared to radish. Reduction in Fv/Fm ratio of the plants in NFCs was a regulatory mechanism to cope with the inefficiency of Calvin cycle. The data indicate that O3 triggered the protective mechanisms in plants which resulted in increments in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of O3-exposed plants. The variability of the magnitude of responses in radish and brinjal due to O3 stress suggests that radish is more susceptible to ambient O3 injury compared to brinjal. PMID:20582740

  8. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  9. Oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish exposed to quaternary ammonium salts with hexafluorophosphate anion.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Pawłowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), including ionic liquids (ILs), constitute a huge group of substances, which due to their desirable physical and chemical properties still attracts great interest in many industrial sectors. An increased concentration of this compound in the environment may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may pose a potential threat to all organisms, including terrestrial higher plants. The present study demonstrates the interaction of three QAS with PF6(-) anions - tetramethylammonium [TMA][PF6], tetrabutylammonium [TBA][PF6], and tetrahexylammonium [THA][PF6] hexafluorophosphates - and its impact on the physiological and biochemical changes in spring barley seedlings and common radish plants. A similar study was also carried out by introducing the inorganic salt - ammonium hexafluorophosphate [A][PF6] to the soil; the results showed the soil became highly toxic to both plants. All the salts used led to significant changes in the metabolism of both spring barley and common radish which can be evidenced, for example, by a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), and total chlorophyll (Chla + b), as well as carotenoids (Car). The decrease in assimilation pigments was linearly correlated with an increasing concentration of QAS in the soil. QAS and [A][PF6] led to the formation of oxidative stress in both experimental plants, as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in their cells and the changes in H2O2 level. In response to stress, the plants synthesized enzymatic free radicals (ROS) scavengers that lead to changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as significantly increased peroxidase (POD) activity. A decrease in the content of assimilation pigments and an increased POD activity are the most reliable indices of oxidative stress, and concurrently the signs of premature plants aging. Common radish proved to be more resistant to the

  10. New Frontiers for Japanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

  11. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  12. Phylogenetic and serological analysis of turnip ringspot virus and radish mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2012-03-01

    Turnip ringspot virus (TuRSV) has been proposed to be a member of a new species in the genus Comovirus. Its remarkable host-range similarity to radish mosaic virus (RaMV) may have led to its misrecognition in the past. Findings from both sequence analysis and serological tests support the assignment of TuRSV to a new comovirus species. In addition, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the two genome segments of some TuRSV isolates have a heterogeneous origin. PMID:22160585

  13. Cross-resistance to imidazolinone herbicides in chlorsulfuron-resistant Raphanus raphanistrum.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abul; Dhammu, Harmohinder S

    2002-09-01

    Raphanus raphanistrum L has evolved widespread resistance to sulfonylureas in the Western Australia (WA) wheat belt. With the introduction of imidazolinone-tolerant (IT) wheat (Tritcum aestivum L) and IT canola (Brassica napus L) in the WA wheat belt, it is important to understand the status of cross-resistance in this weed to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone (Imi) herbicides. A study was conducted to examine cross-resistance between chlorsulfuron and Imi herbicides (a mixture of imazapic and imazapyr) in 46 R raphanistrum populations collected from across the WA wheat belt. Plants were treated with herbicides and assessed for phytotoxicity under glasshouse conditions. Of the 46 R raphanistrum populations, 32 were resistant to chlorsulfuron and four were resistant to imazapic + imazapyr. Of the 70% chlorsulfuron-resistant populations, 13% showed cross-resistance to imazapic + imazapyr. However, the cross-resistant populations treated with imazapic + imazapyr showed a lower resistance level than the chlorsulfuron-treated populations. These results suggest that weed populations with such cross-resistance will not be controlled effectively by Imi herbicides. Although the resistance levels of the cross-resistant populations to Imi herbicides were low, the cross-resistance levels of R raphanistrum should be determined before growing IT crops, particularly IT canola. PMID:12233181

  14. Sequencing, de novo assembly and comparative analysis of Raphanus sativus transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Libin; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Jiangsheng; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is an important Brassicaceae plant and also an edible vegetable with great economic value. However, currently there is not enough transcriptome information of R. sativus tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on R. sativus. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of leaf tissues. Approximately 70 million clean pair-end reads were obtained and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program, which generated 68,086 unigenes with an average length of 576 bp. All the unigenes were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. In the meanwhile, we merged leaf sequencing data with existing root sequencing data and obtained better de novo assembly of R. sativus using Oases program. Accordingly, potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs), transcription factors (TFs) and enzyme codes were identified in R. sativus. Additionally, we detected a total of 3563 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P = 0.05) and tissue-specific biological processes between leaf and root tissues. Furthermore, a TFs-based regulation network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, these results not only provide a comprehensive genomic resource of R. sativus but also shed light on functional genomic and proteomic research on R. sativus in the future. PMID:26029219

  15. Inhibitory Response of Raphanus sativus on Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, inhibitory effect of the methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root on lipid peroxidation has been carried out in normal rats. Graded doses of methanol extract of root of the plant (40, 80 and 120 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered orally for 15 days to experimental treated rats. Distilled water was administered to experimental control rats. At the end of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after ether anesthesia. Blood and liver were collected to measure thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, reduced glutathione and activity of catalase. Results indicated that the extract of R. sativus root reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance significantly in all experimental treated groups (P < 0.05) as compared to the experimental control group. It also increased the levels of reduced glutathione and increased the activity of catalase. In vitro experiments with the liver of experimental control and experimental treated rats were also carried out against cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. The extract inhibited in vitro cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. R. sativus inhibits lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro. It provides protection by strengthening the antioxidants like glutathione and catalase. Inclusion of this plant in every day diet would be beneficial. PMID:18317549

  16. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance. PMID:25053073

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:25466198

  18. Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2010-03-01

    Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food. PMID:20072818

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Leaf Tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus. PMID:24265813

  20. Sequencing, de novo assembly and comparative analysis of Raphanus sativus transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Libin; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Jiangsheng; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is an important Brassicaceae plant and also an edible vegetable with great economic value. However, currently there is not enough transcriptome information of R. sativus tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on R. sativus. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of leaf tissues. Approximately 70 million clean pair-end reads were obtained and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program, which generated 68,086 unigenes with an average length of 576 bp. All the unigenes were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. In the meanwhile, we merged leaf sequencing data with existing root sequencing data and obtained better de novo assembly of R. sativus using Oases program. Accordingly, potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs), transcription factors (TFs) and enzyme codes were identified in R. sativus. Additionally, we detected a total of 3563 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P = 0.05) and tissue-specific biological processes between leaf and root tissues. Furthermore, a TFs-based regulation network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, these results not only provide a comprehensive genomic resource of R. sativus but also shed light on functional genomic and proteomic research on R. sativus in the future. PMID:26029219

  1. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  2. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-01

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts. PMID:23855586

  3. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan coatings and films against Listeria monocytogenes on black radish.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; Nikšić, Miomir P

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of chitosan coatings prepared with acetic or lactic acid, as well as of composite chitosan-gelatin films prepared with essential oils, was evaluated in fresh shredded black radish samples inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 during seven days of storage at 4°C. The chitosan coating prepared with acetic acid showed the most effective antibacterial activity. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of L. monocytogenes on black radish, although a higher inhibition of pathogens was achieved at higher concentrations of chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan films was even more pronounced with the addition of essential oils. Chitosan-gelatin films with thyme essential oils showed the most effective antimicrobial activity. A reduction of 2.4log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and 2.1log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved in the presence of 1% chitosan film containing 0.2% of thyme essential oil after 24h of storage. PMID:27237426

  4. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  5. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    PubMed

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber. PMID:25433399

  6. Plant productivity and characterization of zeoponic substrates after three successive crops of radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Doug; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed advanced life support (ALS) systems for long duration space missions that incorporate plants to regenerate the atmosphere (CO2 to O2), recycle water (via evapotranspiration), and produce food. NASA has also developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate consisting of clinoptilolite and synthetic apatite to support plant growth for ALS systems (Ming et al., 1995). The substrate is called zeoponics and has been designed to slowly release all plant essential elements into "soil" solution. The substrate consists of K- and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite and a synthetic hydroxyapatite that has Mg, S, and the plant-essential micronutrients incorporated into its structure in addition to Ca and P. Plant performance in zeoponic substrates has been improved by the addition of dolomite pH buffers, nitrifying bacteria, and other calcium-bearing minerals (Henderson et al., 2000; Gruener et al., 2003). Wheat was used as the test crop for all of these studies. The objectives of this study were to expand upon the previous studies to determine the growth and nutrient uptake of radish in zeoponic substrates and to determine the nutrient availability of the zeoponic substrate after three successive radish crops.

  7. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  8. Nucleus Course in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.

    The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…

  9. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  10. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…