These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Traditional Japanese herbal (kampo) medicines and treatment of ocular diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have been used clinically in Eastern Asia, and traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formulas are approved as ethical drugs. The Kampo formulas are mixtures of the crude extracts of several herbs, each of which contains multiple components. Numerous investigators have reported that some herbal medicines are efficacious for treating several human diseases. We reviewed the literature on traditional herbal medicines and treatment of ocular diseases. Oral Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to inhibit postoperative uveitis in humans. Oral Goshajinki-gan improved ocular surface disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan increased retinal blood flow. Keishi-bukuryo-gan Sho might be associated with vitreoretinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan and Goshajinki-gan delayed lens opacification in rats and mice. Oral Sairei-to, Orengedoku-to, Senkanmeimoku-to, Scutellariae radix extract, Gardeniae fructus extract, topical Liguisticum wallichii rhizoma extract, and intravenous injection of tetramethylpyrazine, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and crocetin inhibited some forms of experimental uveitis in rabbits. Topical glycyrrhizinate improved allergic conjunctivitis in humans and rats. Oral crocetin improved eyestrain in humans. Oral berberine diminished experimental uveitis in rats. Baicalein, wogonin, berberine, and berberrubine inhibited in vitro expression of several cytokines in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Some Kampo formulas are efficacious for treating several ocular diseases in humans and animals. Some herbal extracts and their components inhibit some forms of experimental uveitis. PMID:22928823

Hayasaka, Seiji; Kodama, Tatsuo; Ohira, Akihiro

2012-01-01

2

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

3

A Valid Approach in Refractory Glossodynia: A Single-Institution 5-Year Experience Treating with Japanese Traditional Herbal (Kampo) Medicine  

PubMed Central

Glossodynia is often refractory to conventional medicine, and there is only limited evidence to guide clinicians in its management. Patients with refractory glossodynia are often introduced to Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine experts under such circumstances because Kampo medicine has become known in Japan to be effective in treating a wide variety of symptoms refractory to conventional medicine. Herein, we report our single-institution 5-year experience treating patients with Kampo medicine for primary glossodynia that was refractory to conventional medicine. We found that 69.2% of patients reported a beneficial effect of Kampo medicine on glossodynia, and the average onset of improvement was 8.0 ± 7.7 weeks after starting Kampo treatment. The top two frequently used Kampo medicines for glossodynia were seinetsuhokito and mibakuekkito among high responders who showed a decrease of severity by 50% or more. The top four most overlapped herbs among effective Kampo medicines for glossodynia were Glycyrrhiza Root, Ginseng Root, Hoelen, and Atractylodes (lancea) Rhizome, which compose an essential Kampo prescription called shikunshito. Although more research is required to further clarify the effectiveness of Kampo medicine, it has valid efficacy even in cases of glossodynia that remain incurable by conventional treatments. PMID:24223055

Chino, Atsushi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Ueda, Keigo; Raimura, Masaki; Namiki, Takao

2013-01-01

4

Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity. PMID:18955322

Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki

2010-01-01

5

Therapeutic Effects of Saireito (Chai-Ling-Tang), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on Lymphedema Caused by Radiotherapy: A Case Series Study  

PubMed Central

Despite the development of radiotherapy machines and technologies, a proportion of patients suffer from radiation-induced lymphedema. Saireito (SRT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been used for treating edema and inflammation in conditions such as nephritic disease. This study investigated the effect of SRT on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy. Four patients were treated with SRT at a dose of 9?g/day. The severity of lymphedema was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 and Numerical Rating Scale before and after SRT treatment. After the treatment with SRT, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed apparent improvement in lymphedema. One of the cases had difficulty in wearing the custom-made thermoplastic cast, but after SRT administration, he could wear the mask easily. One case decided to stop taking SRT 3 days after initiation because cough and fever appeared. In conclusion, it is important to control the side effects of radiotherapy, which leads to improved tumor control rates. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to confirm the findings of this case series study. PMID:23861700

2013-01-01

6

Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Reduces 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice by Inhibiting Cytokine-Mediated Apoptosis in Intestinal Crypt Cells.  

PubMed

Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25565296

Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

2015-01-01

7

Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Reduces 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice by Inhibiting Cytokine-Mediated Apoptosis in Intestinal Crypt Cells  

PubMed Central

Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100–1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25565296

Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

2015-01-01

8

Polysaccharide-Containing Macromolecules in a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, Hochuekkito: Dual Active Ingredients for Modulation of Immune Functions on Intestinal Peyer's Patches and Epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

A traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) is a well-known Kampo formula, and has been found to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in not only local mucosal immune system in upper respiratory tract, but also systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system. Although this immunopharmacological effect has been proposed to express by modulation of intestinal immune system including Peyer's patches and intestinal epithelial cells, active ingredients are not known. TJ-41 directly affected the production of bone marrow cell-proliferative growth factors from murine Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells in vitro. Among low molecular, intermediate size and macromolecular weight fractions prepared from TJ-41, only fraction containing macromolecular weight ingredients showed Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell-proliferation enhancing activity. Anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration gave 17 subfractions comprising polysaccharides and lignins from the macromolecular weight fraction of TJ-41, and some of the subfractions showed significant enhancing activities having different degrees. Some of the subfractions also expressed stimulating activity on G-CSF-production from colonic epithelial cells, and statistically significant positive correlation was observed among enhancing activities of the subfractions against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and epithelial cells. Among the fractions from TJ-41 oral administration of macromolecular weight ingredient fraction to mice succeeded to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system, but all the separated fractions failed to enhance the in vivo antibody response in upper respiratory tract. PMID:19965961

Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Kazuki; Sekiya, Michiko; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Nagai, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

2011-01-01

9

Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

10

Evaluation of the safety and adverse effects of goreisan/wulingsan, a traditional Japanese-chinese herbal formulation (kampo), in a rat model: a toxicological evaluation.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, Arm Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

2014-09-01

11

Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

Torres, Eliseo

12

Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review  

PubMed Central

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region. PMID:16322804

2005-01-01

13

Treatment of musculoskeletal pain with traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) uses naturally occurring plant, animal, and mineral substances to treat or assist in the treatment of the full spectrum of human disease. With the rise in popularity of alternative or complementary medicine, all physicians will encounter patients using TCHMs. TCHM should be taken under the supervision of a provider whose herbal training and competence is commensurate with the intensity of the herbal regimen and the severity of the clinical condition. TCHM can be valuable in the treatment of all kinds of pain: either as primary or adjunctive therapy depending on the clinical situation. TCHM therapies are prescribed in the framework of a unique diagnostic approach, and are highly specific with regard to type of pain and location of pain. PMID:10516984

Arnold, M D; Thornbrough, L M

1999-08-01

14

The use of traditional herbal medication during pregnancy.  

PubMed

A survey of 577 pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa, in 1995 revealed widespread use of herbal medications. 60% of these women had a secondary or tertiary education. 498 women (86.3%) knew about Isihlambezo (herbs taken during pregnancy for cleansing) and 252 women (43.7%) were currently taking medicinal herbs. The two most common sources of knowledge about these medicines were parents/relatives (69.8%) and traditional birth attendants/herbalists (22.6%). 28.5% of non-users indicated they had been advised by doctors not to take the herbs. In most cases, herbal medicine use--generally a daily oral dose--was initiated in the second trimester of pregnancy. Most commonly, such remedies were ingested to improve fetal conditions (45.2%) or make labor easier (16.7%). Conditions such as childhood malnutrition, congenital malformations, tumors, and acute renal failure have been linked to toxic or carcinogenic constituents present in herbal medicines taken during pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine the side effects of Isihlambezo on the pregnant woman, the fetus, the labor process, and the outcome of pregnancy. Moreover, there is a need to identify the active chemical substance in herbal medications, establish their pharmacokinetics, determine whether their use can be clinically identified without reliance on patient self-report, and to develop antidotes. The antagonistic stance of medical practitioners toward herbalism tends to exacerbate the distance between traditional and modern medicine in Africa. PMID:9133789

Mabina, M H; Moodley, J; Pitsoe, S B

1997-04-01

15

Survival Benefit of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (A Herbal Formula for Invigorating Spleen) in Gastric Cancer Patients with Peritoneal Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Objective. We evaluated the efficiency of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (a compound herbal formula for invigorating spleen) as a complementary and alternative therapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods. Between 2001 and 2012, 93 gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled in this study. The effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on their long-term outcome was investigated. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the difference in survival time, and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. Result. First-line palliative chemotherapy plus traditional Chinese herbal medicine was performed in 47 patients and the other 46 patients received chemotherapy alone. The overall survival was different between patients with and without traditional Chinese herbal medicine (12.0 versus 10.5 months; P = 0.046). According to the Cox proportional hazard model, first-line chemotherapy cycle (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.527; 95% CI = 0.323~0.860) and TCHM (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.481~0.992) were selected as independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicine could improve the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. PMID:24723961

Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Ni-Da; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jin-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua

2014-01-01

16

Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula  

PubMed Central

Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2014-01-01

17

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

Li, Xiu-Min

2009-01-01

18

Management of insomnia: a place for traditional herbal remedies.  

PubMed

(1) Insomnia should be treated first with non drug measures; this has traditionally involved the use of herbal remedies. (2) About 20 plants are approved in France in the production of medications 'traditionally used' for minor sleep disturbances. Virtually nothing is known of their efficacy or potential dangers. (3) Most of these plants are suspected of toxicity and should therefore be avoided, especially in view of their unproven efficacy. (4) Littleleaf linden, vervain, melissa and orange flower have no demonstrated efficacy but are safe and can therefore be used. Similarly, there are no scientific grounds for rejecting preparations based on hawthorn or passiflora. (5) Available data suggest that valerian extracts have a modest impact on subjective sleep quality; they are nevertheless more effective than a placebo. Valerian products that do not contain valepotriates have no apparent adverse effects. It is best to avoid high-titre alcoholic extracts and powdered valerian root, and to select aqueous extracts and low-titre hydro-alcoholic preparations. PMID:15984105

2005-06-01

19

Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

20

Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

2010-01-01

21

Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

2011-12-01

22

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis—a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic

Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton

2006-01-01

23

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

24

Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

2011-01-01

25

Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science  

PubMed Central

Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

2013-01-01

26

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

27

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

28

Stimulation of tetanus toxoid-specific immune responses by a traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunomodulatory properties of botanical medicinals are well-documented. In this study, the capacity for the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia Six Formula (R6F), to stimulate anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity following oral administration to mice was examined. A significant rise in serum anti-TT antibody levels were observed in R6F-treated mice immunized with a minimum immunogenic dose of 10?g TT suggesting an

John R. Underwood; Mark Chivers; Thi Thuong Dang; Paul V. Licciardi

2009-01-01

29

TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and safety of FAHF-2 for treating food allergy in a murine model. A clinical study demonstrated that FAHF-2 is safe, well tolerated, and exhibited beneficial immunomodulatory effects. A clinical report showed that TCM treatment reduced eczema scores and improved quality of life. Herbal interventions, ASHMI and FAHF-2 may be further developed as botanical drugs for treating asthma and food allergy. TCM may also be of benefit for comorbid conditions such as anxiety and recalcitrant eczema. More controlled studies are warranted. In conclusion, novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions such as anxiety and eczema are urgently needed. This article discusses promising interventions for such conditions from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

Li, Xiu-Min

2014-01-01

30

Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

Wang, Julie

2014-01-01

31

Inhibitory effect of Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treating disorder, diabetic mellitus and neurosis in China (Liu-wei-di-huang-tang in Chinese), Japan (Lokumijio-to in Japanese) and Korea for many years. In this study, we investigated the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang water extract (YJT) on the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. Methods A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of TP for 4?weeks to induce BPH. YJT (200 or 400?mg/kg) was administered daily for 4?weeks to two groups by oral gavage concurrently with the TP. The animals were euthanized, the prostate and body weights were recorded, and tissues were subjected to hormone assays and histomorphology. In addition, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the prostate using immunoblotting. Results Animals with BPH showed significantly increased absolute and relative prostate weights, increased dihydrotestosterone levels in the serum or prostate and increased PCNA expression in the prostate; however, YJT-treated animals showed significant reductions compared with the animals with TP-induced BPH. Histomorphology also showed that YJT inhibited TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions These findings indicate that YJT effectively inhibited the development of BPH and might be a useful drug clinically. PMID:22520510

2012-01-01

32

Systems biology in a commercial quality study of the Japanese Angelica radix: toward an understanding of traditional medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The commercial quality of Japanese Angelica radices -- Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Yamato-toki) and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyama Hikino (Hokkai-toki) -- used in Kampo traditional herbal medicines, was studied by use of omics technologies. Complementary and alternative medical providers have observed in their clinical experience that differences in radix commercial quality reflect the differences in pharmacological responses; however, there has been little scientific examination of this phenomenon. The approach of omics, including metabolomics, transcriptomics, genomics, and informatics revealed a distinction between the radix-quality grades based on their metabolites, gene expression in human subjects, and plant genome sequences. Systems biology, constructing a network of omics data used to analyze this complex system, is expected to be a powerful tool for enhancing the study of radix quality and furthering a comprehensive understanding of all medicinal plants. PMID:21721155

Katoh, Akira; Fukuda, Shinzo; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hayasaki, Tomoyuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Komura, Hajime; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Shojo, Masayuki; Takeno, Kanokwan Jumtee

2011-01-01

33

TradReg 2013: Regulation of herbal and traditional medicinal products - European and global strategies - International symposium.  

PubMed

Plants have always been an important source of treatment. The important contribution of phytotherapy became particularly recognised through European Directive 2004/24/EC (Directive 2004/24/EC, 2004), which set up a new Committee dedicated to herbal medicinal products at the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In addition, it created a new status for traditional herbal medicinal products by making possible their simplified "registration" based on plausible level of efficacy. Nearly 10 years after the creation of this new framework, an impressive number of monographs were established. However, implementation remains a challenge. There is also a critical need to encourage innovation and research and to ensure that new pieces of legislation are applied to herbal medicinal products taking due account of their characteristics. This article reflects the concerns and expectations of the European manufacturers of herbal medicines. PMID:25281419

Cranz, Hubertus; Anquez-Traxler, Christelle

2014-12-01

34

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

35

Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential. PMID:17486320

Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

2007-09-01

36

Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

2013-01-01

37

Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

2012-01-01

38

An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity  

PubMed Central

Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 ?g/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk. PMID:24373151

2013-01-01

39

Faith & Form: Selected Calligraphy and Painting from Japanese Religious Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive exhibit, collectors Sylvan Barnet and William Burto take users by the virtual hand and guide them through Faith & Form, an exhibition at the Freer Gallery of the Smithsonian Museum. The exhibition is based on Japanese art collected by Barnet and Burto, who "have assembled one of the finest collections of Japanese religious art in the West." Once they have launched the interactive, visitors should be sure to listen to Barnet and Burto discuss the figures in the "Womb World mandala". This mandala is a hanging scroll from the 13th century, and the image automatically adjusts to zoom in on selected figures, such as horses, goats, and humans, all arranged around the central Buddha. The collectors' commentary for another piece in the show, a section of the Lotus Sutra, a beautiful piece of calligraphy adorned with gold leaf, advises viewers to admire the piece as if it were a single page of a first folio Shakespeare.

40

Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment  

PubMed Central

Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63–5??g/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500??g/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20??g/mL) for 24?h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm. PMID:22919409

Chusri, S.; Sompetch, K.; Mukdee, S.; Jansrisewangwong, S.; Srichai, T.; Maneenoon, K.; Limsuwan, S.; Voravuthikunchai, S. P.

2012-01-01

41

Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

2014-01-01

42

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis--a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic fingerprint analysis for determining the identity, stability, and consistency of TCHM as well as the identification of adulterants as follows: (1) species authentication of various species of ginseng (Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax noto-ginseng) and stability of ginseng preparations using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis; (2) batch-to-batch consistency of extracts of Total Glycosides of Peony (TGP), to be used as a raw material and in finished products (TGP powdered extract products), using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis with a pattern recognition software interface (CASE); (3) documenting the representative HPLC fingerprints of Immature Fruits of Terminalia chebula (IFTC) through the assessment of raw material, in-process assay of the extracts, and the analysis of the finished product (tablets); (4) HPLC fingerprint study demonstrating the consistent quality of total flavonoids of commercial extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaves (EGb) along with detection of adulterations. The experimental conditions as well as general comments on the application of chromatographic fingerprint analysis are discussed. PMID:16472540

Xie, Peishan; Chen, Sibao; Liang, Yi-zeng; Wang, Xianghong; Tian, Runtao; Upton, Roy

2006-04-21

43

Chunggan extract, a traditional herbal formula, ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rat model  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were orally administered 30% ethanol daily for 4 wk with or without CGX. The pharmaceutical properties were assessed through liver enzymes, histopathology, fibrogenic cytokines, and alcohol metabolism in hepatic tissues as well as by in vitro experiment using HSC-T6 cells. RESULTS: Four weeks of alcohol consumption notably increased liver enzymes and malondialdehyde levels in serum and hepatic tissue. CGX not only prevented the collagen deposition determined by histopathology and hydroxyproline content, but also normalized transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-beta and connective tissue growth factor at the gene expression and protein levels in liver tissue. Moreover, CGX treatment also significantly normalized the abnormal changes in gene expression profiles of extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinase and their inhibitors, alcohol metabolism, and inflammatory reactions. In the acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, CGX considerably inhibited collagen production and normalized fibrogenic cytokines in both gene expression and protein levels. CONCLUSION: The present study evidenced that CGX has hepatoprotective properties via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines and alcohol metabolism in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400454

Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Park, Yeon-Hwa; Son, Chang-Gue

2014-01-01

44

Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq  

PubMed Central

Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500?mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5?L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients. PMID:21837249

Kizaibek, Murat; Popescu, Ruxandra; Prinz, Sonja; Upur, Halmurat; Singhuber, Judith; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

2012-01-01

45

Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.  

PubMed

Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits. PMID:24175417

Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K

2012-08-15

46

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

47

Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?  

PubMed

As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802

Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

2013-05-01

48

Quantitative assessment of traditional Oriental herbal formulation Samhwangsasim-tang using UPLC technique.  

PubMed

A specific and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method has been developed and validated for the quantitative assessment of a traditional Oriental herbal formulation, Samhwangsasim-tang (SST). A Halo reversed-phase amide column (2.7 µm, 4.6 × 150 mm) was used to separate marker compounds; detection was conducted by ultraviolet absorbance at 250 nm. The column temperature was maintained at 45°C. A mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in water (B) was found to be suitable for the separation, at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min with gradient elution. Linearity, specificity, precision and recovery were calculated to validate the method and instrumentation. Under the described conditions, all marker compounds (rhaponticin, berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin) were collected within 25 min. All calibration curves of components showed good linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9996). The limit of detection and limit of quantification ranged from 0.08-3.05 and 0.23-8.12 µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and repeatability values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 2.30, 2.99 and 1.82%, respectively. In the recovery test, the accuracy ranged from 97.56-103.30% with RSD values less than 2.63%. The developed method was simple, specific, sensitive, accurate, precise and reproducible for the quantification of the active chemical constituents of SST. The simultaneous analysis of the contents of marker compounds in different SST samples prepared by different extraction procedures and different commercial products was successfully evaluated. PMID:23403059

Poudel, Amrit; Kim, Se-Gun; Lamichhane, Ramakanta; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Jung, Hyun-Ju

2014-02-01

49

Determination of Methanol Concentrations in Traditional Herbal Waters of Different Brands in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time. PMID:23493100

Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali

2011-01-01

50

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

51

Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC. PMID:23956767

Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

2013-01-01

52

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

53

Review The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

E-print Network

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists.

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

54

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

PubMed Central

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053

Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

55

Herbal Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.

Powers, Cheryl

2009-01-01

56

Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. PMID:23730837

Chen, Y; Zhu, J

2013-07-01

57

Inhibitory Effects of Japanese Herbal Medicines Sho-saiko-to and Juzen-taiho-to on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Although Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs) are widely used in Japan, only a few studies have investigated their effects on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, we examined the effect of 4 kinds of JHMs [sho-saiko-to (TJ-9), inchin-ko-to (TJ-135), juzen-taiho-to (TJ-48), and keishi-bukuryo-gan (TJ-25)] on a mouse model of NASH. Db/db mice were divided into 6 groups: control diet (control), methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD), and MCD diet supplemented with TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25 (TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25, respectively). All mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks of treatment, and biochemical, pathological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels and liver histology, including necroinflammation and fibrosis, were significantly alleviated in the TJ-9 and TJ-48 groups compared with the MCD group. The expression level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 mRNA in the liver was significantly suppressed by TJ-48. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 were lower, and those of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? were higher in the TJ-9 and/or TJ-48 groups than in the MCD group. Similarly, even though the results were not statistically significant, malondialdehyde levels in liver tissues were lower in the TJ-9 and TJ-48 groups than in the MCD group. We showed that JHMs, especially TJ-9 and TJ-48, inhibited the necroinflammation and fibrosis in the liver of a mouse model of NASH, even though the mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Further studies are needed in the future to investigate the possibility of clinical application of these medicines in the treatment for NASH. PMID:24466347

Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Watanabe, Masato; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

2014-01-01

58

Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.  

PubMed

Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

2013-03-01

59

Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

2015-01-01

60

Letters of the Bush: A Case Study of Traditional Setswana Herbal Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional medicinal techniques in southern Africa are under-studied, but they continue to play an important role in many people’s lives. In addition to its anthropological value, traditional medicine also has the potential to lead to new treatments for diseases. This study proposed to document the plants and methods used by a traditional healer in the village of Goo-Tau, Tswapong Hills

Kristen Danley

2006-01-01

61

Synergistic in vitro antimalarial activity of plant extracts used as traditional herbal remedies in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mali, where malaria is endemic, plants are extensively used for treating periodic fevers and malaria. According to the advice of traditional medicine, plants are often mixed during the preparation of febrifugal decoctions. In previous studies, we demonstrated the potent in vitro antimalarial activity of extracts isolated from four plants commonly used in traditional remedies: Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze,

N. Azas; N. Laurencin; F. Delmas; C. Di Giorgio; M. Gasquet; M Laget; P. Timon-David

2002-01-01

62

A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR  

PubMed Central

Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

2004-01-01

63

Japanese herbal medicines shosaikoto, inchinkoto, and juzentaihoto inhibit high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in db/db mice.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the effects of Japanese herbal medicines on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To the best of our knowledge, only one study has examined whether high-fat (HF) diet-fed db/db mice are appropriate animal models of NASH. We investigated the effects of four types of Japanese herbal medicines (shosaikoto (TJ-9), inchinkoto (TJ-135), juzentaihoto (TJ-48), and keishibukuryogan (TJ-25)) on hepatic lesions of HF diet-fed db/db mice. Db/db mice were divided into six groups: control diet (control); HF diet (HF); and HF diet supplemented with TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, or TJ-25 (TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25, respectively). Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment, and biochemical and pathological analyses were performed. Mice in the HF group consistently developed histopathological features consistent with definite NASH, and marked necroinflammation occurred. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels in the TJ-9, TJ-135, and TJ-48 groups were significantly improved compared with those in the HF group. With regard to liver histology, TJ-9 and TJ-48 significantly improved lobular inflammation, and TJ-135 significantly improved ballooning degeneration. We have shown that HF diet-fed db/db mice are animal models that correctly recapitulate the histopathology of human NASH and that TJ-9, TJ-135, and TJ-48 inhibit necroinflammatory activity in this model. PMID:25229199

Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Watanabe, Masato; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

2014-10-01

64

Prevalence and factors associated with traditional herbal medicine use among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related problems. Concurrent use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among HIV infected patients. However, the extent of THM use is not known in most settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with THM use among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) attending The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda. TASO is a non-governmental organization devoted to offering HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in the population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two TASO treatment centres in Uganda among 401 randomly selected eligible participants. We included participants who were 18 years and above, were enrolled on HAART, and consented to participate in the study. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. THM use referred to someone who had ever used or was currently using herbal medicine while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the time of the study. Data was captured in Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 9.0 for analysis. Results The prevalence of THM use was 33.7%. Patients on HAART for < 4 years were more likely to use THM (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.13 - 31.73) as well as those who experienced HAART side effects (OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.15 - 11.68). Older patients (?39 years) were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.26 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.83). Participants with HAART adherence levels > 95% were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.65). Conclusion The prevalence of THM use among participants on HAART was high. This raises clinical and pharmacological concerns that need attention by the health care service providers. PMID:22074367

2011-01-01

65

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of traditional Thai herbal remedies for aphthous ulcers.  

PubMed

Four medicinal plants (Quercus infectoria, Kaempferia galanga, Coptis chinensis and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) as well as one traditional Thai treatment for aphthous ulcers based on these four plants were tested for antimicrobial activity. MIC values for a range of bacteria and Candida albicans were determined, with both type strains and clinical isolates being used. Antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS radical scavenging assay. Among the four plants, Q. infectoria showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 0.41 mg/mL, while C. chinensis showed antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC of 6.25 mg/mL. Activity was also shown against a range of other organisms including Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of the traditional aphthous ulcer preparation (a powder) was comparable to that for the individual plant extracts, however, incorporation of the powder into a gel formulation resulted in the loss of almost all activity. All extracts, with the exception of K. galanga, also showed good antioxidant activity. This study supports the traditional use of these plants and suggests that they may also be useful in the treatment of other infections. PMID:20878703

Mekseepralard, Chantana; Kamkaen, Narisa; Wilkinson, Jenny M

2010-10-01

66

Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids  

PubMed Central

Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora,?S. glandiflora,?M. charantia,?S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

2014-01-01

67

Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Formula Pyungwi-San on Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF-?. Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23533508

Cha, Ji Young; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Jae Yup; Lee, Jong Rok; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Byun, Sung Hui; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G.

2013-01-01

68

The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

2007-01-01

69

Neuroprotective effect of the traditional Chinese herbal formula Tongxinluo: a PET imaging study in rats  

PubMed Central

Tongxinluo has been widely used in China for the treatment of acute stroke and for neuroprotection. However, there are few positron emission tomography (PET) studies on the neuroprotective effect of Tongxinluo on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in small animals. In the present study, Tongxinluo superfine powder suspension or its vehicle was administered intragastrically to rats for 5 successive days before middle cerebral artery occlusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) small animal PET imaging showed that at 1 and 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, glucose metabolism in the ischemic area was greater in rats that had received Tongxinluo than in those that had received the vehicle. Nissl staining showed that 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, there was less neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex in Tongxinluo-treated rats than in controls. In addition, Tongxinluo-treated animals showed better neurologic function and lower cerebral infarct volume than rats that received the vehicle. These findings suggest that Tongxinluo exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and demonstrates that 18F-FDG small animal PET imaging is a useful tool with which to study the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25221578

Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Haoxuan; Zhou, Lihua; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Jingbo; Huang, Yan; Luo, Enli; Cai, Yefeng

2014-01-01

70

Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

2010-03-01

71

Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and conclusions later. If Qishe Pill can alleviate neck pain without adverse effects, it may be a unique strategy for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01274936 PMID:24099350

2013-01-01

72

Neuroprotective effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in cultured cells.  

PubMed

To clarify the mechanism of yokukansan (TJ-54), a traditional Japanese medicine, against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, the effects of TJ-54 on glutamate uptake function were first examined using cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Under thiamine-deficient conditions, the uptake of glutamate into astrocytes, and the levels of proteins and mRNA expressions of glutamate aspartate transporter of astrocytes significantly decreased. These decreases were ameliorated in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with TJ-54 (100-700 microg/ml). The improvement of glutamate uptake with TJ-54 was completely blocked by the glutamate transporter inhibitor DL-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid. Effects of TJ-54 on glutamate-induced neuronal death were next examined by using cultured PC12 cells as a model for neurons. Addition of 17.5 mM glutamate to the culture medium induced an approximately 50% cell death, as evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. TJ-54 (1-1000 microg/ml) inhibited the cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, competitive binding assays to glutamate receptors showed that TJ-54 bound potently to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, in particular, to its glutamate and glycine recognition sites. These results suggest that TJ-54 may exert a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity not only by amelioration of dysfunction of astrocytes but also by direct protection of neuronal cells. PMID:19409210

Kawakami, Z; Kanno, H; Ueki, T; Terawaki, K; Tabuchi, M; Ikarashi, Y; Kase, Y

2009-04-10

73

Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.  

PubMed

A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)? 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. PMID:25481086

Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

2015-02-01

74

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

2006-01-01

75

Application of isoabsorption plots generated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to the development of multicomponent quantitative analysis of traditional herbal medicines.  

PubMed

(J. Sep. Sci. 2014, 37 (22), 3245-3252) DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201400711 With the introduction of the iso-absorption plot, a new HPLC-DAD method was developed to simultaneously determine seven polyphenolic compounds (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, scutellarin, rosmarinic acid, and apigenin) in Qingfei mixture (QFM). Traditional herbal medicines (THM) and their preparation have been widely used for thousands of years in many oriental countries. However, the main challenge that hinders the application of THM is the quality control due to the heterogeneous quality. It could be shown that he newly developed analytical method is rapid, repeatable, sensitive and accurate. PMID:25388020

Fang, Luo; Yang, Guonong; Song, Yu; Li, Fanzhu; Lin, Nengming

2014-11-01

76

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.  

PubMed

Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934

Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

2012-12-01

77

Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs?  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPAR? and PPAR? and to inhibit TNF-?-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPAR? or PPAR? (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-?B (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

2013-01-01

78

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the total alkaloid from traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative neurologic disorder resulting in impaired memory and behavior. A promising\\u000a treatment strategy for AD has been the use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Several potent AChE inhibitors such\\u000a as huperzine and galanthamine were originally isolated from plants, indicating that herbal medicines are a good source for\\u000a the search of potential AChE inhibitors. In our

Zhongduo YangDongbo; Dongbo Zhang; Jin Ren; Mingjun Yang; Shuo Li

79

Application of isoabsorption plots generated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to the development of multicomponent quantitative analysis of traditional herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Multicomponent quantitative analysis is one of the mainstream quality control methods of traditional herbal medicines. Since the constituents of traditional herbal medicines samples are complex, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography methods is laborious. In this study, an isoabsorption plot, a chromatographic/spectrometric data image plotted by diode array detection was utilized to facilitate the establishment of a high-performance liquid chromatography method by optimizing and validating the detection conditions off-line. Consequently a simple, reliable and accurate method for simultaneous determination of seven active polyphenolic components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, scutellarin, and apigenin) in Qingfei mixture, a long-used Chinese prescription, was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution of phosphoric acid aqueous solution (0.05%, v/v) and acetonitrile, and a wavelength switch program optimized with isoplot was adopted for detection. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the seven polyphenolic components in different production batches of Qingfei Mixture. These results indicated that isoplot is an effective tool to improve the establishment of multicomponent quantitative analysis methods. PMID:25146493

Fang, Luo; Yang, Guonong; Song, Yu; Li, Fanzhu; Lin, Nengming

2014-11-01

80

Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

2013-01-01

81

A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS)  

PubMed Central

A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

2013-01-01

82

Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine): A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system. PMID:22319543

Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.

2012-01-01

83

Proteomic Analysis of Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Kampo (Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Shoseiryuto (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang)” on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine “shoseiryuto (SST, xiao-qing-long-tang in Chinese)”, which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5?g?kg?1?day?1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils and the OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. SST also reduced the airway hyperreactivity at 6 days after the OVA inhalation. Proteomic analysis with the agarose two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the expression of spectrin ?2 was reduced in the lung tissue of OVA-sensitized mice and SST recovered the expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue also confirmed this result. When prednisolone was orally administered at 3?mg?kg?1?day?1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BAL fluids and airway hyperreactivity were reduced in the OVA-sensitized mice. However, prednisolone did not reduce the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in BAL fluids and did not recover the expression of spectrin ?2 in lung tissue. These results suggest that at least a part of action mechanism of SST against OVA-sensitized allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model is different from that of prednisolone. PMID:19861507

Nagai, Takayuki; Nakao, Marino; Shimizu, Yuliko; Kodera, Yoshio; Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Yamada, Haruki

2011-01-01

84

Cultured Japanese Macaques: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Stone Handling Behavior and Its Implications for the Evolution of Behavioral Tradition in Nonhuman Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Japanese primatologists have paid attention to cultural phenomena in ­nonhuman primates since the earliest stage of their\\u000a studies. The most famous example­ of behavioral traditions in Japanese macaques is probably sweet potato washing behavior.\\u000a After being innovated by a young female on Koshima Islet, this behavior was socially transmitted from the innovator to most\\u000a other group members. More recently, stone

Michael A. Huffman; Jean-Baptiste Leca; Charmalie A. D. Nahallage

85

Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies  

PubMed Central

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

Munyaradzi, Mawere

2011-01-01

86

Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.  

PubMed

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

Munyaradzi, Mawere

2011-01-01

87

Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

2009-01-01

88

Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-04-01

89

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication  

PubMed Central

Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (?? sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (??? jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (??? s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (?? g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

2011-01-01

90

An Astronomical Problem in a Japanese Traditional Mathematical Text: The 49th Problem of the Kenki-sanpo of Takebe Katahiro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Edo period (Tokugawa-shogunate period) (1603-1867), there was a mathematical tradition now called "Wasan" which was primarily based on Chinese mathematics, but Japanese mathematicians also created new devices. It was quite popular, and common people could enjoy solving mathematical problems through Wasan regardless of their social status. Some astronomical problems were also treated there.

Ôhashi, Yukio

91

Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly blocked SSE-induced increases in Beclin-1, LC3-II, and Bax expression and decreases in Bcl-2 expression, indicating that JNK activation plays critical role in cell death caused by SSE. Conclusions These findings suggest that SSE efficiently induces cancer cell death via apoptosis as well as autophagy through modification of the Akt/mTOR and JNK signaling pathways. SSE may be as a potent traditional herbal medicine for treating malignancies. PMID:24053190

2013-01-01

92

Significance of Kampo, Traditional Japanese Medicine, in Supportive Care of Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The current standard treatment for cancer is a multidisciplinary therapy whereby various types of treatment are properly combined. Chemotherapy with multiple anticancer drugs is now common, and traditional, complementary, and alternative therapies are adopted as supportive measures. Medical care in Japan is distinguished by the ability for patients to access both Western and Kampo medical cares at the same time. There is a high degree of trust in the safety of Kampo therapies because they are practiced by medical doctors who are educated with fundamental diagnosis of Western medicine. Highly reliable clinical studies are being published, demonstrating that palliative or supportive care for cancer patients using Kampo preparations alleviates adverse effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This paper reports the circumstances around cancer care in Japan where traditional therapeutic Kampo formulas are used for patients undergoing cancer treatment with cutting-edge chemotherapy, specifically to alleviate adverse effects of anticancer drugs. PMID:23861712

Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Moriya, Junji; Ogawa, Masao; Uenishi, Hiroaki; Akazawa, Sumiyo; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Matomo; Kobayashi, Junji

2013-01-01

93

Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

2014-02-01

94

A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes  

PubMed Central

Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

2013-01-01

95

Anti-diabetic effects of TongGuanWan, a Chinese traditional herbal formula, in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, the anti-diabetic effects of a traditional Chinese medicinal formula extract, TongGuanWan, were investigated in type 2 diabetic animals. It was orally administered to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice once a day for 4 weeks at the doses of 62, 125, and 250?mg/kg body weight. TongGuanWan significantly lowered the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels as well as improved the glucose tolerance in db/db mice. The serum triglyceride levels in the db/db mice were significantly decreased, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased, after treatment with this herbal formula. TongGuanWan also markedly decreased the animals' body weights compared to those of the control db/db group but did not alter food intake. The effects of TongGuanWan were compared to those of the drug rosiglitazone. In addition, five main constituents of TongGuanWan, mangiferin, berberine, cinnamic aldehyde, timosaponin BII, and timosaponin AIII, were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD). These results suggest that TongGuanWan may be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22002851

Tang, Yi Hong; Sun, Zhao Lin; Fan, Ming Song; Li, Zhi Xiong; Huang, Cheng Gang

2012-01-01

96

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2012-07-01

97

Structural determination of glucosylceramides in the distillation remnants of shochu, the Japanese traditional liquor, and its production by Aspergillus kawachii.  

PubMed

Shochu is traditional Japanese liquor produced from various crops and fungi Aspergillus kawachi or A. awamorii . The amount of unutilized shochu distillation remnants is increasing because of the recent prohibition of ocean dumping of these remnants. In this Article, we first describe the structures of glucosylceramides contained in shochu distillation remnants by fragment ion analysis using ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Shochu distillation remnant produced from barley contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C16:0h, d18:2/C20:0h, d19:2/C18:1h, and d18:2/C18:0h. Koji (barley fermented with A. kawachii) contained the same glucosylceramides. Shochu distillation remnants produced from rice contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C18:0h and d19:2/C18:1h. The culture broth of A. kawachii contained glucosylceramides d19:2/C18:1h and d19:2/C18:0h. These results indicate that the glucosylceramides contained in crops and those produced by A. kawachii transfer through the processes of fermentation with yeast and distillation to the shochu distillation remnant. This information will enable utilization of shochu distillation remnants and koji as novel sources of sphingolipids. PMID:23145483

Hirata, Miyo; Tsuge, Keisuke; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Urano, Yoshitaka; Sawada, Kazutaka; Inaba, Shigeki; Nagao, Koji; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

2012-11-21

98

Review Article Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. 1.

Yan Li; Robert C. G. Martin Ii

2010-01-01

99

Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

2011-01-01

100

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

101

Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions  

PubMed Central

Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

2014-01-01

102

Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions.  

PubMed

Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan's original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san's efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

2014-01-01

103

Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits. PMID:20452484

LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

2010-01-01

104

Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

2014-01-01

105

Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

2014-01-01

106

Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

2010-01-01

107

The Traditional Japanese Medicine Rikkunshito Promotes Gastric Emptying via the Antagonistic Action of the 5-HT3 Receptor Pathway in Rats  

PubMed Central

The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine using the phenol red method in male Wistar rats. 5-HT (0.01–1.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.) dose dependently delayed gastric emptying, similar to the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide (0.01–1.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.). Dopamine also dose dependently delayed gastric emptying. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.04–4.0?mg?kg?1) and rikkunshito (125–500?mg?kg?1) significantly suppressed the delay in gastric emptying caused by 5-HT or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide. Hesperidin (the most active ingredient in rikkunshito) suppressed the 5-HT-induced delayed gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner, the maximum effect of which was similar to that of ondansetron (0.4?mg?kg?1). The improvement obtained by rikkunshito or ondansetron in delaying gastric emptying was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. Rikkunshito appears to improve delay in gastric emptying via the antagonistic action of the 5-HT3 receptor pathway. PMID:19861508

Tominaga, K.; Kido, T.; Ochi, M.; Sadakane, C.; Mase, A.; Okazaki, H.; Yamagami, H.; Tanigawa, T.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Oshitani, N.; Arakawa, T.

2011-01-01

108

Comparison of the Effects on Rib Fracture between the Traditional Japanese Medicine Jidabokuippo and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Jidabokuippo is a traditional Japanese medicine used for contusion-induced swelling and pain. This open multicenter randomized study was designed to compare the efficacies of jidabokuippo and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rib fracture by analyzing the treatment duration. Our study involved 170 rib fracture patients capable of oral ingestion divided randomly into 2 groups: the jidabokuippo and NSAID groups. We compared the duration of treatment and healthcare expenditure between these 2 groups. Medication was continued in both groups until the visual analogue scale score decreased to less than 50% of the pretreatment score. We excluded the patients in whom medication was prematurely discontinued. We analyzed 81 patients belonging to the jidabokuippo and NSAIDs groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in age, gender, severity (injury severity score), and presence/absence of underlying disease. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P = 0.0003). Healthcare expenditure was significantly lower in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that compared to NSAIDs, jidabokuippo can shorten the duration of treatment in patients with rib fracture and is a promising analgesic agent based on the medical economic viewpoint. PMID:22888367

Nakae, Hajime; Yokoi, Aya; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Akira

2012-01-01

109

[Inhibitory effects of shimotsu-to, a traditional Chinese herbal prescription, on ultraviolet radiation-induced cell damage and prostaglandin E2 release in cultured Swiss 3T3 cells].  

PubMed

We have investigated the effects of Shimotsu-to, a traditional Chinese herbal prescription (Kampo medicine), on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced cell damage and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in cultured Swiss 3T3 cells to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Shimotsu-to. Short-term UV irradiation significantly induced cell damage and stimulated PGE2 release in Swiss 3T3 cells cultured for 4 h. The UV-radiation-induced cell damage and the stimulation of PGE2 release were significantly suppressed by the treatment with Shimotsu-to. Among the single crude drug components of Shimotsu-to, Rehmanniae Radix showed significant protective effects against UV-radiation-induced cell damage and PGE2 release. Other synthetic anti-inflammatory agents, such as dexamethasone, dipotassium glycyrrhizinate and allantoin also protected against UV-induced cell damage and inhibited PGE2 release in cultured Swiss 3T3 cells. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Shimotsu-to against UV-irradiated erythema (acute skin inflammation) in guinea pigs in vivo may be mediated by the inhibition of PGE2 release from cutaneous target cells. PMID:9629060

Sakuma, K; Ogawa, M; Kimura, M; Yamamoto, K; Ogihara, M

1998-06-01

110

Mother/Offspring Co-administration of the Traditional Herbal Remedy Yokukansan During the Nursing Period Influences Grooming and Cerebellar Serotonin Levels in a Rat Model of Neurodevelopmental Disorders.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions. PMID:25315739

Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

2014-10-15

111

Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

2014-01-01

112

Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Hochu-ekki-to in the Long-term Management of Kikyo (Delicate Constitution) Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A 6-month, Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Hochu-ekki-to is a traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine that has been shown to be effective for patients with Kikyo (delicate, easily fatigable, or hypersensitive) constitution. Previous case reports have suggested that this herbal drug was effective for a certain subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hochu-ekki-to in the long-term management of Kikyo patients with AD. In this multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 91 Kikyo patients with AD were enrolled. Kikyo condition was evaluated by a questionnaire scoring system. All patients continued their ordinary treatments (topical steroids, topical tacrolimus, emollients or oral antihistamines) before and after their protocol entry. Hochu-ekki-to or placebo was orally administered twice daily for 24 weeks. The skin severity scores, total equivalent amount (TEA) of topical agents used for AD treatment, prominent efficacy (cases with skin severity score = 0 at the end of the study) rate and aggravated rate (more than 50% increase of TEA of topical agents from the beginning of the study) were monitored and evaluated. Seventy-seven out of 91 enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment course (Hochu-ekki-to: n = 37, placebo: n = 40). The TEA of topical agents (steroids and/or tacrolimus) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group than in the placebo group, although the overall skin severity scores were not statistically different. The prominent efficacy rate was 19% (7 of 37) in the Hochu-ekki-to group and 5% (2 of 40) in the placebo group (P = 0.06). The aggravated rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group (3%; 1 of 37) than in the placebo group (18%; 7 of 39). Only mild adverse events such as nausea and diarrhea were noted in both groups without statistical difference. This placebo-controlled study demonstrates that Hochu-ekki-to is a useful adjunct to conventional treatments for AD patients with Kikyo constitution. Use of Hochu-ekki-to significantly reduces the dose of topical steroids and/or tacrolimus used for AD treatment without aggravating AD. PMID:18955318

Ishii, Masamitsu; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shintani, Takahiro; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Kusunoki, Tadashi; Furue, Masutaka

2010-01-01

113

Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Products in India  

PubMed Central

Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines. PMID:21897669

Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, AK

2011-01-01

114

Er-Xian Decoction, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, intervening early in hypothalamic-pituitary axis of male rats with delayed puberty  

PubMed Central

Background: Er-Xian Decoction (EXD) is one of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with unique effect on osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome and delayed puberty in China for many years. Objective: We aim to evaluate the potential activity of starting hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis of male rats with delayed puberty. Materials and Methods: Delayed puberty model of male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were established with soy isoflavones (90 mg·kg-1) and were treated by EXD extract at doses of 5, 10 g·kg-1 or Testosterone undecanoate (TU) for 8 weeks. Body weight, body length, testis weight, T, E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in hypothalamus, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH in pituitary gland were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LH in pituitary gland. Results: Soy isoflavones could significantly decrease body weight, body length, testicular organ coefficient T in serum, GnRH in hypothalamus, FSH and LH in pituitary gland. Both of EXD and TU could improve the condition. E2 and LH in serum of all groups were non-significance of difference (P > 0.05). The immunohistochemical results were well consistent with LH in pituitary gland. Conclusion: The results of the present research indicate that EXD extract is effective to start the HPT axis in puberty and can significantly improve sexual developmental inhibition caused by soy isoflavones. PMID:25422555

Zhu, Zheng; Li, LiHong; Jin, Xin; Fang, JianWei; Zhang, DongFang

2014-01-01

115

Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up till now no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of “Qurs Tabasheer” in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from five various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). Methods Effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and trim down the HDL level. We have weighed up the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Results In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified. Conclusion Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride. PMID:23305114

2013-01-01

116

Simultaneous quantification of nine major active components in traditional Chinese prescription Mahuang decoction and the influence of herbal compatibility on their contents  

PubMed Central

Background: Mahuang decoction (MHD), a famous classic traditional Chinese formula, has been extensively applied for treating cold, influenza, asthma, acute bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. However, the interaction among four drugs of MHD has not been clearly deciphered from the aspect of molecular composition. Objective: To assess the quality of MHD and explore the interplay among different prescription drugs. Materials and Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine bioactive components was developed. A somatomedin A (SMA)-phenyl column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 ?m) was eluted by a gradient mobile phase contained acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid-0.05% triethylamine aqueous solution. Four detection wavelengths (210, 252, 278, and 291 nm) were utilized for the quantitative analysis due to the different ultraviolet (UV) spectra of these compounds. Results: Satisfactory separation was obtained for all the components, and the assay was fully validated in respects of linearity, precision, stability, and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2? 0.9991) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday repeatability were not more than 1.70 and 2.66%, respectively. The spike recoveries of nine components varied from 97.50 ± 1.69 to 99.27 ± 1.37%. Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to analyze nine active compounds in decoction samples of various drug compatibilities of MHD. The variations of contents were obvious for different combinations, which hinted the mutual promotion or inhibition of componential dissolution among four herbs of MHD. PMID:24914312

He, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ruping; Ge, Lijun; Wan, Haitong

2014-01-01

117

Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST. PMID:24410935

2014-01-01

118

Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating erysipelas in pigs; the aerial parts of pellitory ( Parietaria judaica) in decoctions for treating haemorrhoids. Conclusions The fact that half of the most salient species documented in our case study – widely available both in Molise and in Dalmatia and Herzegovina – retain a Slavic name could indicate that they may have also been used in Dalmatia and Herzegovina before the migration took place. However, given the occurrence of several South-Italian plant names and uses, also a remarkable acculturation process affected the Slavic community of Montemitro during these last centuries. Future directions of research should try to simultaneously compare current ethnobotanical knowledge of both migrated communities and their counterparts in the areas of origin. PMID:22672636

2012-01-01

119

Japanese; Japanese Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

120

Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

121

"Honeymoon psychosis" in Japanese tourists to Hawaii.  

PubMed

Although Japanese tourists in Hawaii are infrequently treated for acute psychiatric emergencies, we observed several cases among Japanese honeymooners. To investigate this phenomenon, we retrospectively and prospectively collected such cases of honeymooners. Sixteen cases of acute psychiatric disturbance in Japanese honeymooners in Hawaii are described. This phenomenon occurs more frequently than in other Japanese tourists or non-Japanese honeymooners. The tradition of arranged marriage and other cultural factors may be associated with the potential for "honeymoon psychosis." PMID:9277018

Langen, D; Streltzer, J; Kai, M

1997-01-01

122

Common herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

Turkoski, B B

2000-01-01

123

Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

2011-01-01

124

Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

2014-08-01

125

Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

Manchikanti, Padmavati

2013-01-01

126

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

127

Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.  

PubMed

The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions. PMID:18952343

Evans, Sue

2008-12-01

128

Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.  

PubMed

Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug. PMID:21318994

Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko

2009-04-01

129

Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues.  

PubMed

Exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to many positive health outcomes, yet its widespread adoption as the primary mode of providing nutrition to infants remains challenging. The most common reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is perception of inadequate milk production. To augment breast milk production, a substantial number of women turn to herbal galactogogues despite the limited scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to evaluate the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. PubMed was searched from inception to October 2012 using an iterative search process that proceeded from broad categories to specific herbs. Manuscript references were also reviewed. Only experimental studies with objective outcome measures were included. Six trials met our search criteria. Using an adapted version of the CONSORT checklist, each trial was evaluated for potential sources of bias in design and reporting. Shatavari, torbangun, fenugreek, milk thistle, and a Japanese herbal medication were the 5 herbal preparations studied. Five trials found an increase in breast milk production. Several limitations exist that affect the validity of the trial results, including small sample size, insufficient randomization methods, poorly defined eligibility criteria, use of poly-herbal interventions, and variable breastfeeding practices among enrolled subjects. Given the insufficiency of evidence from these trials, no recommendation is made for the use of herbs as galactogogues. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical trials that address the above limitations are necessary to generate a body of evidence as a basis for recommendations regarding herbal galactogogues. PMID:23468043

Mortel, Mylove; Mehta, Supriya D

2013-05-01

130

Japanese language and Japanese science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

2003-08-01

131

Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

2012-01-01

132

Japanese Vowel Devoicing: Cases of Consecutive Devoicing Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that devoicing sites in Japanese are specified for the feature, departing from the traditional phonological analysis of Japanese vowel devoicing, which considers devoicing as an assimilation of the feature [+spread glottis]. (Author/VWL)

Tsuchida, Ayako

2001-01-01

133

[Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].  

PubMed

Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years. PMID:25665435

Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

2014-12-01

134

Herbal products in pregnancy: experimental studies and clinical reports.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to provide an update from an overview of the literature of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies during pregnancy, both alone and concomitantly with prescribed medications and particularly on their side effects to the mother and fetus. We have also analyzed some of the adverse interactions that may occur due to concomitant use of herbal and pharmaceutical products during pregnancy. Herbal remedies are not evaluated according to the same standards as pharmaceuticals, and in the USA some of it are not licensed but sold as food supplements. There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. If 'traditional use' is the only available information, the pregnant woman should be made aware of this to enable her to make an informed decision concerning potential use. PMID:24399745

Smeriglio, Antonella; Tomaino, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico

2014-08-01

135

Herbal Databases for PDAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more Americans using herbal remedies and dietary supplements, health practitioners are striving to increase their knowledge in this area. Health care providers are also increasingly turning to handheld computers for access to medical information at the point of care. This article describes databases containing information on herbs and dietary supplements for personal digital assistants. While the authors recommend arranging

Natalie Kupferberg; Lynda Jones Hartel

2004-01-01

136

Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2011-01-01

137

Japanese Fine Prints, Pre-1915  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online division of Prints and Photographs from the Library of Congress has digitized many of their more than 2500 Japanese woodblock prints. To become familiar with the print traditions in Japanese art, visitors should click on the link entitled "Background and Scope". Users can browse by creator, subject or format. Each individual image may be viewed in a variety of file sizes and formats, as well as downloaded.

138

Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels  

PubMed Central

Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

2008-01-01

139

Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been suc- cessful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive

Bhushan Patwardhan; Dnyaneshwar Warude; P. Pushpangadan; Narendra Bhatt

2005-01-01

140

A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.  

PubMed

Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

2014-11-15

141

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p < 0.05)] while only geopolitical zones and educational qualifications seemed to have influence on respondents' opinion on the harmful effects of herbal medicines to the fetus [p < 0.05]. Conclusion The study emphasized the wide spread use of herbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and other health care givers to be aware of this practice and make efforts in obtaining information about herb use during ante-natal care. This will help forestall possible interaction between herbal and conventional medicines. PMID:20043858

2009-01-01

142

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

143

Recurrent erythema nodosum associated with echinacea herbal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of recurrent erythema nodosum that is temporally and perhaps causally associated with use of echinacea herbal therapy. The genusEchinacea is traditionally used as an immunostimulant in the prophylaxis and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. In vitro and in vivo studies of echinacea administration in animal and human-derived models suggest a definite stimulatory effect on the

Seaver Lee Soon; Richard I. Crawford

2001-01-01

144

Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

2014-01-01

145

Herbal Therapy for Brain Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients with high-grade glioma will be randomly assigned to take an herbal preparation of Boswellia serrata (frankincense) and undergo standard treatment for six months or undergo standard treatment alone for six months. Researchers want to see the addition of herbal therapy can help relieve brain swelling in these patients.

146

Herbal hepatotoxicity: a hidden epidemic.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative therapies, including herbal products, have become increasingly popular in the general population and among patients and physicians. Regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal drugs are still incomplete and need to be improved. In fact, herbals are commonly marketed on the Internet, and in many countries they are sold as food supplements, which are beyond the control of drug regulatory agencies. In Europe and the U.S., reports of hepatotoxicity from these products, including those advertised for liver diseases, are accumulating. Many herbal drugs are also commonly used in children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, because they are believed to be "natural" and, therefore, "harmless." One emerging problem is people preferring herbal-based slimming aids to conventional dietary and physical activity. In Italy, the use of non-conventional therapies has been reported for 13.6 % of the population, and 3.7 % freely use herbal drugs, unaware of the risks associated with a potential interaction with prescription drugs. In our review, we discuss the problem of the lack of standardization of herbal drugs, the lack of randomized clinical trials regarding the majority of these products, the unawareness of risks by the patients who buy and use them, and, further, the problem of underreporting. For the most commonly used herbal products and slimming aids, we describe their potential hepatotoxicity mechanisms, the causality assessment necessary for a correct diagnosis, and the clinical patterns for which these products seem to be responsible. PMID:22477279

Licata, Anna; Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Craxì, Antonio

2013-02-01

147

Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): Lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural\\/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from

K. M. Wu; J. G. Farrelly; R. Upton; J. Chen

2007-01-01

148

Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.  

PubMed

The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. PMID:12472966

Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

2002-12-01

149

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV\\/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for

Edward Mills; Curtis Cooper; Dugald Seely; Izzy Kanfer

2005-01-01

150

The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

Ueno, Chizuko

151

Herbal Medicine and Women's Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine is being increasingly used by women to prevent diseases, promote health and treat different diseases including a number of psychiatric disorders. The use of herbal drugs is increasing in the western world. The use of herbal drugs during pregnancy has been studied to various extents in different countries. However, more information is required regarding the impact of herbal

Akhondzadeh Sh

152

Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433

Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh

2009-10-01

153

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467

Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

2013-08-23

154

Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

2012-01-01

155

The benefits of Japanese dance from a psychosomatic medical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nihonbuyo, a traditional Japanese dance, is one of many performing arts. It has been developed according to two prescriptions and is a combination of Mai and Odori. Traditional Japanese dance is more than just a hobby and a way of staying healthy. The dance is one way of inspiring oriental wisdom, which activates the spirit and, according to the literature,

Keiko Saito

2006-01-01

156

HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

157

Loans to Japanese borrowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the characteristics of loans to Japanese borrowers using a relatively unexplored, contract-specific data set. I find that Japanese banks charge less on loans to Japanese borrowers than do foreign banks, holding constant many of the risk characteristics of the borrower. Moreover, Japanese banks vary pricing less across these risks than do foreign banks, suggesting that Japanese banks

David C. Smith

2003-01-01

158

Canadian Pharmacy Students' Knowledge of Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine fourth-year Canadian pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine and whether that knowledge is associated with mandatory instruction in herbal medicine. Methods Standardized multiple-choice tests assessing students' herbal knowledge were distributed to all fourth-year BSc pharmacy students at 5 pharmacy schools in Canada. Results The Quebec response rate was too low to include in the analysis. Herbal knowledge test scores were positively associated with having previously taken an herbal medicine class and completion of a pharmacy practicum. However, postsecondary education, age, and gender were not associated with herbal knowledge test scores. Students at the University of British Columbia had the highest score, followed by Alberta, Nova Scotia, and Ontario. Conclusion Pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine varies depending on the school attended and higher herbal knowledge test scores appear to be most closely related to mandatory herbal instruction. PMID:19002275

Johnson, Teela; Jurgens, Tannis; Austin, Zubin; Moineddin, Rahim; Eccott, Lynda; Heschuk, Shirley

2008-01-01

159

Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

2014-01-01

160

Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

2012-01-01

161

Herbal Toothpowder Induced Erythema Multiforme  

PubMed Central

Herbal toothpowders are available in market in a wide varieties, which consist of various ingredients. In rural areas of the developing countries, they are still used for cleansing teeth. Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous disorder that is believed to be a sequel of a cytotoxic immunologic attack on keratinocytes which express non-self-antigens. A 31-year-old male who used herbal toothpowder for oral-hygiene maintenance presented with ulcers in mouth, encrustation on lips and target lesions on both hands, suggesting Erythema multiforme. An oral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report of an association of herbal extracts and EM in the English literature. With this report, we present a rare new triggering factor of Erythema mutiforme, thus adding it to the endless list of aetiologies. PMID:24783158

Satpute, Pranali; Yadav, Lalita; Ahmed, Riyaz; Kashid, Avinash; Peter, Kalpak

2014-01-01

162

HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

163

The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.  

PubMed

The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far. PMID:25043780

Peschel, Wieland

2014-12-01

164

Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

2009-01-01

165

Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology.  

PubMed

Herbal treatments are becoming increasingly popular, and are often used for dermatological conditions. Thus dermatologists should know about their potential to cause adverse events. This review is aimed at addressing this area in a semisystematic fashion. Some agents, particularly Chinese herbal creams, have been shown repeatedly to be adulterated with corticosteroids. Virtually all herbal remedies can cause allergic reactions and several can be responsible for photosensitization. Some herbal medicines, in particular Ayurvedic remedies, contain arsenic or mercury that can produce typical skin lesions. Other popular remedies that can cause dermatological side-effects include St John's Wort, kava, aloe vera, eucalyptus, camphor, henna and yohimbine. Finally, there are some herbal treatments used specifically for dermatological conditions, e.g. Chinese oral herbal remedies for atopic eczema, which have the potential to cause systemic adverse effects. It is concluded that adverse effects of herbal medicines are an important albeit neglected subject in dermatology, which deserves further systematic investigation. PMID:11069498

Ernst, E

2000-11-01

166

Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It

Krishna Kaphle; Leang-Shin Wu; Nai-Yen Jack Yang; Jen-Hsou Lin

2006-01-01

167

Administration of Chinpi, a Component of the Herbal Medicine Ninjin-Youei-To, Reverses Age-Induced Demyelination  

PubMed Central

The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcR?/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcR?/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcR?/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5?kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcR?/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. PMID:21799684

Sato, Nanako; Seiwa, Chika; Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kayoko; Kawakita, Takuya; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Akio; Takao, Masakatsu; Kudo, Chiaki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ishige, Atushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Asou, Hiroaki

2011-01-01

168

Management of insomnia in traditional Persian medicine.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a sleep disorder which affects 10-48% of general population. Different measures, such as pharmacotherapy and behavioral management, are applied for insomnia and associated complaints. In traditional medical systems, herbal medicines are considered beneficial. Therefore, the present paper compiles pharmacological and medical insights into the management of insomnia according to Traditional Persian Medicine. Herein, preserved medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persian medicine from 10th to 18th century A.D. were investigated for information about concepts of insomnia treatment and herbal remedies. Additionally, for all herbal remedies, an extensive search of scientific databases, such as MEDLINE and Scopus, has been performed to find related works concerning hypnotic, sedative, and anxiolytic as well as narcoleptic effects. Insomnia (generally called Sahar in Persian manuscripts) is a well-known disorder. Herbal medical intervention was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians. Totally, 36 medicinal herbs related to 25 plant families are derived from the searched literature. These remedies were applied orally, topically, and nasally. Based on scientific data, 50% of reported herbs have relevant pharmacological effects. Besides historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that had been applied by Persian practitioners in order to deal with sleep complications. Considering the fruitful results of these findings, this essay should encourage researchers to conduct more investigations in this field in order to understand the mechanisms and effects of traditionally applied herbs still unknown to modern medicine. PMID:24851849

Petramfar, Peyman; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

2014-01-01

169

Review: The speech corpus and database of Japanese dialects  

Microsoft Academic Search

is a recording of readings of words, phrases, sentences, and texts in Japanese dialects. The focus of the speech material is on prosody, in particular, on accentual variations, and to a lesser extent on intonation. In addition to the dialectal materials, SCDJD contains speech of the minority language Ainu, Japanese traditional singings, school children's speech, and speech by the foreign

Yasuko Nagano-madsen

170

Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.  

PubMed Central

China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

1997-01-01

171

Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

2012-01-01

172

Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25104437

2014-01-01

173

The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

174

South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary

E. Joubert; W. C. A. Gelderblom; A. Louw; D. de Beer

2008-01-01

175

Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of

E. M. Ritch-Krc; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

176

Contamination of mercury in tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations.  

PubMed

The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. PMID:16567029

Ang, H H; Lee, K L

2006-08-01

177

Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use. PMID:7890220

Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S

1995-01-01

178

Comments on serious anaphylaxis caused by nine Chinese herbal injections used to treat common colds and upper respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Reports describing severe allergic shock and fatality following treatment of a common cold or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with a Chinese herbal injection were collected. Our analysis of the risks associated with this treatment suggested that the potential risk of serious, or even lethal, anaphylaxis should preclude its use in treating common colds and URTIs. In light of our findings herein, we propose the following five suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections as medical treatments. First, Chinese herbal injections should not be delivered in the clinic to treat patients in accordance with Bian zheng lun zhi (broad-spectrum application based on holistic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and methodology), but rather they should be administered to target specific indicated disease processes. Second, Chinese herbal injection indications should be based on the results of double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. Third, Chinese herbal injections should be used only in cases involving severe disease or to rescue patients in critical condition; they should not be used to treat mild, relatively innocuous diseases, such as common colds and upper respiratory tract infections, given the risk of doing harm. Fourth, Chinese herbal injection formulas should include materials from only a single or a small number of plant sources in known quantities. Fifth, more studies examining the toxicology and allergenic potential of Chinese herbal injections are needed. PMID:19559066

Ji, Kunmei; Chen, Jiajie; Li, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wang, Chunbo; Zhan, Zhengke; Wu, Xuli

2009-11-01

179

Standardization of Metal-Based Herbal Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Standardization of herbal drugs is a burning topic in herbal drug industry today. Standardization is difficult becaus e they are usually mixtures of many constituents an d the active principle in most cases is unknown. Howe ver it is possible to generate a physico-chemical fingerprint for the standardization of these drugs with reference to authentic drugs, for monitoring

Arun Sudha; V. S. Murty; T. S. Chandra

2009-01-01

180

Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

2013-01-01

181

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine common herbal supplements, explore potential risks associated with herbal use, and provide recommendations to the athletic trainer regarding patient care issues. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases 1990–2000 using the key words herbals, regulation, supplements, toxicity, and adulteration. Data Synthesis: The use of herbal products continues to grow. While the origins of some medications and herbal supplements are similar, clinical testing and understanding of most herbal remedies is lacking. Some herbal products may prove useful in an athletic setting; however, current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations do not ensure safe and effective products. A descriptive review focusing on specific considerations for the athletic trainer is provided. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite their increasing tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes need to be aware that “natural” does not equal “safe.” Athletes are entitled to know that most herbs are not proven safe or effective under current FDA standards. The athletic trainer must be able to provide honest, unbiased information when educating athletes regarding herbal supplements. PMID:16558669

Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

182

Sociocultural dilemma of Japanese steeplejacks.  

PubMed

Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive. PMID:11116667

Iwata, H

1997-12-01

183

Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases. PMID:23736100

Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

2014-09-01

184

The evolution of Japanese management: lessons for U.S. managers.  

PubMed

To find the key to the success of Japanese economic performance since World War II, Marsland and Beer explore five main "environmental" factors used by Japanese firms to build a successful human resources management approach: Japanese social values, the structure of private enterprise, the structure of labor markets, the historic development of the Japanese employment system, and the structure of Japanese management. This discussion shows that post-war Japanese management, faced with rapid change, introduced new concepts and techniques that reinforced and maintained certain social values and traditions that fit well with human resources management objectives. This skillful blend of new ideas with traditional values enabled the Japanese to achieve superior economic performance. PMID:10259590

Marsland, S; Beer, M

1983-01-01

185

Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.  

PubMed

Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus (Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret. (Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Senecio syringitolius O. Hoffman. (Compositae), Ocimum suave Willd (Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs. PMID:20096761

Nguta, J M; Mbaria, J M; Gakuya, D W; Gathumbi, P K; Kiama, S G

2010-03-24

186

HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

187

Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: a literature review on case reports.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common amongst cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side-effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n=34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n=8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), noni (n=1) and Silymarin (n=1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D

2011-03-01

188

Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

2014-01-01

189

Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

2013-01-01

190

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.  

PubMed

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

1999-01-15

191

197Japanese/Journalism and Mass Communications Japanese 311 (3)--Advanced Japanese I  

E-print Network

197Japanese/Journalism and Mass Communications Japanese 311 (3)--Advanced Japanese I Prerequisites and written responses to a variety of literary materials, including relevant journal and newspaperarticles.) Staff. Offeredwheninterestisexpressedanddepartmental resourcespermit. JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATIONS

Dresden, Gregory

192

Traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Chinese pharmacopoeia describes a large number of herbal formulations that are used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This therapeutic approach is ignored by many and considered to be an alternative to conventional medicine by others. The scientific proof and clinical validation of these herbal formulations require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological

Robert Yuan; Yuan Lin

2000-01-01

193

Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

2014-01-01

194

Designer drugs in herbal aphrodisiacs.  

PubMed

In the presented case three herbal aphrodisiacs (Libidfit, Satibo and Viamax) were investigated for the presence of regular pharmaceuticals against erectile dysfunction. However, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed the presence of ingredients, having a molecular structure strongly resembling those of sildenafil (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra). The health risk posed by these analogous substances is high because they were found to be potent phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors used in pharmacologically relevant quantities having no known safety profile. Based on structural and functional analogy these analogs represent a new class of designer drugs and should be taken off the market for being unapproved drug substances. In the Libidfit court case this was done successfully, setting a precedent. PMID:18178354

Venhuis, Bastiaan J; Blok-Tip, Leonore; de Kaste, Dries

2008-05-20

195

Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

2014-05-01

196

South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides--a review.  

PubMed

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary tuberculosis. Traditional medicinal uses of Athrixia phylicoides DC., or bush tea, another indigenous South African plant with very limited localised use as herbal tea, include treatment of boils, acne, infected wounds and infected throats. Currently rooibos and honeybush are produced for the herbal tea market, while bush tea has potential for commercialisation. A summary of the historical and modern uses, botany, distribution, industry and chemical composition of these herbal teas is presented. A comprehensive discussion of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo biological properties, required to expand their applications as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products, is included, with the main emphasis on rooibos. Future research needs include more comprehensive chemical characterisation of extracts, identification of marker compounds for extract standardisation and quality control, bioavailability and identification of bio-markers of dietary exposure, investigation of possible herb-drug interactions and plant improvement with regards to composition and bioactivity. PMID:18621121

Joubert, E; Gelderblom, W C A; Louw, A; de Beer, D

2008-10-28

197

PLANTS FROM THE TRADITIONAL MEDICAL SYSTEM OF THE NILGIRI TRIBES  

PubMed Central

This study highlights the medico-ethono botanical information interviewed from Nilgin tribes. The results of this study brought forth 41 medicinal applications involving 34 plants that have been found incorporated into their traditional therapeutic relam of herbal cure for various common ailments the observations are discussed in the light of cross-cltural perspective among nilgiri abongies. PMID:22556812

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.; Baburaj, D. Suresh

1997-01-01

198

TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

2014-01-01

199

The Japanese American Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

Fukei, Budd

200

Japanese Economy Rallies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Tuesday, March 20, 2001, Tokyo share prices rallied due to rumors that the Bank of Japan may try to boost the economy by buying stocks. By Wednesday morning, the Nikkei 225 index surged 7.5 percent after the Japanese yen had hit a 22-month low of 123.5 yen per dollar earlier this week. The national banks have been saddled with massive debts, estimated at 64 trillion yen or $521 billion and have been researching ways to revive their economy. According to Japanese economic ministers, the Japanese government will have a plan for dealing with the national banks' debt within the next six months. The Japanese government's new plan of investing into its banking system worries some US government officials who fear that the falling price of the yen will make Japanese imports cheaper and, therefore, more competitive with products made in the US.

Missner, Emily D.

201

Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Do not use products that contain these ingredients: Ephedrine is the main active ingredient of herbal ephedra, ... not allow the sale of medicines that contain ephedrine or ephedra. Ephedra can cause serious side effects, ...

202

Chinese and Japanese calendars (from a Japanese perspective)  

E-print Network

Chinese and Japanese calendars (from a Japanese perspective) (Denis Roegel) (roegel@loria.fr) (corrected version, 28 April 2008) Y Denis Roegel Chinese and Japanese calendars #12;Warning in advance! Denis Roegel Chinese and Japanese calendars #12;Mystery? ? [M]ost [Chinese] people do

Roegel, Denis

203

A REVIEW OF THE BIOACTIVITY OF SOUTH AFRICAN HERBAL TEAS: ROOIBOS (ASPALATHUS LINEARIS) AND HONEYBUSH (CYCLOPIA INTERMEDIA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcon...

204

Effect of a Herbal Formula Consisting of Leech, Dahuang and Chinese Cassia Bark on Diet-induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Atherosclerosis is a common condition with slow build-up of plaque on the inside wall of arteries. This study was undertaken to investigate whether a herbal formula consisting of three traditional Chinese medicines, including leech (Shuizhi, Whitmania pigra Whitman), Dahuang (medicinal rhubarb, Rheum palmatum L., Polygonaceae), and Chinese cassia bark ( Guipi, Cinnamomum

Heqing Huang; Peiqin Liu; Weihua Liu; Sha Tao; Zhi-Wei Zhou; Ziqing Hei; Chun Guang Li; Charlie Changli Xue; Min Huang; Shu-Feng Zhou

205

A novel herbal formulation in the management of diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Momordica charantia Linn. is traditionally used as a medicine for diabetes. The present investigation was aimed to formulate and evaluate transdermal patchesof Momordica charantia Linn. Materials and Methods: The transdermal films containing the herbal drug component fractionated fromethanolicextract of M. charantia fruits were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. The films were evaluated for folding endurance, thickness, weight variation, drug contents and in vitro diffusion studies and in vivo parameterslike acute and sub-acute antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats, biochemicalstudies, skin irritation in rats and stability studies. Result and discussion: The weightof transdermal patches of M. charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) and was found to be 0.03 gm.Thickness of patches of M. charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) was found to be satisfactory. The percentage release of active constituents from transdermal patches of M.charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) was found to be 47.59% in 10% hydroalcoholic phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at the end of 6 h.The transdermal route exhibited negligible skin irritation and in vivo results revealed that the patches successfully decrease the blood glucose level. Conclusion: From the results, we concluded that the well-known herbal drug M. charantia Linn. have been found to be effective for diabetes through modern pharmaceutical formulation techniques. PMID:23071947

Bhujbal, Santosh S; Hadawale, Sunita S; Kulkarni, Parag A; Bidkar, Jayant S; Thatte, Vidya A; Providencia, Clarine A; Yeola, Rupesh R

2011-01-01

206

Phenacetin isolated from Bursera grandifolia, a herbal remedy with antipyretic properties.  

PubMed

Bursera grandifolia and other related species have been used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico and other Latin American countries for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. From the chloroform extract of leaves of B. grandifolia, a substance was isolated and identified as phenacetin, a well known compound with widely tested analgesic and antipyretic properties. The structural identity of the compound was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with an authentic sample. PMID:19967994

Velázquez, Francisco; Manríquez, Ricardo; Maya, Leticia; Barrientos, Lucia; López-Dellamary, Fernando

2009-11-01

207

Analysis of lead content in herbal preparations in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia, the phase 3 registration for traditional medicines was implemented on 1 January 1992 under the Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulation 1984, emphasizing quality, efficacy and safety (including the detection of the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. Therefore, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, were analysed for lead content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 8% (eight products) possessed 10.64-20.72 ppm of lead, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. One of these products, M-Tongkat Ali (exhibited 10.64 +/-0.37 ppm of lead), was in fact already registered with the DCA Malaysia. The rest, Sukarno Tongkat Ali, Eurycoma Madu, Super Pill Tongkat Ali, Force Pill Tongkat Ali, Tender Pill Tongkat Ali, Super Pill Tongkat Ali Plus and Great Pill Tongkat Ali Plus have not registered with the DCA Malaysia and exhibited 12.24-20.72 ppm of lead. Although this study showed that only 92% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:12948085

Ang, H H; Lee, E L; Matsumoto, K

2003-08-01

208

Japanese resource dependence  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is an examination of Japan's strategic resource dependence and her reliance of the three raw materials-rich regions of Southeast Asia (ASEAN), the Persian Gulf, and Southern Africa. A discussion of the Japanese formula for securing resources in the less developed countries of the 'South' is included along with a brief overview of her onshore resource utilization in business/industry. The roles of direct foreign investment, official development assistance, energy conservation, and Japanese multinationalization are discussed.

Sim, R.W.

1982-03-01

209

Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

2013-01-01

210

Risks associated with the practice of traditional Chinese medicine: an Australian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the nature and frequency of adverse events that occur as a result of the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine) in Australia. Methods: Data on adverse events were obtained as part of a comprehensive survey of all occupational health groups, government-registered and unregistered, who practiced traditional Chinese medicine or 1 of its main

Alan Bensoussan; Stephen P Myers; Anne L Carlton

2000-01-01

211

Traditional phytotherapy remedies used in Southern Rwanda for the treatment of liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceLiver diseases represent a major health problem due to their complications and limited treatment possibilities. In Rwanda, given low accessibility to modern treatments, most people still rely on traditional medicinal plants. The symptomatology of many hepatic troubles (icterus) is evident for traditional healers who have a high probability of selecting efficient herbal medicines.

Marie-Jeanne Mukazayire; Védaste Minani; Christopher K. Ruffo; Elias Bizuru; Caroline Stévigny; Pierre Duez

212

The Development of Perceptual Grouping Biases in Infancy: A Japanese-English Cross-Linguistic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and…

Yoshida, Katherine A.; Iversen, John R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

2010-01-01

213

Japanese subcontracting in mainland China: a study of Toyota and Shanghai Koito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to better understand Japanese manufacturing in mainland China and clarify how traditional Japanese subcontracting has changed and is changing to fit the economic environment there. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article looks at the subcontracting practices of the Toyota Group along with the evolution of Shanghai Koito's operations in mainland China. The research for

Ren-Jye Liu; Jonathan Brookfield

2006-01-01

214

Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great. PMID:21756221

Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

2011-01-01

215

A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

2013-01-01

216

A survey of chinese medicinal herbal treatment for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

2013-01-01

217

Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations. PMID:19842218

Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

2009-01-01

218

Chinese Herbal Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122

Li, Xiu-Min

2014-01-01

219

Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future  

PubMed Central

Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

2010-01-01

220

Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... English SARS???????? - ??? (Japanese) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CT Scans CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan CT (??????????) ???? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations D Return to top Dementia Types of Dementia ?????? - ??? (Japanese) ... - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual ...

221

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2011-12-01

222

Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

223

The Japanese value of harmony and nursing ethics.  

PubMed

Harmony is one of the most fundamental Japanese values. It is derived from Confucianism and encompasses a state of mind, an action process and outcomes of the action. This article draws on research data and discusses Japanese nurses' perceptions of harmony as reflected in their everyday practice. The most important virtues for these nurses were reported as politeness and respect for other persons. The outcome from the nurses' harmonious practice, it is claimed, benefited patients and created peaceful, harmonious relationships for all. Because of the unique link between harmony and the location of interaction, the ideal 'workplace harmony' threatened some nurses' professional decision making. These nurses confused harmony with conformity by superficial agreement. The Japanese seniority system could be a major factor contributing to this problem. Ethics education that includes traditional values and concepts in Japanese culture is strongly urged. PMID:19671648

Konishi, Emiko; Yahiro, Michiko; Nakajima, Naoko; Ono, Miki

2009-09-01

224

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

2011-01-01

225

Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

226

[Study on reference extracts for quality assessment on traditional Chinese medicines based on akebiae saponin].  

PubMed

On the basis of analysis and summary of current application of reference extracts of traditional Chinese medicine, reference extracts for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines are divided into three classes by purpose: 1. herbal or volatile oil reference extracts for TLC identification of original herbal medicines or patent traditional Chinese medicines containing original herbal medicines. 2. component reference extracts for identification of certain components or positioning of chromatographic peaks. 3. reference extracts marked with component content to be determined for quantitative analysis on samples. For the third kind of reference extracts, akebiae saponin was taken as an example for preparation thought and methods in such aspects as preparation process, component identification and content analysis. PMID:23234140

Yuan, Xianda; Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

2012-08-01

227

Brain oxidative stress as basic target of antioxidant traditional oriental medicines.  

PubMed

Prevention and amelioration of Mibyou (sub-healthy condition) is the critical target for disease prevention including age-related diseases and cancer although the Mibyou condition is not yet pathologically defined. Since the oxidative stress is an underlying basic etiology associated with many diseases and aging, the psychologically induced oxidative stress, especially in the brain was supposed as one of the pathology of Mibyou. Several traditional herbal prescriptions applied for the brain disorder were found effective to prevent cerebral oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion and also under psychological distress produced by whiskers cut in mice. Shengmai San comprising three herbs, Panax ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicus and Schisandra chinensis is a traditional herbal medicine formula having a long history of using as a remedy and clinical prescription to treat coronal heart diseases. Multifunctional aspect of traditional herbal prescription was discussed in terms of preventing oxidative injury in the brain using Shengmai San as a typical prescription. PMID:18987970

Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-04-01

228

UCSF Japanese Prints Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at San Francisco has spent thirty years cultivating its collection of Japanese woodblock prints, and it has become an important part of the Library's East Asian Collection. The collection of 400 digitized prints concern Japanese health-related topics from the mid-19th century, and portray the gradual acceptance of Western medicine. Visitors can view the collection by theme or perform a search to find something more specific. The themes include "Contagious Diseases", which focuses on smallpox, measles and cholera, "Foreigners and Disease", which highlights the Japanese belief that foreigners carried diseases to Japan, and "Drug Advertisements". The "Drug Advertisements" are quite possibly the most beautiful drug ads in existence, and they feature elaborate images of drugs slaying disease, kabuki actors promoting a show sponsored by a children's medicine, Kindoru powder, and a detailed rendering of the interior of a drugstore, printed on a fan that was given out as a promotional item to advertise the business.

229

Revealing the secrets of composite helmets of ancient Japanese tradition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present novel results from a non-invasive examination of two kabuto (helmets), made in Japan in the 17th century. Neutron-imaging experiments (radiography and tomography), carried out at the ICON and NEUTRA beamlines, operating at the neutron source SINQ (CH), have allowed to determine the inner metal structure and manufacturing techniques of these beautiful examples of past technology, revealing some otherwise invisible details.

Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Fedrigo, A.; Williams, A.; Civita, F.; Scherillo, A.; Vontobel, P.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Zoppi, M.

2013-08-01

230

A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

Carlson, Scott

2008-01-01

231

Introduction to the pharmacoeconomics of herbal medicines.  

PubMed

This article explores the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of herbal medicines and assesses the extent to which this approach has been applied so far to these products. There seems to be no compelling need for pharmacoeconomic analyses of herbal over-the-counter medicines, but such analyses are certainly warranted for herbal prescription medicines that have a high level of reimbursement. Such preparations are used in Germany, in particular, where physicians prescribed ginkgo, hawthorn, St John's wort, horse-chestnut and saw palmetto to a value of more than DM50 million each in 1996. In our survey, only a single pharmacoeconomic study, of uncertain quality, was found on these 5 herbs, whereas several pharmacoeconomic reports on synthetic competitors were retrieved. The time has come to submit highly reimbursed herbal prescription medicines to the same rigorous pharmacoeconomic evaluations as their synthetic competitors. At present, such studies are particularly important for Germany, but in the future they may also become relevant for other countries, inside as well as outside Europe. PMID:11010600

De Smet, P A; Bonsel, G; Van der Kuy, A; Hekster, Y A; Pronk, M H; Brorens, M J; Lockefeer, J H; Nuijten, M J

2000-07-01

232

Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary\\/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary\\/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador)

Michael Smith; Heather S. Boon

1999-01-01

233

Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

Jenkins, Andrew P.

234

HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)  

PubMed Central

Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

2001-01-01

235

Verbs and Adjectives in Literary Japanese According to Suzuki Akira.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two views on the categorization of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives into form classes: the traditional view and a view set forth in the writing of Suzuki Akira. The fundamental issue here is the criterion for categorization. Is it the meaning of words, or is it their grammatical behavior that determines the system of…

Bedell, George

236

Japanese Negotiation through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and…

Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi

2012-01-01

237

Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…

Taylor, Yuki Io

2010-01-01

238

Perioperative considerations in the management of the patient taking herbal medicines.  

PubMed

The use of herbal products has recently increased dramatically in the United States. Patients are flocking to use these and many other complementary or alternative therapies. Perhaps disillusionment with managed care, loss of the traditional doctor-patient relationship, or simply increased access on store shelves, in the media, and on the Internet have all led to this increased use. As physicians, we are facing a paucity of information regarding the true dangers of these products, and there is virtually no information on how they may affect the perioperative milieu. The following review will discuss the limitations of Food and Drug Administration protection, and will review as well as provide an outline of the potential adverse reactions and side-effects that might affect anesthesia administration. To date, no double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have been carried out that specifically address herbal-anesthetic interactions or outcomes. PMID:17016323

Leak, J A

2000-06-01

239

203Japanese/Journalism and Mass Communications Japanese 311 (3)--Advanced Japanese I  

E-print Network

203Japanese/Journalism and Mass Communications Japanese 311 (3)--Advanced Japanese I Prerequisites and written responses to a variety of literary materials, including relevant journal and news- paper articles interest is expressed and departmental resources permit. JournAlISm AnD mASS CommunICAtIonS (Jour

Dresden, Gregory

240

Japanese Language Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents the philosophy, goals, and objectives, as well as the scope and sequence of Japanese language instruction at the secondary level for the public schools of Hawaii. The guide is intended to aid schools in developing their own instructional program and objectives. The six chapters of the guide treat the following points: (1)…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

241

‘Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

242

The Japanese academic profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical background to the emergence of the Japanese system of higher education is described, attention being drawn to the link established between national aims and those of the university and to the system of gakubatsu (a form of patronage for graduates of a particular university). Post World War II expansion brought junior colleges (tanki-daigaku) into the sphere of higher

Michiya Shimbori

1981-01-01

243

The Japanese Academic Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of Japanese higher education includes development of a patronage system that, despite the broadening of the system, still affects faculty careers. Institutional ranking limits professional mobility, and individuals may spend undergraduate, graduate, and faculty careers at the same institution. Teaching abroad is also severely limited.…

Shimbori, Michiya

1981-01-01

244

Animism inside Japanese animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animism and the Nature-friendly ideology are something like the air that exists naturally for the Japanese. The common values such as a sacredness of the Nature and the sweetness of the Nature for human beings also work as important themes in today\\

Hayao Miyazaki; Mikyung Bak

245

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology.  

PubMed

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053

Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

2005-01-01

246

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology  

PubMed Central

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053

Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

2005-01-01

247

The in vitro anti-plasmodial and in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of combinations of some medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria by the Meru community in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of herbal drugs as combinations has existed for centuries in several cultural systems. However, the safety and efficacy of such combinations have not been validated. In this study, the toxicity, anti-plasmodial and antimalarial efficacy of several herbal drug combinations were investigated. Lannea schweinfurthii, Turraea robusta and Sclerocarya birrea, used by traditional health practitioners in Meru community, were tested

J. W. Gathirwa; G. M. Rukunga; E. N. M. Njagi; S. A. Omar; P. G. Mwitari; A. N. Guantai; F. M. Tolo; C. W. Kimani; C. N. Muthaura; P. G. Kirira; T. N. Ndunda; G. Amalemba; G. M. Mungai; I. O. Ndiege

2008-01-01

248

Beneficial Effects of Rikkunshito, a Japanese Kampo Medicine, on Gastrointestinal Dysfunction and Anorexia in Combination with Western Drug: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Kampo medicines are traditional herbal medicines which have been approved for medicinal use by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare and are currently being used more and more, often in combination with Western drugs. Thus, the need for investigation of interactions between Kampo medicines and Western drugs is now widely recognized. Aim. To summarize the effects and drug interactions of rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine often prescribed for upper gastrointestinal disorders and anorexia. Methods. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data on rikkunshito. Results describing its effects were abstracted, with an emphasis on drug interactions. Results and Discussion. Rikkunshito ameliorates anorexia induced by anticancer drugs, improves quality of life scores, and can even prolong survival compared with monotherapy. Rikkunshito combined with proton pump inhibitor therapy is shown to be useful in the treatment of PPI-refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease patients and patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Rikkunshito reduces antidepressant-induced adverse events and improves quality of life without influencing antidepressant effects. Conclusions. Rikkunshito shows ameliorative effects on adverse reactions induced by various Western drugs and can achieve better results (e.g., anticancer drugs and proton pump inhibitor) without influencing the efficacy and bioavailability of Western drugs. PMID:24778703

2014-01-01

249

Treatment of asthma patients with herbal medicine TJ-96: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Alternative medicine use has increased at a remarkable pace all over the world in recent years. Although herbal medicine for the treatment of asthma is becoming the focus of public attention, randomized studies had not been performed, even in Eastern countries including Japan. This study was designed to investigate whether one of the Japanese government approved herbal complexes Saiboku-to (TJ-96) is effective for the treatment of atopic asthma, and to investigate whether this protective activity is associated with a reduction in eosinophilic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used. Subjects received 2.5 g of TJ-96 or placebo orally 3 times daily for 4 weeks and then, after a washout period of at least 4 weeks, crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. We assessed the effects of pretreatment with TJ-96 on bronchoconstriction precipitated by inhalation of methacholine. Furthermore, eosinophil counts and measurement of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were performed. After 4 weeks of treatment with TJ-96, values of PC20 -methacholine significantly improved in the treatment with TJ-96. Also, patients' symptoms, blood eosinophils, serum ECP, sputum eosinophils, and sputum ECP were significantly decreased. Our results suggest that TJ-96 has an antiinflammatory effect on bronchial eosinophilic infiltration. This study raises further interesting therapeutic possibilities and argues for further trials of new approaches to the treatment of asthma. PMID:12117049

Urata, Y; Yoshida, S; Irie, Y; Tanigawa, T; Amayasu, H; Nakabayashi, M; Akahori, K

2002-06-01

250

Native American Healing Traditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American healing practices requires helping professionals to have knowledge of Native American cultural belief systems about

Tarrell A. A. Portman; Michael T. Garrett

2006-01-01

251

Native American Healing Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

252

The quest for a herbal contraceptive.  

PubMed

An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support. PMID:8241931

Chaudhury, R R

1993-01-01

253

Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

Toh, Glenn

2013-01-01

254

Japanese international marketing strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 30 years, Japan has come from a second-rate status to the world?s economic giant, leading the world in electronics, automobiles, steel, shipbuilding and virtually anything else to which she has set her mind. The Japanese aim was and still is to be world-class suppliers of the major high volume items in the largest international markets. This focus

Alain Genestre; Paul Herbig; Alan T. Shao

1995-01-01

255

Alternative approach for mitigation of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity using herbal agents.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective and frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various malignancies. However, its clinical use is hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Investigations have proved that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity occurs through mechanisms other than those mediating its antitumor effect. This theory sheds light on the development of strategies for cardioprotection without altering therapeutic effectiveness of DOX. Bioactive plant constituents of dietary supplements, traditional herbs and foods with potential health benefits can play an important role in therapeutics. This manuscript is an exhaustive review and prospect of herbal and botanical agents against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with their proposed mechanisms. The activity of herbs evaluated against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has shown number of mechanisms including apoptosis, antioxidant potential, effect on mitochondria and calcium ion regulation etc. The manuscript reveals that most of the herbal drugs studied are effective through antioxidant mechanism and only few through other major pathways such as apoptosis and iron mediated pathways in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Only limited reports are available for the prevention of DOX-induced drug resistance using botanicals. Manuscript reports a number of constituents with evident potential in prevention of DOX cardiotoxicity e.g. proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, S-allylcysteine, reseveratrol, rutoside etc. In the present communication, several herbal drugs have also been discussed, which can act through mechanisms other than antioxidant and may be evaluated as a combination therapy for prevention of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in future. PMID:23342982

Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Ahmad, Wasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Sayeed

2014-01-01

256

Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

2007-01-01

257

Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes.  

PubMed

Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul A

2007-05-01

258

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

259

[Case of atopic dermatitis in infant treated with Chinese herbal medicines and nsaids ointment, which induced weight loss, electrolyte disturbance and hypoproteinemia].  

PubMed

We report here a 4-month-old girl with atopic dermatitis accompanied by weight loss, electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. She has suffered from eczema since one-month of age. Although she was treated with Chinese herbal medicines, including Syosaikotokakikyosekko, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto and Jumihaidokuto and ibuprofen ointment since three-month of age, she was referred to our hospital due to deteriorated eczema, severe diarrhea and failure to thrive. Laboratory examination revealed hyponatremia, hyperpotassemia, hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated levels of serum IL-18, TARC and fecal EDN. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for the prescribed Chinese herbal medicines. Discontinuation of these medicines and application of steroid ointments improved loose bowels and skin lesions as well as laboratory data. It is suggested that the application of inadequate ointment and Chinese herbal medicines exaggerated inflammation in the skin and the intestinal mucosa leading to electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Chinese herbal medicines are depicted as an additional therapy in Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis, whereas their indication to infants with atopic dermatitis should be carefully assessed. PMID:24129659

Yasutomi, Motoko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Murai, Hiroki; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Wada, Taizo; Ohshima, Yusei

2013-07-01

260

Directory of Japanese researchers available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Science Information System Japanese Scientific and Engineering Database Access Project, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Japan's NACSIS, has added four new databases to its free service, bringing the total number of available databases to 13.The new Directory of Japanese Researchers covers researchers affiliated with Japanese universities and academic research centers. Each researcher is listed by name, date of birth, organizational affiliation, education and degrees, memberships and awards, areas of specialization, and representative publications. Non-Japanese researchers are also covered.

261

Lead contamination in Eugenia dyeriana herbal preparations from different commercial sources in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The Drug Control Authority (DCA) of Malaysia implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January, 1992. A total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Eugenia dyeriana, either single or combined preparations (more than one medicinal plant), were analyzed for the presence of lead contamination, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These samples were bought from different commercial sources in the Malaysian market, after performing a simple random sampling. Results showed that 22% of the above products failed to comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Although this study showed that 78% of the products fully complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to lead, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:18328612

Ang, H H

2008-06-01

262

Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

2012-01-01

263

Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

2013-01-01

264

A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals.  

PubMed

We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of action of each of the above, a combination is introduced to overcome several physiological or induced factors of ED. This study was conducted to show an enhancement of erectile function in male rats. The animals were observed for 3 h after each administration for penile erection, genital grooming and copulation mounting, and the penile erection index (PEI) was calculated. The maximum response was observed at the concentration of 7.5 mg kg(-1) of Etana. At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats. Clinical studies are warranted for evaluating Etana's significance in ED. PMID:19494825

Qinna, N; Taha, H; Matalka, K Z; Badwan, A A

2009-01-01

265

Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of these species. In addition, cytoxicity assays, to test the anticancer activity of methanolic extracts of Alnus incana and Shepherdia canadensis against mouse mastocytoma cells, were shown to be positive. PMID:8771456

Ritch-Krc, E M; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-07-01

266

Chips and Qi: microcomponent-based analysis in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years or so Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been subject to intensive basic and clinical research. Although the effectiveness and remarkable safety of TCM have been documented after controlled clinical studies, there are several herbal and animal parts that are toxic or difficult to identify. DNA polymorphism-based assays have recently been developed for the identification of

Maria Carles; Thomas Lee; Shanti Moganti; Ralf Lenigk; Karl W. K. Tsim; Nancy Y. Ip; I-Ming Hsing; Nikolaus J. Sucher

2001-01-01

267

TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AMONG THE RURAL FOLK OF MORENA DISTRICT MADHYA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

The present study carried out in the rural areas of Morena district of Madhya Pradesh, concerns the traditional use of indigenous herbal medicines against various diseases. Thirty medicinal plants have been mentioned along with their botanical name, families, local name, locality, medicinal use and field numbers. PMID:22556602

Sikarwar, R.L.S.; Kaushik, J.P.

1992-01-01

268

An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

2015-01-01

269

Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

2014-01-01

270

Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

2010-01-01

271

Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers  

PubMed Central

We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions. PMID:25191281

Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

272

Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

2006-01-01

273

Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicines include a range of pharmacologically active compounds: in some cases it is not well understood which ingredients are important for a therapeutic effect. The supporters of herbal medicine believe that isolated ingredients in the majority of cases have weaker clinical effects than whole plant extract, a claim that would obviously require proof in each case. Generalizations about the

Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki

274

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbs have been used as medical treatments since the beginning of civilization and some derivatives (eg, aspirin, reserpine, and digitalis) have become mainstays of hu- man pharmacotherapy. For cardiovascular diseases, herbal treatments have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, ath- erosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency, and arrhythmia. However, many herbal remedies used today have

Nick H. Mashour; George I. Lin; William H. Frishman

1998-01-01

275

Honeybush Tea–A Rediscovered Indigenous South African Herbal Tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclopia species are used to manufacture a herbal infusion called honeybush tea. The pleasant sweet, honey-like flavour and anecdotal evidence of the beneficial qualities of honeybush tea consumption make this herbal infusion a healthy alternative to coffee and black tea. Honeybush tea has been known to South Africans for centuries and, until recently, was processed only on a small-scale, mainly

J. du Toit; E. Joubert; T. J. Britz

1998-01-01

276

Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

Kimura, Yukiko

277

Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Japanese knotweed  

E-print Network

. Leaves Alternate, broadly egg- shaped, sometimes heart-shaped with a squared leaf base. Stems Stout knotweed ocrea. Japanese knotweed foliage and flowers. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12. Schmidt) Differs by having a greater height and heart-shaped leaf base. Japanese knotweed foliage

278

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

279

The Japanese University in Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese education has been a focus of comparative studies for the past 20 years. Many scholars have attributed the economic success of this industrialized society to a highly literate and well-educated population. Recent studies, however, have tended to be more critical of, in particular, Japanese higher education (HE). Indeed, most universities…

Amano, Ikuo; Poole, Gregory S.

2005-01-01

280

Ovotestis in a Japanese Medaka  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed ovotestis in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes used to study the effects of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on gonadal differentiation. Bromodichloromethane, a trihalomethane, is a drinking water disinfection byproduct. Seven-day-old Japanese medaka (n = 30 fish per treatment) were exposed for 10 d to nominal concentrations of BDCM (10 or 25 mg\\/L) in dimethyl sulfoxide, a carrier solvent control, or a

Wade Getsfrid; Arunthavarani Thiyagarajah; William R. Hartley; Octavia Conerly

2004-01-01

281

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0002-11-30

282

Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612. PMID:24893603

Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

283

Advances in herbal medicine for treatment of ischemic brain injury.  

PubMed

Ischemic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and has attracted a lot of attention in the field of drug discovery. Cerebral ischemia is a complex pathological process involving a series of mechanisms, including generation of free radicals, oxidative stress, disruption of the membrane function, release of neurotransmitters and apoptosis. Thrombolytic therapy is the most effective therapeutic strategy, but the benefits are far from being absolute. Increased attention in the field of drug discovery has been focused on using natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs for neuroprotection, which appears to be a promising therapeutic option for cerebral ischemia with minimal systemic adverse effects that could limit their long term use. The scenario calls for extensive investigations which can result in the development of lead molecules for neuroprotection in the future. In this context, the present review focuses on possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of herbal drugs in patients with cerebral ischemic injury. Natural compounds have been demonstrated to have neurofunctional regulatory actions with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, calcium antagonizing and anti-apoptotic activities. Among the several leads obtained from plant sources as potential neuroprotective agents, resveratrol, EGb761, curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate have shown significant therapeutic benefits in cerebral ischemic conditions. However, ligustilide, tanshinone, scutellarin and shikonin are the few lead molecules which are under investigation for treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25230523

Ghosh, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Rituparna; Bhat, Zulfiqar A; Mandal, Vivekananda; Bachar, Sitesh C; Nima, Namsa D; Sunday, Otimenyin O; Mandal, Subhash C

2014-07-01

284

Herbal and complementary medicine in dermatology.  

PubMed

This article is a description of how I have integrated Complementary Medicine into the practice of dermatology over the past 2 decades. It emphasizes observing the principles of the system being used, such as the herbal concept of the synergy of the entire plant extract. Examples discussed include the use of flavonoids to protect the liver and capillaries. Herbs and techniques for reducing the inflammatory response, as well as for enhancing immunity, are given. The concept of homeopathy and a few remedies to use in office practice are discussed. Finally, a few methods to complement the treatment of melanoma are presented. PMID:15207314

Dattner, Alan M

2004-07-01

285

[Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].  

PubMed

The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model. PMID:18323151

Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

2007-01-01

286

Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

287

Information Systems for the Museum of Japanese History, Archaeology and Folklore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General idea and outline of museums of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore are introduced, and the relationship between exhibits and information in them is described. Then the information systems of these museums are explained in some detail. As an example, the author describes the information systems for the museum of Japanese history, archaeology and folklore by comparing the computer system with the traditional manual system. Japanese language processing and image handling derived from the systems are also described. Significance and problems of nationwide information network linking these museums each other, and problems of staffs in the information sections are mentioned.

Terui, Takehiko

288

Herbal medicine development: a plea for a rigorous scientific foundation.  

PubMed

Science, including rigorous basic scientific research and rigorous clinical research, must underlie both the development and the clinical use of herbal medicines. Yet almost none of the hundreds or thousands of articles that are published each year on some aspect of herbal medicines, adheres to 3 simple but profound scientific principles must underlie all of herbal drug development or clinical use. Three fundamental principles that should underlie everyone's thinking about the development and/or clinical use of any herbal medicine. (1) There must be standardization and regulation (rigorously enforced) of the product being studied or being used clinically. (2) There must be scientific proof of a beneficial clinical effect for something of value to the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. (3) There must be scientific proof of safety (acceptable toxicity) for the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. These fundamental principles of science have ramifications for both the scientist and the clinician. It is critically important that both the investigator and the prescriber know exactly what is in the studied or recommended product and how effective and toxic it is. We will find new and useful drugs from natural sources. However, we will have to learn how to study herbal medicines rigorously, and we will have to try to convince the believers in herbal medicines of the wisdom and even the necessity of a rigorous scientific approach to herbal medicine development. Both biomedical science and practicing physicians must enthusiastically accept the responsibility for searching for truth in the discovery and development of new herbal medicines, in the truthful teaching about herbal medicines from a scientific perspective, and in the scientifically proven clinical use of herbal medicines. PMID:22964559

Lietman, Paul S

2012-09-01

289

Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Six herbal infusions used worldwide (Matricaria chamomilla, Tilia cordata, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Uncaria tomentosa and Valeriana officinalis) were assayed for anti-genotoxicity using the Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. All these infusions are traditionally used for various medical purposes, including anti-inflammatory processes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidative genotoxicant to test the anti-genotoxic potency of the medicinal infusions. None of these infusions showed a significant genotoxicity, quite the reverse they were able to behave as desmutagens, detoxifying the mutagen hydrogen peroxide. The phenolic content of such herbal infusions is argued to be the possible scavenger of reactive oxygen radicals produced by the hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16005256

Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Campos-Sánchez, Juan; Analla, Mohamed; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles

2005-08-01

290

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies

Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa

2009-01-01

291

An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.  

PubMed

Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783

Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

2013-09-01

292

Herbal therapy: what every facial plastic surgeon must know.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine (phytomedicine) uses remedies possessing significant pharmacological activity and, consequently, potential adverse effects and drug interactions. The explosion in sales of herbal therapies has brought many products to the marketplace that do not conform to the standards of safety and efficacy that physicians and patients expect. Unfortunately, few surgeons question patients regarding their use of herbal medicines, and 70% of patients do not reveal their use of herbal medicines to their physicians and pharmacists. All surgeons should question patients about the use of the following common herbal remedies, which may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures: feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, and Asian ginseng. Physicians should exercise caution in prescribing retinoids or advising skin resurfacing in patients using St John's wort, which poses a risk of photosensitivity reaction. Several herbal medicines, such as aloe vera gel, contain pharmacologically active ingredients that may aid in wound healing. Practitioners who wish to recommend herbal medicines to patients should counsel them that products labeled as supplements have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration and that no guarantee of product quality can be made. PMID:11368667

Pribitkin, E D; Boger, G

2001-01-01

293

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

294

Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

Shin, Jung Cheol

2012-01-01

295

New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development  

PubMed Central

Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

296

Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis activity of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts of 24 herbs traditionally used as curing ischemic heart disease in clinic in China were screened for their in vitro angiogenic activity, another twenty-four traditionally used as anti-tumor or anti-inflammatory remedies in China were screened for their in vitro anti-angiogenic activity. The activity of angiogenesis was determined by quantitation of vessels on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and cell proliferation of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Among the herbal extracts examined, the aqueous extracts of Epimedium sagittatum, Trichosanthes kirilowii and Dalbergia odorifera showed the strong angiogenetic activity both in CAM and BAECs models; and the aqueous extracts of Berberis paraspecta, Catharanthus roseus, Coptis chinensis, Taxus chinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum and Scrophularia ningpoensis elicited significant inhibition at a concentration of 1g dry herb /ml. PMID:15010258

Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Zhengui; Weng, Yinqi; Yu, Yijun; Zhang, Daifu; Fan, Weihu; Dai, Ruihong; Hu, Zhibi

2004-04-01

297

Japanese viral encephalitis  

PubMed Central

One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

2002-01-01

298

Evaluation of Herbal Toothpowder For Its Piperine Content  

PubMed Central

Objective - A well-known herbal toothpowder was evaluated & standardized for its Piperine contents. Methods-The formulation was subjected for physical constants like Moisture content, Ash value, and Extractive values in various solvents including Petroleum ether, Ethanol and Water. Thin layer chromatography and spectroscopic studies was carried out for the qualitative analysis of Piperine content. Results & Conclusion _Present study reveals the presence of Piperine in toothpowder. As the present scenario is moving towards the herbal medicines, these evaluation parameter will further help to set up a standard validation process for herbal formulations. PMID:22557166

Gupta, Megha; Avhale, Manish L; Nayak, S.

2005-01-01

299

Study on beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of herbal yogurt.  

PubMed

Different types of herbal yogurts were developed by mixing standardized milk with pretreated herbs, namely tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum), pudina leaf (Mentha arvensis) and coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum), with leaves separately and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the strains of lactic starter cultures---Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIM 2903) and Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIM 2083)-followed by incubation at 40 degrees C for 6 h. The beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of the abovementioned herbal yogurts was determined and interestingly noted to exhibit higher enzymatic activity compared with the control yogurt (without any herbs). Among all herbal yogurts, tulsi yogurt had the maximum beta-galactosidase activity. PMID:17852503

Chowdhury, Banani Ray; Chakraborty, Runu; Raychaudhuri, Utpal

2008-03-01

300

Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (1–42 days). Group 2–10 chicks were fed with basal diet containing cadmium at 100 ppm from day 1 to day 28 (4 weeks). From 29th to 42nd day (2 weeks), basal diet alone was fed to group 2 chicks which acted as toxic control and group 3–10 birds were fed with feed containing 0.1% powder of W. somnifera, O. sanctum, Aspe. recemosus, An. paniculata, Asph. panjabinum (Shilajith), G. sylvestre, S. platensis, and P. ginseng, respectively. Body weight gain, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), liver functional markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), kidney functional markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and concentration of cadmium in liver and kidney were investigated. Results: Body weight gains were significantly decreased in birds of groups 2–10 compared to group 1 at the end of 4th week. Supplementation of various medicinal herbs in feed after 4th week significantly improved the body weight gain compared to that in group 2 chicks. The increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in cadmium intoxicated birds were significantly reversed by the above-said herbs. The liver and kidney functional markers were also restored to normal levels. Highest concentration of cadmium was found accumulated in kidney, followed by liver in birds of group 2. Herbal supplementation in groups 3–10 prevented Cd bioaccumulation which was most evident in liver, followed by kidney. Conclusions: Administration of herbal adaptogens at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of Cd and reversed the Cd-induced oxidative tissue damage. PMID:21455421

Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, D. Srinivas; Prasadini, P. Prabhu

2011-01-01

301

A review of the bioactivity of South African herbal teas: rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia).  

PubMed

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin. The principal polyphenols in honeybush include the xanthone mangiferin and the flavonones hesperitin and isokuranetin. Despite their divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions, rooibos and honeybush share potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in vitro. Animal model studies indicate both herbal teas possess potent antioxidant, immune-modulating and chemopreventive actions. However, human studies of rooibos are limited and of honeybush are absent. No adverse effects of rooibos or honeybush consumption as tisanes have been reported. PMID:16927447

McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2007-01-01

302

Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

Abe, Keiko

2004-01-01

303

Contribution of traditional medicine in the healthcare system of the Middle East.  

PubMed

Unani medicine or Islamic medicine is one of the main healing systems in the world, which was set up by the Islamic physicians in the Middle East about a thousand years ago based on the teachings of Hippocrates and Galen. This medical system had been practiced widespread in the world including Europe until the 16th century and contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine. Despite the remarkable advancements in orthodox medicine, the traditional medicine has always been practiced in the Middle East communities. Due to cultural beliefs and practices, the Middle East communities have a very rich tradition in the utilization of herbal remedies as well as diverse spiritual techniques for treating various disorders. Traditional practitioners have become the main component of disease management in the Middle East and they have used herbal remedies along with spiritual techniques for the treatment of ailments mainly based on the Unani medicine. PMID:21390574

Yesilada, Erdem

2011-02-01

304

Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

2013-01-01

305

Immunostimulatory lipid nanoparticles from herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Reproducibility is an important issue in biological characterization of drug candidates and natural products. It is not uncommon to encounter cases in which supposedly the same sample exhibits very different biological activities. During our characterization of macrophage-stimulatory lipids from herbal medicine, it was found that the potency of these lipids could vary substantially from experiment to experiment. Further analysis of this reproducibility issue led to the discovery of solvent-dependent nanoparticle formation by these lipids. While larger nanoparticles (approximately 100 nm) of these lipids showed modest macrophage-stimulatory activity, smaller nanoparticles (<10 nm) of the same lipids exhibited substantially higher potency. Thus, the study revealed an unexpected link between nanoparticle formation and macrophage-stimulatory activity of plant lipids. Although nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the context of vehicles for drug delivery, our finding indicates that drugs themselves can form nanoassemblies, and their biological properties may be altered by the way they assemble. PMID:24495243

Hasson, Tal H; Takaoka, Anna; de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi; Smeureanu, Gabriela; Drain, Charles M; Kawamura, Akira

2014-04-01

306

Retinopathy induced by drugs and herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Retina is the part of the eye suffering most damage from drugs. It is made up of a thin nervous membrane that covers the eye-ball internally, within the thickness of which three types of cells are ordered. In this paper we describe the drugs that are responsible for retinal side effects. Most commonly recognized drugs-induced retinopathy have a particular affinity for the retinal pigmented epithelium: antimalarials (quinine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine), phenothiazines, indomethacin, ethambutol, and desferrioxamine. Attention is especially focused on drugs more recently suspected of adverse reactions in the retina: vigabatrin, gabapentin, sildenafil, tamoxifen, isotretinoin, interferon, and omeprazole. Moreover, we referred some reports of retinopathy by herbal medicines and nutritional supplements (canthaxanthine, Gingko biloba L. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) This review is based on data published in scientific journals indexed by the PubMed and Medline databases. The last search of the literature was conducted in April 2008. PMID:19024212

Nencini, C; Barberi, L; Runci, F M; Micheli, L

2008-01-01

307

Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

2011-01-01

308

The Morikami Museum & Japanese Gardens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Palm Beach County in Southern Florida is the home of the Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens. For armchair travelers, the quickest way there is via their fine website, where some of their exhibitions and collections can be found. The "Collection" tab at the top of the page will take the visitor to over 1000 images of items in their collection, most of which are from the mid 19th century to the late 20th century, and are articles of daily Japanese life, such as bottles, door pulls, dolls, and foot warmers. Visitors should not miss the "Japanese Gardens" section of the website, as there is a photo gallery of the six gardens on the museums grounds. The introduction to the gardens state that the Journal of Japanese Gardening ranks these gardens eighth out of over 300 Japanese gardens outside of Japan. There is a PDF of a "Garden Guide" available in English and Spanish, and the link to all of the photos of the gardens is in the middle of the "Japanese Gardens" page. [KMG

309

Internet websites selling herbal treatments for erectile dysfunction.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the safety and reliability of internet websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes for Viagra. Using keywords 'Herbal' and 'Viagra', websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes were identified. The top 50 sequential sites were assessed for safety and reliability against the Health on the Net (HON) criteria. Medically trained staff provided information in only 21% of the sites yet just 24% stated that the information was not a replacement for medical advice. No sites warned patients about erectile dysfunction (ED)-associated cardiovascular disease. In all, 88 and 70% of sites indicated drug efficacy and ingredients but only 36 and 21% provided contraindications and side effects, respectively. All sites fell short of the HON requirements. In conclusion, acquiring medical information and herbal substitutes for ED from the internet is convenient and easy. However, patients should be cautious as safety and reliability of this approach is poor. PMID:15510178

Thurairaja, R; Barrass, B; Persad, R

2005-01-01

310

Use of herbal remedies among patients undergoing hemodialysis.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, and associated factors for the use of herbal remedies in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred participants were selected by stratified sampling and were systematically interviewed. One hundred and twenty-six patients (63%) had used herbal remedies some time since their initiation of dialysis treatment. The users of herbal remedies had a significantly older age than nonusers, but no other significant differences were observed. The most prevalent complaints that led to herbal remedies use were gastroenterological complaints, flushing, and excessive thirst. Cichorium intybus, Borage officinalis, Mentha longifolia, and Matricaria recutita were the most prevalently used herbs in our patients. More study should be done on safety and efficacy of these herbs for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24241097

Roozbeh, Jamshid; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Heydari, Mojtaba

2013-11-01

311

POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

Said, Hakim Mohammed

1984-01-01

312

Antibacterial screening of traditional herbal plants and standard antibiotics against some human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent. PMID:24191314

Awan, Uzma Azeem; Andleeb, Saiqa; Kiyani, Ayesha; Zafar, Atiya; Shafique, Irsa; Riaz, Nazia; Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Uddin, Hafeez

2013-11-01

313

Inhibition of HIV1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is the current HIV\\/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV\\/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV\\/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90%

In-Woo Park; Changri Han; Xiaoping Song; Linden A Green; Ting Wang; Ying Liu; Changchun Cen; Xinming Song; Biao Yang; Guangying Chen; Johnny J He

2009-01-01

314

Natural therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases from a traditional herbal medicine Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuroinflammation, manifested by over-production of nitric oxide (NO) by microglial cells. Now there still lack effective treatment and prevention for the neurodegenerative diseases. Concerning neuroinflammation mediated by microglia cell, bioactivity-guided phytochemical research of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre was performed in this study. A new chlorinated flavonoid, 2',6'-dichlore-3', 5'-dimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone (1) was identified together with 29 known compounds, including flavonoids (compounds 2-17), isoflavonoids (compounds 18-23), chalcones (compounds 24-25), flavonones (compounds 26-27), triterpenes (28-29) and alkaloid (30) from the effective dichloride methane extract of dry stem of P. pinnata (L.) Pierre. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical and spectral methods. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities were assayed in BV-2 cells by assessing LPS-induced NO production. Then pongaglabol methyl ether (2), lonchocarpin (24) and glabrachromene II (25) were selected as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases because of their significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities. Furthermore, the characteristics of structure type existing in P. pinnata (L.) Pierre and brief SAR were summarized, respectively. PMID:25466192

Li, Jiayuan; Jiang, Zhe; Li, Xuezheng; Hou, Yue; Liu, Fen; Li, Ning; Liu, Xia; Yang, Lihua; Chen, Gang

2014-11-11

315

Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna  

PubMed Central

Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after it has created blisters, cold drugs are suitable for the first goal and dry drugs with moderate in cold and hot qualities are better for second goal, this study reviewed remedies for burn wounds in Canon.

Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

2013-01-01

316

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

317

Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México  

PubMed Central

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

2008-01-01

318

Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies  

PubMed Central

Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24716122

Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

2012-01-01

319

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-02-15

320

Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.  

PubMed

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples. PMID:21210215

Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

2011-10-01

321

The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration. PMID:17173107

dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patrícia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida

2006-01-01

322

Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China and other Asian countries for long time. We conducted this review to systematically summarize the evidences of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the prevention and treatment of recurrent miscarriage in randomized trials, and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM compared with placebo or conventional medicine. Methods We searched studies in PubMed, ClinicalTrials, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed and VIP databases until December, 2012. Randomized trials on CHM alone or in combination with conventional medicine for recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo or conventional medicine were included. We evaluated the methodological quality of each included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 41 RCTs (3660 participants) were included. The majority of trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. CHM used alone or plus progesterone-based treatment showed superior effect over progesterone-based treatment in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state (measured by B ultrasound). However, there is substantial heterogeneity within each subgroup analysis (I2 ranging from 35% to 71%). CHM plus progesterone and hCG-based treatment was superior to progesterone and hCG-based treatment in improving the embryonic developmental state, but not live birth rate. No severe adverse events were reported in relation to CHM. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines or in combination with progesterone-based treatment demonstrated potentially beneficial effect in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state for women with recurrent miscarriage. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the herbal interventions and limitations of methodological quality of the included trials, it is not possible to recommend any specific CHMs for recurrent miscarriage. Further rigorous clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM. PMID:24245671

2013-01-01

323

Japanese Balloon Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conducts domestic balloon campaigns at Taiki Aerospace Research Field (TARF) in Hokkaido since 2008. The ballooning at TARF becomes stable after four year operation. Because the field faces to the Pacific Ocean, heavy balloons and payloads can be launched safely using a very unique sliding launcher. Recoveries at the inshore along the Tokachi coast can be done very quickly and smoothly. Unfortunately, flight opportunities are recently limited due to unfriendly weather condition. Unstable Jet stream also prevents us to have so-called `boomerang flight' to achieve long flight duration more than several hours. Six balloon-borne experiments were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Three of them were demonstrations of challenges of space engineering, two were in-situ atmospheric observation, and one was the technical flight of new high-resolution ?-ray telescope. In addition to these flights, we carried out two launches for next generation balloons: one for Tawara-shaped superpressure balloon and the other for ultra-thin high-altitude balloon. In this paper, recent activities of the Japanese scientific balloon program will be introduced. On-going development of the balloon system will also be presented.

Yoshida, Tetsuya; Fuke, Hideyuki; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Iijima, Issei; Izutsu, Naoki; Kato, Yoichi; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Mizuta, Eiichi; Sato, Takatoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Saito, Yoshitaka; Kakehashi, Yuya

2012-07-01

324

A Comparison of the ancient use of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known medicinal herb native to China and Korea, and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. However, there is different evidence of ginseng efficacy between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. In TCM, ginseng is a highly valued herb and has been applied

2008-01-01

325

TCMGeneDIT: a database for associated traditional Chinese medicine, gene and disease information using text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complementary and alternative medical system in Western countries, has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in East Asian countries. In recent years, many herbal medicines were found to exhibit a variety of effects through regulating a wide range of gene expressions or protein activities. As available TCM data continue to

Yu-Ching Fang; Hsuan-Cheng Huang; Hsin-Hsi Chen; Hsueh-Fen Juan

2008-01-01

326

Ethno-pharmacological screening of Vernonia amygdalina and Cleome gynandra traditionally used in Childbirth in Western Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 80% of pregnant women in Western Uganda deliver at home with the assistance of mainly traditional birth attendants who use herbal remedies to complete the processes of child bearing in the rural communities. In Uganda, complications resulting from reproductive health related conditions such as maternal mortality and morbidity (20.4%) account for number one problem among the disease burden followed

Maud Kamatenesi-Mugisha; Hannington Oryem-Origa

327

Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological

Jun-ling Sun; Yuan-liang Hu; De-yun Wang; Bao-kang Zhang; Jia-guo Liu

2006-01-01

328

Inhibition of the p38 and PKA signaling pathways is associated with the anti-melanogenic activity of Qian-wang-hong-bai-san, a Chinese herbal formula, in B16 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceQian-wang-hong-bai-san (QW), a Chinese herbal formula, is traditionally used as a skin whitening agent in China. Aim of study: In our previous screening assays, QW was identified as an effective tyrosinase inhibitor. In this study, we aim to investigate the underlying mechanism of the anti-melanogenic effect of QW in B16 cells.

Ting-Fung Tsang; Yan Ye; William Chi-Shing Tai; Gui-Xin Chou; Alexander Kai-Man Leung; Zhi-Ling Yu; Wen-Luan Wendy Hsiao

329

Color constancy in Japanese animation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

2006-01-01

330

Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

2010-01-01

331

Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations.  

PubMed

Uva-ursi folium (bearberry leaf) has been traditionally used to treat symptoms of lower urinary tract infections. The most representative constituent of this herbal drug is arbutin that is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes hepatic conjugation to form hydroquinone (HQ) conjugates. As free HQ is crucial for the safety of the herbal preparation, we reviewed published and unpublished experimental and human studies to clarify some outdated assumptions and to support the safety of therapeutic daily doses of Uva-ursi folium extract. Specifically, data on pharmacokinetics and the human exposure of arbutin and HQ were reviewed. A therapeutic recommended human daily dose of bearberry leaf extract (420 mg hydroquinone derivatives calculated as anhydrous arbutin) liberates free HQ in urine at a maximum exposure level of 11 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d. By means of an experimental no observed effect level value, a permitted daily exposure dose below which there is a negligible risk to human health was estimated for free HQ (100 µg/kg bw/d). Dietary sources of arbutin/HQ that are regularly consumed long term by humans generate comparable free HQ exposure levels. There is no direct evidence, regarding human data, supporting the fact that free HQ causes convulsion, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or promotion of tumors in humans. Free HQ had no activity promoting pancreatic, bladder, stomach, or liver carcinogenesis. In conclusion, under the recommended use conditions Uva-ursi folium is a safe therapeutic option for treating lower urinary tract infections. PMID:24296864

de Arriba, Susana Garcia; Naser, Belal; Nolte, Klaus-Ulrich

2013-01-01

332

In vivo effects of Faizol Ubat Batuk, a herbal product on aminopyrine metabolism in rat hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicines, in particular herbal products, have been used abundantly over the years in curing several diseases. Pharmacological interactions of herbal products with modern drugs, however, remain to some extent unknown. Herein, we examined whether co-administration of Faizol Ubat Batuk (FUB), a mixture of aqueous extract of different plants, modifies the metabolism of aminopyrine, a conventional analgesic drug, in rat liver. We used rat hepatocytes outfitted by collagenase perfusion technique. Determination of aminopyrine n-demethylase activity was performed using the Nash colorimetric method, by measuring the amount of formaldehyde produced. Compared to control treatment, FUB significantly increased the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in healthy adult male rats. In contrast, the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in adult female rats was decreased. Besides, a biphasic effect in n-demethylase activity was observed in young male rats treated with FUB. In a subsequent experiment, FUB did not change the metabolism of aminopyrine in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic adult male rats. In conclusion, administration of FUB could affect phase I aminopyrine metabolism in rat heptocytes. In addition, the effects of FUB on hepatic n-demethylase activity were gender and disease dependent. PMID:21977110

Taher, Yousef A.; Hussin, Abas Hj

2011-01-01

333

Toxic metal contamination in Artemisia annua L. herbal preparations from different commercial sources in China.  

PubMed

Toxic metal contamination was investigated in Artemisia annua L. herbal preparations from different commercial sources in China. Measurable amounts of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and aluminium (Al) were detected in commercial dried Artemisia annua L., Massa Medicata Fermentata (Shenqu), Semen Sojae Praeparatum, medicated leaven (Jianqu) and an oral dose of Zhongganling-pian by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A total of 69 samples were collected from different sources in the Chinese market. Toxic metals contents in the investigated samples were found at different levels. Results showed that 94.20, 100, 97.10, 91.30 and 94.20% of the products fully complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in China pertaining to Cu, Pb, As, Hg and Cd, respectively. Although toxic metal concentrations measured in this study do not pose a serious health risk, they do affect the quality of herbal preparations. Moreover, on the basis of the results obtained in the present work, it is concluded that the present techniques are suitable for the routine determination of toxic metals concentration in various pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:21293935

Wu, Jianwei; Tan, Yinfeng; Wang, Yuqi; Xu, Rong

2011-07-01

334

Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.  

PubMed

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

335

Mycetoma Herbal Treatment: The Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan Experience  

PubMed Central

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

336

Stars and cosmology in Japanese mythology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For long time, it was believed that Japanese since ancient times were not so interested in stars. But the examinations of ancient texts have revealed that there were some descriptions of stars and constellations in Japanese mythology. This shows that Japanese also had interest in stars and created the mythology of constellations like other peoples. In this paper, the author explains and analyzes the cosmology in acient Japanese myths.

Katsumata, T.

337

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos  

E-print Network

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Gender and Language in Japanese Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relation between gender and language use in Japanese preschool children. Gender-based differences in Japanese include phonological, lexical, and morphosyntactical differences, as well as differences in conversational style. Data come from monthly naturalistic observations of 24 monolingual Japanese boys and girls engaged in same-sex…

Nakamura, Keiko

2001-01-01

339

Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

Silva, David J., Ed.

340

Beverage and culture. "Zhourat", a multivariate analysis of the globalization of a herbal tea from the Middle East.  

PubMed

The "Zhourat" herbal tea consists of a blend of wild flowers, herbs, leaves and fruits and is a typical beverage of Lebanon and Syria. We aim to evaluate cultural significance of "Zhourat", to determine cultural standards for its formulation including key ingredients and to determine acceptable variability levels in terms of number of ingredients and their relative proportions, in summary what is "Zhourat" and what is not "Zhourat" from an ethnobotanical perspective. For this purpose we develop a novel methodology to describe and analyse patterns of variation of traditional multi-ingredient herbal formulations, beverages and teas and to identify key ingredients, which are characteristics of a particular culture and region and to interpret health claims for the mixture. Factor analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to display similarities between samples whereas salience index was used to determine the main ingredients which could help to distinguish a standard traditional blend from a global market-addressed formulation. The study revealed 77 main ingredients belonging to 71 different species of vascular plants. In spite of the "Zhourat's" highly variable content, the salience analysis resulted in a determined set of key botanical components including Rosa x damascena Herrm., Althaea damascena Mouterde, Matricaria chamomilla L., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Zea mays L. and Elaeagnus angustifolia L. The major health claims for "Zhourat" as digestive, sedative and for respiratory problems are culturally coherent with the analysis of the traditional medicinal properties uses of its ingredients. PMID:24703931

Obón, Concepción; Rivera, Diego; Alcaraz, Francisco; Attieh, Latiffa

2014-08-01

341

The Effect of "Origami" Practice on Size Comparison Strategy among Young Japanese and American Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the effect of folding traditional origami forms on size comparison strategies among 4- to 6-year-old Japanese and American children. Found that girls in particular improved superimposition skills through practice, and children's use of superimposition strategies rather than less effective strategies also increased. (JPB)

Yuzawa, Masamichi; Bart, William M.; Kinne, Lenore J.; Sukemune, Seisoh; Kataoka, Minako

1999-01-01

342

A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

2014-01-01

343

A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic) Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

2014-01-01

344

Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

Takayama, Keita

2011-01-01

345

Chinese herbal medicine, sibship, and blood lead in children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for increased blood lead concentration (BPb) has been investigated. However, the effect of sibship and Chinese herbal medicine on BPb has not been systematically studied. In this study BPb data from voluntary testing was used to determine if Chinese herbal medicine and sibship were associated with BPb. METHODS: 319 children aged 1-7 were tested for BPb. Meanwhile, parents were interviewed to obtain information including consumption of Chinese herbal medicine, living environment, lifestyle, and sibship of the children tested. RESULTS: The mean (SD) BPb of 319 preschool children was 4.4 (2.4) micrograms/dl. The consumption of Ba-baw-san (a Chinese herbal medicine) was significantly associated with increased BPb in children (p = 0.038). Further multivariate regression analysis of BPb in 50 pairs of siblings showed the factors of being brothers explained 75% of variation for BPb, and being sisters and brother-sister explained 51% and 41% of variation respectively. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine and children's play patterns within the family expressed in different types of sibship are the main determinants of low concentrations of BPb in preschool children of Taiwan.   PMID:9849547

Cheng, T. J.; Wong, R. H.; Lin, Y. P.; Hwang, Y. H.; Horng, J. J.; Wang, J. D.

1998-01-01

346

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

Wang, Zhijun

2013-01-01

347

Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed\\/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. METHODS: Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which

Kathryn A Vickers; Kate B Jolly; Sheila M Greenfield

2006-01-01

348

Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future. PMID:24960051

Fujimaki, Takahiro; Saiki, Shinji; Tashiro, Etsu; Yamada, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imoto, Masaya

2014-01-01

349

Herbal drug ninjin'yoeito accelerates myelopoiesis but not erythropoiesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Some Kampo medicines that are herbal and traditional in Japan have had beneficial effects when given to patients with anemia. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their effects are unclear. To address this question, four Kampo medicines used to treat anemia-ninjin'yoeito (NYT), shimotsuto (SMT), juzentaihoto (JTT), and daibofuto (DBT)-were tested separately using in vitro cultures of mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells. Among them, NYT was most effective in stimulating cell proliferation and up-regulating Myc expression. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that, among hematopoietic components of those cultures, myeloid cells expressing CD45/Mac-1/Gr-1/F4/80 increased in number, but Ter119/CD71 erythroid cells did not. Accordingly, real-time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of the myeloid gene Pu.1, whereas the erythroid genes Gata1 and Klf1 were down-regulated. Overall, these findings provide molecular evidence that NYT accelerates myelopoiesis but not erythropoiesis in vitro. PMID:24636045

Inoue, Tomoko; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Muennu, Kanitta; Tanaka, Yuka; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Sugiyama, Daisuke

2014-05-01

350

Traditional Construction in Burma  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

351

Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders. PMID:23864888

Pandey, M. M.; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, A. K. S.

2013-01-01

352

Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: Studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice.\\u000a The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes,

Sara K. Swanston-Flatt; Caroline Day; Clifford J. Bailey; Peter R. Flatt

1989-01-01

353

Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities  

PubMed Central

The oldest remedies known to mankind are herbal medicines. India is known worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. Euphorbia hirta is often used traditionally for female disorders, respiratory ailments (cough, coryza, bronchitis, and asthma), worm infestations in children, dysentery, jaundice, pimples, gonorrhea, digestive problems, and tumors. It is reported to contain alkanes, triterpenes, phytosterols, tannins, polyphenols, and flavanoids. This review describes the medicinal properties, chemical constituents, and other important aspects of Euphorbia hirta. PMID:22228942

Kumar, Sunil; Malhotra, Rashmi; Kumar, Dinesh

2010-01-01

354

Antitumor activities and tumor necrosis factor producibility of traditional Chinese medicines and crude drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumor activities and capacity for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production of traditional Chinese herbal preparations (Zhu-ling-tang, Xiao-chai-hu-tang), crude drugs (Polyporus, Hoelen, Bupleuri radix, Angelica radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Cinnamomum cortex), and Krestin (PSK) were investigated. These drugs were given to DDY mice in the drinking water before and after transplantation of Ehrlich tumors, and the development of the intradermally transplanted

Katsuyuki Haranaka; Nobuko Satomi; Akiko Sakurai; Ruriko Haranaka; Naoko Okada; Mosaburo Kobayashi

1985-01-01

355

Ferment this: The transformation of Noni, a traditional polynesian medicine ( Morinda Citrifolia , Rubiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the use of plants and other complementary medicines in Hawai’i drew our attention toMorinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae). Noni, as it is commonly known, is representative of both currently popular medicinal plants in Ha-wai’i and\\u000a the pharmacopoeias of traditional cultures of this poly ethnic population. It is also prominent among the increasing number\\u000a of botanicals currently promoted by the “herbal

Anna R. Dixon; Heather Mcmillen; Nina L. Etkin

1999-01-01

356

Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)

Uchihara, Azusa

2001-01-01

357

A Survey of JAPANESE RESEARCH  

E-print Network

L. Udall, Secretary James K. Carr, UnderSecretary Frank P. Briggs, Assistant Secretary for Fish, D. C. January 1964 #12;A SURVEY OF JAPANESE RESEARCH ON SHELLFISHERIES AND SEAWEEDS by John B. Clude, D. C . INTRODUCTION Molluscan shellfish have been cultured in Japan for several centuries

358

Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

2005-01-01

359

Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more

Charlotte Gyllenhaal; Sharon L. Merritt; Sara Davia Peterson; Keith I. Block; Tom Gochenour

2000-01-01

360

Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

2012-10-01

361

DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

2013-01-01

362

Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review  

PubMed Central

Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H.

2013-01-01

363

DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

2013-01-01

364

Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

365

Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

2013-01-01

366

Impact of African herbal medicines on antiretroviral metabolism.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of two African herbal medicines recommended for HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral metabolism. Extracts from Hypoxis and Sutherlandia showed significant effects on cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism and activated the pregnane X receptor approximately twofold. P-glycoprotein expression was inhibited, with Hypoxis showing 42-51% and Sutherlandia showing 19-31% of activity compared with verapamil. Initiating policies to provide herbal medicines with antiretroviral agents may put patients at risk of treatment failure, viral resistance or drug toxicity. PMID:15627040

Mills, Edward; Foster, Brian C; van Heeswijk, Rolf; Phillips, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kumanan; Leonard, Blair; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Kanfer, Isadore

2005-01-01

367

Traditional medicine and genomics  

PubMed Central

‘Omics’ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics. PMID:21829298

Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

2010-01-01

368

Efficacy and mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines for treating asthma and allergy  

PubMed Central

Background While corticosteroids and ?-2 agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. Objective This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Methods We first reviewed five clinical studies of “anti-asthma” TCM herbal remedies published between 2005–2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects based on data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available data bases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Conclusion Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest potential efficacy of FAHF-2 for food allergy. PMID:19203653

Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne

2009-01-01

369

Relationship between the occurrence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and holidays and traditionally unlucky days in Fukuyama City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

To investigate whether calendrical information influences the occurrence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, we statistically compared the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage for inpatients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital (164 patients), against various calendrical factors such as the day of the week, national holidays, and RokuYo (a recurring six-day series of lucky and unlucky days in the Japanese traditional calendar) over the period from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. On Japanese national holidays the relative risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is significantly higher than on other days, certainly due to much more alcohol consumption on holidays. During RokuYo, the relative risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is extremely low on the traditionally unlucky days of ButsuMetsu and TomoBiki, as many Japanese people restrain their activities on these days. Certain days of the year and certain times of the Japanese supplemental calendars correlate significantly with the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:17845915

Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Akira

2007-01-01

370

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

371

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

372

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review.  

PubMed

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-12-01

373

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review  

PubMed Central

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-01-01

374

Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) ?3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) ?10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7.5 points on a 30 point scale in the ibuprofen-treated group; treatment with Arnica gel reduced function by 0.4 points (MD ?0.4, 95% CI ?1.75 to 0.95), absolute improvement 1% (6% improvement to 3% decline)). Total adverse events were higher in the Arnica gel group (13% compared to 8% in the ibuprofen group): relative risk (RR) 1.65 (95% CI 0.72 to 3.76). Moderate quality evidence from a single trial of 99 people with knee osteoarthritis indicated that compared with placebo, Capsicum extract gel probably does not improve pain or knee function, and is commonly associated with treatment-related adverse events including skin irritation and a burning sensation. At four weeks follow-up, mean pain in the placebo group was 46 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Capsicum extract reduced pain by 1 point (MD ?1, 95%CI ?6.8 to 4.8), absolute reduction of 1%(7%reduction to 5% increase). Mean knee function in the placebo group was 34.8 points on a 96 point scale at four weeks; treatment with Capsicum extract improved function by a mean of 2.6 points (MD ?2.6, 95% CI ?9.5 to 4.2), an absolute improvement of 3% (10% improvement to 4% decline). Adverse event rates were greater in the Capsicum extract group (80% compared with 20% in the placebo group, rate ratio 4.12, 95% CI 3.30 to 5.17). The number needed to treat to result in adverse events was 2 (95% CI 1 to 2). Moderate evidence from a single trial of 220 people with knee osteoarthritis suggested that comfrey extract gel probably improves pain without increasing adverse events. At three weeks, the mean pain in the placebo group was 83.5 points on a 100 point scale. Treatment with comfrey reduced pain by a mean of 41.5 points (MD ?41.5, 95% CI ?48 to ?34), an absolute reduction of 42% (34% to 48% reduction). Function was not reported. Adverse events were similar: 6%(7/110) reported adverse events in the comfre

Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2014-01-01

375

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

376

A Novel Approach for Developing Whole System Herbal Therapies  

E-print Network

-menopausal (otherwise healthy) women ­ often comes with mild hypertension, insomnia, anxiety, and constipation), and lemon balm (for anxiety) in equal parts, 60 drops three times daily Chakraborty et al. Developing Whole (present vs. absent) ­ Lemon Balm (present vs. absent) ­ Herbal tincture (yes vs. no) Let's not worry about

Murphy, Susan A.

377

Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

2007-01-01

378

Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

2014-01-01

379

IN PURSUIT OF NEW HERBAL SOURCES FOR INDIAN MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Due to destruction of forest wealth and natural flora the sources of herbal medicine are becoming increasingly rare. So, it is high time to discover alternative sources of such drugs among plant species that are already available in large numbers. As a first installment of the series the medicinal properties of a few members of the family Phytolaccaceae are discussed here. PMID:22557586

Sivarajan, V. V.; Balachandran, Indu

1987-01-01

380

A survey on herbal management of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In this review we outline the different mechanisms mediating hepatocarcinogenesis. We also discuss possible targets of bioactive herbal agents at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and highlight their role at each individual stage. We gathered information on the most common herbal prescriptions and extracts thought to be useful in prevention or sensitization for chemotherapy in management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The value of this topic may seem questionable compared to the promise offered for HCC management by chemotherapy and radiation. However, we would recommend the use of herbal preparations not as alternatives to common chemo /and or radiotherapy, but rather for prevention among at-risk individuals, given that drug/herb interactions are still in need of extensive clarification. The bioactive constituents of various herbs seem to be promising targets for isolation, cancer activity screening and clinical evaluation. Finally, herbal preparations may offer a cost effective protective alternative to individuals known to have a high risk for HCC and possibly other cancers, through maintaining cell integrity, reversing oxidative stress and modulating different molecular pathways in preventing carcinogenesis. PMID:21866249

Abdel-Hamid, Nabil Mohie; Nazmy, Maiiada Hasan; Mahmoud, Ahmed Wahid; Fawzy, Michael Atef; Youssof, Marco

2011-01-01

381

Current status of herbal drugs in India: an overview.  

PubMed

Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India's 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

Vaidya, Ashok D B; Devasagayam, Thomas P A

2007-07-01

382

How Japanese is Wii? The Reception and Localization of Japanese Video Games in America  

E-print Network

With control over both store shelves and consumers' consciousness, Japanese video games have dominated the U.S. and global game markets over the past two decades and continue to prosper today. This thesis positions Japanese video games' popularity...

Huang, Xiangyi

2009-06-12

383

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 120 Japanese was analysed with 15 restriction enzymes that recognize six base pairs, of which 11 enzymes showed at least one atypical cleavage pattern. Digestion patterns with HincII and HaeII were highly polymorphic. The observed restriction enzyme morphs were classified into 22 types of distinct cleavage patterns. By pairwise comparison of each restriction type, the

Satoshi Horai; Takashi Gojobori; Ei Matsunaga

1984-01-01

384

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 116 Japanese was analyzed with nine restriction enzymes that recognize a four or five base pair sequence. The sizes of the mtDNA fragments produced by digestion by each enzyme were compared after gel electrophoresis. Double digestion experiments indicated that, in the coding region from URF2 (unidentified reading frame) to tRNAAsn (bp 5274–5691), there is an insertion

Satoshi Horai; Ei Matsunaga

1986-01-01

385

Efficacy and Tolerability of an Herbal Formulation for Weight Management  

PubMed Central

Abstract The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m2. Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m2; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T.; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

2013-01-01

386

Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management.  

PubMed

The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m². Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m²; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

Stern, Judith S; Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

2013-06-01

387

Geochemical aspects of some Japanese lavas.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.

Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.

1971-01-01

388

Weight Loss in Animals and Humans Treated with 'Weighlevel', a Combination of Four Medicinal Plants Used In Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighlevel, a mixture of extract of four plants used in traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine as well as in European herbal medicine, was prepared and assessed for its safety and efficacy in weight loss. Leaves of Alchemilla vulgaris, Olea europaea and Mentha longifolia L., as well as seeds of Cuminum cyminum, were used. Cultured human fibroblasts treated with Weighlevel did

Omar Said; Bashar Saad; Stephen Fulder; Khaled Khalil; Eli Kassis

2008-01-01

389

Optical sensing of parameters crucial for Japanese woodblock print making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional Japanese woodblock printing is a centuries old art form. This time-honoured form of art is at risk of extinction as a consequence of the increasing lack of availability of wild cherry trees, which are a traditionally used woodblock material. Solutions for this material problem have been investigated for several years, but none of the tested materials has been sufficient when compared with the watercolour print quality imprinted by wild cherry woodblocks. To contribute to overcoming this material problem, we have investigated the physical properties of heat-treated woodblock materials made from different wood species. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) tristimulus values, the CIELAB coordinates, the total reflectance, and the gloss, as well as, the water contact angle from the woodblock surface is observed to have a strong relation to the surface treatment of a woodblock. The surface treatment of a woodblock, in turn, relates to its water delivery, which is the basis for watercolour printing.

Kaplas, Tommi; Laitinen, Kari; Moilanen, Tuula; Tolonen, Yrjö; Albrecht, Kristoffer; Silvennoinen, Raimo

2010-05-01

390

A Historical Review of Japanese Management Theories: The Search for a General Theory of Japanese Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese management theories have not developed into a general theory of Japanese management, that is, a theory drawn from the 'mutual mediation' of historical and theoretical studies of local business management. One reason for this is a focus on specifically Japanese traits within its system of management, from cultural aspects embedded within business to issues of the financial system, relations

Masaki Hayashi

2002-01-01

391

Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... leaf) Dandelion (root, leaf) Dulse Evening Primrose Feverfew Garlic (leaf) Genipap (fruit) Goto Kola Japanese Honeysuckle (flower) ... few examples are St. Johns Wort, echinacea, ginkgo, garlic, ginseng, ginger, and blue cohosh. If you have ...

392

Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16?134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29?801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female?:?male = 1.94?:?1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

2011-01-01

393

Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.  

PubMed

The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD. PMID:25279787

Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

2015-03-01

394

Efficacy of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Treatment of Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki), Bryonia alba (Fashra), Ferula persica (Sakbinaj), Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar), and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan) there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed. PMID:23936834

Abdollahi Fard, Mehri; Shojaii, Asie

2013-01-01

395

Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

1998-06-01

396

Non-Traditional Wraps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

Owens, Buffy

2009-01-01

397

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

398

Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

399

Traditional healers formalised?  

PubMed

Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

Van Niekerk, Jp

2012-03-01

400

Traditional Islamic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…

Pollak, Susan

401

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

402

Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors play a pivotal role in metazoan lipid and glucose homeostasis. Synthetic activators of PPARalpha (fibrates) and PPARgamma (glitazones) are therefore widely used for treatment of dislipidemia and diabetes, respectively. There is growing evidence for herbal compounds to influence nuclear receptor signalling e.g. the PPARs. We recently reported carnosic acid and carnosol, both being diterpenes found in the labiate herbs sage and rosemary, to be activators of PPARgamma. The subsequent screening of a variety of ethanolic extracts, obtained from traditionally used herbs, for PPAR activation, led to an exceptionally high hit rate. Among 52 extracts nearly the half significantly activated PPARgamma and 14 activated PPARalpha in addition, whereas three of them were pan-PPAR activators, which also activated PPARdelta. The most active extracts, for which a concentration dependent effect could be shown, were the extracts of Alisma plantago aquatica (ze xie/european waterplantain), Catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle), Acorus calamus (sweet calamus), Euphorbia balsamifera (balsam spurge), Jatropha curcas (barbados nut), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Zea mays (corn silk), Capsicum frutescens (chilli) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). The results of the present study provide a possible rationale for the traditional use of many herbs as antidiabetics. PMID:17152989

Rau, O; Wurglics, M; Dingermann, Th; Abdel-Tawab, M; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M

2006-11-01

403

Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice. The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes, but bayberry (Cinnamomum tamala), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), senna (Cassia occidentalis) and the herbal mixture did not alter these parameters. Bearberry, mistletoe and tarragon retarded the body weight loss but none of the eight treatments significantly altered plasma glucose or insulin concentrations. These studies suggest that bearberry, golden seal, mistletoe and tarragon may counter some of the symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes without, however, affecting glycemic control. PMID:2750445

Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Bailey, C J; Flatt, P R

1989-01-01

404

Development of Japanese scientific cable technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese ocean science community has installed eight cabled observatories in Japanese water in the past. Japan started installing cabled observatories in the middle of 1970's for disaster mitigation as countermeasure to possible megathrust earthquake in the Tokai region, about 100 km away from Tokyo. Their first system composed of metal wires used frequency modulated signal transmission for carrying data acquired

H. Mikada; K. Asakawa

2008-01-01

405

Business Japanese, a HyperCard Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Business Japanese (BJ), a HyperCard based tutorial designed as courseware for use in a third-year Japanese course at the University of Texas, Austin (UTA). A major objective was to develop good courseware based on proven language learning theory that would integrate theory, practice, and technology. BJ stresses a realistic and…

Saito-Abbott, Yoshiko; Abbott, Thomas

406

Japanese Childrearing: Two Generations of Scholarship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization, placing…

Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.

407

The Art of Japanese Masks and Kimonos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese masks have been worn for a number of reasons. In the past they were often used in plays and celebrations. Today in Japan, social masks are essential in many party gatherings as a form of expressing one's personality. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students created Japanese masks and kimonos.

Brooks, Nancy Johnston

2009-01-01

408

Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

1998-01-01

409

Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance of Japanese

Wray, Harry

410

READINGS IN JAPANESE HISTORY. PART I, SELECTIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…

YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.

411

Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

2007-01-01

412

Classroom Silence: Voices from Japanese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…

Harumi, Seiko

2011-01-01

413

Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

414

JAPANESE BROME IMPACTS NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS RANGELAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) is an annual grass that has invaded thousands of hectares of Northern Great Plains rangelands. We studied the effect of Japanese brome on the current year's increase in biomass in a plant community in the Northern Great Plains dominated by western wheatgrass...

415

Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

Ktejik, Mish

2013-01-01

416

The Japanese American Cases—A Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our war-time treatment of Japanese aliens and citizens of Japanese descent on the West Coast has been hasty, unnecessary and mistaken. The course of action which we undertook was in no way required or justified by the circumstances of the war. It was calculated to produce both individual injustice and deep-seated social maladjustments of a cumulative and sinister kind. All

Eugene V. Rostow

1945-01-01

417

Congestion Ahead: Japanese Automakers in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For three decades Japanese auto producers, supported by the Japanese government, deployed with extraordinary success market and nonmarket strategies to access the small and fragmented but rapidly growing car markets of Southeast Asia. The last half-decade has presented a series of unexpected challenges, including extended recession and financial reform in Japan; the lingering effects of the financial crisis in Southeast

Gregory W. Noble

2001-01-01

418

Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies  

PubMed Central

Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançl?, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

2012-01-01

419

Phytomedicine in otorhinolaryngology and pulmonology: clinical trials with herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07-04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

Ghazi-Moghadam, Koosha; Inançl?, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

2012-01-01

420

Herbal hepatoxicity from Chinese skullcap: A case report  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal supplements has increased considerably over the last decade. We report a case of an elderly woman who began taking Move Free Advanced for arthritis, which in addition to glucosamine and chondroitin, contained two herbal ingredients, Chinese skullcap and Black Catechu. Our patient presented with significant cholestasis and hepatitis which significantly improved after discontinuation of the supplement. Since neither the patient nor the treating physician recognized this supplement as a potential hepatotoxin, she resumed taking the supplement and again suffered from considerable hepatotoxicity. Liver biopsy at that time was consistent with acute drug induced liver injury. She, once again, recovered after discontinuation of the supplement. Review of the literature confirms that Chinese skullcap has been implicated as a possible hepatotoxic agent which was demonstrated in this case. PMID:22855699

Yang, Leslie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hart, John; Jensen, Donald

2012-01-01

421

Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2013-01-01

422

Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

2012-01-01

423

Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.  

PubMed

Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

2014-11-01

424

Identification of a novel vardenafil analogue in herbal product.  

PubMed

A new herbal health product marketed for enhancing erectile function, namely Power58 Platinum, was purchased over-the-counter in Hong Kong. The product was tested for adulteration with sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil as well as their structurally modified analogues. A new analogue of vardenafil, in which the N-ethylpiperazine ring and the sulphonyl group were removed from the vardenafil structure, was identified in the product. PMID:18248930

Lam, Ying-Hoo; Poon, Wing-Tat; Lai, Chi-Kong; Chan, Albert Yan-Wo; Mak, Tony Wing-Lai

2008-03-13

425

Comparative study on adjuvanticity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) and filtrate best prescription and dose, two initial screened cCHMIs were prepared and mixed with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine respectively at three doses to vaccinate 17-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant vaccines as controls. On day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after

Deyun Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Junling Sun; Xiangfeng Kong; Baokang Zhang; Jiaguo Liu

2005-01-01

426

Herbal Diuretics Revisited: From ‘Wise Women’ to William Withering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution summarizes the use of herbal diuretics over the period of two thousand years. After describing the role of herbs in the framework of the theory of the balance of humors for well-being, it details the contributions of Pliny the Elder (23–79), Dioscorides (40–90), Hildegard von Bingen (1098–1179), Pietro Andrea Matthioli (1500–1577), and Leonard Fuchs (1501–1566) in providing increasingly

Eva Kinne-Saffran; Rolf K. H. Kinne

2002-01-01

427

The tyranny of tradition.  

PubMed

This paper narrates the cruelty enforced by tradition on the lives of women in India. It begins with the life of the author's great-grandmother Ponnamma wherein the family was rigidly patriarchal, and Brahmin values were applied. Here, women had very little say in the decisions men made, were forced in an arranged marriage before puberty, were not sent to school, and were considered unimportant. This tradition lived on in the author's grandmother Seetha and in the life of her mother Saras. However, in the story of Saras, following the death of her husband, they departed from rigid Brahmin tradition and orthodoxy. Her mother, unperturbed by the challenges she faced, consistently devised ways to cope and succeeded in changing environment. Meaningless Brahmatic rituals and prayers found no place in her life, which she approached with a cosmopolitan and humanitarian outlook. In essence, she shaped the lives of three daughters and a son, and all her grandchildren, making a success of not only her own but of all whose lives she touched. PMID:12322347

Gulati, L

1999-01-01

428

Induction of tetraploidy in meristematically active seeds of Japanese barberry ( Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea) through exposure to colchicine and oryzalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC) is an invasive shrub, widely naturalized across the United States, whose numerous cultivars remain an important horticultural commodity. Maintaining this crop for the future necessitates the development of sterile clones. Exposure to the mitotic inhibitors colchicine and oryzalin is a traditional method for inducing tetraploidy in breeding lines as a precursor to creating sterile genotypes.

Jonathan M. Lehrer; Mark H. Brand; Jessica D. Lubell

2008-01-01

429

Mitochondrial haplogroups associated with Japanese Alzheimer's patients.  

PubMed

The relationships between Japanese Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and their mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphism (mtSNP) frequencies at individual mtDNA positions of the entire mitochondrial genome are described using the radial basis function (RBF) network and the modified method. Japanese AD patients are associated with the haplogroups G2a, B4c1, and N9b1. In addition, to compare mitochondrial haplogroups of the AD patients with those of other classes of Japanese people, the relationships between four classes of Japanese people (i.e., Japanese centenarians, Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, and non-obese young males) and their mtSNPs are also described. The four classes of people are associated with following haplogroups: Japanese centenarians-M7b2, D4b2a, and B5b; Japanese PD patients-M7b2, B4e, and B5b; Japanese T2D patients-B5b, M8a1, G, D4, and F1; and Japanese healthy non-obese young males-D4g and D4b1b. The haplogroups of the AD patients are therefore different from those of the other four classes of Japanese people. As the analysis method described in this article can predict a person's mtSNP constitution and the probabilities of becoming an AD patient, centenarian, PD patient, or T2D patient, it may be useful in initial diagnosis of various diseases. PMID:19795196

Takasaki, Shigeru

2009-10-01

430

A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley “Over-use” as an Herbal Remedy  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal products in patients with allergic diseases is a special problem and still controversial. But, many people often use herbs to maintain good health. The patients use self-prescribed remedies as medications but do not inform their physicians about herbal use. Unfortunately, some herbal self-medications may have unexpected effects and interactions which may lead to fatal complications. In this report, we describe a female patient who suffered near-fatal anaphylaxis to parsley. PMID:25648063

Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

2014-01-01

431

EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

2011-06-01

432

Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.  

PubMed

Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1 ? 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ? 50% inhibition at a 1 ? 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

2014-02-01

433

Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•?) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•? was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•?. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•? and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

2011-01-01

434

A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacotherapeutics of Herbal Bioenhancers  

PubMed Central

In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhan