Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions.
Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon
Glossodynia is often refractory to conventional medicine, and there is only limited evidence to guide clinicians in its management. Patients with refractory glossodynia are often introduced to Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine experts under such circumstances because Kampo medicine has become known in Japan to be effective in treating a wide variety of symptoms refractory to conventional medicine. Herein, we report our single-institution 5-year experience treating patients with Kampo medicine for primary glossodynia that was refractory to conventional medicine. We found that 69.2% of patients reported a beneficial effect of Kampo medicine on glossodynia, and the average onset of improvement was 8.0 ± 7.7 weeks after starting Kampo treatment. The top two frequently used Kampo medicines for glossodynia were seinetsuhokito and mibakuekkito among high responders who showed a decrease of severity by 50% or more. The top four most overlapped herbs among effective Kampo medicines for glossodynia were Glycyrrhiza Root, Ginseng Root, Hoelen, and Atractylodes (lancea) Rhizome, which compose an essential Kampo prescription called shikunshito. Although more research is required to further clarify the effectiveness of Kampo medicine, it has valid efficacy even in cases of glossodynia that remain incurable by conventional treatments.
Chino, Atsushi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Ueda, Keigo; Raimura, Masaki; Namiki, Takao
Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity.
Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that is composed of Atractylodis lanceae Rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii Rhizoma, Uncariae Uncis cum Ramulus, Angelicae Radix, Bupleuri Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix, on the emotional abnormality induced by maladaptation to stress in mice. Mice were exposed to repeated restraint stress for 60 or 240 min/day for 14 days. From the 3rd day of stress exposure, mice were given yokukansan orally (p.o.) or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan intraperitoneally (i.p.) immediately after the daily exposure to restraint stress. After the final exposure to restraint stress, the emotionality of mice was evaluated using an automatic hole-board apparatus. A single exposure to restraint stress for 60 min induced a decrease in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test. This emotional stress response disappeared in mice that had been exposed to repeated restraint stress for 60 min/day for 14 days, which confirmed the development of stress adaptation. In contrast, mice that were exposed to restraint stress for 240 min/day for 14 days did not develop this stress adaptation, and still showed a decrease in head-dipping behavior. The decreased emotionality observed in stress-maladaptive mice was significantly recovered by chronic treatment with yokukansan (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as flesinoxan (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after daily exposure to stress. These findings suggest that yokukansan may have a beneficial effect on stress adaptation and alleviate the emotional abnormality under conditions of excessive stress. PMID:24129119
Tsuji, Minoru; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Ishii, Daisuke; Imai, Taro; Takeda, Kotaro; Kitajima, Masaki; Takeda, Hiroshi
This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe. PMID:22393756
Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang
The Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) Ninjinto has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, esogastritis, gastric atony, gastrectasis, vomiting, and anorexia. The pharmacological effects of Ninjinto on the gastrointestine are due to changes in the levels of gut-regulated peptide, such as motilin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The release of these peptides is controlled by acetylcholine (ACh) from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240?min (AUC0?240?min) in humans. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine significantly reduced the Ninjinto-induced elevation of plasma motilin and substance P release (AUC0?240?min). Combined treatment with Ninjinto and pirenzepine significantly increased the release of plasma somatostatin (AUC0?240?min) compared with administration of Ninjinto alone or placebo. Ninjinto appeared to induce the release of substance P and motilin into plasma mainly through the activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Ninjinto by the elevation of plasma substance P, motilin, and somatostatin. PMID:23606863
Sato, Yuhki; Hiroki, Itoh; Suzuki, Yosuke; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Masaharu
The Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) Ninjinto has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, esogastritis, gastric atony, gastrectasis, vomiting, and anorexia. The pharmacological effects of Ninjinto on the gastrointestine are due to changes in the levels of gut-regulated peptide, such as motilin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The release of these peptides is controlled by acetylcholine (ACh) from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240?min (AUC0?240?min) in humans. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine significantly reduced the Ninjinto-induced elevation of plasma motilin and substance P release (AUC0?240?min). Combined treatment with Ninjinto and pirenzepine significantly increased the release of plasma somatostatin (AUC0?240?min) compared with administration of Ninjinto alone or placebo. Ninjinto appeared to induce the release of substance P and motilin into plasma mainly through the activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Ninjinto by the elevation of plasma substance P, motilin, and somatostatin.
Sato, Yuhki; Hiroki, Itoh; Suzuki, Yosuke; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Masaharu
In traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, daiobotanpito (DBT) or Da Huang Mu Dan Tang in Chinese has been used in medical treatment of acute diverticulitis for many years based on the experience. Our aim was to investigate whether the treatment of acute diverticulitis can be treated with intravenous antibiotics plus orally administrated DBT than intravenous antibiotics alone. A retrospective nonrandomized open-label trial was established to compare patients with acute diverticulitis who received oral DBT associated with intravenous antibiotics with those who received intravenous antibiotic alone. We included 34 patients, eleven patients in group 1 with DBT and 23 patients in group 2 without DBT. Both groups were comparable in patient demographics and clinical characteristics. There was a significantly better outcome in the group treated with DBT than in the group without DBT when comparing duration of fever, abdominal pain, and antibiotics administration. A trend toward a day shorter mean hospital stay and fasting was seen in group 1, although this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, most patients with acute diverticulitis can be managed safely with oral DBT. Although randomized, double-blind study must be done, we could show the possibility to use daiobotanpito as an additional option in treating acute diverticulitis.
Nishijima, Koji; Futagami, Fumio; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimura, Genichi
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Using the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Saikokeishikankyoto: A Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Controlled Trial in Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami
The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ? 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients.
GunFan, Shen; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional Japanese herbal medicine saikokeishikankyoto: a randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial in survivors of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.
The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ? 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634
Numata, Takehiro; Gunfan, Shen; Takayama, Shin; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kaneko, Soichiro; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L.
Juan Hernández Cano; Gabriele Volpato
Ethnopharmacological relevanceAlthough traditional antimalarial plant remedies in herbal markets are a very important component of the health care system in Ghana this has not been previously studied to allow for the formulation of effective strategy for malaria control in Ghana.
Alex Asase; Gloria Oppong-Mensah
Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims. PMID:22955367
Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc
For the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a prescription for a patient often contains several herbs. Some herbs are often used together in prescriptions, and these herbs can be considered as a functional group. In this paper, we propose an approach for discovering herbal functional groups from a large set of prescriptions recorded in TCM books. These functional groups are allowed to overlap with each other. Our approach is validated with a simulation study and applied to a data set containing thousands of TCM prescriptions. PMID:21413055
He, Ping; Deng, Ke; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Delin; Liu, Jun S; Geng, Zhi
Objective. We evaluated the efficiency of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (a compound herbal formula for invigorating spleen) as a complementary and alternative therapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods. Between 2001 and 2012, 93 gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled in this study. The effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on their long-term outcome was investigated. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the difference in survival time, and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. Result. First-line palliative chemotherapy plus traditional Chinese herbal medicine was performed in 47 patients and the other 46 patients received chemotherapy alone. The overall survival was different between patients with and without traditional Chinese herbal medicine (12.0 versus 10.5 months; P = 0.046). According to the Cox proportional hazard model, first-line chemotherapy cycle (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.527; 95% CI = 0.323~0.860) and TCHM (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.481~0.992) were selected as independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicine could improve the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis.
Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Ni-Da; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jin-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua
The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy.
Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mouse spleen cells using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Target specificity for these mitogens was investigated by using isolated T cells and lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. Among 20 plants investigated, potent mitogenic activities for both human and mouse lymphocytes were found in 7 plants: Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Uvaria lucida (Annonaceae), Maytenus buchananii (Celastraceae), Lonchocarpus bussei (Leguminosae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae), Phytolacca octandra (Phytolaccaceae), and Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae). The U. lucida stem demonstrated the highest activity among all and induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. PMID:23194771
Tachibana, Y; Kato, A; Nishiyama, Y; Ikemi, M; Ohoka, K; Kawanishi, K; Juma, F D; Ngángá, J N; Mathenge, S G
(1) Insomnia should be treated first with non drug measures; this has traditionally involved the use of herbal remedies. (2) About 20 plants are approved in France in the production of medications 'traditionally used' for minor sleep disturbances. Virtually nothing is known of their efficacy or potential dangers. (3) Most of these plants are suspected of toxicity and should therefore be avoided, especially in view of their unproven efficacy. (4) Littleleaf linden, vervain, melissa and orange flower have no demonstrated efficacy but are safe and can therefore be used. Similarly, there are no scientific grounds for rejecting preparations based on hawthorn or passiflora. (5) Available data suggest that valerian extracts have a modest impact on subjective sleep quality; they are nevertheless more effective than a placebo. Valerian products that do not contain valepotriates have no apparent adverse effects. It is best to avoid high-titre alcoholic extracts and powdered valerian root, and to select aqueous extracts and low-titre hydro-alcoholic preparations. PMID:15984105
Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100microg/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn); 12 exhibited low cytotoxicity. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities were further assessed. Phenolic contents were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Four herbs, Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase (IC(50) values 24.9, 95.6, 83.9, and 78.3microg/mL, respectively). Melanin inhibition was not dose-dependent. Sophora japonica (IC(50): 14.46microg/mL, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 1.95microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) and Spatholobus suberectus (IC(50): 10.51microg/mL, DPPH; 4.36microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) showed good antioxidative activities and high phenolic contents (255 and 189mg of gallic acid/g extract, respectively). Among active anti-tyrosinase extracts, Sophora japonica and Spatholobus suberectus were especially potent in HEMn cells in terms of free radical scavenging effects and high phenolic contents, making them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application found in the current study. PMID:16497459
Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Dih; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsien
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori.
Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of topical instillation of traditional herbal medicines, herbal extracts, and their components on the elevation of aqueous flare induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in pigmented rabbits.Methods: Transcorneal diffusion of 25 ?g\\/mL of PGE2 was carried out through a glass cylinder placed on the cornea to induce aqueous flare elevation in pigmented rabbits. Traditional herbal medicines,
Yasunori Nagaki; Seiji Hayasaka; Xue-Yun Zhang; Yoriko Hayasaka; Nobuo Nakamura; Katsutoshi Terasawa
Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222
Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Oriental herbal medicines (TOHM) for children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods. Randomized clinical trials published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2010, in English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean language which evaluated the use of TOHM on ADHD subjects of 18 years old or below, diagnosed based on DSM-IV, were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Cochrane Library, and 10 other databases. Results. Twelve studies involving 1189 subjects met the inclusion criteria. In general, the included studies claimed that TOHM has similar efficacy to methylphenidate and at the same time has fewer side effects compared to methylphenidate. Some studies also suggested that the effect of TOHM sustained better than methylphenidate. However, solid conclusions could not be drawn because the included studies were not of high quality. Risk of bias issues such as randomization, allocation, concealment and blinding were not addressed in most of the studies, and the risk of publication bias could not be ruled out. Conclusion. Currently, there is not strong evidence to say that TOHM is effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD.
Wong, Yuk Wo; Kim, Deog-gon; Lee, Jin-yong
SummaryBackground: This study investigated the extent of traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in 3 Swiss cantons (Aargau, Zurich, Schaffhausen). The study focused on organic farms. Methods: At 21 farms, 24 farmers aged 36–83 years were interviewed with a semi-structured, detailed questionnaire. For each homemade herbal remedy, the plant species, mode of preparation, source
Kathrin Schmid; Silvia Ivemeyer; Christian Vogl; Franziska Klarer; Beat Meier; Matthias Hamburger; Michael Walkenhorst
The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28?a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account.
Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comprises a range of traditional medical practices that originate in China, including herbal medicine as a major therapy. Through its 4 natures; namely, cold, hot, warm, and cool, herbal medicine may regulate sympathetic nerves and basal metabolic rate and affect the CNS and the endocrine system. Heat stroke is a severely life-threatening heat-related illness that is most commonly seen during summer heat waves and high environmental temperatures. The intake of medications or toxins is considered one of the risk factors leading to heat stroke, as they may affect body thermoregulation. We report a case of heat stroke that was associated with herbal therapy with TCM. This case highlights the importance of paying more attention to unidentified folk prescriptions in the use of TCM. PMID:24739411
Deng, Hui; Wu, Xiaokun; Wu, Limin; Zhang, Hongliang
Since ancient times woman have turned to the beautifies of nature to help or increase their own beauty. Even today, people especially in rural areas depend upon plants for traditional cosmetics. The research work is confined to herbal cosmetics with special reference of local communities of district Northern Pakistan. Through questionnaires, study was conducted in 20 villages of district Attock
Mushtaq Ahmad; Mir Ajab Khan; Muhammad Zafar
The results of a survey of the medicinal plants found in the herbal market of Thessaloniki, which comprises traditional shops, modern shops and open-air market stalls, are presented. A total number of 172 taxa, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, were found in 18 selected market spots. Information is provided on the origin, the plant parts used, the ways of drug preparation and
E Hanlidou; R Karousou; V Kleftoyanni; S Kokkini
Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic
Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton
Yin-chen (Artemisia scoparia) is a very popular intravenous herbal preparation used for the treatment of neonatal jaundice in China. Bilirubin-protein titration studies with the horse radish peroxidase method have shown that the herb is highly effective in displacing bilirubin from its protein binding. Free bilirubin is liberated in this process and this could increase the risk of brain damage in jaundiced infants. With the present state of knowledge, the use of traditional herbal therapies should be strongly discouraged in neonates. PMID:8373675
Yeung, C Y; Leung, C S; Chen, Y Z
Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine.
da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.
Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236
da Silva, G; Serrano, R; Silva, O
Herein, we test the hypothesis that a member of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction cannot be replaced by another herb. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is being used as an example for illustration: this is a traditional decoction containing Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. Rhizoma Chuanxiong (RC) and RAS are two chemically very similar herbs but with a distinct function. Following the preparation method of DBT, a herbal decoction, namely Chuanxiong Buxue Tang (CBT), was created, which contained RA and RC in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. The two decoctions, DBT and CBT, were compared in parallel regarding their chemical and biological properties. In all the tested parameters, DBT showed superior properties, both chemically and biologically, to that of CBT. The current results reveal the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoctions that require a well-defined formulation, which is indispensable for its specific composition. PMID:19204892
Li, Winnie Z M; Li, Jun; Bi, Cathy W C; Cheung, Anna W H; Huang, Wen; Duan, Ran; Choi, Roy C Y; Chen, Ivy S Y; Zhao, Kui J; Dong, Tina T X; Duan, Jin A; Tsim, Karl W K
Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.
Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177
Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J
Phlomis lychnitis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in Spain. The antioxidant-protective effects as well as its phytoconstituents\\u000a have never been established. The ability of the methanolic extract to protect cells from oxidative stress was evaluated in\\u000a rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using hydrogen peroxide as toxic agent. The viability of PC12 cells pre-treated with the\\u000a methanolic extract
Víctor López; Anna K. Jäger; Silvia Akerreta; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Maria Isabel Calvo
In traditional chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After\\u000a AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated\\u000a herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA
Martijn J. Martena; Jacqueline C. A. van der Wielen; Leo F. J. van de Laak; Erik J. M. Konings; Henk N. de Groot; Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming
Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care.
Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko
Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…
Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.
Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438
Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo
Ten diterpenoid alkaloids, including eight aconitine-type C??-diterpenoid alkaloids and two hetisine-type C??-diterpenoid alkaloids, were isolated from the secondary roots of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., known as "Fuzi" in Chinese traditional herbal medicine. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with those of the literature. Among these alkaloids, chasmanine, oxonitine and 15-acetylsongoramine were isolated for the first time from this medicinal plant. The cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids were tested against several cell lines by the MTT method in which aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitne and oxonitine were found to strongly inhibit the growth of the HePG2 cell line, which showed that the existence and quantity of the ester groups have a significant influence on the cytotoxicity of the diterpenoid alkaloids. PMID:22628040
Gao, Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dan; Huang, Xing; Liu, Qian
Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy.
Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang
Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHMs) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHMs in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHMs is limited to small, nonrandomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHMs and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHMs. Several TCHMs are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHMs has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHMs in CKD, we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHMs and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014
Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; Cijiang He, John
The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients.
Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar
Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 ?g/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk.
The case method is a key tool that teachers can use to develop their practical knowledge and practical thinking styles in both preservice and inservice education. The case method in Japanese teacher education has been a major approach for more than 100 years. The approach to case method described here has been implemented in five settings: (1) the…
The mechanism underlying the anticonvulsant action of 'Saiko-Keishi-To' (SK), the Japanese herbal medicine, was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from cultured rat dorsal root ganglion cells. Neurons were held at -60 mV and perfused with an internal solution containing a high concentration of Cl-. Under these circumstances, SK produced an inward current which reversed at +8 mV, and was identical to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced chloride current (IC). The SK-induced current was completely blocked by bicuculline. SK depressed a high voltage-activated calcium current (HVA-ICa), but this depression could not be antagonized by either phaclofen or saclofen. Of nine crude herbal drugs constituting SK, only Bupleuri radix, Ginseng radix, Zingiberis rhizoma and Paeoniae radix produced the inward currents blocked by bicuculline. These results suggest that SK, and four of its crude herbal drugs, activate the ICl mediated by the GABAA receptor. In addition, SK depresses a HVA-ICa through some mechanism other than an activation of GABAB receptors. PMID:8897479
Sugiyama, K; Muteki, T; Kano, T
Technical evolution of traditional crafting industries by multimedia and network technologies performs very important role to survive in modern industrialization in the world. In this paper we propose a three-dimensional CG presentation system using Kansei information processing and Virtual Reality technologies. A large number of data concerned with traditional Japanese fittings are stored in the database distributed over Internet. User
Kaoru Sugita; Akihiro Miyakawa; Yukiharu Kohsaka; Koji Hashimoto; Yoshitaka Shibata
In this interactive exhibit, collectors Sylvan Barnet and William Burto take users by the virtual hand and guide them through Faith & Form, an exhibition at the Freer Gallery of the Smithsonian Museum. The exhibition is based on Japanese art collected by Barnet and Burto, who "have assembled one of the finest collections of Japanese religious art in the West." Once they have launched the interactive, visitors should be sure to listen to Barnet and Burto discuss the figures in the "Womb World mandala". This mandala is a hanging scroll from the 13th century, and the image automatically adjusts to zoom in on selected figures, such as horses, goats, and humans, all arranged around the central Buddha. The collectors' commentary for another piece in the show, a section of the Lotus Sutra, a beautiful piece of calligraphy adorned with gold leaf, advises viewers to admire the piece as if it were a single page of a first folio Shakespeare.
Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM.
Bangpungtongsung-san (BPTS), a traditional oriental herbal prescription, is widely used for expelling wind, draining heat, and providing general improvement to the immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPTS on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- ) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, and on paw edema in rats. At concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL, treatment with BPTS inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-?B and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) as well as production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by LPS. These results suggest that BPTS may exert anti-inflammatory effects via reduction of proinflammatory mediators, including NO, PGE2, TNF-?, and IL-6 through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, an antiedema effect of BPTS was observed in rats. These findings may provide scientific evidence validating the use of BPTS in treatment of patients with heat syndrome in Korean oriental medicine.
Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; Kwak, Tae Won; Lee, Jong Rok; Jo, Mi Jeong; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Kim, Jong Myoung; An, Won G.
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500?mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5?L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients.
Kizaibek, Murat; Popescu, Ruxandra; Prinz, Sonja; Upur, Halmurat; Singhuber, Judith; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte
Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits. PMID:24175417
Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K
This article contributes to contemporary critical debate in medical anthropology concerning medical pluralism and integrative medicine by highlighting the issue of exclusion of traditional medicine (TM) and presenting attempts at border crossing. Although complementary medicine (CM) modalities are integrated into most Israeli mainstream health care organizations, local indigenous TM modalities are not. Ethnographic fieldwork focused on a group of Israeli dual-trained integrative physicians that has recently begun to integrate traditional herbal medicine preferred by the Arab minority, using it as a boundary object to bridge professional gaps between biomedicine, CM, and TM. This article highlights the relevance of political tensions, ethnicity, and medical inequality to the field of integrative health care. It shows that using herbal medicine as a boundary object can overcome barriers and provide opportunities for dialog and reciprocal learning. PMID:24248993
Keshet, Yael; Popper-Giveon, Ariela
To estimate the preventive potential of Japanese traditional cereals against oxygen radical-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities in the extracts of five Japanese traditional cereal grains were analyzed by using an assay system of lipid peroxidation and a radical compound, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). DPPH radical-scavenging activities in the extracts of Japanese cereal grains were divided into two groups. One group including Japanese sorghum, black rice and red rice showed strong radical-scavenging activities, but the other group including Japanese barnyard millet and foxtail millet did not exhibit significant radical-scavenging activities. The DPPH radical-scavenging activities of these extracts were closely correlated to the contents of phenolic compound in the extracts, but not to the sugar or protein content in the extracts. In contrast, all the methanol and water extracts of the cereal grains caused significant antioxidant activities against hydroperoxide generation in the peroxidation of linoleic acid, in which the water extracts of these cereal grains caused much higher antioxidant activities than the methanol extracts of the same cereals. These results suggest that Japanese traditional cereals contain qualitatively different principles associated with antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities, and possible principles responsible for the antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities in the cereal grains are discussed. PMID:19086696
Higashi-Okai, Kiyoka; Ishida, Emi; Nakamura, Yumiko; Fujiwara, Satomi; Okai, Yasuji
Introduction Cancer patients often seek complementary or alternative medicines to supplement or replace treatments prescribed by licensed\\u000a medical practitioners. Traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicine (TCM) is a popular complementary intervention among cancer patients\\u000a of Asian ethnicity, many of whom take it during their conventional treatment. Few of these patients inform their doctors,\\u000a however, creating a risk of unexpected sequelae arising from either pharmacologic
Joanne Chiu; Thomas Yau; Richard J. Epstein
This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.
Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with herbal medicine and this can potentially cause serious adverse effects. It is therefore important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicine to ensure patients' safety. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and specific methods to analyse phenylbutazone, caffeine and oxyphenbutazone present in a traditional Indonesian herbal product. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods in the selected reaction-monitoring (SRM) mode were developed. It was found that the sample contained 0.53% w/w (n=3, RSD=7.56%) phenylbutazone and 0.04% w/w (n=3, RSD=8.39%) caffeine. This corresponded to 43.17 mg phenylbutazone and 3.23 mg caffeine in each sachet of powder. The methods were validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ. LOD and LOQ were found to be 3.69 and 12.29 ng/ml, respectively for phenylbutazone. For caffeine, the LOD and LOQ were 0.84 and 2.80 ng/ml, respectively. Oxyphenbutazone in the sample was found to be present at a level below the quantification level of 10.2 ng/ml. With better methods developed for analysis of adulterants in herbal medicine, the quality and safety of these medicines can be better controlled and regulated to ensure patients' safety. PMID:12609680
Lau, Aik-Jiang; Holmes, Michael J; Woo, Soo-On; Koh, Hwee-Ling
'Bakumondo-to', a Chinese-Japanese herbal medicine, has been used for patients with xerostomia in Japan. Although the efficacy of this medicine for xerostomia has been reported, the pharmacological basis was only partially understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the direct effect of Bakumondo-to on salivary gland cells using isolated and cultured cells. In the physiological experiment using the fluorescent dye fura-2, Bakumondo-to showed no direct effect on isolated parotid gland cells. On the other hand, Bakumondo-to, when applied to cultured salivary gland cells, showed enhancement effects on cell proliferation. After inspection by transmission electron microscopy, we concluded that Bakumondo-to did not show an increase in the number of secretion granules but did increase the mean size of secretion granules in parotid gland cells. These mechanisms, together with other in vivo effecters, may contribute to clinical efficacy. PMID:8844463
Kagami, H; Horie, K; Nishiguchi, H; Shigetomi, T; Ueda, M
Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time.
Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji
Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC.
Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji
Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy.
Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul
This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki
In this study, the efficacy of a novel Chinese herbal formula, cure rot and flat sore ointment (CRFSO), in the management of stage IV pressure ulcers, and the effect of simultaneous comprehensive rehabilitation in improving the outcome were evaluated. A total of 35 paraplegic patients with stage IV pressure ulcers who underwent reconstruction and inpatient rehabilitation from January 2004 to September 2010 were included in the study. Arnebia root oil (ARO) was used on 16 patients with 11 ulcers (stage IV). The remaining 19 patients with 20 ulcers (stage IV) received a traditional Chinese herbal formula (CRFSO). After 28 days of treatment, the wound healing results, in particular, the healing rate, effectiveness rate, improvement rate and no response rate were evaluated. Six patients from the ARO group sought other types of therapy due to their own consideration of poor efficacy. After 28 days of treatment, the wound healing result and no response rate demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P<0.005) between the two groups, suggesting that the novel Chinese herbal formula is an effective treatment for pressure sores in paraplegic patients. All outcome variables demonstrated significant improvement in the CRFSO group compared with the ARO group after 28 days of treatment, with a higher healing rate (85% in the CRFSO group and 45.45% in the ARO group) and lower no response rate (5% in the CRFSO group and 18.18% in the ARO group). The traditional Chinese herbal formula improved pressure sores in paraplegic patients effectively and inpatient rehabilitation was also significantly improved.
LIU, XIN; MENG, QINGXI; SONG, HUA; ZHAO, TINGBAO
We have developed a bacterial cancer therapy strategy using the genetically-engineered strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). A1-R is auxotrophic for leu and arg which attenuates bacterial growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human and murine cancer cell lines in clinically-relevant nude-mouse models. However, A1-R treatment of tumors in immunocompetent mouse models with high doses is limited by toxicity. The current study evaluated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture in combination with A1-R therapy in a syngeneic metastatic immunocompetent mouse model of highly aggressive lung cancer. In a model of Lewis lung carcinoma, the combination of a TCM herbal mixture and S. typhimurium A1-R enabled bacteria to be safely administered at the large dose of 2 × 10(7) colony forming units once a week i.v. with increased treatment efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to monotherapy with A1-R. The herbal mixture prevented body weight loss, spleen weight gain and liver infection by A1-R, as well as hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, liver, and spleen, all observed with A1-R monotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that the combination of A1-R and TCM has important potential for therapy of highly aggressive types of cancer, including those which are resistant to standard therapy. PMID:23645728
Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Su, Shibing; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming
The herbal medicine, Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9), has been widely prescribed to chronic viral liver disease patients in Japan. This study examined the inductions of such sytokines as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), on some fractions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by TJ-9 and each of its seven components. IL-1?, TNF-?, and G-CSF were highly induced by scutellaria root and glycyrrhiza root on monocytes/macrophages. By repeating the same experiments using taxol (an LPS antagonist)-treated substances, authors confirmed that these inductions were not attributable to the presence of quite low LPS in TJ-9 solution, and the cytokine inductions are the specific effect of TJ-9. Because TJ-9's macrobiotic effect in liver cirrhosis patients has been proven statistically in an etiological study, TJ-9 could be a new important therapy in chronic liver diseases. PMID:21781734
Yamashiki, M; Nishimura, A; Sakaguchi, S; Suzuki, H; Kosaka, Y
The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (?????) and boiogito (?????), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine.
Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji
In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.
Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547
May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L
Kamisyoyosan (KSS) and Tokisyakuyakusan (TSS) are widely used herbal formulas in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to relieve the symptoms occurred in climacteric disturbance. Since Japanese physicians frequently prescribe these formulas combined with etizolam, one of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction between KSS or TSS and etizolam, and in vitro inhibitory effect of KSS and TSS on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity in rat microsomes, to obtain drug information to prevent from disadvantage or adverse effects by their combined therapy. In in vitro experiment, KSS and TSS inhibited CYP3A activity comparable to grapefruit juice. However in in vivo experiments, oral administration of KSS did not influence the plasma concentration profile of etizolam. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of etizolam was significantly reduced when TSS was co-administered at 20 times amount of human daily dosage. Since the double of human daily dose of TSS did not suppress the absorption of etizolam, TSS would not influence the pharmacokinetics of etizolam at the usual clinical dosage. Since both KSS and TSS did not influence the metabolism of etizolam, the result of in vitro experiment would not reflect to that of in vivo experiment or in clinic. The combination of etizolam with KSS or TSS at usual dosage would not cause drug interaction. PMID:15684484
Makino, Toshiaki; Inagaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Ken-ichi; Kano, Yoshihiro
Popular demand for and scientific interest in complementary or alternative medicine, particularly medicinal bo- tanicals, has increased considerably in recent years. The medicinal botanicals with the longest tradition, and for which extensive data are available, are Chinese herbal medicines and their Japanese counterparts-Kampo medicines. This review focuses on some representative examples of studies examining the effects of some traditional Chinese
Andrea T Borchers; Robert M Hackman; Carl L Keen; Judith S Stern; M Eric Gershwin
BACKGROUND—Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to determine if there is any evidence for the clinical efficacy of herbal preparations for the treatment of asthma symptoms.?METHODS—Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data were extracted in a standardised, predefined manner and assessed critically.?RESULTS—Seventeen randomised clinical trials were found, six of which concerned the use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and eight described traditional Indian medicine, of which five investigated Tylophora indica. Three other randomised trials tested a Japanese Kampo medicine, marihuana, and dried ivy leaf extract. Nine of the 17 trials reported a clinically relevant improvement in lung function and/or symptom scores.?CONCLUSIONS—No definitive evidence for any of the herbal preparations emerged. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine with asthma patients, there is urgent need for stringently designed clinically relevant randomised clinical trials for herbal preparations in the treatment of asthma.??
Huntley, A; Ernst, E
Background In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related problems. Concurrent use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among HIV infected patients. However, the extent of THM use is not known in most settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with THM use among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) attending The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda. TASO is a non-governmental organization devoted to offering HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in the population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two TASO treatment centres in Uganda among 401 randomly selected eligible participants. We included participants who were 18 years and above, were enrolled on HAART, and consented to participate in the study. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. THM use referred to someone who had ever used or was currently using herbal medicine while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the time of the study. Data was captured in Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 9.0 for analysis. Results The prevalence of THM use was 33.7%. Patients on HAART for < 4 years were more likely to use THM (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.13 - 31.73) as well as those who experienced HAART side effects (OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.15 - 11.68). Older patients (?39 years) were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.26 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.83). Participants with HAART adherence levels > 95% were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.65). Conclusion The prevalence of THM use among participants on HAART was high. This raises clinical and pharmacological concerns that need attention by the health care service providers.
The presence of bacterial biofilm, particularly formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been considered an important factor responsible for wound chronicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of water and ethanol extracts obtained from three traditional herbal recipes (THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011) on biofilm formation and on mature biofilm of a reference strain of P. aeruginosa. The effects of the extracts on the biofilm mass were evaluated by using crystal violet (CV) assay. The respiratory activity of preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa after treatment with the extract was determined by MTT reduction assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to furnish images of biofilm reduction after the recipe treatment. Tested ethanol extracts displayed antibiofilm activity, but the water extracts exhibited low biofilm inhibition activity at the tested concentrations. Remarkable reduction in biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa was found after treatment with the THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E). Treatments with this extract resulted in prevention of biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa on both polystyrene and glass surfaces. Almost 50% reduction in the bacterial metabolic activity in the preformed biofilm was seen after exposure to the extract-supplemented buffer for 12?hr. After a 24-hr treatment with THR-SK010E at 62.5??g/ml, 97.3% of the preformed biofilms were destroyed. Promising antibiofilm activity was displayed by the THR-SK010 ethanol extract, suggesting further investigation to explore the possible utilization of the herbal recipe as an antibiofilm agent, especially for wound treatment. PMID:23600560
Chusri, Sasitorn; Jittanon, Wittaya; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan
Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol,
Michael M. Kliks
BACKGROUND: Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. METHODS: The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review,
Ripu M Kunwar; Keshab P Shrestha; Rainer W Bussmann
Backgroud Soshiho-tang (SST, Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese), an oriental herbal formula, is used for treatment of chronic liver diseases. Although many researchers have studied the pharmacological properties of SST, information about its safety and toxicity is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the potential safety of SST in Sprague–Dawley rats over a period of 4-weeks. Methods The SST was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. We measured the body weight, mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology. In addition, we analyzed the component of SST and measured the stability of its component in SST according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology, except for salivation and reduction in body weight in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group. These findings in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group are considered toxicologically insignificant because they are not accompanied by other pathological findings, including in hematology, serum biochemistry and histopatholgy, and they do not exhibit a dose–response relationship. SST is detected three components including liquiritin, baicalin, and glycyrrhizin. In addition, there were not observed the significant differences among the contents of three components in SST according to storage periods. Conclusion These results indicate that SST may be a safe material. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was more than 2000 mg/kg for both genders.
Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg(-1) and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg(-1), respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:24645695
Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose
A total of 315 extracts/fractions from 63 traditionally used Ethiopian plants were subjected to antimicrobial screening using known strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella gallinarum, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The agar plate well-diffusion method was used at a sample concentration of 1000 micrograms/ml; it was found that all of the plants showed activity against one or more of the microorganism(s). Direct aqueous extracts from six plants were found to be active against all of the test organisms. These findings confirm traditional therapeutic claims for aqueous dosage forms of these herbs. The relative susceptibility of the test organisms to the five types of extracts/fractions indicated a decreasing rank order of: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, S. gallinarum, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. vulgaris. PMID:8412246
A total of 210 extracts/fractions from 70 traditionally used Ethiopian plants were subjected to uterotonic and anti-implantation bioassays. A total of 24% of the samples had uterotonic activity and 33% exhibited anti-implantation activity, while 13% had both uterotonic and anti-implantation activity. The percentage cumulative activity for aqueous, 95% ethanolic and n-butanolic extracts/fractions was 10%, 31% and 25%, respectively. The number of plants whose aqueous extracts, 95% ethanolic extracts and n-butanolic fractions had both uterotonic and anti-implantation activity were 2, 15 and 11, respectively. These findings tend to support traditional claims of antifertility activity for some of the herbs. PMID:7898127
Four medicinal plants (Quercus infectoria, Kaempferia galanga, Coptis chinensis and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) as well as one traditional Thai treatment for aphthous ulcers based on these four plants were tested for antimicrobial activity. MIC values for a range of bacteria and Candida albicans were determined, with both type strains and clinical isolates being used. Antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS radical scavenging assay. Among the four plants, Q. infectoria showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 0.41 mg/mL, while C. chinensis showed antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC of 6.25 mg/mL. Activity was also shown against a range of other organisms including Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of the traditional aphthous ulcer preparation (a powder) was comparable to that for the individual plant extracts, however, incorporation of the powder into a gel formulation resulted in the loss of almost all activity. All extracts, with the exception of K. galanga, also showed good antioxidant activity. This study supports the traditional use of these plants and suggests that they may also be useful in the treatment of other infections. PMID:20878703
Mekseepralard, Chantana; Kamkaen, Narisa; Wilkinson, Jenny M
Are national quality standards for traditional Chinese herbal medicine sufficient? Current governmental regulations for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in certain Western countries and China as the Eastern origin country.
Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCHM) has been gaining interest and acceptance world wide. TCHM provides on the one side promising perspective of scientific interest and on the other side possible health risks if TCHM drugs are not controlled with respect to quality standards or if practitioners for TCHM are not well trained. This paper outlines an introduction to the scientific aspects and potential risks of TCHM therapy followed by a brief, exploratory overview of the current status of TCHM regulations in certain Western countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and in China as the Eastern origin country of TCHM. Legal foundations to establish quality and safety standards for TCHM crude drugs and ready-made formulas exist in some countries on a local basis but in practice are poorly enforced, where this products have no drug status. In addition practitioners treating patients with TCHM should be well versed in the pharmacology, side effects, and interactions of these substances with Western medicines and should be certified on a regular basis. PMID:16150372
Dobos, G J; Tan, L; Cohen, M H; McIntyre, M; Bauer, R; Li, X; Bensoussan, A
Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora,?S. glandiflora,?M. charantia,?S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin.
Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction. PMID:23457023
Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K
Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF-?. Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo.
Cha, Ji Young; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Jae Yup; Lee, Jong Rok; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Byun, Sung Hui; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G.
Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth of four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, P. capitatum probably exhibits potential antitumor activity. However, there is very little information on the metabolism of substances present in P. capitatum extracts. In this study, gallic acid, quercetrin, ethanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of ethnolic extract (EtOAc fraction) of P. capitatum were cultured anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of fight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) technique was employed to identify and characterize the resulting metabolites. A total of 22 metabolites (M1-M22), including tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were detected and characterized. The overall results demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria played an important role in the metabolism of P. capitatum, and the main metabolic pathways were hydrolysis, reduction and oxidation reactions. Our results provided a basis for the estimation of the metabolic transformation of P. capitatum in vivo. PMID:25033057
He, Chi-Yu; Fu, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yi; Feng, Ru; Tan, Xiang-Shan; Huang, Min; Shou, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Chen, Yangchao; Wang, Yan
Rakugo, traditional Japanese story-telling, has a history of over 300 years. The stories consist of jokes, anecdotes, and funny messages. The content often includes critical points of view from the perspective of normal people. Some of the targets of criticism are physicians and druggists. This study looked at the number of medical and medicinal items mentioned in kamigata rakugo (rakugo in Osaka). There were ten occasions in which medical/medicinal items were used for practical purposes in scenarios and 27 occasions in which they were simply mentioned. Some of the uses show us the medical and pharmaceutical situation in the 18-19th century in a humorous way. For example, mentions of kyu:moxibustion, biwayoutou:loquat herb tea, and ninjin:ginseng. PMID:21032893
BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). METHODS: In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. RESULTS: Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 mug/ml and 68 mug/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 mug/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 mug/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 mug/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 mug/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 mug/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 mug/ml). CONCLUSION: Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591
Ali, Shereen K; Hamed, Ahmed R; Soltan, Maha M; Hegazy, Usama M; Elgorashi, Esameldin E; El-Garf, Ibrahim A; Hussein, Ahmed A
The quantitative toxicities of 33 taenicidal herbal drugs are presented, expressed as their intraperitoneal LD50 values in mice and their respective median effective oral dose and worm expulsion time in humans. Rank orders of toxicity, taenicidal potency and worm expulsion time of the herbal medications are indicated along with a discussion of their respective therapeutic merits and untoward effects. On the basis of considerations of lower toxicity, higher potency and shorter worm expulsion time, the taenicidal herbal medications are arranged in decreasing rank order of preference. Other therapeutic uses of the herbs are also presented and discussed. PMID:7739224
Dangkwisoo-San (DS) is an herbal extract that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine to treat traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effect of DS in cerebrovascular disease has not been examined experimentally. The protective effects of DS on focal ischemic brain were investigated in a mouse model. DS stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). DS (10–300??g/mL) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in mouse aorta, which was significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting that DS causes vasodilation via a NO-dependent mechanism. DS increased resting cerebral blood flow (CBF), although it caused mild hypotension. To investigate the effect of DS on the acute cerebral injury, C57/BL6J mice received 90?min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22.5?h of reperfusion. DS administered 3 days before arterial occlusion significantly reduced cerebral infarct size by 53.7% compared with vehicle treatment. However, DS did not reduce brain infarction in mice treated with the relatively specific endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of DS is primarily endothelium-dependent. This correlated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS in the brains of DS-treated mice. DS acutely improves CBF in eNOS-dependent vasodilation and reduces infarct size in focal cerebral ischemia. These data provide causal evidence that DS is cerebroprotective via the eNOS-dependent production of NO, which ameliorates blood circulation.
Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Sun Haeng; Kim, Young Whan; Ha, Jung Min; Bae, Sun Sik; Lee, Guem San; Cho, Su In; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung
Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and conclusions later. If Qishe Pill can alleviate neck pain without adverse effects, it may be a unique strategy for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01274936
[Profiles of effects of traditional oriental herbal medicines on central nervous systems in humans--assessment of saiboku-to and saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to using EEG and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine-derived ingredients as indices].
To elucidate usefulness of traditional oriental herbal medicines in psychiatric fields, we investigated their influences on central nervous systems in humans by using EEG and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine-derived ingredients as the indices. The subjects were 12 healthy male volunteers who received single oral administration and after that received repeated oral administrations at a daily dose of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to or Saiboku-to; EEG was recorded before administration, 1, 3, 6 hours and 10 days after administration. On direct comparison of global field powers calculated from 19-lead EEG before and after administration, it was verified that Saiboku-to possessed effects on central nervous systems. For assessment of pharmacokinetics of ingredients derived from Saiboku-to, pre- and post-treatment serum samples were assayed by HPLC and two ingredients were detected, besides individual differences being observed in their pharmacokinetic profiles. Given that these pharmacokinetics could be interpreted as the phenomena associated with Sho (traditional physical status classifications of patients), the subjects were classified into groups according to individual differences whereby quantitative pharmaco-EEG were employed to elucidate neurotropic effects of Saiboku-to. As the result, following two groups were evidenced: (1) a group demonstrating the mood elevator type after a single administration despite of no changes after repeated administrations, and (2) a group with a shift from the mood elevator type to the nootropics type being observed over time, delineating overt differences in EEG profiles among groups. Consequently, individual differences were evidenced to be involved in onset of neurotropic effects of Saiboku-to, permitting prediction of possible responses following repeated administrations by using EEG profiles. It was also suggested that neurotropic effects of respective ingredients could be anticipated by monitoring the time-course changes of both EEG and plasma levels of these ingredients. In summary, once further studies on oriental herbal medicines might progress based on efficacy assessments of respective ingredients with a clue of the present study, it is conceivable that these findings would play an important role as the objective indices in clinical application of herbal medicines in psychiatric fields, resulting in broadening the usefulness of oriental herbal medicines. PMID:9283235
In this study, Bacillus strains with an ability to produce acetoin were isolated from a Japanese traditional food, natto, on the basis of the Voges-Proskauer (VP) reaction, and strain SF4-3 was shown to be a predominant strain in acetoin production. Based on a variety of morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as the nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, the strain SF4-3 was identified as Bacillus subtilis. When it was incubated at 37°C with a speed of 180 rpm for 96 hr in the flasks, the maximum acetoin concentration was up to 33.90 g/L. The fermentation broths were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses; the results showed that the major metabolite was acetoin, and the purity could reach more than 95% without butanedione and 2,3-butanediol, which were usually produced together with acetoin in other strains. A novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of hydrophilic solvents and inorganic salts was developed for the extraction of acetoin from fermentation broths. The ethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate system could be used to extract acetoin from fermentation broths. The influences of phase composition on partition of acetoin were investigated. The maximum partition coefficient (9.68) and recovery (94.6%) of acetoin were obtained, when 25% (w/w) dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and 24% (w/w) ethanol were used. PMID:23742087
Fan, Yixiao; Tian, Yanjun; Zhao, Xiangying; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Liu, Jianjun
Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50 mg/kg) or BCT (400 mg/kg), respectively, 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake.
Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating
Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said
Age is the leading risk factor for many of the most prevalent and devastating diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. A number of herbal medicines have been used for centuries to ameliorate the deleterious effects of ageing-related diseases and increase longevity. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in normal ageing as well as in neurodegenerative processes. Since many of the constituents of herbal extracts are known antioxidants, it is believed that restoring oxidative balance may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which medicinal herbs can protect against ageing and cognitive decline. Based on the premise that astrocytes are key modulators in the progression of oxidative stress associated neurodegenerative diseases, 13 herbal extracts purported to possess anti-ageing properties were tested for their ability to protect U373 human astrocytes from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. To determine the contribution of antioxidant activity to the cytoprotective ability of extracts, total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were examined. Polygonum multiflorum, amongst others, was identified as possessing potent antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Not surprisingly, total phenol content of extracts was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, when total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were compared to the cytoprotective properties of extracts, only moderately strong correlations were observed. This finding suggests the involvement of multiple protective mechanisms in the beneficial effects of these medicinal herbs. PMID:22982670
Steele, Megan L; Truong, John; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Ooi, Lezanne; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald
Since ancient times, sake has played an important role in the Japanese culture. It has not just been drunk for pleasure, but for centuries was a significant component of religious and secular ceremonies, was offered to deities, and utilised in purification rituals. However, a gap between the symbolic significance of sake in Japan and its popularity as a beverage is
A research study was conducted to explore if and how cultural elements operate to facilitate or inhibit the meeting of needs that constitute successful adaptation to old age among Japanese Americans. Anthropological techniques of participant-observation, informal and structured interviews, and a survey were used as research methods. Formal…
Kendis, Randall Jay
Through history, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has adopted oriental philosophical practices of drug combination and interaction to address human diseases. To investigate this from a systems biology point of view, we analysed 28 TCM herbs for their anti-inflammatory function, using molecular docking and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network simulation. The inhibition potential of each herb toward five essential enzymes as well as their possible side effects were examined. Three commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory formulae were simulated to discover the combinatorial properties of each contained herb in regulating the whole metabolic network. We discovered that different ingredients of a formula tend to inhibit different targets, which almost covered all the targets in the whole network. We also found that herbal combinations could achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower doses compared with individual usage. New herbal combinations were also predicted based on the inhibition potentials and two types of synergistic drug combinations of TCM theory were discussed from the perspective of systems biology. Using this combined approach of molecular docking and network simulation, we were able to computationally elucidate the combinatorial effects of TCM to intervene disease networks. We expect novel TCM formulae or modern drug combinations to be developed based on this research. PMID:23612801
Gu, Shuo; Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua
Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer.
Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng
A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.
Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah
Grass-root research activities to clarify fire safety performance of Japanese traditional wooden construction are introduced. The activities aim to resolve conflict between the restoration of historic buildings and the reduction of risk and hazard of urban fires. Among various activities, scope and results of fire resistance tests on traditional soil wall assemblies supported by timber frame are reported in detail.
Yuji Hasemi; Noboru Yasui; Michitaka Akizuki; Koichi Kinoshita; Koichi Yamamoto; Masatomo Yoshida; Yoshihide Tamura; Mariko Takeda
This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…
Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem.
Inchinko-to (TJ-135) is a herbal medicine consisting of three kinds of crude drugs, and in Japan it is administered mainly to patients with cholestasis. The present study evaluated the effects of TJ-135 on concanavalin A (con A)-induced hepatitis in mice in vivo and con A-induced cytokine production in vitro. When mice were pretreated with oral TJ-135 for 1 week before intravenous con A injection, the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased 8 h after con A administration (-82%, -96% and -66% respectively). In histological investigations, sub-massive hepatic necrosis accompanying inflammatory cell infiltration was not observed in mice pretreated with TJ-135. Serum levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2 were significantly lower in mice pretreated with TJ-135 compared with controls, while IL-10 levels were higher in these mice. Intrasplenic IL-12 levels were significantly lower in mice pretreated with TJ-135, while intrasplenic IL-10 levels were higher in these mice. In vitro, IL-10 production by splenocytes was increased by the addition of TJ-135 to the culture medium, whereas the production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma was inhibited. These results suggest that con A-induced hepatitis was ameliorated by pretreatment with TJ-135. With regard to the mechanism of these effects of TJ-135, we speculate that TJ-135 inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokine and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore administration of TJ-135 may be useful in patients with severe acute hepatitis accompanying cholestasis or in those with autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:11052923
Yamashiki, M; Mase, A; Arai, I; Huang, X X; Nobori, T; Nishimura, A; Sakaguchi, S; Inoue, K
Background: Ulcerative colitis is an intractable inflammatory colonic disease, and its etiology remains unclear. Saireito, a traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for treating ulcerative colitis in Japan. We analyzed the immunological characteristics of an oxazolone (OXZ)-induced colitis (OC) model and examined the effects of sareito on this model. Methods: OXZ was injected into the colon of BALB\\/c mice. Saireito
Tetsuo Watanabe; Takeshi Yamamoto; Minako Yoshida; Kanae Fujiwara; Natsuko Kageyama-Yahara; Hirofumi Kuramoto; Yutaka Shimada; Makoto Kadowaki
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 ?g/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 ?g/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 ?g/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 ?g/mL).
Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud
Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (?? sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (??? jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (??? s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (?? g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine
Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun
Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:24716104
Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun
A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082
Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong
Daikenchuto (DKT), a pharmaceutical-grade traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders including postoperative ileus and has been integrated into the modern medical care system in Japan as a prescription drug. DKT is a multiherbal medicine consisting of Japanese pepper (zanthoxylum fruit), processed ginger, and ginseng with maltose as an additive. Despite substantial research on the pharmacological activities of DKT and its ingredients, the lack of studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of DKT has made it difficult to obtain a consistent picture of its mechanism of action. In the present study, we constructed an analysis procedure consisting of seven conditions of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis, which enabled the identification of 44 ingredients of DKT component herbs. We investigated the plasma and urine profiles of these ingredients 0.5 to 8 h after oral administration of 15.0 g of DKT in four healthy volunteers. The results indicated that 1) hydroxy-?-sanshool and -shogaol, the prominent peaks in plasma derived from Japanese pepper and ginger, respectively, were detected at 0.5 h and thereafter decreased throughout the sampling period; 2) ginsenoside Rb(1), a prominent peak derived from ginseng, increased gradually during the sampling period; 3) glucuronide conjugates of hydroxy-sanshools, shogaols, and gingerols were detected in plasma and urine; and 4) no obvious differences between samples from the two male and the two female individuals were observed. These results provide a strong basis for future studies on pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of DKT. PMID:20689019
Iwabu, Jun; Watanabe, Junko; Hirakura, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Yoshinori; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro
Free radical scavenging activity of the Japanese herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23) and its effect on superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxides, glutamate, and monoamine metabolites in aged rat brain
The free radical scavenging activity of the Japanese herbal medicine, Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23; TSUMURA & Co., Tokyo, Japan),\\u000a was examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. TJ-23 scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH),\\u000a superoxide (O2\\u000a ?), and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) dose-dependently. It also diminished carbon centered radicals (·C) generated by oxidative stress\\u000a and inhibited thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation in mouse cortex homogenate.
Y. Ueda; M. Komatsu; M. Hiramatsu
Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson’s disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.
Kung, Fan-Chin; Ishii, Ryouhei; Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Takeda, Masatoshi
Soshiho-tang (Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese) has been widely used for its various pharmacological effects, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihepatic fibrosis, and antitumor properties. To evaluate the safety of Soshiho-tang water extract (SST), we tested its subchronic toxicity in male and female Crl:CD (SD) rats. Rats were orally treated with four different doses (0, 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg/day) of SST administered for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption changes, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study. The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, or histopathology. Histological analysis did not show any liver or kidney alteration. We concluded that the 13-week repeated oral administration of SST did not cause any adverse effects in rats at dosage levels of ?2000?mg/kg/day. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was concluded to be 2000?mg/kg/day for both sexes.
Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, In-Shik; Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
'Saye', a traditional medicine used in Burkina Faso, which consists of extracts of Cochlospermum planchonii (rhizome), Cassia alata (leaf) and Phyllanthus amarus (whole plant), showed a significant effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites grown in vivo (IC(50) = 80.11 +/- 3.40 microg/mL; ED(50) = 112.78 +/- 32.32 mg/kg). In vitro the activity was lower. PMID:17926335
Traoré, M; Diallo, A; Nikièma, J B; Tinto, H; Dakuyo, Z P; Ouédraogo, J B; Guissou, I P; Guiguemdé, T R
The current standard treatment for cancer is a multidisciplinary therapy whereby various types of treatment are properly combined. Chemotherapy with multiple anticancer drugs is now common, and traditional, complementary, and alternative therapies are adopted as supportive measures. Medical care in Japan is distinguished by the ability for patients to access both Western and Kampo medical cares at the same time. There is a high degree of trust in the safety of Kampo therapies because they are practiced by medical doctors who are educated with fundamental diagnosis of Western medicine. Highly reliable clinical studies are being published, demonstrating that palliative or supportive care for cancer patients using Kampo preparations alleviates adverse effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This paper reports the circumstances around cancer care in Japan where traditional therapeutic Kampo formulas are used for patients undergoing cancer treatment with cutting-edge chemotherapy, specifically to alleviate adverse effects of anticancer drugs.
Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Moriya, Junji; Ogawa, Masao; Uenishi, Hiroaki; Akazawa, Sumiyo; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Matomo; Kobayashi, Junji
Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future.
Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu
In the present study, the anti-diabetic effects of a traditional Chinese medicinal formula extract, TongGuanWan, were investigated in type 2 diabetic animals. It was orally administered to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice once a day for 4 weeks at the doses of 62, 125, and 250?mg/kg body weight. TongGuanWan significantly lowered the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels as well as improved the glucose tolerance in db/db mice. The serum triglyceride levels in the db/db mice were significantly decreased, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased, after treatment with this herbal formula. TongGuanWan also markedly decreased the animals' body weights compared to those of the control db/db group but did not alter food intake. The effects of TongGuanWan were compared to those of the drug rosiglitazone. In addition, five main constituents of TongGuanWan, mangiferin, berberine, cinnamic aldehyde, timosaponin BII, and timosaponin AIII, were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD). These results suggest that TongGuanWan may be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22002851
Tang, Yi Hong; Sun, Zhao Lin; Fan, Ming Song; Li, Zhi Xiong; Huang, Cheng Gang
This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome.
Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun
Herbal medicines are assuming large use in the primary healthcare of individuals and communities consistently with the growing interest in traditional and alternative systems of medicine in many developed countries. Consumer surveys show a positive public attitude to complementary medicine.The regulation of herbal medicines is characterized by large differences depending on the ethnological, medical, and historical background of each country.
GIANNI BENZI; ADRIANA CECI
We investigated the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Wulingsan (WLS), on renal stone prevention using an ethylene glycol-induced nephrocalcinosis rat model. Forty-one male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (n=8) was the normal control; group 2 (n=11) served as the placebo group, and received a gastric gavage of starch and 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) as a stone inducer; group 3 received EG and a low dose of WLS (375 mg/kg); and group 4 received EG and a high dose of WLS (1,125 mg/kg). Baseline and final 24 h urine samples were collected individually; biochemical data of urine and serum were also obtained at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After 4 weeks, animals were killed and kidneys were harvested. The kidney specimens were examined by polarized light microscopy and the crystal deposits were evaluated by a semi-quantitative scoring method using computer software (ImageScoring). The results revealed that the rats of placebo group gained the least significant body weight; in contrast, the rats of WLS-fed groups could effectively reverse it. The placebo group exhibited lower levels of free calcium (p=0.059) and significantly lower serum phosphorus (p=0.015) in urine than WLS-fed rats. Histological findings of kidneys revealed tubular destruction, damage and inflammatory reactions in the EG-water rats. The crystal deposit scores dropped significantly in the WLS groups, from 1.40 to 0.46 in the low-dose group and from 1.40 to 0.45 in the high-dose group. Overall, WLS effectively inhibited the deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal and lowered the incidence of stones in rats (p=0.035). In conclusion, WLS significantly reduced the severity of calcium oxalate crystal deposits in rat kidneys, indicating that Wulingsan may be an effective antilithic herbal formula. PMID:18040675
Tsai, Chou-Huang; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Lieh-Der; Pan, Tien-Chien; Ho, Chien-Yi; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Wen-Chi
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto. PMID:22453301
Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka
The Japanese Archipelago has been developed to form distinct zones known as Hitozato, Satoyama and Okuyama, and these zones coincide well with the modern concept of sustainable deve lopment of conserved areas, residential and\\/or transitional areas, buffer zones and core areas. After the so-called Meiji Restoration, some 140 years ago, modernization proceeded rapidly and the Japanese people succeeded in achieving
The second generation Japanese Americans have largely attained middle-class status. This social ascendancy and simultaneous assimilation have not jeopardized relationships with aged parents. The continuity in filial practice between rural Japanese and contemporary American societies attenuates many of the strains in the family interaction. (Author)
Osako, Masako M.
Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas.
Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.
Collaborating with traditional healers remains a valid method for the identification of potential lead compounds for novel pharmaceuticals. However, the knowledge of these traditional healers is rapidly being lost. Historic herbal texts provide a unique window to identify plants whose specific uses are no longer known. We have identified nine plants in the 17th century Ambonese Herbal: Volume I which
E. J. Buenz; H. E. Johnson; E. M. Beekman; T. J. Motley; B. A. Bauer
Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions.
In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.
Pharmacovigilance is essential for developing reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines as used in Europe and the US. The existing systems were developed for synthetic medicines and require some modification to address the specific differences of medicinal herbs. Traditional medicine from many different cultures is used in Europe and the US which adds to the complexities and difficulties of even basic questions such as herb naming systems and chemical variability. Allied to this also is the perception that a 'natural' or herbal product must be safe simply because it is not synthetic which means that the safety element of monitoring for such medicines can be overlooked because of the tag associated with such products. Cooperation between orthodox physicians and traditional practitioners is needed to bring together the full case details. Independent scientific assistance on toxicological investigation, botanical verification can be invaluable for full evaluation of any case report. Systematic pharmacovigilance is essential to build up reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines for the development of appropriate guidelines for safe effective use. PMID:22342381
Shaw, Debbie; Graeme, Ladds; Pierre, Duez; Elizabeth, Williamson; Kelvin, Chan
Objective Kakkonto, a Japanese herbal medicine, is frequently used to treat the common cold not only with a physician's prescription, but also in self-medication situations. This study aimed to examine whether Kakkonto prevents the aggravation of cold symptoms if taken at an early stage of illness compared with a well-selected Western-style multiple cold medicine. Methods This study was a multicenter, active drug-controlled, randomized trial. Adults 18 to 65 years of age who felt a touch of cold symptoms and visited 15 outpatient healthcare facilities within 48 hours of symptoms onset were enrolled. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one treated with Kakkonto (Kakkonto Extract-A, 6 g/day) (n=209) and one treated with a Western-style multiple cold medicine (Pabron Gold-A, 3.6 g/day) (n=198) for at most four days. The primary outcome of this study was the aggravation of cold, nasal, throat or bronchial symptoms, scored as moderate or severe and lasting for at least two days within five days after entry into the study. Results Among the 410 enrollees, 340 (168 in the Kakkonto group and 172 in the Pabron group) were included in the analyses. The proportion of participants whose colds were aggravated was 22.6% in the Kakkonto group and 25.0% in the Pabron group (p=0.66). The overall severity of the cold symptoms was not significantly different between the groups. No harmful adverse events occurred in either group. Conclusion Kakkonto did not significantly prevent the progression of cold symptoms, even when prescribed at an early stage of the disease. PMID:24785885
Okabayashi, Satoe; Goto, Masashi; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Hidetsuna; Kimura, Akira; Uruma, Reiko; Takahashi, Yuko; Taneichi, Setsuko; Musashi, Manabu; Miyaki, Koichi
Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25 g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption ( approximately 49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 2-3 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400 +/- 50 mg/dl to 210 +/- 22 mg/dl (P < 0.001)] and significantly improved sugar uptake during the glucose tolerance test, compared with positive control. In addition, glucose levels were tested in sixteen human volunteers, with the recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received Glucolevel tablets 1 x 3 daily for a period of 4 weeks. Within the first week of Glucolevel consumption, baseline glucose levels were significantly reduced from 290 +/- 40 to 210 +/- 20 mg/dl. At baseline, a subgroup of eleven of these subjects had glucose levels below 300 mg% and the other subgroup had levels >/= 300 mg%. Clinically acceptable glucose levels were achieved during the 2-3 weeks of therapy in the former subgroup and during the 4th week of therapy in the latter subgroup. No side effect was reported. In addition, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1C values (8.2 +/- 1.03 to 6.9 +/- 0.94) was found in six patients treated with Glucolevel. Results demonstrate safety, tolerability and efficacy of herbal combinations of four plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis. PMID:18955212
Said, Omar; Fulder, Stephen; Khalil, Khaled; Azaizeh, Hassan; Kassis, Eli; Saad, Bashar
Background Most of the haloarchaeal strains have been isolated from hypersaline environments such as solar evaporation ponds, salt lakes, or salt deposits, and they, with some exceptions, lyse or lose viability in very low-salt concentrations. There are no salty environments suitable for the growth of haloarchaea in Japan. Although Natrialba asiatica and Haloarcula japonica were isolated many years ago, the question, "Are haloarchaea really thriving in natural environments of Japan?" has remained unanswered. Results Ten strains were isolated from a traditional Japanese-style salt field at Nie, Noto Peninsula, Japan by plating out the soil samples directly on agar plates containing 30% (w/v) salts and 0.5% yeast extract. They were most closely related to strains of three genera, Haladaptatus, Halococcus, and Halogeometricum. Survival rates in 3% and 0.5% SW (Salt Water, solutions containing salts in approximately the same proportions as found in seawater) solutions at 37°C differed considerably depending on the strains. Two strains belonging to Halogeometricum as well as the type strain Hgm. borinquense died and lysed immediately after suspension. Five strains that belonged to Halococcus and a strain that may be a member of Halogeometricum survived for 1–2 days in 0.5% SW solution. Two strains most closely related to Haladaptatus possessed extraordinary strong tolerance to low salt conditions. About 20 to 34% of the cells remained viable in 0.5% SW after 9 days incubation. Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated that haloarchaea are really thriving in the soil of Japanese-style salt field. The haloarchaeal cells, particularly the fragile strains are suggested to survive in the micropores of smaller size silt fraction, one of the components of soil. The inside of the silt particles is filled with concentrated salt solution and kept intact even upon suspension in rainwater. Possible origins of the haloarchaea isolated in this study are discussed.
Fukushima, Tadamasa; Usami, Ron; Kamekura, Masahiro
Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications.
Jidabokuippo is a traditional Japanese medicine used for contusion-induced swelling and pain. This open multicenter randomized study was designed to compare the efficacies of jidabokuippo and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rib fracture by analyzing the treatment duration. Our study involved 170 rib fracture patients capable of oral ingestion divided randomly into 2 groups: the jidabokuippo and NSAID groups. We compared the duration of treatment and healthcare expenditure between these 2 groups. Medication was continued in both groups until the visual analogue scale score decreased to less than 50% of the pretreatment score. We excluded the patients in whom medication was prematurely discontinued. We analyzed 81 patients belonging to the jidabokuippo and NSAIDs groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in age, gender, severity (injury severity score), and presence/absence of underlying disease. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P = 0.0003). Healthcare expenditure was significantly lower in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that compared to NSAIDs, jidabokuippo can shorten the duration of treatment in patients with rib fracture and is a promising analgesic agent based on the medical economic viewpoint.
Nakae, Hajime; Yokoi, Aya; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Akira
The acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin treatment occurs very frequently and is aggravated by exposure to cold. Goshajinkigan (GJG), a traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, was recently shown to be effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy. However, because the effects of GJG and its mechanism in relation to those of its ingredients and its mechanism are not well understood, we examined the effects of GJG on acute neuropathy. Further, we investigated whether GJG affects the functions and gene expressions of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels using a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Administration of oxaliplatin increased withdrawal responses from cold stimulation, and GJG or calcium gluconate/magnesium sulfate significantly inhibited the oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity. Application of menthol, a TRPA1/TRPM8 agonist, or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a selective TRPA1 agonist, to the hind paw of oxaliplatin-treated rats enhanced the nocifensive behaviors evoked by each agonist, whereas oxaliplatin had no significant effect on nocifensive behaviors evoked by capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. GJG treatment reduced menthol- or AITC-evoked withdrawal responses potentiated by oxaliplatin. Furthermore, GJG suppressed the increase of TRPA1 and TRPM8 mRNA expression induced by oxaliplatin in dorsal root ganglia. These findings suggest that GJG prevented oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy by suppressing functional alteration of TRP channels, especially TRPA1 and TRPM8. PMID:24784702
Mizuno, Keita; Kono, Toru; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Miyagi, Chika; Omiya, Yuji; Miyano, Kanako; Kase, Yoshio; Uezono, Yasuhito
Effects of goshuyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine, on vascular constriction were examined using isolated strips of rat aorta. Goshuyuto (1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-3) g/ml) caused constriction of aorta strips in a dose-dependent manner. The vasoconstrictive effects of goshuyuto were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with prazosin, an adrenergic alpha(1) receptor antagonist. The constrictive effects were partially inhibited by pretreatment with BRL15572, a 5-HT(1D) antagonist, and ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) antagonist. However, the constrictive effects were not inhibited by pretreatment with SB216641, a 5-HT(1B) antagonist, or propranolol, an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. In addition, aqueous extracts of Evodiae Fructus, one of the constituent medicinal herbs of goshuyuto, caused constriction of aorta strips strongly, but aqueous extracts of Zizyphi Fructus, Ginseng Radix, and Zingiberis Rhizoma, the other constituents of goshuyuto, did not have much effect on the vascular response of rat aorta strips. Also, synephrine, which is one of the ingredients of Evodiae Fructus, constricted the rat aorta. These results suggest that goshuyuto constricts rat aorta strips and that the mechanisms involve the adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors. Also, it may be suggested that Evodiae Fructus and synephrine play the important role in the vasoconstrictive effects of goshuyuto on rat aorta strips. PMID:19182382
Hibino, Tomoko; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kanno, Hitomi; Kase, Yoshio; Takeda, Atsushi
Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) in Uncaria hook, a galenical constituent of yokukansan is thought to be one of active components in the psychotropic effect of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine (kampo medicine). However, there is no data on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of Uncaria hook-derived alkaloids containing GM. In this study, we investigated the BBB permeability of seven Uncaria hook alkaloids (GM, isocorynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, hirsuteine, hirsutine, rhynchophylline, and corynoxeine) using in vivo and in vitro methods. In the in vivo experiment, seven alkaloids in the plasma and brain of rats orally administered with yokukansan were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy/mass spectrometric multiple reaction monitoring assay. In the in vitro experiment, the BBB permeability of seven alkaloids were examined using the BBB model composed of co-culture of endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes. In the in vivo study, six components containing GM but not isocorynoxeine were detected in the plasma, and three (GM, hirsuteine, and corynoxeine) of components were detected in the brain. The in vitro BBB permeability data indicated that seven alkaloids were able to cross brain endothelial cells in culture conditions and that the BBB permeability of GM was higher than those of the other six alkaloids. These results suggest that target ingredient GM in yokukansan administered orally is absorbed into the blood and then reaches the brain through the BBB. This evidence further supports the possibility that GM is an active component in the psychotropic effect of yokukansan. PMID:21442303
Imamura, Sachiko; Tabuchi, Masahiro; Kushida, Hirotaka; Nishi, Akinori; Kanno, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Kase, Yoshio
Background: Mahuang decoction (MHD), a famous classic traditional Chinese formula, has been extensively applied for treating cold, influenza, asthma, acute bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. However, the interaction among four drugs of MHD has not been clearly deciphered from the aspect of molecular composition. Objective: To assess the quality of MHD and explore the interplay among different prescription drugs. Materials and Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine bioactive components was developed. A somatomedin A (SMA)-phenyl column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 ?m) was eluted by a gradient mobile phase contained acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid-0.05% triethylamine aqueous solution. Four detection wavelengths (210, 252, 278, and 291 nm) were utilized for the quantitative analysis due to the different ultraviolet (UV) spectra of these compounds. Results: Satisfactory separation was obtained for all the components, and the assay was fully validated in respects of linearity, precision, stability, and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2? 0.9991) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday repeatability were not more than 1.70 and 2.66%, respectively. The spike recoveries of nine components varied from 97.50 ± 1.69 to 99.27 ± 1.37%. Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to analyze nine active compounds in decoction samples of various drug compatibilities of MHD. The variations of contents were obvious for different combinations, which hinted the mutual promotion or inhibition of componential dissolution among four herbs of MHD.
He, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ruping; Ge, Lijun; Wan, Haitong
Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of patients with shrinking of uterine fibroids or average volume of uterine fibroids, but less effective than mifepristone on reducing average size of uterus (mean difference 23.23 cm3, 95% confidence interval 17.85 to 28.61). There was no significant difference between Nona Roguy herbal product and GnRH agonist in average volume of uterine fibroids or size of uterus. No serious adverse effects from herbal preparations was reported. Authors’ conclusions Current evidence does not support or refute the use of herbal preparations for treatment of uterine fibroids due to insufficient studies of large sample and high quality. Further high quality trials evaluating clinically relevant outcomes are warranted.
Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco
Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed.
Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.
Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines.
Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, AK
18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin (GL), which is one of the components of glycyrrhiza root, a constituent herb of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan. It is well known that most GL is metabolized to GA in the intestine by bacteria. A previous in vitro study using cultured rat cortical astrocytes suggested that GA activates glutamate transport, which is a putative mechanism of the psychotropic effect of yokukansan. To activate the glutamate transport in the brain, GA must be absorbed into the blood after oral administration of yokukansan and then cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach the brain. However, there is no data on the BBB permeability of GA derived from yokukansan. In the present study, the BBB permeability of GA was investigated in both in vivo and in vitro studies. In the in vivo study, GA was detected in the plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid of rats orally administered yokukansan. In the in vitro study using a BBB model composed of co-culture of endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes, the permeability rate and apparent permeability coefficient of GA were found to be 13.3 ± 0.5 % and 16.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) cm/s. These in vivo and in vitro results suggest that GL in orally administered yokukansan is absorbed into the blood as GA, and then reaches the brain through the BBB. This evidence further supports the possibility that GA is an active component in the psychotropic effect of yokukansan. PMID:22488528
Tabuchi, Masahiro; Imamura, Sachiko; Kawakami, Zenji; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Kase, Yoshio
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a traditional herbal preparation, Jobelyn,® for its effects on anemia and CD4+ T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) patients in Nigeria. Design: An open-label pilot study involving 10 confirmed (HIV+) patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) was performed, in which the patients consumed Jobelyn for 8 weeks, at a dose of 500?mg twice daily. The pilot study was followed by a controlled trial involving 51 patients, all confirmed HIV+, where the patients with CD4+ T-cell counts below 350 cells/?L were receiving ARVT. The eight patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/?L received Jobelyn. The remaining patients who all received ARVT were randomized to ARVT alone versus ARVT+Jobelyn for 12 weeks. Results: Patients receiving ARVT showed a statistically significant improvement in their CD4+ T-cell counts across the 12-week study period (p<0.01). Patients receiving ARVT+Jobelyn showed a faster improvement, reaching a high level of statistical significance compared to baseline already at 6 weeks (p<0.001), and remained highly significant at 12 weeks (p<0.001). Conclusions: This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV+ patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4+ T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV+ patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function.
Ayuba, Godwin I.; Jensen, Gitte S.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Okubena, Ademola M.
The traditional approach in teaching the Japanese copula is shown to be linguistically and pedagogically defective. An alternative analysis of -da and -desu and a practical method of presenting them is demonstrated. (HP)
Mills, David O.
Indigenous plants are used as a traditional source of raw materials for the manufacture of medicines. Modernizing the ancient art of herbal medicine bequeathed from generations entails addressing two interrelated issues i.e. efficacy, and safety prior to their acceptance and use worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate three of our veterinary poly-herbal formulations – Phytocee™ an antistressor; Zigbir®
C. V. Chandrasekaran; K. Sundarajan; Kripalini David; Amit Agarwal
Herbal drug therapy is a common practice adopted in traditional and alternative medicine and has been used in the treatment of neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia from ancient times. This is done with the help of different herbal extracts and using different treatment methods. The knowledge of new possibilities and the fact that herbal drugs have been used in some communities
Seyed Hessamedin Nabavizadeh; Ozair-bin Majid; Amir Anushiravani
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-cancer herbal drugs is of importance. Herbal medication is now being used for treatment of various diseases, including cancer in many countries. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of traditional herbal medicines (Aloe vera, Ginger, Ziziphora and Saffron extracts)
Tooba Ghazanfari; Roya Yaraee; Jalaleddin Shams; Batool Rahmati; Tayebeh Radjabian; Hoda Hakimzadeh
In Africa, the use of traditional herbal remedy is widespread. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most serious complications. The use of herbal remedies (mostly orally) accounts for nearly 35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Development of renal failure following herbal vaginal pessary is rarely reported. In November 2003, a 35-year-old Nigerian female who is a petty trader and a primary school leaver with three children (all males) presented to us in the renal unit with oliguric ARF induced by herbal vaginal pessary. She had sought this alternative medicine in an attempt to have a female child as all her three children are males. Her condition was managed accordingly and required three sessions of hemodialysis. She started diuresing on the eighth day of admission. This case presentation highlights the potential tragedies of herbal preparation, of note, that herbal vaginal pessaries are as deleterious as the oral preparations, and that the dilemma of ignorance is still prevalent in our society.
Onyemekeihia, U. R.; Esume, C. O.; Oladele, C. O.; Oviasu, E.
In Africa, the use of traditional herbal remedy is widespread. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most serious complications. The use of herbal remedies (mostly orally) accounts for nearly 35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Development of renal failure following herbal vaginal pessary is rarely reported. In November 2003, a 35-year-old Nigerian female who is a petty trader and a primary school leaver with three children (all males) presented to us in the renal unit with oliguric ARF induced by herbal vaginal pessary. She had sought this alternative medicine in an attempt to have a female child as all her three children are males. Her condition was managed accordingly and required three sessions of hemodialysis. She started diuresing on the eighth day of admission. This case presentation highlights the potential tragedies of herbal preparation, of note, that herbal vaginal pessaries are as deleterious as the oral preparations, and that the dilemma of ignorance is still prevalent in our society. PMID:20535252
Onyemekeihia, U R; Esume, C O; Oladele, C O; Oviasu, E
This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891
Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra
Mandragora officinarum L. is one of the traditional drug recorded in Uigurian document, but Uigurian doctors mistake Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. for Mandragora officinarum L. By herbal study and research of systematic botany for Uigurian drug Mandragora officinarum L., this paper considers that is doesn't substitute Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. for Mandragora officinarum L. PMID:12572420
Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y
Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise
Medicinal herbs are significant source of hepatoprotective drugs. Mono and poly-herbal preparations have been used in various liver disorders. According to one estimate, more than 700 mono and poly-herbal preparations in the form of decoction, tincture, tablets and capsules from more than 100 plants are in clinical use. A drug having beneficial affect on the liver is known as hepatoprotective
Amrit Pal Singh
Symptom relief in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) is frequently sought with complementary and alternative medicine, and various herbal medicine compounds are popular in different parts of the world. Only a few products, however, are standardized and are backed by scientific evidence. This review mainly focuses on mechanistic and clinical data in support of the Japanese traditional compound Rikkunshi-to (RKT) and of STW-5. Their effects on gut sensori-motor function, neurohormonal network, and controlled clinical data in FGID are revised. RKT and STW-5 appear to possess some degree of gastroprokinetic, visceral analgesic properties, and seem to increase the gastric accommodation response. Controlled trials of RKT and STW-5 support at least a modest effect on symptoms of functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, with low side effects profile. With the widespread use of herbals and the relative paucity of effective pharmacological options for FGID, rigorous studies to further elucidate pharmacological actions and clinical applications of herbal compounds are a priority. PMID:24965903
Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases. PMID:20626333
Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed
The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions. PMID:18952343
The use of herbal therapies is ancient and increasing worldwide. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of various "complementary" and alternative medicine approaches in the management of headache disorders. Promising tools to treat migraine patients are herbal products. In particular constituents of Petasites hybridus, Tanacetum Parthenium and Ginkgo Biloba have shown antimigraine action in clinical studies. A miscellaneous of recreational drugs and other herbal remedies have been supposed to have a role in headache treatment but quality of clinical studies in this field is low and inconclusive. Further research is warranted in this area. PMID:24867850
D'Andrea, G; Cevoli, S; Cologno, D
Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.
Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug. PMID:21318994
Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.
Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.
Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254
Exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to many positive health outcomes, yet its widespread adoption as the primary mode of providing nutrition to infants remains challenging. The most common reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is perception of inadequate milk production. To augment breast milk production, a substantial number of women turn to herbal galactogogues despite the limited scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to evaluate the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. PubMed was searched from inception to October 2012 using an iterative search process that proceeded from broad categories to specific herbs. Manuscript references were also reviewed. Only experimental studies with objective outcome measures were included. Six trials met our search criteria. Using an adapted version of the CONSORT checklist, each trial was evaluated for potential sources of bias in design and reporting. Shatavari, torbangun, fenugreek, milk thistle, and a Japanese herbal medication were the 5 herbal preparations studied. Five trials found an increase in breast milk production. Several limitations exist that affect the validity of the trial results, including small sample size, insufficient randomization methods, poorly defined eligibility criteria, use of poly-herbal interventions, and variable breastfeeding practices among enrolled subjects. Given the insufficiency of evidence from these trials, no recommendation is made for the use of herbs as galactogogues. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical trials that address the above limitations are necessary to generate a body of evidence as a basis for recommendations regarding herbal galactogogues. PMID:23468043
Mortel, Mylove; Mehta, Supriya D
A case of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus occurring in a young man, in association with traditional herbal medicine consumption is presented. Clinical and laboratory investigations did not reveal any of the known aetiological associations of the Opsoclonus-Myoclonus syndrome, raising the possibility that the traditional herbal medicine may be aetiologically implicated. This report highlights the need for proper identification and documentation of the contents of common herbal remedies and their possible side effects amongst Africans. PMID:9640838
Adamolekun, B; Hakim, J G
Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine\\u000a with type IV allergic reaction.Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis\\u000a were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear\\u000a swelling,
Xi-ran Lin; Cai-xia Tu; Xian-min Meng; Chun-mei Yang; Ming-yang Gao; Ling Gu
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085
Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan
Plants are used by humans in daily life in many different ways, including as food, herbal medicines, and cosmetics. Unfortunately, many natural plants and their chemical constituents are photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic, and these phototoxic phytochemicals are widely present in many different plant families. To date, information concerning the phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of many plants and their chemical constituents is limited. In this review, we discuss phototoxic plants and their major phototoxic constituents; routes of human exposure; phototoxicity of these plants and their constituents; general mechanisms of phototoxicity of plants and phototoxic components; and several representative phototoxic plants and their photoactive chemical constituents. PMID:24024520
Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei
We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of
N Qinna; H Taha; K Z Matalka; A A Badwan
Herbal (botanical) therapy has been used as treatment for headache disorders for millennia. Botanical therapy can be divided into 3 categories: oral, topical, and "aromatherapy." In this article, the options in these categories and the evidence supporting their use are discussed. Unfortunately, evidence is sparse for most herbal treatments, in large part due to a paucity of funding for the type of studies needed to assess their efficacy. Butterbur and feverfew are the 2 herbal oral preparations best studied, and they seem to have real potential to help many patients with migraine and perhaps other headache types. Patients most appropriate for trials of herbal therapy include those who have been refractory to pharmaceutical and other modes of therapy, patients who have had intolerable side effects from pharmaceutical medications, and patients willing to participate in controlled comparative studies. As for mechanisms behind botanical treatments, the lack of funding for studying these agents will continue to retard progress in this area as well, but hopefully the future will bring more concentrated efforts in this field. PMID:23030536
Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities.
Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.
Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels.
Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi
Using the example of the Wõthïhã of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wõthïhã ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wõthïhã shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wõthïhã have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wõthïhã to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wõthïhã, each with its own herbal tradition. PMID:17405697
Heckler, S L
From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.
The online division of Prints and Photographs from the Library of Congress has digitized many of their more than 2500 Japanese woodblock prints. To become familiar with the print traditions in Japanese art, visitors should click on the link entitled "Background and Scope". Users can browse by creator, subject or format. Each individual image may be viewed in a variety of file sizes and formats, as well as downloaded.
Background\\/Aim: Nephropathy after ingestion of Chinese herbs is known as a rapidly progressive form of interstitial renal fibrosis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid that was identified first in Belgium. Intake of traditional Chinese herbal medicines is very popular in Taiwan. So we looked for similar cases in our hospital. Methods: From 1994 to 1998, we observed 20 Taiwanese
Chung-Hsin Chang; Yi-Ming Wang; An-Hang Yang; Shou-Shan Chiang
We report the case of a 52 year old woman that had an adverse reaction after taking a dry herbal extract of an unripe fruit of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara, as dietary supplement for weight loosing. The fruit is also known as zhi shi (in traditional Chinese Medicine) or bitter orange in other parts of the world.
F. Firenzuoli; L. Gori; C. Galapai
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374
Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna
In this trial, patients with high-grade glioma will be randomly assigned to take an herbal preparation of Boswellia serrata (frankincense) and undergo standard treatment for six months or undergo standard treatment alone for six months. Researchers want to see the addition of herbal therapy can help relieve brain swelling in these patients.
Complementary and alternative therapies, including herbal products, have become increasingly popular in the general population and among patients and physicians. Regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal drugs are still incomplete and need to be improved. In fact, herbals are commonly marketed on the Internet, and in many countries they are sold as food supplements, which are beyond the control of drug regulatory agencies. In Europe and the U.S., reports of hepatotoxicity from these products, including those advertised for liver diseases, are accumulating. Many herbal drugs are also commonly used in children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, because they are believed to be "natural" and, therefore, "harmless." One emerging problem is people preferring herbal-based slimming aids to conventional dietary and physical activity. In Italy, the use of non-conventional therapies has been reported for 13.6 % of the population, and 3.7 % freely use herbal drugs, unaware of the risks associated with a potential interaction with prescription drugs. In our review, we discuss the problem of the lack of standardization of herbal drugs, the lack of randomized clinical trials regarding the majority of these products, the unawareness of risks by the patients who buy and use them, and, further, the problem of underreporting. For the most commonly used herbal products and slimming aids, we describe their potential hepatotoxicity mechanisms, the causality assessment necessary for a correct diagnosis, and the clinical patterns for which these products seem to be responsible. PMID:22477279
Licata, Anna; Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Craxì, Antonio
A series of surveys taken from 1953-73 assessed postwar attitudes of the Japanese toward religion, tradition, culture, politics, and aesthetics. Findings indicate that Japanese attitudes have become more oriented to the individual than to society. Available from: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC…
Thayer, Nathaniel B.
The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder.
A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as "tailor-made medicine" and has properties similar to "mind and body" or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients' lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans.There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283
The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder
A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms.
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.
Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467
Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru
The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602
Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G
Deng's herbal tea (DHT), a famous traditional Chinese herbal tea consisting of six traditional Chinese medicines (Honeysuckle, Chrysanthemum, Rhizoma imperatae, Folium mori, dandelion and liquorice), is widely used in China for its health benefits. In this paper, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RRLC–MS) method was developed for the identification and determination of the major constituents in
Jiewei Deng; Chunlin Fan; Yunyun Yang
Herbal medicine is being increasingly used by women to prevent diseases, promote health and treat different diseases including a number of psychiatric disorders. The use of herbal drugs is increasing in the western world. The use of herbal drugs during pregnancy has been studied to various extents in different countries. However, more information is required regarding the impact of herbal
University of Washington, Technical Japanese Program. Services related to the teaching of Technical Japanese, and a good selection of Japan-related resources. Programs offered: Inter-Engineering MSE in Technical Japanese (IMTJ) and Japanese Program for Professionals (JPP).
Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433
Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh
Background Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients’ metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. Description HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski’s Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients’ targets databases). Conclusions A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/.
1. The use of herbal products to treat a wide range of conditions is rising rapidly, leading to increased intake of phytochemicals. Recent studies revealed potentially fatal interactions between herbal remedies and traditional drugs. 2. In transplant patients, self-medication with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has led to a drop in plasma levels of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine, causing tissue rejection. 3. Intake of St John's wort increases the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein and the expression of CYP3A4 in the liver and intestine. The combined up-regulation in intestinal P-glycoprotein and hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 impairs the absorption and stimulates the metabolism of cyclosporine, leading to subtherapeutic plasma levels. The St John's wort component, hyperforin, contributes to the induction of CYP3A4. 4. St John's wort also enhances the metabolism of other CYP3A4 substrates including the protease inhibitors indinavir and nevirapine, oral contraceptives, and tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. 5. Other herbal remedies with the potential to modulate cytochrome P450 activity and thus participate in interactions with conventional drugs include Milk thistle, Angelica dahurica, ginseng, garlic preparations, Danshen and liquorice. 6. Herbal products are currently not subject to the rigorous testing indispensable for conventional drugs. However, if potential drug interactions are to be predicted, it is essential that the ability of herbal products to interfere with drug-metabolizing enzyme systems is fully established. PMID:12160480
Determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, and glycyrrhizin by HPLC-PDA, and evaluation of the cytotoxicity of Palmul-tang, a traditional Korean herbal medicine.
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for quantitative analysis of seven components, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (1), albiflorin (2), paeoniflorin (3), liquiritin (4), ferulic acid (5), nodakenin (6), and glycyrrhizin (7) of Palmul-tang (PMT), a traditional Korean medicine. HPLC analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column at 40°C, and photodiode array (PDA) detection at 230 nm, 254 nm, 280 nm, 320 nm, and 330 nm was used for quantification of the seven components in PMT. The mobile phase was a gradient flow composed of two solvent systems. Solvent A was 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and solvent B was acetonitrile containing 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid. Calibration curves were acquired with r (2) values > 0.9998, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, %) for intra- and interday precision were both less than 6.0%. The recovery of each component was in the range of 90.66-103.79%, with a RSD less than 5.0%. The contents of the seven components in PMT range form 0.61-6.21 mg/g. Additionally, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the extract against the RBL-1 and BEAS-2B cell lines, as well as splenocytes. PMID:22297748
Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Mee-Young; Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Jin-Ah; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105
Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Wo?niak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa
Sho-saiko-to (SST), a Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis in Japan, and the immunomodulatory properties of SST are likely to mediate its beneficial effect. In the present study, we examined the effects of SST and its various ingredients on the count and proliferation of T-cell subsets in cultured splenocytes and hepatic mononuclear cells. SST, wogonin-7-O-glucuronoside (a major SST ingredient), and wogonin (an intestinal metabolite of wogonin-7-O-glucuronoside) increased CD4/CD8 ratio via a decrease of CD8+ T-cell counts with no effect on CD4+ T-cell counts. Flow cytometric analyses of viability, proliferation, and cell cycle revealed that wogonin suppressed CD8+ T-cell proliferation without inducing cell death. SST and wogonin administered to mice increased the CD4/CD8 ratio in hepatic mononuclear cells but not in splenocytes. These findings suggest that SST may modulate the CD4/CD8 ratio via the selective inhibition of CD8+ T-cell proliferation by the SST ingredient wogonin-7-O-glucuronoside or its metabolite wogonin. PMID:15659321
Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Masaki; Ishige, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Inoue, Makoto
Complementary and alternative medicine is increasing in use in the pediatric oncology population. Although there is a multitude of herbal therapies used, the focus of this article is a review of the literature addressing some herbal therapies used to treat the symptoms of cancer and side effects of traditional methods of treatment. Ginger is used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. St. John's wort is successful in treating depression and anxiety. Echinacea is used as an immunostimulant. Herbal therapies in the pediatric oncology population are usually initiated and managed by parents. Many herbal therapies are beneficial, but some potential herb-drug interactions should be considered. This poses a challenge to the oncology nurse because herbal treatments are managed by the parents and pharmaceuticals are managed by the practitioner. Educating the patient, family, and practitioner is important in ensuring a thorough health history assessment and, subsequently, safe and effective herbal and pharmacological therapies. PMID:17185400
Quimby, Erin L
The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…
... Popular Herbal Products and Possible Side Effects or Interactions with Anesthetics Black Cohosh Blood pressure decrease; may ... John’s Wort Sedation; blood pressure changes; risk of interaction with other medications that prolong effects of anesthesia. ...
To investigate the possible drug interaction with herbal medicine, hot water decoctions or 40% ethanol infusions of several Umbelliferous or Citrus crude drugs and their prescriptions were examined in vitro for their abilities to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Addition of each decoction or infusion from Baizhi (Angelica dahurica and varieties), Qianghuo (Notopterygium incisum or N. forbesii), Duhuo (Angelica biserrata), Fangfeng (Saposhnikovia divaricata), Danggui (Angelicasinensis), Zhishi or Zhiqiao (Citrus aurantium) resulted in various degrees of human CYP3A inhibition as determined by microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. The inhibitory potency was consistent with the abundance of the hydrophobic components for each sample. Experiments on the infusion of a Japanese Baizhi (BZ1) showed the major role of furanocoumarins on human CYP3A inhibition. Some of the crude drugs and a related prescription showed increased inhibition after the preincubation, suggesting the involvement of a mechanism-based inhibition. Some formulated prescriptions, however, showed intense inhibition with their hydrophobic fractions rather than with their hydrophobic fractions, suggesting that components other than furanocoumarins in herbal prescriptions may also cause CYP3A inhibition. These results indicate the necessity of intensive investigations on the possible drug interaction with traditional medicines. PMID:11388644
Guo, L Q; Taniguchi, M; Chen, Q Y; Baba, K; Yamazoe, Y
Objective To determine fourth-year Canadian pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine and whether that knowledge is associated with mandatory instruction in herbal medicine. Methods Standardized multiple-choice tests assessing students' herbal knowledge were distributed to all fourth-year BSc pharmacy students at 5 pharmacy schools in Canada. Results The Quebec response rate was too low to include in the analysis. Herbal knowledge test scores were positively associated with having previously taken an herbal medicine class and completion of a pharmacy practicum. However, postsecondary education, age, and gender were not associated with herbal knowledge test scores. Students at the University of British Columbia had the highest score, followed by Alberta, Nova Scotia, and Ontario. Conclusion Pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine varies depending on the school attended and higher herbal knowledge test scores appear to be most closely related to mandatory herbal instruction.
Johnson, Teela; Jurgens, Tannis; Austin, Zubin; Moineddin, Rahim; Eccott, Lynda; Heschuk, Shirley
Traditionally, Japanese is said to have two kinds of negative word nai, meaning 'not' in English: the nai occurring after a verb or adjective and the nai with an independent status as a word. In contrast to traditional Japanese linguistics, most generative studies of Japanese have made no such distinction but rather focused their attention on such issues as the
Akira IKEYA; Masahito KAWAMORI; Toyo Gakuen
Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504
Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S
Osteoporosis is an aging problem. The declining bone mineral density (BMD) enhances the chances of fractures during minor falls. Effective pharmaceuticals are available for a rapid improvement of BMD. However, hormonal treatment gives serious complications, and bisphosphonates may lead to odd fractures of long bones, resulting from excessive rigidity of the cortical components. Many medicinal herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, known as kidney tonics, have been tested for their effects on bone metabolism in the laboratory and clinically. Three of these, viz. Herba epimedii (???, Yín Yáng Huò), Fructus ligustri lucidi (???, N? Zh?n Zi), and Fructus psoraleae (???, B? G? Zh?) were chosen to form a herbal formula, ELP. ELP was tested on in vitro platforms and was shown to have both osteoblastic and anti- osteoclastic action. ELP tested on ovariectomized rats also showed BMD protection. ELP was then put on a placebo- controlled randomized clinical trial. BMD protection was obvious among those women with the onset of menopause beyond 10 years (P < 0.05). A general protective trend was observed among all women under trial (P > 0.05). Although a thorough literature review on the herbal treatment effects did not give convincing answers to the use of Chinese herbs in osteoporosis, our study supports more research and trials in this area, while we are looking for safe and effective agents to keep the bone metabolism in a balanced state.
Leung, Ping-Chung; Siu, Wing-Sum
Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition. PMID:21318244
Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna
The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.
Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind
Indigenous plants are used as a traditional source of raw materials for the manufacture of medicines. Modernizing the ancient art of herbal medicine bequeathed from generations entails addressing two interrelated issues i.e. efficacy, and safety prior to their acceptance and use worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate three of our veterinary poly-herbal formulations - Phytocee an antistressor; Zigbir(R) a hepatoprotectant; and Zist(R) as an immunomodulator in the pertinent in vitro cell assay models in order to validate their therapeutic potential. Cellular antioxidant potential of Phytocee was demonstrated against AAPH induced oxidative stress using HepG2 cells. Zigbir(R) was confirmed as a hepatoprotectant against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Immunomodulatory activity of Zist(R) was established by its ability to inhibit the proliferation of mitogen stimulated murine splenocytes in vitro. On treatment with Zist(R), a trend of decline in IL-6, and IL-12 levels was observed following stimulation with Con A, and LPS respectively in murine splenocytes. Further, all the three poly-herbal formulations were subjected to Ames II assay for ensuring their safety profile. Results epitomize that all the three poly-herbal formulations were devoid of significant mutagenic effect in TA98, and TAMix strains of Salmonella typhimurium under our experimental conditions. PMID:19958825
Chandrasekaran, C V; Sundarajan, K; David, Kripalini; Agarwal, Amit
Herbal toothpowders are available in market in a wide varieties, which consist of various ingredients. In rural areas of the developing countries, they are still used for cleansing teeth. Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous disorder that is believed to be a sequel of a cytotoxic immunologic attack on keratinocytes which express non-self-antigens. A 31-year-old male who used herbal toothpowder for oral-hygiene maintenance presented with ulcers in mouth, encrustation on lips and target lesions on both hands, suggesting Erythema multiforme. An oral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report of an association of herbal extracts and EM in the English literature. With this report, we present a rare new triggering factor of Erythema mutiforme, thus adding it to the endless list of aetiologies.
Satpute, Pranali; Yadav, Lalita; Ahmed, Riyaz; Kashid, Avinash; Peter, Kalpak
Herbal toothpowders are available in market in a wide varieties, which consist of various ingredients. In rural areas of the developing countries, they are still used for cleansing teeth. Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous disorder that is believed to be a sequel of a cytotoxic immunologic attack on keratinocytes which express non-self-antigens. A 31-year-old male who used herbal toothpowder for oral-hygiene maintenance presented with ulcers in mouth, encrustation on lips and target lesions on both hands, suggesting Erythema multiforme. An oral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report of an association of herbal extracts and EM in the English literature. With this report, we present a rare new triggering factor of Erythema mutiforme, thus adding it to the endless list of aetiologies. PMID:24783158
Satpute, Pranali; Yadav, Lalita; Ahmed, Riyaz; Kashid, Avinash; Peter, Kalpak
This article explores the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of herbal medicines and assesses the extent to which this approach has been applied so far to these products. There seems to be no compelling need for pharmacoeconomic analyses of herbal over-the-counter medicines, but such analyses are certainly warranted for herbal prescription medicines that have a high level of reimbursement. Such
Peter A. G. M. De Smet; Gouke Bonsel; Ary Van der Kuy; Yechiel A. Hekster; Marja H. Pronk; Mark J. A. Brorens; Jacques H. M. Lockefeer; Mark J. C. Nuijten
Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. PMID:24525263
Sahranavard, Shamim; Ghafari, Saeedeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud
Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used. PMID:16037649
Traditional medicine has made use of many different plant extracts for treatment of fungal infections and some of these have been tested for in vitro antifungal activity. This systematic review evaluates antifungal herbal preparations that have been tested in controlled clinical trials. Four electronic databases were searched for controlled clinical trials of antifungal herbal medicines. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent reviewers and are reviewed narratively. Seven clinical trials met our inclusion criteria. Tea tree oil preparations were tested in four randomized clinical trials and some positive outcomes were attributed to the intervention in all trials. Solanum species (two trials) and oil of bitter orange preparations (one trial) were compared with conventional treatments. In all cases encouraging results were reported. There are few controlled clinical trials of herbal antifungal medicines. The most thoroughly clinically tested is tea tree oil, which holds some promise. All herbal remedies require further investigation in rigorous clinical trials. PMID:15078424
Martin, Karen W; Ernst, E
The antioxidative activity of aqueous extracts of 6 kinds of common food, Ziziphus jujuba, Crataegus pinnatifida, fresh Allium sativum, fresh Zingiper efficinale, Citrus tangerina and green tea, which are also used as traditional herbal drugs, was studied. The result indicated that all these extracts can scavenge (O2) free radical, inhibit lipid peroxidation of mice liver homogenate (in vivo and in vitro), decrease hyaluronic acid depolymerization induced by (O2), and inhibit the adenosine deaminase activity of mice liver homogenate (in vivo). These actions are very similar to the actions of those traditional Chinese tonic prescriptions and their individual herbal drugs studied before. PMID:2065395
Wang, W; Chen, W W
Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context.
Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine
Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors' conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey
Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in various herbal products. Twenty-nine herbal supplements (18 traditional and 11 organic products) were purchased from stores and analyzed microbiologically. Total bacterial counts were determined by pour plate and surface spreading on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were enumerated on TSA supplemented with ceftriaxone (64 microg/ml) or tetracycline (16 microg/ml). Total bacterial counts ranged from <5 to 2.9 x 10(5) CFU/g. Ceftriaxone- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected in ground garlic samples at 1.1 x 10(2) CFU/g and 3.0 x 102 CFU/g, respectively. Traditional and organic onion powder samples contained tetracycline-resistant bacteria at 17 and 28 CFU/g and ceftriaxone-resistant bacteria at 35 and 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Other products such as ginger, rosemary, mustard, and goldenseal contained low levels of resistant bacteria. Fifty-two isolates were further evaluated against nine antibiotics, and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was in the following order: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, and streptomycin. Resistant bacteria were identified as Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., and Ewingella americana. Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia also were isolated. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and pathogens in these herbal products suggests that production and use of these products may need further evaluation. PMID:18680952
Brown, Joseph C; Jiang, Xiuping
A large proportion of the population of developing countries usestraditional medicine alone, or in combination with Western drugs to treat awide variety of ailments. There has seldom been effective collaborationbetween the traditional and Western medical practitioners, largely due tothe perception that the use of traditional and herbal medicines has noscientific basis. With the renewed interest from Western countries in herbalremedies,
J. L. S. Taylor; T. Rabe; L. J. McGaw; A. K. Jäger; J. van Staden
The available databases that catalogue information on traditional Chinese medicines are reviewed in terms of their content and utility for in-silico research on Chinese herbal medicines, as too are the various protein database resources, and the software available for use in such studies. The software available for bioinformatics and 'omics studies of Chinese herbal medicines are summarised, and a critical evaluation given of the various in-silico methods applied in screening Chinese herbal medicines, including classification trees, neural networks, support vector machines, docking and inverse docking algorithms. Recommendations are made regarding any future in-silico studies of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:22326356
Barlow, D J; Buriani, A; Ehrman, T; Bosisio, E; Eberini, I; Hylands, P J
More than 2000 plants have been listed in the Traditional (Herbal/Alternative) systems of medicine and some of these are providing comprehensive relief to the people suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, specially "hyperlipidemia" and "ischemic heart disease". WHO reports indicate that around eighty percent of the global population still relies on botanical drugs and several herbal medicines have advanced to clinical use in modern times. Based on these findings, present review is written to identify the "Pharmacology and Cardio-vascular Application" of four commonly used plants in Pakistan. These include, Crataegus oxycantha, Inula racemosa, Terminalia arjuna and Commiphora mukul. The selection of the plants in the present study is primarily based on their chemistry and pharmacological properties including toxicology reported in various research articles and reviews. Some very interesting findings have been observed and thus recorded and reported in this review. PMID:20067878
Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Sualeh, Mohammad; Mahmood, Saad Bin Zafar; Karim, Mahwish Ahmed
Shosaiko-to (SST), a Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal medicine, has recently been demonstrated to increase lung interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and to ameliorate pulmonary disorders in BALB/c mice (BALB). In the present study, we examined the effects of SST on lung cytokine levels and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury in C57BL/6 mice (B6), which are known to show different immune responses from BALB due to the difference in genetic backgrounds. In B6, in contrast with BALB, SST decreased lung IL-6 levels and exacerbated LPS-induced lung injury. Investigation of the active components of SST suggested that multiple ingredients were supposed to be responsible for IL-6-attenuating activity in vivo. Further, we examined the effect of metabolites of major ingredients of SST on IL-6 production from lung immune cells in vitro. Saikogenin D and oroxylin A attenuated IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages of B6 more than in that of BALB. Liquiritigenin, which was previously reported to enhance IL-6 production in anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody-stimulated lung mononuclear cells of BALB, showed no effect on that of B6. These findings suggest that SST may have different, possibly even opposite, effects on lung immunity in hosts with different genetic backgrounds. PMID:11811938
Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Nakai, Youichiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ishige, Atsushi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kazunori; Hayashi, Seiji; Hayakawa, Satoshi
The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcR?/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcR?/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcR?/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5?kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcR?/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes.
Sato, Nanako; Seiwa, Chika; Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kayoko; Kawakita, Takuya; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Akio; Takao, Masakatsu; Kudo, Chiaki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ishige, Atushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Asou, Hiroaki
Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382
Routledge, Philip A
Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials.
Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh
Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia. PMID:22632862
Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang
Herbal medicines in treatment of cancer as complementary and alternative therapy are accepted increasingly with growing scientific evidences of biomedical research and clinical trials. Anticancer drugs discovered from herbal medicines have a long history and some of them have been used in clinical setting as the conventional anticancer drugs. Actually, herbal medicines are a source for anticancer drug discovery and drug development. Recently, research continuously focuses on clues from traditional use of herbal medicines to develop new anticancer drugs in single pure compounds. On the other hand, standardized various extracts or fractions with anticancer effects or with adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment coming from single or mixed herbs are also accepted forms as dietary supplements and botanical drug products in the US for current statutory regulations. In the present paper, we analyzed the patented agents in the US from herbal medicines in recent ten years, both as potential anticancer extracts/fractions (containing multi-components) and single pure compound(s) that act as new anticancer substances. This review also highlighted the advances in knowledge about quality control, safety, efficacy and recent progress in anticancer candidates in patents of botanical drug products from herbal medicines. PMID:21114469
Feng, Yibin; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Meifen; Feng, Yigang; Li, Hongyun; Tsao, Saiwah
Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants.
is a recording of readings of words, phrases, sentences, and texts in Japanese dialects. The focus of the speech material is on prosody, in particular, on accentual variations, and to a lesser extent on intonation. In addition to the dialectal materials, SCDJD contains speech of the minority language Ainu, Japanese traditional singings, school children's speech, and speech by the foreign
Data from a three generational survey of Japanese Americans indicate that the occupational and educational attainments of the first generation are reflected in the achievements of later generations, and suggest that both relatively traditional and more assimilationist currents flow in the Japanese American community. (Author/JM)
Levine, Gene N.; Montero, Darrel M.
A cohort study was done on 1396 deaths seen among 4352 Japanese male Zen priests during a follow up period from 1 January 1955 to 31 December 1978. Standardised mortality ratios were computed for major causes of death by comparing with the counterparts of the general Japanese male population. The SMR for all causes of death was 0.82 (p less than 0.001) and the SMR values for cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia and bronchitis, peptic ulcer, liver cirrhosis, cancer of the respiratory organs, and cancer of the lung were all significantly smaller than unity. Taking regional mortality differences into account, a similar computation was made dividing the cohort into two subcohorts--that is, the priests living in eastern Japan and those in western Japan. Both subcohorts showed a highly significantly smaller SMR than unity for all causes of death. With the exception of only a few causes of death for which the observed number of deaths was small, they also showed such reduced SMRs for nearly all of the causes of death tested. A questionnaire survey on the current life style of active priests showed that they smoke less, eat less, meat and fish as they follow the more traditional Japanese dietary habits, and live in less polluted areas, but their drinking habits do not differ much from that of the average Japanese adult man. Possible reasons for their reduced mortality are discussed.
Ogata, M; Ikeda, M; Kuratsune, M
The herbal immunoregulation mixture (HIRM) were extracts of several traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs): Astragalus membranaceus (from the root and stem), Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (from the root), Isatis tinctoria L. (from the root), Glycyrrhiza glabra (from the stem). Immune parameters, which included macrophage phagocytic activity, macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS),\\u000a activity of serum lysozyme, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase
Chuntao Yuan; Dongmei Li; Wei Chen; Fangfang Sun; Guanghong Wu; Yi Gong; Jianqing Tang; Meifang Shen; Xiaodong Han
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmaceutical and microbial qualities of 21 different (of various dosage forms) Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPs) sourced from some traditional medicine sales outlets and retail pharmacy outlets in south western Nigeria. Method: The pharmaceutical qualities evaluated include tablet crushing strength, friability, disintegration time; density of the solutions and suspensions; particle
Adenike Okunlola; Babatunde A. Adewoyin
Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use.
Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S
Our objective was to identify the association between maternal diet with Chinese herbal medicines and prolonged jaundice of breast-fed infants. Healthy infants at 25 to 45 days of age were eligible for enrollment into this prospective study. Jaundice was defined as a transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) value ? 5?mg/dL. A questionnaire survey asking feeding type, stool pattern, and maternal diet was conducted at the time of TcB measurement. A total of 1148 infants were enrolled, including 151 formula-fed, 436 combination-fed, and 561 breast-fed infants. The incidences of jaundice were 4.0% in formula-fed infants, 15.1% in combination-fed infants, and 39.8% in breast-fed infants (P < 0.001). In addition, jaundice was noted in 37.1% of preterm infants and 25.0% of term infants (P < 0.001). Furthermore, jaundice was more common in breast-fed infants whose mothers did not consume the traditional Chinese herbal medicines than in breast-fed infants whose mothers did consume such medicines (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this cohort study has identified late-preterm birth and breast feeding as the contributory factors for prolonged jaundice of apparently well infants. The data indicate that postpartum diet with Chinese herbal medicines is associated with breast milk jaundice. PMID:22811742
Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Cheng, Shao-Wen
Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional Chinese herbs. Although these patients ingested herbal drugs from various sources for different purposes, their renal biopsy samples showed amazingly similar histological findings, with extensive hypocellular interstitial fibrosis and atrophy and loss of tubules in all cases. Glomeruli were apparently intact. They also had similar clinical features, such as normal or mildly elevated blood pressure, early and severe anemia, low-grade proteinuria, glycosuria, and insignificant urinary sediments. Renal function deteriorated rapidly in most patients despite discontinuation of the herbal medicines. Seven patients underwent dialysis, and the remainder experienced slowly progressive renal failure. Bladder carcinoma was found in one patient. Morphologically and clinically, the nephropathy in our patients was similar to CHNP, reported in Belgium. Because of the complexity and unknown types of herbs used in different clinical situations, unidentified phytotoxins other than aristolochic acid might be responsible for this unique disease entity. We conclude that the relation of this nephropathy to the consumption of Chinese herbs is striking. Using uncontrolled herbal remedies carries a high risk for developing interstitial renal fibrosis and urothelial malignancy. PMID:10676733
Yang, C S; Lin, C H; Chang, S H; Hsu, H C
The depiction of nude human beings in Japanese print, film, and electronic media is reported. Modern practices are then related to traditional Japanese culture. The various contexts in which nudes are regularly presented are described and various types of nude presentations are classified. It is suggested that the nude body evokes different responses in Japanese culture and is not always intended to convey sexual or erotic meanings. Sentiment, particularly that evoked by the family and motherhood, and nonsexual humor, are other responses that nudity is intended to elicit. The Japanese situation is compared to presentation of nudity in the United States. PMID:2082862
Downs, J F
This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern
Eric A. Feldman
Yunnan Baiyao is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to treat wounds for over 100 years. Here, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine nano-scale structures of the Yunnan Baiyao. AFM images revealed uniform nanofibers present in relatively high abundance in a solution of this medicine. Fibers were typically 25.1 nm in diameter and ranged in length from 86-726 nm due to processing. Due to the unique adhesive and structural properties of nanofibers, we concluded that these fibers may play a role in platelet aggregation, leading to clotting, and the sealing of wounds. PMID:20201420
Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Zhang, Mingjun
Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not.
In order to collect ethnobotanical information about antimalarial plants which is essential for the further evaluation of the efficacy of plants as antimalarial remedies, we investigated the management of malaria with traditional herbal remedies, including the use, preparation and administration, by traditional healers in Tanzania. Interviews with traditional healers were conducted in different rural and urban places in Tanzania: in
M. C. Gessler; D. E. Msuya; M. H. H. Nkunya; L. B. Mwasumbi; A. Schär; M. Heinrich; M. Tanner
SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared
Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai
Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…
Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.
Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is considered a medicinal product, thereby subjected to medicinal law. To
PieterA Hooyenga; RengerF Witkamp; Kees Groen
Objective: To examine common herbal supplements, explore potential risks associated with herbal use, and provide recommendations to the athletic trainer regarding patient care issues. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases 1990–2000 using the key words herbals, regulation, supplements, toxicity, and adulteration. Data Synthesis: The use of herbal products continues to grow. While the origins of some medications and herbal supplements are similar, clinical testing and understanding of most herbal remedies is lacking. Some herbal products may prove useful in an athletic setting; however, current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations do not ensure safe and effective products. A descriptive review focusing on specific considerations for the athletic trainer is provided. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite their increasing tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes need to be aware that “natural” does not equal “safe.” Athletes are entitled to know that most herbs are not proven safe or effective under current FDA standards. The athletic trainer must be able to provide honest, unbiased information when educating athletes regarding herbal supplements.
Storrs, Cordial M.
Problem statement: Standardization of herbal drugs is a burning topic in herbal drug industry today. Standardization is difficult becaus e they are usually mixtures of many constituents an d the active principle in most cases is unknown. Howe ver it is possible to generate a physico-chemical fingerprint for the standardization of these drugs with reference to authentic drugs, for monitoring
Arun Sudha; V. S. Murty; T. S. Chandra
This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…
Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.
An approach to the study of numeral quantifiers in Japanese reveals some fundamental properties of Japanese, especially those pertaining to movement. Using numeral quantifiers, a demonstration shows that the subject of unaccusative verbs in Japanese originates in the object position and moves to the subject position at S-structure. It is also…
Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved.
Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai
Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group…
Ogawa, Dennis M.
Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not evidence-based from a clinical perspective but subclinical research data from the past decades support the traditional use of many herbal VTM drugs. For safe use, knowledge of the occurrence of adverse reactions and herb-drug interactions is necessary. The Vietnamese government supports further development of VTM in a scientific way and integration of VTM with Western medicine. This article first gives an overview of the general aspects of VTM (historical perspective, regulatory aspects, comparison with traditional Chinese medicine, philosophical background, the Vietnamese market situation, quality assurance and formulations), and subsequently focuses on its safe and effective use in Vietnamese clinical pharmacy and medical practice. PMID:22943125
Woerdenbag, Herman J; Nguyen, Tuyen Manh; Vu, Dien Van; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, Dung Tuan; Tran, Thanh Van; De Smet, Peter A G M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J
... ??? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ??????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual ... Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?????- ?? (???? ????) - ??? (Japanese) ...
Many patients use herbal supplements to treat chronic cardiovascular conditions and often combine herbal ingredients with cardiovascular medications. However, physicians do not reliably elicit a history of herbal use from their patients and may overlook herbal supplements' adverse effects. Although often considered harmless by patients, herbal supplements may cause adverse cardiovascular effects from an herbal ingredient, a contaminant, or an herb-drug interaction. Herbal stimulants, including bitter orange, ephedra, caffeine, guarana, maté, kola, areca, lobelia, khat, and others are the most common category of herbal therapies to cause cardiovascular effects. However, dozens of other herbal ingredients have also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In addition to listed ingredients, herbal supplements may become contaminated at a number of stages during production. Pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and pharmaceutical agents have been detected in herbal supplements. Supposedly "herbal" products that are adulterated with prescription anorectics, antidepressants, diuretics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors along with other medications have been identified throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. All of these adulterants have potential cardiovascular effects. Herbal interactions with a variety of cardiovascular medications may also lead to adverse events. Herbal ingredients may cause pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions. We review clinically relevant patterns of adverse cardiovascular reactions to herbal supplements, and we provide resources and recommendations for practicing cardiologists evaluating patients with suspected herbal adverse effects. PMID:20633025
Cohen, Pieter A; Ernst, E
Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed.
Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.
Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal 'renaissance' is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929
Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C L
Students of Japanese history (graduate students with language competence seeking a career in Japanese studies, undergraduates studying the Japanese language, and non-linguist undergraduates and graduate students studying Japanese history for a variety of reasons) have to deal with the Japanese language in different ways. They should all, however,…
Buck, James H.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (hereafter referred to as TCM) is made by Chinese herbal formulae and includes a ratio of pharmaceutical elements, which contain known health-enhancing functions. The trial process of the invention of TCM requires a lot of creative work and involves some risks. Winning patent protection for TCMs presents technical barriers on the patent examination. To address the problem
Xu Xuan; Zhang Xiaowei
Aim of the studyAlthough traditional herbal medicines are widely used in Ethiopia, no information is available on their potential genotoxicity. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extracts of Glinus lotoides, Plumbago zeylanica, Rumex steudelii and Thymus schimperi were evaluated for their DNA damaging effects using the comet assay.
J. Demma; E. Engidawork; B. Hellman
To find the key to the success of Japanese economic performance since World War II, Marsland and Beer explore five main "environmental" factors used by Japanese firms to build a successful human resources management approach: Japanese social values, the structure of private enterprise, the structure of labor markets, the historic development of the Japanese employment system, and the structure of Japanese management. This discussion shows that post-war Japanese management, faced with rapid change, introduced new concepts and techniques that reinforced and maintained certain social values and traditions that fit well with human resources management objectives. This skillful blend of new ideas with traditional values enabled the Japanese to achieve superior economic performance. PMID:10259590
Marsland, S; Beer, M
This website of traditional Japanese treasures and culture was produced for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and is a virtual museum that includes physical objects and other more intangible items of cultural patrimony, such as fighting styles and performance art. Visitors can scroll over any of the seven "galleries" to read a description of what types of work are contained within. The "Fine Arts" gallery is defined as those visual arts primarily concerned with the creation of beauty, such as architecture and gardens, painting, sculpture, and Ukiyoe. Upon choosing a section of the gallery, visitors can click on it, see examples of the art form, and read about the history of these traditions. The "Cafe" gallery is particularly interesting, and it is described as a "'refreshment space'...to enjoy learning more about the Japanese culture and traditions from many exotic perspectives." The Virtual Museum Theatre allows visitors to watch "Movies of Japanese Festivals" and "Movies of Japanese Martial Arts". An exhibit of Wagashi representing all seasons of the year, and celebrations, is worth a look and can also be found in the "Cafe" gallery. [KMG
Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010
Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf
Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed.
The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery. PMID:16935738
Messina, Barbara Ann M
Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710
Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan
Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093
Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary tuberculosis. Traditional medicinal uses of Athrixia phylicoides DC., or bush tea, another indigenous South African plant with very limited localised use as herbal tea, include treatment of boils, acne, infected wounds and infected throats. Currently rooibos and honeybush are produced for the herbal tea market, while bush tea has potential for commercialisation. A summary of the historical and modern uses, botany, distribution, industry and chemical composition of these herbal teas is presented. A comprehensive discussion of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo biological properties, required to expand their applications as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products, is included, with the main emphasis on rooibos. Future research needs include more comprehensive chemical characterisation of extracts, identification of marker compounds for extract standardisation and quality control, bioavailability and identification of bio-markers of dietary exposure, investigation of possible herb-drug interactions and plant improvement with regards to composition and bioactivity. PMID:18621121
Joubert, E; Gelderblom, W C A; Louw, A; de Beer, D
This independent study course for college credit is a study of Japanese civilization. The nine lessons that comprise the course are: 1. The Origins of the Civilization: From Primitive to Early Classical Times; 2. The Classical Tradition I: The Religion and Aesthetics of Classical Times; 3. The Classical Tradition II: A View of Court Life through…
Spear, Richard L.
Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.
Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai
Herbal remedies and alternative medicines are used throughout the world, and in the past herbs were often the original sources of most drugs. Today we are witnessing an increase in herbal remedy use throughout the Western world raising the question as to how safe are these preparations for the unborn fetus? Many women use herbal products during pregnancy. The dilemma facing most regulatory authorities is that the public considers these products as either traditional medicines or natural food supplements. The user sees no reason for regulation. Most countries have laws concerning foods, drugs, and cosmetics, the details of which seldom clearly define to what section of the law and regulations alternative remedies belong. In most countries alternative remedies are regulated as foods, provided that no medicinal claim is made on the label. The global regulatory sector, however, is changing rapidly. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia created a Complimentary Medicines Evaluation Committee in late 1997 to address this issue, and Canada has created a new Natural Health Products Directorate in the realigned Therapeutic Products and Foods Branch in 2000. In parallel, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products has drafted test procedures and acceptance criteria for herbal drug preparations and herbal medicinal products. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration classifies these natural products as dietary supplements. Manufacturers must label a dietary supplement thus: "this statement has not been evaluated by the FDA [, and] this product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease." Whether these products are foods or drugs is undecided. To add complexity to this issue, most of the potential deleterious effects of natural products on the unborn may be related to hormonal effects (e.g., phytoestrogens) and nutriceutical drug interactions (e.g., St. John's Wort and antidepressants), rather than direct embryotoxicity per se. We suggest that ensuring quality of herbal products should receive immediate attention by regulatory authorities, before embarking on the more arduous tasks of safety and efficacy. PMID:14745988
Rousseaux, Colin G; Schachter, Howard
The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. The assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: total aerobic bacterial plate count, measurement of some physical parameters, isolation and characterization of selected bacterial pathogens etc. The results showed that out of a total of 150, 70 (46.67%) herbal remedies were contaminated with Salmonella typhi, twenty nine (19.33%) with Shigella spp. Eighty eight (58.67%) and 98 (65.33%) were contaminated with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The total aerobic plate count results showed that the highest average count of > 5x10(7) cfu/g was found in 89 (59.33%) of the preparations, while average plate count of < or = 5x10(7) cfu/g was found in 42 (28%) and no bacterial count was obtained in 19 (12.67%) of the preparations. Correlation was positive (P = 0.01; r = +0.109) between the physical parameters tested and the bacterial load. Antibacterial activities result of some common antibiotics showed that all the antibiotics had activities on the test bacterial isolates at various minimum inhibitory concentrations. Most traditionally prepared herbal medications in Kaduna state are likely to be contaminated with a wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The quality assurance of these products should be thoroughly enforced and monitored in the production and distribution of herbal preparations. PMID:20162044
Abba, Danladi; Inabo, Helen I; Yakubu, Sabo E; Olonitola, Olayeni S
Background and Aim: Momordica charantia Linn. is traditionally used as a medicine for diabetes. The present investigation was aimed to formulate and evaluate transdermal patchesof Momordica charantia Linn. Materials and Methods: The transdermal films containing the herbal drug component fractionated fromethanolicextract of M. charantia fruits were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. The films were evaluated for folding endurance, thickness, weight variation, drug contents and in vitro diffusion studies and in vivo parameterslike acute and sub-acute antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats, biochemicalstudies, skin irritation in rats and stability studies. Result and discussion: The weightof transdermal patches of M. charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) and was found to be 0.03 gm.Thickness of patches of M. charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) was found to be satisfactory. The percentage release of active constituents from transdermal patches of M.charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) was found to be 47.59% in 10% hydroalcoholic phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at the end of 6 h.The transdermal route exhibited negligible skin irritation and in vivo results revealed that the patches successfully decrease the blood glucose level. Conclusion: From the results, we concluded that the well-known herbal drug M. charantia Linn. have been found to be effective for diabetes through modern pharmaceutical formulation techniques.
Bhujbal, Santosh S; Hadawale, Sunita S; Kulkarni, Parag A; Bidkar, Jayant S; Thatte, Vidya A; Providencia, Clarine A; Yeola, Rupesh R
Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…
Stevenson, Harold W.
This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…
Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.
Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)
This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…
After commenting briefly on the current state of instructional materials available to students and teachers of Japanese at a college level, the paper underlines the need for materials that deal specifically with aspects of Japanese culture, and outlines suggestions for possible materials. Graded intermediate materials that stress particularly the…
Miller, Roy Andrew
Bursera grandifolia and other related species have been used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico and other Latin American countries for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. From the chloroform extract of leaves of B. grandifolia, a substance was isolated and identified as phenacetin, a well known compound with widely tested analgesic and antipyretic properties. The structural identity of the compound was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with an authentic sample. PMID:19967994
Velázquez, Francisco; Manríquez, Ricardo; Maya, Leticia; Barrientos, Lucia; López-Dellamary, Fernando
Background In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. Objectives In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Results Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: ?0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: ?0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Conclusions Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions.
Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong
This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine.
Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan
Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.
Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.
Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821
Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119
Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.
Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay
Chewing fresh leaves of the Khat plant (Catha edulis Celestrasae) is a widespread habit (also practiced by women, even during pregnancy) with a deep-rooted tradition in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. With the influx of immigrants from East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula khat chewing has been imported into other countries including Europe the United States. The major pharmacologically active constituent of the fresh khat leaves is cathinone. Khat (also known as herbal ecstasy) is chewed for its central nervous system stimulant properties, which resemble amphetamine. Cardiovascular complications from cathinone use may therefore be similar to those of amphetamine. I herein present the first reported case of a pregnant patient who developed chest pain, tachycardia, and hypertension following khat-chewing session. PMID:15822415
Kuczkowski, K M
Parkinson's disease has existed in different parts of the world since ancient times. The first clear description is found in the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda under the name Kampavata. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, levodopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of PD in India, China, and the Amazon basin. Scientific reevaluation of these therapies may be valuable, as shown in the case of Mucuna pruriens and Banisteria caapi. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, biofeedback, and acupuncture may have beneficial effects for patients and deserve further study. PMID:10410773
Manyam, B V; Sánchez-Ramos, J R
Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schroder, Sven
World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination. PMID:12531167
Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom
Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy.
Chinese herbal medicine has developed new therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on its unique theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this review, 21 traditional Chinese herbs were introduced for their potential benefit in the treatment of NAFLD. Majority of them are evaluated by experimental studies and few by multicenter clinical trials. Herbal monomers as berberine and resveratrol, extracts from Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi, and Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb., and formulae including Yinchenhao Decoction (, YCHD), Qushi Huayu Decoction (, QSHYD), and Danning Tablet () were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Most of these herbal medicines were proved to improve biochemical and histological changes of NAFLD both in vitro and in vivo. Also, their therapeutic activities were associated with inhibiting lipid accumulation through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation or upregulating low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression, alleviating lipid peroxidation, and reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Although the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines needed to be evaluated in multicenter large-scale clinical trials, Chinese medicine is promising and effective for preventing and treating NAFLD disease. PMID:22311412
Dong, Hui; Lu, Fu-Er; Zhao, Li
This essay proposes a phenomenological approach to the viewing of Japanese hard-core animation (widely known in the West as\\u000a “hentai”), a type of erotica frequently characterized by detailed, unusual and fantastic depictions of sexual activity habitually\\u000a intended for sexual arousal. Pertinent instances of Japanese traditions of erotica and visual representation, as well as Japanese\\u000a animation and its industry are briefly
In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022
Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su
An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157
Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R
The objective of the study was to investigate the safety and reliability of internet websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes for Viagra. Using keywords ‘Herbal’ and ‘Viagra’, websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes were identified. The top 50 sequential sites were assessed for safety and reliability against the Health on the Net (HON) criteria.
R Thurairaja; B Barrass; R Persad
Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne flaviviral infection, which has a wide distribution in Asian countries, including Japan. The clinical illness may manifest as a febrile headache syndrome, aseptic meningitis, or encephalitis with a number of cases of subclinical infection. Japanese encephalitis is a vaccine-preventable disease. The mouse brain derived inactivated vaccine was first developed in Japan in 1950s. In 2009, this original form was replaced by the Vero cell derived product. The results of clinical trial and post marketing investigation on the Vero cell derived inactivated vaccine showed good immunogenicity and safety profile. High immunization coverage should be encouraged to prevent people from Japanese encephalitis. PMID:21922756
Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties.\\u000a WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues.\\u000a In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy\\u000a metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore,
Mruthyumjaya Meda Rao; Ajay KumarMeena; Galib
Various colonic side-effects of herbal enema have been reported in literature ranging from mild abdominal discomfort to self-limiting haemorrhagic colitis. It rarely requires blood transfusion or subtotal colectomy. We report a 57-year-old male patient developing severe ileo-colitis with persistent massive rectal bleeding immediately after herbal enema administration for the treatment of chronic constipation and was resistant to conservative management. Patient was managed successfully with emergency total laparoscopic colectomy. Post-operative recovery of the patient was excellent.
Prasad, Parmanand; Tantia, Om; Patle, Nirmal M; Mukherjee, Jayanta
Although the origin of many common modern medicines that are routinely being used nowadays in healthcare is in medicinal plants and fungi, herbal medicine as a standalone profession is no longer included in the curricula of most Western medical schools. The medicinal plant Lei Gong Teng [also known as Thunder God Vine, Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook f., that is core to traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was praised for its possible anti-inflammatory properties in ancient traditional scripts that date back thousands of years. Yet, modern interest in its proven immune-modulatory properties serves as a vivid example to the bridge that is being built, gradually but constantly, between the tradition of healing arts and the world of modern therapeutics. In this review we summarize the main findings from an increasing number of clinical and laboratory studies published in top peer-reviewed medical journals that verify the traditional indications for which Lei Gong Teng was used medicinally. Based on these findings, and the risk-benefit profile of the plant's debarked root, we conclude that Lei Gong Teng and its active metabolites should be included in the Israeli herbal pharmacopeia. PMID:23957087
Caspi, Opher; Polak, Arik
Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted.
This is a systemic review of plants used traditionally for neuroendocrinological diseases related to hypothalamus-pitutary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamus-pitutary-gland (HPG) axis. By searching from PubMed literature search system (1950-2013), Medline (1950-2013) and CNKI (China Journals of Full-text database; 1989-2013), 105 papers met the inclusion criteria were displayed in this review. 96 herbal drugs were classified into two parts which include hormones mainly related to HPA and HPG axis. The full scientific name of each herbal medicine, dose ranges and routes, models or diseases, affect on hormones and pertinent references are presented via synoptic tables. Herbal remedies that have demonstrable the activities of hormones have provided a potential to various diseases related to neunoendocrine and deserve increased attention in future studies. This review provides a basis for herbs use in neuroendocrinological diseases. The data collected here will benefit to further research associated to herbal medicines and hormones. PMID:24816712
Wang, Di; Lu, Cheng-Yu; Teng, Le-Sheng; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Meng, Qing-Fan; Liu, Yan; Zhong, Linda Ld; Wang, Wei; Xie, Jing; Zhang, Zhang-Jin
This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room style), reading…
Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.
Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and…
Yoshida, Katherine A.; Iversen, John R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.
This thesis is an examination of Japan's strategic resource dependence and her reliance of the three raw materials-rich regions of Southeast Asia (ASEAN), the Persian Gulf, and Southern Africa. A discussion of the Japanese formula for securing resources in the less developed countries of the 'South' is included along with a brief overview of her onshore resource utilization in business/industry. The roles of direct foreign investment, official development assistance, energy conservation, and Japanese multinationalization are discussed.
Interviews with "Shin Nisei," new second-generation Japanese, university students reveal how strongly motivation influences persistence in taking Japanese courses and the intensity with which these students use Japanese outside the classroom. The discussion stresses problems facing Shin Nisei students in traditional college foreign-language…
This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…
OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a
The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable.
Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao
This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…
Jenkins, Andrew P.
Nearly 80% of the global population still depends upon the herbal drugs for their health care. Plant based therapy are marked due to its low cast, easy availability, based on generation to generation knowledge. At present time, plant based industries are rising at international level but unfortunately due to uncontrolled growth of population and unplanned, excess use\\/misuses of plant species
Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events. PMID:12017748
Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S
Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)
Moore, Susan A.
SUMMARY. The prehistoric discovery that certain plants cause harm and others have curative powers is the origin of the healing professions and its practitioners (priest, physician, and apothecary), as well as professions devoted to plants (botany and horticulture). The descrip- tion of plants and their properties and virtues (termed herbals in the 16 th century) became an invaluable resource for
BACKGROUNDAsthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to
A Huntley; E Ernst
The anti-tick efficacy of combined aqueous herbal extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves, Nicotiana tabacum leaves, Calotropis procera flowers and Trachyspermum ammi seeds was evaluated using adult immersion test, larval packet test and ear bag method. The extract exhibited lethal effects on egg laying (index of egg laying=0.371404±0.00435), hatching (22.35%) and total larval mortality at 50 mg ml(-1) and reduced tick intensity on the infested calves (18 detached out of 35 at 45% (w/w) suspension, topically applied). The herbal extract exerted dose- and time-dependent response against all the developmental stages of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus considered in this study, thus justified their use in the traditional system of Pakistan. PMID:22305296
Zaman, Muhammad Arfan; Iqbal, Zafar; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Younus, Muhammad; Ahmed, Sibtain
Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.
Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.
Preserving cultural heritage requires that objects persist throughout time and continue to communicate an intended meaning. Owing to the decreasing number of masters of folk crafts, fading technologies, and crafts losing economic ground, computer-based preservation and interpretation of such crafts is necessary. To fabricate and preserve traditional crafts, a long-term applied-research project has combined mathematics and software tools with compact, cheap, and environmentally friendly desktop fabrication tools, including 3D printers. Case studies involving the digital capture of Japanese lacquerware and Norwegian carvings illustrate the project's modeling approach and fabrication system. Besides modeling existing artifacts, the project includes Web presentations of the models, automated model fabrication, and experimental manufacturing of new designs and forms. PMID:24808155
Vilbrandt, T; Vilbrandt, C; Pasko, G I; Stamm, C; Pasko, A
Describes an approach for measuring industrial technological diversification behavior. Identifies sectoral patterns of Japanese industry as related to diversification behaviors. Delineates the mechanisms and effectiveness of Japanese corporate and government policies relevant to diversification. (ML)
The 2003 revised edition of the Japanese Ant Image Database was developed under the direction of the Japanese Ant Database Group (JADG). The website, which merges taxonomic information and stunning photographs, will no doubt delight myrmecologists and others. Information about different types of ants can be accessed through browseable, hyperlinked lists organized by subfamily, genus, and species. Genus and species profiles include images, references, descriptive information, simple distribution maps, and more. The site includes a Japanese Ant Image Library with hundreds of quality images, and a smaller SEM Image Library as well. The site also offers sections with Type Specimens and Taxonomic Keys. Please note that the site has not been updated since 2003; there are future plans to revisit the project when updates and corrections become necessary.
The University of California at San Francisco has spent thirty years cultivating its collection of Japanese woodblock prints, and it has become an important part of the Library's East Asian Collection. The collection of 400 digitized prints concern Japanese health-related topics from the mid-19th century, and portray the gradual acceptance of Western medicine. Visitors can view the collection by theme or perform a search to find something more specific. The themes include "Contagious Diseases", which focuses on smallpox, measles and cholera, "Foreigners and Disease", which highlights the Japanese belief that foreigners carried diseases to Japan, and "Drug Advertisements". The "Drug Advertisements" are quite possibly the most beautiful drug ads in existence, and they feature elaborate images of drugs slaying disease, kabuki actors promoting a show sponsored by a children's medicine, Kindoru powder, and a detailed rendering of the interior of a drugstore, printed on a fan that was given out as a promotional item to advertise the business.
This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…
Taylor, Yuki Io
This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and…
Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi
This study compares student preconceptions and expectations of Japanese language learning from studies conducted in 1989 and 2004. Over the years, student interests and pedagogical approaches have changed. However, the changes do not reflect on the student preconceptions and expectations. They still believe in traditional approaches to language…
Traditional Japanese medicine exists since the fifth century AD. Although based upon Traditional Chinese Medicine and building on its classical literature, Japanese medicine soon developed an independent way by being open for influences from other, especially western, medical systems. Like TCM, there are three keystones in Traditional Japanese medicine: acupuncture, herbal medicine, and massage or physical therapy. Japanese acupuncture is
In the last decades, cases of poisoning due to herbal medicines have occurred in many countries; Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are occasionally involved. The experience gained from traditional use is efficient to detect immediate or near-immediate relationship between administration and toxic effects but is quite unlikely to detect medium- to long-term toxicities; thorough investigations of herbal medicines (toxicity assessments, active pharmacovigilance) appear then essential for their safe use. Genotoxicity is an especially insidious toxicity that may result in carcinoma development years after exposure; it can arise from multiple compounds, with or without metabolic activation. The present work reviews traditional CHMs and phytochemicals that have been shown to present a genotoxic hazard. PMID:23420770
Zhou, Jue; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Qu, Fan; Duez, Pierre
An incident wherein more than 30 people were poisoned with a herbal infusion during a meditation session is described. The clinical features observed were hallucinations, aggression, agitation, amnesia, mydriasis, dry skin, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypotension, collapse, coma and respiratory depression. All patients recovered, although mechanical ventilation was required in some instances. A portion of the herbal infusion was found to contain atropine (hyoscyamine), scopolamine (hyoscine), harmine, and other alkaloids. The estimated ingested doses (free bases) were atropine 4 mg, harmine 27 mg, and scopolamine 78 mg. The mean concentrations in 21 serum samples obtained approximately 6h after ingestion of the infusion were atropine 5 ng/ml, harmine 8 ng/ml, and scopolamine 13 ng/ml. PMID:12208022
The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi.
Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard
A woman died after drinking herbal tea prepared from oleander (Nerium oleander) leaves. This case demonstrates the cross-reactivity between the cardiac glycosides in oleander and the digoxin radioimmunoassay. Digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments have not been used in oleander poisoning, but these might prove to be lifesaving. Treatment of oleander toxicity is aimed at controlling arrhythmias and hyperkalemia; inactivation of the Na-K ATPase pump, however, can make treatment difficult. PMID:4039113
Haynes, B E; Bessen, H A; Wightman, W D
Serious poisoning may occur following the consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) containing anticholinergics. The great majority of cases are probably related to the use of yangjinhua, the dried flower of Datura metel L, for treating bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pains and flu symptoms. In some cases the use of CHM contaminated by atropine-like substances or fake herbs were suspected. Some ginseng (Panax ginseng) preparations might have been adulterated with Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine) and other herbs. PMID:7631497
Chan, T Y
The consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased rapidly in recent years. More and more people consume these infusions as daily beverages as well as for health purposes. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the antiproliferative function of these infusions for nutritionists and the general public. The in vitro antiproliferative activities of 60 different tea and herbal infusions on four cancer cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that some infusions strongly inhibited the proliferation of A549 (human lung cancer cells), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), HepG2 (human hepatoma cells) and HT-29 (human colon cancer cells), and decreased the viability of these cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, some bioactive components in the infusions were also separated and determined by HPLC. The results suggested that some tea and herbal infusions may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:23307138
Li, Fang; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Ling, Wen-Hua; Xu, Xiang-Rong
The information of protein targets and small molecule has been highly valued by biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Several protein target databases are available online for FDA-approved drugs as well as the promising precursors that have largely facilitated the mechanistic study and subsequent research for drug discovery. However, those related resources regarding to herbal active ingredients, although being unusually valued as a precious resource for new drug development, is rarely found. In this article, a comprehensive and fully curated database for Herb Ingredients’ Targets (HIT, http://lifecenter.sgst.cn/hit/) has been constructed to complement above resources. Those herbal ingredients with protein target information were carefully curated. The molecular target information involves those proteins being directly/indirectly activated/inhibited, protein binders and enzymes whose substrates or products are those compounds. Those up/down regulated genes are also included under the treatment of individual ingredients. In addition, the experimental condition, observed bioactivity and various references are provided as well for user's reference. Derived from more than 3250 literatures, it currently contains 5208 entries about 1301 known protein targets (221 of them are described as direct targets) affected by 586 herbal compounds from more than 1300 reputable Chinese herbs, overlapping with 280 therapeutic targets from Therapeutic Targets Database (TTD), and 445 protein targets from DrugBank corresponding to 1488 drug agents. The database can be queried via keyword search or similarity search. Crosslinks have been made to TTD, DrugBank, KEGG, PDB, Uniprot, Pfam, NCBI, TCM-ID and other databases.
Ye, Hao; Ye, Li; Kang, Hong; Zhang, Duanfeng; Tao, Lin; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Xueping; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Chen, Y. Z.; Li, Yixue; Cao, Zhiwei
A look at the available clinical evidence of herbal preparations from hawthorn (leaves, flowers, fruits), Padma 28 (Swiss-Tibetan\\u000a herbal preparation with 20 herbal drugs) and ginkgo (leaves) in terms of circulatory disorders shows the following: in chronic\\u000a heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) II a meta-analysis showed that hydroethanolic extracts from hawthorn leaves\\u000a and flowers, given at a daily
Jörg Melzer; Reinhard Saller
For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.
This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…
The results of an anthropometric survey of 239 pilots of the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force are presented. The survey took place in the spring of 1961 at five air bases located throughout Japan. Sixty-two body dimensions were measured on each subject by ...
M. Oshima N. Tobimatsu T. Fujimoto T. Mori T. Oguro
For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, Queer Voices from Japan can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been commonly used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Syndrome differentiation is one of the important characteristics of TCM. To assess the application and basic characteristics of syndrome differentiation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS, we performed this paper. We conducted electronic searches in main Chinese and English databases till March 2012. A total of 735 RCTs involving 67,784 IBS participants were included. 224 (30.5%) studies applied syndrome differentiation. The major syndromes of IBS patients were the syndrome of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency (56.8%), spleen-stomach weakness (49.4%), spleen-kidney yang deficiency (48.1%), and cold and heat in complexity (29.6%). Herbal formulas were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation in 202 studies. Chinese patent medicine was more commonly used in studies that only enrolled patients with a specific syndrome. 15 studies compared the therapeutic effect among different syndromes, of which 6 studies showed that there were significant differences among different syndromes. The low use of TCM syndrome differentiation in randomized trials of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS results in the poor pertinence of treatment. TCM syndrome differentiation should be used in further studies at the stage of recruitment, treatment, and data analyses.
Li, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yan; Liu, Jian-Ping
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese herbal products (CHPs), acupuncture, and traumatology manipulative therapies. TCM physicians often prescribe CHP to treat patients with osteoporosis; however, the drugs used and their patterns of prescriptions have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the CHP used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Taiwan and their prescription patterns. Methods. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was analyzed to evaluate the frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for osteoporosis. Association rules were then applied to evaluate the CHP coprescription patterns and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Results. The osteoporosis cohort included 16?544 patients, of whom more than 70% had used TCM on one or more occasion. Of these patients, 4?292 (25.9%) had been hospitalized at least once because of fracture. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion. This study identified patterns of CHP use for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of these CHP.
Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung
Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.
Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS.
Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493
Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul A
Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined
Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova
Background. Kampo medicines are traditional herbal medicines which have been approved for medicinal use by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare and are currently being used more and more, often in combination with Western drugs. Thus, the need for investigation of interactions between Kampo medicines and Western drugs is now widely recognized. Aim. To summarize the effects and drug interactions of rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine often prescribed for upper gastrointestinal disorders and anorexia. Methods. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data on rikkunshito. Results describing its effects were abstracted, with an emphasis on drug interactions. Results and Discussion. Rikkunshito ameliorates anorexia induced by anticancer drugs, improves quality of life scores, and can even prolong survival compared with monotherapy. Rikkunshito combined with proton pump inhibitor therapy is shown to be useful in the treatment of PPI-refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease patients and patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Rikkunshito reduces antidepressant-induced adverse events and improves quality of life without influencing antidepressant effects. Conclusions. Rikkunshito shows ameliorative effects on adverse reactions induced by various Western drugs and can achieve better results (e.g., anticancer drugs and proton pump inhibitor) without influencing the efficacy and bioavailability of Western drugs.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of combined therapy of Chinese herbal medicine and compound cyproterone acetate (CPA) in treating\\u000a non-obesity polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore its mechanism in improving withdrawal ovulation.Methods: Eighty-six patients of non-obesity PCOS, typed as Shen-deficiency with blood stasis Syndrome or Shen-deficiency with Phlegm-Dampness\\u000a Syndrome by Syndrome Differentiation in traditional Chines medicine, were randomly divided
Tao Li-li; Chen Xiao-ping; Gu Zheng-tian
It has been well documented that the frequency of vasomotor menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, of Japanese menopausal women is less than that of Western women. High intake of soy isoflavones in the traditional Japanese diet has been postulated as the possible explanation of the difference. Epidemiological studies have reported that the content of equol, which is a biologically active metabolite of the isoflavone, daidzein, is lower in the women who complain of severe vasomotor symptoms. To investigate the involvement of equol in the manifestation of menopausal symptoms, especially vasomotor symptoms, and the possible therapeutic role of a supplement containing equol (natural S-equol developed by Otsuka Pharmaceutical) on the menopausal symptoms of Japanese women, 3 randomized clinical trials were conducted. The studies indicated that a daily dose of 10 mg of natural S-equol improved menopausal symptoms. In the confirmation study, menopausal women who were equol nonproducers who consumed 10 mg/d of natural S-equol for 12 wk had significantly reduced severity and frequency of hot flashes as well as a significant reduction in the severity of neck or shoulder stiffness. The equol-ingesting group also showed trends of improvement in sweating and irritability and a significant improvement in the somatic category symptoms. Thus, it is concluded that the supplement containing natural S-equol, a novel soybean-derived functional component, has a promising role as an alternative remedy in the management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:20484552
The plant constituents of fourty two olive oil extracts from chamomile flowers [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] were analysed by means of GC, VIS-spectrometry, and HPLC in order to assess the effectiveness of the traditional extraction methods of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB 2008). The influence of the extraction temperature and the extraction period as well as the influence of stirring during the extraction period and of a pre-treatment of the herbal drug with ethanol 94% on the extraction efficiency was also studied. The results are presented in the form of transfer ratios with regard to the essential oil, the carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids and the phenolcarboxylic acids. PMID:19618679
Heldmaier, M; Beyer-Koschitzke, J; Stahl-Biskup, E
Background Dietary supplements and herbal medicines are gaining popularity in many developed countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims Although most can be used without any problem, serious toxicities do occur.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Problems can be anticipated when they are used for non-traditional indications, at excessive dose, for prolonged duration,\\u000a or by patients who are also on multiple modern pharmaceuticals. Problems should also be anticipated when these products claim
D. H. Phua; A. Zosel; K. Heard
Six herbal infusions used worldwide (Matricaria chamomilla, Tilia cordata, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Uncaria tomentosa and Valeriana officinalis) were assayed for anti-genotoxicity using the Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. All these infusions are traditionally used for various medical purposes, including anti-inflammatory processes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidative genotoxicant to test the anti-genotoxic potency of the medicinal infusions. None of these infusions showed a significant genotoxicity, quite the reverse they were able to behave as desmutagens, detoxifying the mutagen hydrogen peroxide. The phenolic content of such herbal infusions is argued to be the possible scavenger of reactive oxygen radicals produced by the hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16005256
Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Campos-Sánchez, Juan; Analla, Mohamed; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles
As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been
Cecilie JOHANNESSEN LANDMARK; Philip N. PATSALOS
This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…
Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan
This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases producing diarrhea as a major symptom.
Robert A. Smith; Laura Pontiggia; Carrie Waterman; Meghan Lichtenwalner
Background: Evidence for the scientific basis of pur- ported therapeutic effects and adverse effects of herbal supplements continues to grow. Many herbal supple- ments are touted for their immunostimulatory proper- ties, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have sup- ported this claim. Although this explains their beneficial effects in preventing or curtailing disease, to our knowl- edge, no
Alice N. Lee; Victoria P. Werth
Use of herbal medicines among patients under cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is widespread. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between herbal medicines and cardiovascular drugs. The Medline database was searched for clinical articles published between January 1996 and February 2003. Forty-three case reports and eight clinical trials were identified. Warfarin was the most common cardiovascular
Angelo A. Izzo; Giulia Di Carlo; Francesca Borrelli; Edzard Ernst
In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…
Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita
Herbal medicines include a range of pharmacologically active compounds: in some cases it is not well understood which ingredients are important for a therapeutic effect. The supporters of herbal medicine believe that isolated ingredients in the majority of cases have weaker clinical effects than whole plant extract, a claim that would obviously require proof in each case. Generalizations about the
Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki
The utilisation of NMR fingerprinting is proposed as a rapid, available and reliable method to determine the contamination of herbal products. The presence of nimesulide has been reported recently as the contaminant of P.C. 28 Plus, a product based on herbal drugs marketed by the Italian company Cosval. The presence of the substance, as well as its relevant concentration (5%),
Marcello Nicoletti; Valentina Petitto
Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines.
Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching
Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts.
Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations. PMID:18928138
Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh
One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study. PMID:19076001
Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K
Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612.
Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo
CGX, a traditional herbal drug, has been prescribed for patients suffering from various liver diseases, including hepatitis B, alcoholic liver disease, and fatty liver. We investigated whether CGX has hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute liver injury and its underlying mechanism(s). Mice were administered CGX orally for 7 days prior to an injection of LPS (5 ?g/kg)/D-GalN (700 mg/kg). Complete blood count, serum diagnostic markers, antioxidant activities, caspase activity, and histopathological examinations were conducted 8 h after the injection. To evaluate the immunological mechanism of CGX, serum TNF-? and IL-10 were investigated 1.5 h after LPS/D-GalN injection. CGX pretreatment (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the elevation of serum AST and ALT levels as well as histopathological alterations. Moreover, CGX pretreatment inhibited activation of caspase-3/7. CGX attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced lipid peroxidation with concomitant improvement in total antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). CGX elevated the antioxidant capacity of the liver in both the pathological and normal conditions. Furthermore, LPS/D-GalN-induced alterations of neutrophil and lymphocyte populations were ameliorated and serum TNF-? was decreased significantly by CGX. From these data we conclude that CGX protects the liver from LPS/D-GalN-induced hepatitis through antioxidant mechanisms as well as immune modulation. PMID:21414374
Shin, Jang Woo; Wang, Jing Hua; Park, Hye Jung; Choi, Min Kyeong; Kim, Hyeong Geug; Son, Chang Gue
Multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology, integrating solvent extraction, repercolation with dynamic and countercurrent extraction, is a novel extraction technology for the traditional Chinese medicine. This solvent-saving, energy-saving and high-extraction-efficiency technology can at the most drive active compounds to diffuse from the herbal materials into the solvent stage by stage by creating concentration differences between the herbal materials and the solvents. This paper reviewed the basic principle, the influence factors and the research progress and trends of the equipments and the application of the multi-stage countercurrent extraction. PMID:17655136
Xie, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xue-Song; Chen, Yong; Cai, Ming; Qu, Hai-Bin; Cheng, Yi-Yu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM.
Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping
Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. PMID:23906802
Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P
BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine.
Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan
Currently, a majority of the adverse events related to the use of herbal products and herbal medicines that are reported are attributable either to poor product quality or to improper use. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control systems, and largely uncontrolled distribution channels (including mail order and Internet sales) may have been contributing to the occurrence of such events. In order to expand the knowledge about genuine adverse reactions to herbal medicines, and to avoid wasting scarce resources for identifying and analyzing adverse events, events resulting from such situations will need to be reduced or eliminated. Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are therefore encouraged to strengthen national regulation, registration and quality assurance and control of herbal medicines. In addition, the national health authorities should give greater attention to consumer education and to qualified practice in the provision of herbal medicines. PMID:21472083
Shetti, Sandeep; Kumar, C Dinesh; Sriwastava, Neeraj Kumar; Sharma, Indra Prakash
This article reviews major theoretical and empirical work on vertical and horizontal Japanese keiretsu. We first outline the history, characteristics, and strategic and performance implications of each type of business group.\\u000a We then discuss changes in the Japanese economy during the post-1992 Japanese economic decline and their implications for\\u000a the persistence and continued benefits of each form of inter-corporate grouping
Jean McGuire; Sandra Dow
Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease.
An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus demonstrating the lack of a genotoxic potential. In conclusion the two guidelines on genotoxicity provide a practically applicable concept. Valerianae radix has no genotoxic potential, supporting its use in HMPs and its inclusion in the Community list. PMID:24837473
Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin
Sulfite was detected in 7 varieties of Oriental herbal medicines (Pueraria radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Platycodon radix, Adenophora radix, Pinellia tuber, Astragalus radix, and Paeonia radix) on the Korean market. Sulfiting of commercial Oriental herbal medicines by fumigation with burning bituminous coal was simulated, and the accumulation of sulfite was investigated by using fresh Platycodon radix roots obtained from a growing field. The sulfite level reached a plateau in 9 h, and the maximum sulfite level found by the Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC 990.28) was 1020 ppm. The sulfite content in the simulated Platycodon radix sample determined by alkali extraction followed by ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection (AOAC 990.31) was approximately 17% lower on average than the MW results. Free-sulfite levels determined by acid extraction and ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection were between 19 and 49% of the MW results. The advantages of different methods for sulfite determination and the significance of the results are discussed. PMID:11048856
Kim, Y K; Koh, E; Park, S Y; Chang, S Y; Park, S J; Na, W I; Kim, H J
Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect.
Skopinski, P.; Balan, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopinska-Rozewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.
Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821
He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F
Western herbal medicine is the most widely used form of herbal medicine in Australia although Ayurvedic and Chinese herbal medicines are becoming better known. The agricultural production and manufacture of locally grown herbs is, with some exceptions, relatively underdeveloped, as is the research and development of indigenous flora. However, the use of herbal medicine is increasingly becoming mainstream with retail
Hans Wohlmuth; Chris Oliver; Pradeep J Nathan
Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other “company wives.” Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families.
Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J.
In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.
Utah, University O.
We have surveyed, by means of a questionnaire, the preoperative use of traditional Chinese medicines in 259 adult Chinese patients admitted to a Hong Kong teaching hospital. The spectrum and use of herbal remedies differed from that reported by Western sources. Of those patients surveyed 90% used Chinese herbs on a regular daily basis in traditional soups and teas while 44% had consulted a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner in the last twelve months prior to admission, but mainly for health promotion (59%) and minor ailments (30%). Only 25% sought advice for their current illness and 13% were taking regular traditional Chinese medicines prior to admission. The ingredients were difficult to identify. Patients with cancer were more likely to use ling zhi (odds ratio 5.4). Female patients with reproductive problems were more likely to visit a traditional Chinese medical practitioner (odds ratio 2.6) and use ginseng (odds ratio 5.1). The anaesthetic implications of preoperative traditional Chinese medicine in keeping with Hong Kong practices need to be investigated, and appropriate anaesthetic guidelines should be developed. PMID:16119494
Critchley, L A H; Chen, D Q; Lee, A; Thomas, G N; Tomlinson, B
Students use the text The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant as a springboard for discussion about family traditions. After identifying the traditions observed by the relatives, students meet in small groups to brainstorm new traditions that could arise from the families gathering together during the winter. The lesson is concluded by having each student write about their own favorite family tradition and share it with a small group.
Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia.
ZHENG is the key theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it is very important to find the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese herbal formulae. One ZHENG is related to many diseases and the herbal formulae are aiming to ZHENG. Therefore, many herbal formulae whose effects on a certain disease have been confirmed might also treat other diseases with the same ZHENG. In this study, the microarrays collected from patients with QiXuXueYu ZHENG (Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis syndrome) before treatment and after being treated with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule were analyzed by a high-throughput gene microarrays-based drug similarity comparison method, which could find the small molecules which had similar effects with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule. Besides getting the results of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis drugs which embody the known effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, many other small molecules were screened out and could reflect other types of effects of this formula in treating QiXuXueYu ZHENG, including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hyposenstive effect. Then we integrated this information to display the effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule and its potential multiple-target molecular pharmacology. Moreover, through using clinical blood-tested data to verify our prediction, Fuzheng Huayu Capsule was proved to have effects on diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:22666299
Yu, Shuhao; Guo, Zhizhong; Guan, Yan; Lu, Yi-Yu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Su, Shi-Bing
This new online exhibition from the Huntington Archive (discussed in the June 30, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) highlights the work of renowned Japanese calligrapher, Doshu Kanayama. The exhibition includes an introduction to Japanese calligraphy and Kanayama, as well as a selection of twenty calligraphic paintings with short descriptions. Future plans for the site include a collection of essays.
These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
This feature is a collection of brief essays recently written by Japanese and Chinese gay youth, followed by commentary from several leading educators and scholars. Akihiko Komiya's "Difficulties Japanese Gay Youth Encounter" provides excerpts from the stories of six gay youth and their everyday lives, based on their letters in "Buddy", a magazine…
Komiya, Akihiko; Ofuji, Keiko
Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…
This study examined the determinants of management practices by using an interview survey on organizational and human resource management of Japanese firms. We found that the management practices at foreign-owned firms tend to be of high quality. This suggests that promoting foreign direct investment in Japan helps Japanese firms improve management quality. In addition, management quality tends to be higher
Unani medicine or Islamic medicine is one of the main healing systems in the world, which was set up by the Islamic physicians in the Middle East about a thousand years ago based on the teachings of Hippocrates and Galen. This medical system had been practiced widespread in the world including Europe until the 16th century and contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine. Despite the remarkable advancements in orthodox medicine, the traditional medicine has always been practiced in the Middle East communities. Due to cultural beliefs and practices, the Middle East communities have a very rich tradition in the utilization of herbal remedies as well as diverse spiritual techniques for treating various disorders. Traditional practitioners have become the main component of disease management in the Middle East and they have used herbal remedies along with spiritual techniques for the treatment of ailments mainly based on the Unani medicine. PMID:21390574
In recent years, the use of alternative therapies has become widespread. In particular, there has been a resurgence in the public's demand for herbal remedies, despite a lack of high-quality evidence to support the use of many of them. Given the increasing pressures to control healthcare spending in most countries, it is not surprising that attention is being focused on the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. We address the question of whether there is sufficient information to enable the assessment of the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. In so doing, we discuss the current state of play with several of the more high-profile alternative herbal remedies [Chinese medicinal herbs for atopic eczema, evening primrose oil, ginkgo biloba, hypericum (St John's wort)] and some which have made the transition from being alternative to being orthodox remedies. We use historical context to discuss, on the one hand, the increasing commodification of herbal remedies and on the other, the trend towards greater regulatory control and licensing of alternative herbal remedies. We argue that unless great care is exercised, these changes are not necessarily in the best interests of patients. In order to identify cost-effective care, we need reliable information about the costs as well as the efficacy and safety of the treatments being assessed. For most alternative therapies, such data are not available. We believe that studies to gather such data are long overdue. Whilst we argue strongly in favour of control of some herbal remedies, we urge caution with the trend towards licensing of all herbal remedies. We argue that the licensing of those herbal remedies with equivocal benefits and few risks, as evidenced by a long history of safe use, increases barriers to entry and increases societal healthcare costs. PMID:10623361
Ashcroft, D M; Po, A L
This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.
Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug.
Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (1–42 days). Group 2–10 chicks were fed with basal diet containing cadmium at 100 ppm from day 1 to day 28 (4 weeks). From 29th to 42nd day (2 weeks), basal diet alone was fed to group 2 chicks which acted as toxic control and group 3–10 birds were fed with feed containing 0.1% powder of W. somnifera, O. sanctum, Aspe. recemosus, An. paniculata, Asph. panjabinum (Shilajith), G. sylvestre, S. platensis, and P. ginseng, respectively. Body weight gain, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), liver functional markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), kidney functional markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and concentration of cadmium in liver and kidney were investigated. Results: Body weight gains were significantly decreased in birds of groups 2–10 compared to group 1 at the end of 4th week. Supplementation of various medicinal herbs in feed after 4th week significantly improved the body weight gain compared to that in group 2 chicks. The increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in cadmium intoxicated birds were significantly reversed by the above-said herbs. The liver and kidney functional markers were also restored to normal levels. Highest concentration of cadmium was found accumulated in kidney, followed by liver in birds of group 2. Herbal supplementation in groups 3–10 prevented Cd bioaccumulation which was most evident in liver, followed by kidney. Conclusions: Administration of herbal adaptogens at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of Cd and reversed the Cd-induced oxidative tissue damage.
Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, D. Srinivas; Prasadini, P. Prabhu
Six cases of herbal poisoning involving six patients in Hong Kong, Taipei and Kuala Lumpur are reported. The sources of poisoning were identified as adulterants (Podophyllum emodi) or erroneous substitutes (Datura metel). In cases of suspected herbal poisoning, it is recommended that the prescriptions, herbal residues and herb samples should be collected for pharmacognostical and chemical analysis to substantiate the cause of poisoning. Insofar as it is possible, an estimate of the amount of herbs consumed should also be obtained, to establish whether the amount of toxin present is sufficient to account for the symptoms. PMID:7966541
But, P P
In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.
He, Dong-Yi; Dai, Sheng-Ming
Objectives: To review the literature on the toxicity of Callilepis laureola, and to assess the cytotoxicity of C. laureola in human hepatoblastoma Hep G2 cells in vitro. Design and methods: Cells were incubated for up to 48 h in the presence of increasing concentrations of an aqueous extract of C. laureola (0.3-13.3 mg\\/mL). Cytotoxicity was quantitated spectrophotometrically by the metabolism
Alpa Popat; Neil H. Shear; Izabella Malkiewicza; Michael J. Stewart; Vanessa Steenkamp; Stuart Thomson; Manuela G. Neuman
Petroleum ether, ethanol, butanol, and aqueous crude extracts of the whole aerial parts of nine plants exhibited variable degrees of antimicrobial activity against four bacterial and three fungal species. Methanol and hexane extracts did not show any activity. Compared with standard antibiotics, extracts had low to moderate activity. The activity spectrum is wide against gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. However, the butanol extracts at 4 mg/disc of Ononis spinosa (OS), Bryonia syriaca (BS) had high moderate antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme and Candida albicans relative to miconazole nitrate at 40 microg/disc. Furthermore, higher antibacterial activity was observed though low to moderate compared with streptomycin and very comparable with chloramphenicol. Cyclaman persicum (CP) petroleum ether extracts only exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. PMID:10363844
Mahasneh, A M; El-Oqlah, A A
Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted.
Herbals and dietary supplements (HDS) can cause hepatotoxicity. Regulation of HDS varies across the globe. In the United States, it is defined by a law that is now two decades old. More recent regulatory approaches in Europe still do not require testing for premarket safety. The true incidence of hepatotoxicity from HDS is unknown. The presentation is most often with a hepatocellular enzyme pattern, and the outcomes can be severe, leading to transplantation in some circumstances. The diagnosis of hepatotoxicity due to HDS is made in the same way as for drugs. However, patients often must be coaxed into revealing a history of use. No causality assessment approach is perfectly suited for hepatotoxicity from HDS, but the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is most used. Future endeavors must focus on defining epidemiology, establishing an accepted nomenclature, and identifying culprit ingredients, predisposing host factors, and useful biomarkers for injury. PMID:24879982
Navarro, Victor J; Lucena, M Isabel
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal syndrome, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic inflammation, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cervicitis and vaginitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and acupuncture. The use of TCM in the field of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has also been included in the review. In addition, thirty-two commonly used Chinese medicinal formulas in treating gynaecological disorders have been introduced. PMID:20606770
Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan
Background Herbal medicines have unique odors, and the act of smelling may have modulatory effects on the immune system. We investigated the effect of olfactory exposure to Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese herbal medicine, on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Methods Naïve or olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 heart and were exposed to the odor of TJ-23 until rejection. Some naïve CBA recipients of an allograft were given olfactory exposure to Sairei-to (TJ-114), trimethylthiazoline (TMT), individual components of TJ-23, or a TJ-23 preparation lacking one component. Adoptive transfer studies were performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Results Untreated CBA mice rejected their C57BL/6 allografts acutely, as did olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice exposed to the odor of TJ-23. CBA recipients of a C57BL/6 heart given olfactory exposure to TJ-23 had significantly prolonged allograft survival, whereas those exposed to the odor of TJ-114, TMT, one component of TJ-23, or TJ-23 lacking a component did not. Secondary allograft recipients that were given, at 30 days after transplantation, either whole splenocytes, CD4+ cells, or CD4+CD25+ cells from primary recipients exposed to the odor of TJ-23 had indefinitely prolonged allograft survival. Conclusions Prolonged survival of cardiac allografts and generation of regulatory cells was associated with exposure to the odor of TJ-23 in our model. The olfactory area of the brain may have a role in the modulation of immune responses.
The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of
K. Aleksieva; O. Lagunov; K. Dimov; N. D. Yordanov
Purpose – There are many herbal supplements on the market claiming to aid weight loss but few are evidence-based. This study aims to test one such formulation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An over-the-counter herbal supplement containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana (YGD) was tested in 73 overweight health professionals for six weeks. Subjects were not asked to make any lifestyle changes. Findings
C. H. S. Ruxton; L. Kirkwood; B. McMillan; D. St John; C. E. L. Evans
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.
Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun
One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines.
Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S
The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration.
dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patricia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon.
McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.
The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.
Isizoh, Chidi D.
Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…
"The articles in this issue were selected because, in one way or another, they all touched on the notion of tradition and innovation." Storytelling and tribal dances are examples of past, traditional methods of passing cultural knowledge from elders to youth. Contemporary youth have replaced tradtional rites of passage with their own inventions…
Katter, Eldon, Ed.
Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care.
Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.
Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)
Robinson, Edward T.
Elite genotypes\\/chemotypes, with high contents of madecassoside and asiaticoside, from sixty accessions of Centella asiatica of south India and the Andaman Islands: For cultivation and utility in cosmetic and herbal drug applications
Centella asiatica is a perennial herb with high utility in traditional medicines, herbal drugs and cosmeceutics. In India, owing to its high domestic and export demands, C. asiatica populations in the wild are overexploited at an uncontrolled rate. The aim of this study was to identify potential genotypes\\/chemotypes of C. asiatica from a wide geographical region in Peninsular India and
Munduvelil Thomas Thomas; Rajani Kurup; Anil John Johnson; Sreeja Purushothaman Chandrika; Paravanparampil Jacob Mathew; Mathew Dan; Sabulal Baby
Stems of genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) have been traditionally used as an herbal medicine (Dendrobii Herba) in Eastern Asia. Although demand for Dendrobium is increasing rapidly, wild resources are decreasing due to over-collection. This study aimed to identify plant sources of Dendrobii Herba on the market based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. We constructed an ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence database of 196 Dendrobium species, and the database was employed to identify 21 herbal samples. We found that 13 Dendrobium species (D. catenatum, D. cucullatum, D. denudans, D. devonianum, D. eriiflorum, D. hancockii, D. linawianum, D. lituiflorum, D. loddigesii, D. polyanthum, D. primulinum, D. regium, and D. transparens) were possibly used as plant sources of Dendrobii Herba, and unidentified species allied to D. denudans, D. eriiflorum, D. gregulus, or D. hemimelanoglossum were also used as sources. Furthermore, it is clear that D. catenatum is one of the most important sources of Dendrobii Herba (5 out of 21 samples). PMID:21532173
Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Tajima, Natsuko; Shioda, Nao; Lu, Jun Feng; Wen, Chi Luan; Wu, Jin Bin; Handa, Takashi; Iijima, Hiroshi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Yukawa, Tomohisa
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.
Formulation Optimization and Processing Parameter Establishment of Canned Chicken in Kacangma Herbal Soup (Pengoptimaan Formulasi dan Pembangunan Parameter Pemprosesan untuk Ayam Berkaleng dalam Sup Herba Kacangma)
The formulation of chicken in kacangma herbal soup, a traditional delicacy of Sarawak was developed. Processing parameters for the canned product was established. The product was canned and retorted at 121°C in an overpressure retort to achieve commercial sterility. A three-component constrained mixture according to a symmetrical-simplex interior design was used to determine the optimum formulation. Result showed that a
CHUA HUN PIN; AMINAH ABDULLAH
Introduction: Africa is a continent of rich plant biodiversity with many indigenous plants having a long history of being used for medicinal purposes. A considerable number of patients consult traditional healers in African countries for their primary health-care needs. As Western medicines become more available through governmental programmes to treat diseases such as infections with HIV/AIDS, patients are faced with an increased potential of herb-drug interactions. Areas covered: Several medicinal herbs indigenous to Africa are discussed in terms of their effects on pharmacokinetics of allopathic drugs through modulation of enzymes and active transporters. Clinically relevant herb-drug interactions obtained from in vivo studies are discussed, with data from in vitro studies also included to ensure a complete review. Expert opinion: Traditional herbal medicines are often used under a false sense of security because of the perception that it is safe due to its natural origin. The potential for interactions between herbal and allopathic drugs is often neglected. Data on clinically relevant herb-drug interactions from clinical trials can be used to educate health-care workers and patients, contributing to improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:24831257
Calitz, Carlemi; Steenekamp, Jan H; Steyn, Johan D; Gouws, Chrisna; Viljoen, Joe M; Hamman, Josias H