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1

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal

You-Ping Zhu; Herman J. Woerdenbag

1995-01-01

2

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

3

A Valid Approach in Refractory Glossodynia: A Single-Institution 5-Year Experience Treating with Japanese Traditional Herbal (Kampo) Medicine  

PubMed Central

Glossodynia is often refractory to conventional medicine, and there is only limited evidence to guide clinicians in its management. Patients with refractory glossodynia are often introduced to Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine experts under such circumstances because Kampo medicine has become known in Japan to be effective in treating a wide variety of symptoms refractory to conventional medicine. Herein, we report our single-institution 5-year experience treating patients with Kampo medicine for primary glossodynia that was refractory to conventional medicine. We found that 69.2% of patients reported a beneficial effect of Kampo medicine on glossodynia, and the average onset of improvement was 8.0 ± 7.7 weeks after starting Kampo treatment. The top two frequently used Kampo medicines for glossodynia were seinetsuhokito and mibakuekkito among high responders who showed a decrease of severity by 50% or more. The top four most overlapped herbs among effective Kampo medicines for glossodynia were Glycyrrhiza Root, Ginseng Root, Hoelen, and Atractylodes (lancea) Rhizome, which compose an essential Kampo prescription called shikunshito. Although more research is required to further clarify the effectiveness of Kampo medicine, it has valid efficacy even in cases of glossodynia that remain incurable by conventional treatments. PMID:24223055

Chino, Atsushi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Ueda, Keigo; Raimura, Masaki; Namiki, Takao

2013-01-01

4

JAPANESE HERBAL MEDICINE IN FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its “natural” approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Aim To summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. Results JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while Dai-Kenchu-to improves symptoms of post-operative ileus and constipation in children. Conclusions This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional disorders. PMID:19563404

Suzuki, Hidekazu; Inadomi, John M.; Hibi, Toshifumi

2009-01-01

5

Effectiveness of Traditional Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, Daiobotanpito, in Combination with Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Diverticulitis: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, daiobotanpito (DBT) or Da Huang Mu Dan Tang in Chinese has been used in medical treatment of acute diverticulitis for many years based on the experience. Our aim was to investigate whether the treatment of acute diverticulitis can be treated with intravenous antibiotics plus orally administrated DBT than intravenous antibiotics alone. A retrospective nonrandomized open-label trial was established to compare patients with acute diverticulitis who received oral DBT associated with intravenous antibiotics with those who received intravenous antibiotic alone. We included 34 patients, eleven patients in group 1 with DBT and 23 patients in group 2 without DBT. Both groups were comparable in patient demographics and clinical characteristics. There was a significantly better outcome in the group treated with DBT than in the group without DBT when comparing duration of fever, abdominal pain, and antibiotics administration. A trend toward a day shorter mean hospital stay and fasting was seen in group 1, although this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, most patients with acute diverticulitis can be managed safely with oral DBT. Although randomized, double-blind study must be done, we could show the possibility to use daiobotanpito as an additional option in treating acute diverticulitis. PMID:24078823

Nishijima, Koji; Futagami, Fumio; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimura, Genichi

2013-01-01

6

Regulation of traditional herbal medicinal products in Japan.  

PubMed

Kampo medicines are the main traditional herbal medicines in Japan and are classified as pharmaceuticals. They are based on ancient Chinese medicine and have evolved to the Japanese original style over a long period of time. Ethical Kampo formulations are prescribed in general practice by physician under the National Health Insurance reimbursement system. Over-the-counter (OTC) Kampo formulations can be purchased and used for self-medication in primary health care settings. Kampo medicines have a substantial role in the Japanese healthcare system. In the early 1970s, "The Internal Assignments on the Review for Approval of OTC Kampo Products", known as "210 OTC Kampo Formulae", was published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). In 2008, "210 OTC Kampo Formulae" was revised and presented as "The Approval Standards for OTC Kampo Products" and now 294 Kampo formulae are listed in the standards. These products have had wide spread usage in Japan. Crude drugs and Kampo extracts have been listed in The Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Both The Approval Standards and The Quality Standards play a key role in regulation of Kampo products. "Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs" was published in 2007. Other ethnopharmaceuticals mostly from Europe could be approved as OTC drugs in Japan. PMID:25043783

Maegawa, Hikoichiro; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Saito, Kazuyuki

2014-12-01

7

Effects of Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine containing furanocoumarin derivatives, on the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in healthy male volunteers.  

PubMed

Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional medicine used to treat acne in Asian countries, contains twelve herbal components, including Angelica dahurica root, a source of furanocoumarin derivatives. In this study, we investigated potential herb-drug interactions of seijo-bofu-to in healthy male volunteers. Thirty-two young, healthy, non-smoking males were assessed for the baseline activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase according to the urinary metabolic indices of 8-hr urine samples collected after the administration of a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan, and the ratio of urinary excretion of 6?-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. Thereafter, the volunteers received 3.75 g of seijo-bofu-to twice daily for 7 days and underwent the same tests on post-dose day 7. The geometric mean ratio of the CYP1A2 activity on day 7 to that observed at baseline was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.79, p = 0.001). The geometric mean phenotypic indices for CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase on day 7 did not differ from the baseline values. The findings of the present study suggest that seijo-bofu-to may inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, whereas it is unlikely to participate in herb-drug interactions involving medications predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 or xanthine oxidase. PMID:24612940

Saruwatari, Junji; Takashima, Ayaka; Yoshida, Kousuke; Soraoka, Hiromi; Ding, Tong-Bin; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Motoki; Oniki, Kentaro; Miyata, Keishi; Nakagawa, Kazuko

2014-10-01

8

Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Using the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Saikokeishikankyoto: A Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Controlled Trial in Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami  

PubMed Central

The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ? 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634

GunFan, Shen; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh

2014-01-01

9

Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional Japanese herbal medicine saikokeishikankyoto: a randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial in survivors of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.  

PubMed

The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ? 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634

Numata, Takehiro; Gunfan, Shen; Takayama, Shin; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kaneko, Soichiro; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh

2014-01-01

10

Evaluation of the Safety and Adverse Effects of Goreisan/Wulingsan, a Traditional Japanese-Chinese Herbal Formulation (Kampo), in a Rat Model: a Toxicological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, ARM Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

2014-01-01

11

Evaluation of the safety and adverse effects of goreisan/wulingsan, a traditional Japanese-chinese herbal formulation (kampo), in a rat model: a toxicological evaluation.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, Arm Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

2014-09-01

12

Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

Torres, Eliseo

13

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

2004-02-01

14

Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.  

PubMed

Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products. PMID:25043781

van Galen, Emiel

2014-12-01

15

Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

2013-01-01

16

Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100?g\\/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal

Kuo-Hsien Wang; Rong-Dih Lin; Feng-Lin Hsu; Yen-Hua Huang; Hsien-Chang Chang; Ching-Yi Huang; Mei-Hsien Lee

2006-01-01

17

Traditional Herbal Medicine for the Control of Tropical Diseases  

PubMed Central

Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese (“Cang Zhu”), Japan (“So-jutsu”) and Thai (“Khod-Kha-Mao”) traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA—xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

2014-01-01

18

Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science  

PubMed Central

Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

2013-01-01

19

Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula  

PubMed Central

Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2014-01-01

20

Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines (Part II).  

PubMed

Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mouse spleen cells using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Target specificity for these mitogens was investigated by using isolated T cells and lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. Among 20 plants investigated, potent mitogenic activities for both human and mouse lymphocytes were found in 7 plants: Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Uvaria lucida (Annonaceae), Maytenus buchananii (Celastraceae), Lonchocarpus bussei (Leguminosae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae), Phytolacca octandra (Phytolaccaceae), and Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae). The U. lucida stem demonstrated the highest activity among all and induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. PMID:23194771

Tachibana, Y; Kato, A; Nishiyama, Y; Ikemi, M; Ohoka, K; Kawanishi, K; Juma, F D; Ngángá, J N; Mathenge, S G

1996-03-01

21

The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.  

PubMed

In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation. PMID:25086408

Kroes, Burt H

2014-12-01

22

Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

2010-01-01

23

Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for therapeutic purposes, these constituents have caused intoxications worldwide. The aim of this study was therefore to determine mercury, arsenic, and lead levels in Asian

M. J. Martena; J. C. A. Van Der Wielen; I. M. C. M. Rietjens; W. N. M. Klerx; H. N. De Groot; E. J. M. Konings

2010-01-01

24

Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

2015-01-01

25

Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

26

Traditional Use of Herbal Remedies in Livestock by Farmers in 3 Swiss Cantons (Aargau, Zurich, Schaffhausen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: This study investigated the extent of traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in 3 Swiss cantons (Aargau, Zurich, Schaffhausen). The study focused on organic farms. Methods: At 21 farms, 24 farmers aged 36–83 years were interviewed with a semi-structured, detailed questionnaire. For each homemade herbal remedy, the plant species, mode of preparation, source

Kathrin Schmid; Silvia Ivemeyer; Christian Vogl; Franziska Klarer; Beat Meier; Matthias Hamburger; Michael Walkenhorst

2012-01-01

27

Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

2012-01-01

28

Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

2013-01-01

29

Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures.

Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

2015-01-01

30

Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future  

PubMed Central

The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28?a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

2011-01-01

31

Unusual heat stroke caused by herbal therapy with traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comprises a range of traditional medical practices that originate in China, including herbal medicine as a major therapy. Through its 4 natures; namely, cold, hot, warm, and cool, herbal medicine may regulate sympathetic nerves and basal metabolic rate and affect the CNS and the endocrine system. Heat stroke is a severely life-threatening heat-related illness that is most commonly seen during summer heat waves and high environmental temperatures. The intake of medications or toxins is considered one of the risk factors leading to heat stroke, as they may affect body thermoregulation. We report a case of heat stroke that was associated with herbal therapy with TCM. This case highlights the importance of paying more attention to unidentified folk prescriptions in the use of TCM. PMID:24739411

Deng, Hui; Wu, Xiaokun; Wu, Limin; Zhang, Hongliang

2014-04-01

32

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis—a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic

Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton

2006-01-01

33

Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science  

PubMed Central

Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

2013-01-01

34

Can rhizoma chuanxiong replace radix Angelica sinensis in the traditional Chinese herbal decoction danggui buxue tang?  

PubMed

Herein, we test the hypothesis that a member of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction cannot be replaced by another herb. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is being used as an example for illustration: this is a traditional decoction containing Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. Rhizoma Chuanxiong (RC) and RAS are two chemically very similar herbs but with a distinct function. Following the preparation method of DBT, a herbal decoction, namely Chuanxiong Buxue Tang (CBT), was created, which contained RA and RC in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. The two decoctions, DBT and CBT, were compared in parallel regarding their chemical and biological properties. In all the tested parameters, DBT showed superior properties, both chemically and biologically, to that of CBT. The current results reveal the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoctions that require a well-defined formulation, which is indispensable for its specific composition. PMID:19204892

Li, Winnie Z M; Li, Jun; Bi, Cathy W C; Cheung, Anna W H; Huang, Wen; Duan, Ran; Choi, Roy C Y; Chen, Ivy S Y; Zhao, Kui J; Dong, Tina T X; Duan, Jin A; Tsim, Karl W K

2009-05-01

35

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal  

PubMed Central

Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention. PMID:21144003

2010-01-01

36

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

37

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

38

Traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.  

PubMed

Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177

Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J

2011-04-01

39

TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and safety of FAHF-2 for treating food allergy in a murine model. A clinical study demonstrated that FAHF-2 is safe, well tolerated, and exhibited beneficial immunomodulatory effects. A clinical report showed that TCM treatment reduced eczema scores and improved quality of life. Herbal interventions, ASHMI and FAHF-2 may be further developed as botanical drugs for treating asthma and food allergy. TCM may also be of benefit for comorbid conditions such as anxiety and recalcitrant eczema. More controlled studies are warranted. In conclusion, novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions such as anxiety and eczema are urgently needed. This article discusses promising interventions for such conditions from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

Li, Xiu-Min

2014-01-01

40

Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources  

PubMed Central

In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

2014-01-01

41

[Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].  

PubMed

Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

2009-02-01

42

Traditional Korean East Asian medicines and herbal formulations for cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Hanbang, the Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM), is an inseparable component of Korean culture both within the country, and further afield. Korean traditional herbs have been used medicinally to treat sickness and injury for thousands of years. Oriental medicine reflects our ancestor's wisdom and experience, and as the elderly population in Korea is rapidly increasing, so is the importance of their health problems. The proportion of the population who are over 65 years of age is expected to increase to 24.3% by 2031. Cognitive impairment is common with increasing age, and efforts are made to retain and restore the cognition ability of the elderly. Herbal materials have been considered for this purpose because of their low adverse effects and their cognitive-enhancing or anti-dementia activities. Herbal materials are reported to contain several active compounds that have effects on cognitive function. Here, we enumerate evidence linking TKMs which have shown benefits in memory improvements. Moreover, we have also listed Korean herbal formulations which have been the subject of scientific reports relating to memory improvement. PMID:24287997

Kumar, Hemant; Song, Soo-Yeol; More, Sandeep Vasant; Kang, Seong-Mook; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, In-Su; Choi, Dong-Kug

2013-01-01

43

Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

Wang, Julie

2014-01-01

44

Rapid identification of traditional Chinese herbal medicine by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed as a novel fast method to identify traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In order to obtain high quality mass spectra, the ionization temperature was optimized for every kind of sample. With minimal or no sample pretreatment, major TCHM components, including alkaloids, flavonoids and some ginsenosides, were directly detected within several seconds, while thirteen ginsenosides need derivatization to get good mass spectra. Pseudoginsenoside F11, compound K, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), for the first time were detected without derivatization. Among five of eight tested Chinese herbal medicines, Rhizoma Corydalis, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Arecae Semen, Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis and Scutellariae Radix, were first time identified by DART-MS. In addition, the ionization mechanisms of major herbal components, alkaloids, flavonoids and ginsenosides, were discussed in detail. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS could provide a rapid, reliable and environmental friendly method for the rapid identification of TCHM, and may be applicable to other plants. PMID:25201274

Wang, Yang; Li, Chunmei; Huang, Liang; Liu, Li; Guo, Yunlong; Ma, Li; Liu, Shuying

2014-10-01

45

Constipation and herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

2015-01-01

46

Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium

Mizue Ohsugi; Wenzhe Fan; Koji Hase; Quanbo Xiong; Yasuhiro Tezuka; Katsuko Komatsu; Tsuneo Namba; Tomohiro Saitoh; Kenji Tazawa; Shigetoshi Kadota

1999-01-01

47

Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p?=?0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR?=?3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p?=?0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p?=?0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p?=?0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda. PMID:23209545

Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

2012-01-01

48

Proliferative effect of Hachimijiogan, a Japanese herbal medicine, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Background Hachimijiogan (HJG), Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Muscle atrophy plays an important role in aging-related disabilities such as sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of HJG on skeletal muscle. Methods Cells of murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 were used as an in vitro model of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of HJG on C2C12 cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed. We counted the number of myotubes morphologically to assess the degree of differentiation. Results HJG treatment (200 ?g/mL) for 3 days significantly increased C2C12 cell number by 1.23-fold compared with that of the control. HJG promoted the proliferation of C2C12 cells through activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the Akt signaling pathway. HJG did not affect the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Conclusion HJG had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation. These findings may provide a useful intervention for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:25709418

Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Tadakawa, Mari; Yaegashi, Nobuo

2015-01-01

49

Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…

Shiobara, Mari

2011-01-01

50

Traditional herbal medicine as adjunctive therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of traditional herbal medicine (THM) as treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of THM as adjunctive therapies for NPC using the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five electronic databases, including English and Chinese databases, were systematically searched up to February 2014. All RCTs involving traditional herbal medicine in combination with conventional cancer therapy for NPC were included. Twenty-two RCTs involving 2,298 NPC patients were systematically reviewed. Of these 22 studies, 15 on 1482 patients reported a significant increase in the number surviving patients with survivals of more than 1, 3, or 5 years. Seven studies on 595 patients reported a significant increase in immediate tumor response, and three studies on 505 patients reported a significant decrease in distant metastasis. This meta-analysis of 22 studies suggests that THM combined with conventional therapy can provide an effective adjunctive therapy for NPC. More research and well-designed, rigorous, large clinical trials are required to address these issues. PMID:25698710

Kim, Woojin; Lee, Won-Bock; Lee, Jungwoo; Min, Byung-Il; Lee, HyangSook; Cho, Seung-Hun

2015-05-01

51

Traditional, Natural, and TPR Approaches to ESL: A Study of Japanese Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study of Japanese students' perception of traditional methods versus the natural approach and total physical response (TPR) methods for learning English, and their preferred styles of learning. Subjects were Japanese students attending intensive language schools in the U.S. Students generally preferred innovative methods, such as…

Furuhata, Hamako

1999-01-01

52

An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity  

PubMed Central

Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 ?g/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk. PMID:24373151

2013-01-01

53

Effect of the Japanese herbal medicine, Boiogito, on the osteoarthritis of the knee with joint effusion  

PubMed Central

Background Boiogito (Japanese herbal medicine, Tsumura Co. Tokyo, Japan) contains sinomenin which inhibits inflammatory reactions. Since sinomenine is a principle component of the Boiogito, there is a possibility of it being effective on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee with joint effusion. However, there is no report concerning the effectiveness of Boiogito on knee OA. The objective of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of Boiogito on OA of the knee associated with joint effusion in a comparative study among randomly assigned groups. Methods Study was performed using 50 patients who were diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee with joint effusion. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: one group (25 patients) using both loxoprofen (2-{4-[(2-oxocyclopentyl) methyl]} propanoic acid) and Boiogito and the other group (25 patients) using loxoprofen, and were evaluated during a 12 week observation period. The assessment parameters including knee scores in the Knee Society Rating System including Knee score and Functional scores, amount of joint effusion by joint puncture in clinically detected cases, the 36-items short form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) as a measurement of health related quality of life were used. Results The knee scores based on the Knee Society Rating System were improved in both groups. The staircase climbing up and down ability in the Knee society rating system functional score was significantly improved in the group using Boiogito and loxoprofen compared to the loxoprofen group. In the evaluation using SF-36, significant improvements were found in the scores in both groups in physical functioning after 12 weeks. The amount of joint fluid was significantly decreased at 4, 8 and 12 weeks compared to pre-administration baseline in the group using Boiogito and loxoprofen. A side effect of Boiogito, dry mouth, was found in one case. The symptom was mild and improved immediately after discontinuation of administration. Conclusion The results indicated that Boiogito have a possibility for a treatment modality for joint effusion with osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:22230247

2012-01-01

54

Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM. PMID:21172056

2010-01-01

55

Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional herbal medicines have been safely used for the treatment of various human diseases since ancient China. We selected 10 herbal extracts with therapeutic antiherpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Among these, Geum japonicum Thunb., Rhus javanica L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry, or Terminalia chebula Retzus showed a stronger anti-HSV-1 activity in combination with acyclovir than the

Masahiko Kurokawa; Kazuhiko Nagasaka; Tatsuji Hirabayashi; Shin-ichi Uyama; Hideki Sato; Takashi Kageyama; Shigetoshi Kadota; Haruo Ohyama; Toyoharu Hozumi; Tsuneo Namba; Kimiyasu Shiraki

1995-01-01

56

Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

PubMed

Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

2015-01-01

57

Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

2014-01-01

58

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Bangpungtongsung-San, a Traditional Herbal Prescription  

PubMed Central

Bangpungtongsung-san (BPTS), a traditional oriental herbal prescription, is widely used for expelling wind, draining heat, and providing general improvement to the immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPTS on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- ) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, and on paw edema in rats. At concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL, treatment with BPTS inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-?B and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) as well as production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by LPS. These results suggest that BPTS may exert anti-inflammatory effects via reduction of proinflammatory mediators, including NO, PGE2, TNF-?, and IL-6 through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, an antiedema effect of BPTS was observed in rats. These findings may provide scientific evidence validating the use of BPTS in treatment of patients with heat syndrome in Korean oriental medicine. PMID:22899961

Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; Kwak, Tae Won; Lee, Jong Rok; Jo, Mi Jeong; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Kim, Jong Myoung; An, Won G.

2012-01-01

59

Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity.

Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2015-01-01

60

Chylous ascites treated by traditional Chinese herbal medicine: A case report and discussion.  

PubMed

Chylous ascites, which can lead to peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, metabolic disorder, and even death from pyemia, is a rare complication of abdominal surgery. Currently, first-line treatment involves conservative management, which includes oral diet and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). However, the efficacy of these treatments cannot be guaranteed. For example, single diet control can result in consecutive drainage for up to 1 month, and salvage surgery is required for some invalid cases. Here, we report 6 cases of chylous ascites after abdominal surgery. In addition to diet control, we delivered traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) twice daily orally. The drainage volume of the chylous fistula showed an obvious decrease 1 day after the TCHM administration and all 6 patients completely recovered within 4 to 8 days (median: 5.5 days). Although relevant data are limited, our cases would suggest that TCHM could play an important role in the management of chylous ascites. However, randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm its efficacy in a larger population. PMID:25637154

Xiu, Lijuan; Yan, Bing; Qin, Zhifeng; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wei, Pinkang

2015-02-01

61

Chunggan extract, a traditional herbal formula, ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rat model  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were orally administered 30% ethanol daily for 4 wk with or without CGX. The pharmaceutical properties were assessed through liver enzymes, histopathology, fibrogenic cytokines, and alcohol metabolism in hepatic tissues as well as by in vitro experiment using HSC-T6 cells. RESULTS: Four weeks of alcohol consumption notably increased liver enzymes and malondialdehyde levels in serum and hepatic tissue. CGX not only prevented the collagen deposition determined by histopathology and hydroxyproline content, but also normalized transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-beta and connective tissue growth factor at the gene expression and protein levels in liver tissue. Moreover, CGX treatment also significantly normalized the abnormal changes in gene expression profiles of extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinase and their inhibitors, alcohol metabolism, and inflammatory reactions. In the acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, CGX considerably inhibited collagen production and normalized fibrogenic cytokines in both gene expression and protein levels. CONCLUSION: The present study evidenced that CGX has hepatoprotective properties via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines and alcohol metabolism in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400454

Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Park, Yeon-Hwa; Son, Chang-Gue

2014-01-01

62

Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment  

PubMed Central

Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63–5??g/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500??g/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20??g/mL) for 24?h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm. PMID:22919409

Chusri, S.; Sompetch, K.; Mukdee, S.; Jansrisewangwong, S.; Srichai, T.; Maneenoon, K.; Limsuwan, S.; Voravuthikunchai, S. P.

2012-01-01

63

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

64

The prevalence of traditional herbal medicine use among hypertensives living in South African communities  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa, over 6 million people are hypertensive and the burden of disease shows that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adults. Although treatments exist, few people comply or adhere to recommended treatment due to side effects or costs of the drugs, hence the reliance on alternative forms of treatment. Traditional herbal medicines (THM) are used for the management of hypertension but the prevalence of its use among hypertensive patients living in South African communities is not sufficiently known. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the prevalence of THM use for hypertension, among 135 purposefully selected South African participants of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, who are THM users. Data on THM use were collected by way of face to face interviews using structured questionnaires administered by trained field workers. Standard descriptive measures were used to characterize the study sample and responses to the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used when making comparisons between groups. Results There were 135 THM users, 21% of whom used THM to treat hypertension. Majority (82.1%) of the hypertensive THM users were females, only 29% were married or co-habitating, virtually all (96%) were unemployed and 86% were Christians. More than half (56%) of the respondents were aged between 55 and 64 years. THM was occasionally used (51.9%) as a combination of tea and other mixtures (63%) and prescribed by family/ friends/self-administered. There was a significant difference in the age, marital and employment status, as well as the form and frequency of THM use of hypertensive THM users compared to other THM users. Conclusions The study gives an insight into the prevalence of THM use by hypertensive patients in selected South African communities. The practice of self-medication was also observed which raises concern regarding the safety of medications taken by the participants. Health care providers should however be more aware of THM use and counsel patients regarding the combination of prescribed treatment regimen and herbal medicines and the potential of herb-drug interactions. PMID:23414344

2013-01-01

65

Complications of traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicines (TCM)—a guide for perplexed oncologists and other cancer caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cancer patients often seek complementary or alternative medicines to supplement or replace treatments prescribed by licensed\\u000a medical practitioners. Traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicine (TCM) is a popular complementary intervention among cancer patients\\u000a of Asian ethnicity, many of whom take it during their conventional treatment. Few of these patients inform their doctors,\\u000a however, creating a risk of unexpected sequelae arising from either pharmacologic

Joanne Chiu; Thomas Yau; Richard J. Epstein

2009-01-01

66

[Traditional and ayurvedic herbalism, homeopathy--the alternative therapeutic methods in dentistry. Review].  

PubMed

Herbalism is the oldest therapeutic system useful also ayurvedic medicine. Homepathy uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Ayurveda is a holistic form of therapy. In this meaning herbalism selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. The some substances useful in dentistry were showed in this letter. PMID:23421114

Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna

2012-01-01

67

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

68

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

69

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-04-01

70

Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2013-01-01

71

Application of herbal drugs to health care in Japan.  

PubMed

Kampo, derived from traditional Chinese medicine, has been adopted in Japan for centuries, and the demand for herbal drugs is increasing. At present herbal drugs are utilized in pharmaceutical forms such as granules of the extracts. A special commission has evaluated and selected traditional prescriptons for their efficacy and safety by clinical experience. The Kampo preparations are also accepted by the national health care insurance. About 80% of the plants used are imported. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia reports 116 herbal drugs, the majority of Chinese origin, under specifications established and reviewed by the Pharmacopoeia Committee. In Japan, high quality research, which has developed during the last century, has partly ascertained the active principles in the herbal drugs and pharmacological tests have also been adopted, although limitations exist in the modern pharmacological methods. The handling of herbal drugs is limited to licensed pharmacists in order to ensure their good management. PMID:7464186

Natori, S

1980-03-01

72

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

PubMed Central

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053

Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

73

An overview on safety issues of interactions between traditional herbal medicines and pharmaceutical medicines (Una apreciación global sobre la seguridad de las interacciones entre las medicinas herbarias tradicionales y los fármacos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity world-wide of using herbal medicinal materials (HMM) from ethnic traditional medicine such as the widely used Chinese materia medica (CMM) or other ethnic herbal medicines and related proprietary health products (PHP), functional food and prescription herbal medicines has raised concerns over their concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines (PHARMED) and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the

Kelvin CHAN

2008-01-01

74

Herbal Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.

Cheryl Powers

2009-01-01

75

Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra.  

PubMed

The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium plicatile (methanol extract), Juglans regia (water extract), Paeonia lactiflora (methanol extract), Psychotria serpens (water and methanol extracts), Rhodiola sacra (water and methanol extracts) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (water extract) especially showed strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical (*O2-), while J. regia (water and methanol extracts), Morus alba (water extract) and Schisandra chinensis (water extract) revealed strong scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical (HO*). In addition, the active-oxygen scavenging activities of 19 compounds isolated from R. sacra were also examined, and hydroquinone (1), caffeic acid (3), protocatechuic acid (6), gallic acid (7), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (8), 3-O-galloylepigallocatechin-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin+ ++ 3-O-gallate (10), heterodendrin (17) and gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (19) were found to show mild or strong inhibitory activity against superoxide anion radical (*O2-), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4), 6-8 and 19 inhibited hydroxyl radical (OH*). These active-oxygen scavengers may contribute, to different extents, to their anti-aging action. PMID:10616967

Ohsugi, M; Fan, W; Hase, K; Xiong, Q; Tezuka, Y; Komatsu, K; Namba, T; Saitoh, T; Tazawa, K; Kadota, S

1999-10-01

76

Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia.  

PubMed

Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated. PMID:16019122

Ali, N; Hashim, N H; Saad, B; Safan, K; Nakajima, M; Yoshizawa, T

2005-12-01

77

Rape Perception Differences Between Japanese and American College Students: On the Mediating Influence of Gender Role Traditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the differences in rape perceptions between Japanese and American college students. It was found that the Japanese minimized the seriousness of rapes, blamed the victims, and excused the rapists more than did the Americans. Cross-cultural differences in the gender role traditionality (GRT) were found to mediate these differences. GRT-mediated tendencies for increases in the

Niwako Yamawaki; Brian T. Tschanz

2005-01-01

78

Complementary medicine: a review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular demand for and scientific interest in complementary or alternative medicine, particularly medicinal bo- tanicals, has increased considerably in recent years. The medicinal botanicals with the longest tradition, and for which extensive data are available, are Chinese herbal medicines and their Japanese counterparts-Kampo medicines. This review focuses on some representative examples of studies examining the effects of some traditional Chinese

Andrea T Borchers; Robert M Hackman; Carl L Keen; Judith S Stern; M Eric Gershwin

79

Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

2015-01-01

80

New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

2014-01-01

81

Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.  

PubMed

Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

2013-03-01

82

Effect of tao-hong-si-wu-tang, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, on physical fatigue in mice.  

PubMed

Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, which has traditionally been used in China for about one thousand years. The present study investigated the effect of THSWT on physical fatigue. 32 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 in each group. All were administered orally and daily for 28 days. Group I received isotonic saline solution as control; Group II, III and IV obtained 5, 10 and 20ml/ kg body weight of THSWT solutions, respectively. After 28 days, the anti-physical fatigue effect of THSWT was evaluated by using a forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The data showed that THSWT could extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, as well as decrease the BLA and BUN contents and increase the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The results support that THSWT had anti-physical fatigue effect. PMID:24082327

Li, Shan-shan; Chen, Zi-chao; Zhang, Chao-hui

2012-01-01

83

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. METHODS: The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review,

Ripu M Kunwar; Keshab P Shrestha; Rainer W Bussmann

2010-01-01

84

Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Formula Pyungwi-San on Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF-?. Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23533508

Cha, Ji Young; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Jae Yup; Lee, Jong Rok; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Byun, Sung Hui; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G.

2013-01-01

85

Biotransformation and in vitro metabolic profile of bioactive extracts from a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, Polygonum capitatum.  

PubMed

Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth of four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, P. capitatum probably exhibits potential antitumor activity. However, there is very little information on the metabolism of substances present in P. capitatum extracts. In this study, gallic acid, quercetrin, ethanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of ethnolic extract (EtOAc fraction) of P. capitatum were cultured anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of fight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) technique was employed to identify and characterize the resulting metabolites. A total of 22 metabolites (M1-M22), including tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were detected and characterized. The overall results demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria played an important role in the metabolism of P. capitatum, and the main metabolic pathways were hydrolysis, reduction and oxidation reactions. Our results provided a basis for the estimation of the metabolic transformation of P. capitatum in vivo. PMID:25033057

He, Chi-Yu; Fu, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yi; Feng, Ru; Tan, Xiang-Shan; Huang, Min; Shou, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Chen, Yangchao; Wang, Yan

2014-01-01

86

Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

2010-03-01

87

Neuroprotective effect of the traditional Chinese herbal formula Tongxinluo: a PET imaging study in rats  

PubMed Central

Tongxinluo has been widely used in China for the treatment of acute stroke and for neuroprotection. However, there are few positron emission tomography (PET) studies on the neuroprotective effect of Tongxinluo on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in small animals. In the present study, Tongxinluo superfine powder suspension or its vehicle was administered intragastrically to rats for 5 successive days before middle cerebral artery occlusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) small animal PET imaging showed that at 1 and 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, glucose metabolism in the ischemic area was greater in rats that had received Tongxinluo than in those that had received the vehicle. Nissl staining showed that 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, there was less neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex in Tongxinluo-treated rats than in controls. In addition, Tongxinluo-treated animals showed better neurologic function and lower cerebral infarct volume than rats that received the vehicle. These findings suggest that Tongxinluo exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and demonstrates that 18F-FDG small animal PET imaging is a useful tool with which to study the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25221578

Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Haoxuan; Zhou, Lihua; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Jingbo; Huang, Yan; Luo, Enli; Cai, Yefeng

2014-01-01

88

In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Background Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, “Attarin” drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). Methods In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 ?g/ml and 68 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 ?g/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 ?g/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 ?g/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 ?g/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 ?g/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 ?g/ml). Conclusion Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

2013-01-01

89

The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

2007-01-01

90

Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.  

PubMed

A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)? 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. PMID:25481086

Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

2015-02-01

91

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

2006-01-01

92

The Design of the Automatic Control System of the Gripping-Belt Speed in Long-Rootstalk Traditional Chinese Herbal Harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims to design a kind of gripping-belt speed automatic tracking system of traditional Chinese herbal harvester by AT89C52 single-chip micro computer as a core combined with fuzzy PID control algorithm. The system can adjust the gripping-belt speed in accordance with the variation of the machine's operation, so there is a perfect matching between the machine operation speed and the gripping-belt speed. The harvesting performance of the machine can be improved greatly. System design includes hardware and software.

Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Junfa; Yu, Yonghong

93

Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs?  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPAR? and PPAR? and to inhibit TNF-?-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPAR? or PPAR? (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-?B (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

2013-01-01

94

Microarray analysis on germfree mice elucidates the primary target of a traditional Japanese medicine juzentaihoto: acceleration of IFN-? response via affecting the ISGF3-IRF7 signaling cascade  

PubMed Central

Background The traditional Japanese medicine juzentaihoto (JTX) is a pharmaceutical grade multi-herbal medicine widely used for the prevention of cancer metastasis and infection in immuno-compromized patients in Japan. The effect of JTX has been supposed to be intimately affected by the immunological properties of host and enteric microflora. The influence of JTX on the gene expression profile in the large and small intestines was investigated by microarray analyses using mice of different strains with or without enteric microflora. Results In all types of mice, including germfree (GF) animals, the genes most affected by two-week oral JTX treatment were the type 1 interferon (IFN)-related genes including Stat1, Isgf3g and Irf7, which play a critical role in the feedback loop of IFN-? production cascade. In IQI specific pathogen free (SPF) mice JTX increased the steady state level of the expression of IFN-related genes, but had the opposite effect in IQI GF and BALB/c SPF mice. Promoter analysis suggests that tandem repeated $IRFF (the promoter sequences for interferon regulatory factors) may be a primary target for JTX action. Pre-treatment of JTX accelerated the effects of an oral IFN "inducer" 2-amino-5-bromo-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (ABMP) (up-regulation of IFN-? production in IQI strain and down-regulation in BALB/c mice), which is in good accordance with the effect of JTX on gene expression of type 1 IFN-related genes. Conclusions Microarray analysis revealed that the target of JTX might be the transcription machinery regulating the steady-state level of genes involved in the ISGF3-IRF7 cascade, whose effect is bi-directional in a strain- and microbiota-dependent manner. PMID:22257721

2012-01-01

95

A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS)  

PubMed Central

A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

2013-01-01

96

Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

2013-01-01

97

Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine): A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system. PMID:22319543

Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.

2012-01-01

98

Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

2009-01-01

99

Exploratory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Topical Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Psoriasis Vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal ointment, Shi Du Ruan Gao, in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. Design. Single-center, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel group, placebo-controlled study. Participants. One hundred outpatients with mild to moderate chronic plaque-type psoriasis were enrolled. Intervention. The patients applied either Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment or vehicle ointment topically to for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. The outcomes were assessed using the following criteria: Total Severity Score (TSS, sum of erythema, scaling, and plaque elevation/induration, on a 0 to 4 scale), Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) evaluated on a 0 (Clear) to 4 (s to very severe) scale, and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment response on a 7-point scale from ?1 (worse) to 5 (Cleared). Results. Significant reductions in the Total Severity Score (P < 0.001) (mean score: 2.7 after Shi Du Ruan Gao treatment versus 5.1 in control subjects). Both Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment are better in the Shi Du Ruan Gao group than the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment was a safe, and effective therapy for plaque-type psoriasis. PMID:25834623

Yan, Yuhe; Liu, Wali; Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Chantalat, Laurent; Briantais, Philippe; Lin, Albert; Feng, Lilian

2015-01-01

100

Traditional Chinese Herbal Patch for Short-Term Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of two kinds of Traditional Chinese herbal patches, Fufang Nanxing Zhitong Gao (FNZG) and Shangshi Jietong Gao (SJG), for painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive FNZG (n = 60), SJG (n = 60), or placebo patch (n = 30) for 7 days. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Questionnaire (TCMSQ) subscale. Results. Although there was no significant difference among, three groups in short-term pain management, patients receiving FNZG got significant improvement in symptom of fear of coldness as compared with placebo patch (P = 0.029). The most common local adverse events of rash, itching, erythema, and slightly damaged skin were observed in 7% of participants. Conclusions. FNZG may be a useful treatment for symptom of knee OA and merits long-term study in broader populations. PMID:22454655

Wang, Xuezong; Cao, Yuelong; Pang, Jian; Du, Jiong; Guo, Chaoqing; Liu, Ting; Wei, Songpu; Zheng, Yuxin; Chen, Rongming; Zhan, Hongsheng

2012-01-01

101

Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic  

MedlinePLUS

... adverse perioperative events among surgical patients taking traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Anesthesiology . 2006;105:454-461. • Naushad AN. 2002. • ... the body’s interactions with other medications. Unlike Western medicine, ... Chinese herbal remedies often consist of mixtures of herbs, making ...

102

A preliminary survey of mycological and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of African traditional herbal medicines sold in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional medicine is an important aspect of healthcare delivery in South Africa and is used by at least 70% of the country’s population. The trade in medicinal plants is a multi-million rand business which is a major driver for rural economies. However, the conditions in which these plant products are transported and stored make them prone to fungal contamination which

Katerere; S Stockenström; KM Thembo; JP Rheeder; GS Shephard; HF Vismer

2008-01-01

103

Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly blocked SSE-induced increases in Beclin-1, LC3-II, and Bax expression and decreases in Bcl-2 expression, indicating that JNK activation plays critical role in cell death caused by SSE. Conclusions These findings suggest that SSE efficiently induces cancer cell death via apoptosis as well as autophagy through modification of the Akt/mTOR and JNK signaling pathways. SSE may be as a potent traditional herbal medicine for treating malignancies. PMID:24053190

2013-01-01

104

Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract words such as "tradition" are like ancient coins whose concrete images have worn away. Traditions can be of two forms--either alive, amendable, and expandable (such as those in a family's annual Christmas celebration), or dead, empty formalities. An example of an empty tradition is the strict rule in freshman composition classes that…

Cowan, Elizabeth

105

Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Selection of Acupoints in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Insomnia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern differentiation, treatment principle, and pattern-based treatment for insomnia has therefore been conducted. A total of 227 studies, 17916 subjects, and 87 TCM patterns were analyzed. There was a limited consistency in pattern-based TCM treatment of insomnia across practitioners. Except for Gui Pi Tang, An Shen Ding Zhi Wan, and Wen Dan Tang which were used more commonly for deficiency of both the heart and spleen, internal disturbance of phlegm-heat, and qi deficiency of the heart and gallbladder, respectively, the selection of herbal formula for other patterns and pattern-based prescription of individual herbs and acupoints were not consistent. Suanzaoren (Semen Z. spinosae), Fuling (Poria), Yejiaoteng (Caulis P. multiflori), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Baishao (Radix P. alba), Shenmen (HT7), Yintang (EX-HN3), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Baihui (GV20), Anmian (EX-HN22), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) were commonly used, but nonspecifically for many patterns. Treatment principles underlying herb and acupoint selection were seldom reported. Although many studies were reviewed, the study quality and diagnostic process were inadequate. More high quality studies are needed to examine the additional benefits of pattern differentiation and pattern-based TCM treatment. PMID:23259001

Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Poon, Maggie Man-Ki; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi; Wong Taam, Vivian

2012-01-01

106

Effect of Combining Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Psychotherapy and Herbal Medicines in Women with Menopausal Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

2012-01-01

107

Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin- (IL-) 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-?/interferon-? TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases.

Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeji; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2015-01-01

108

The traditional Chinese herbal compound rocaglamide preferentially induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activities.  

PubMed

With an increasing cancer rate worldwide, there is an urgent quest for the improvement of anticancer drugs. One of the main problems of present chemotherapy in treatment of tumor patients is the toxicity of drugs. Most of the existent anticancer drugs, unfortunately, attack also proliferating normal cells. In recent years, traditional Chinese herbal remedies have gradually gained considerable attention as a new source of anticancer drugs. Although their healing mechanisms are still largely unknown, some of the drugs have been used to help cancer patients fight their disease at reduced side effects compared to other treatments. In our study, we show that Rocaglamide (Roc), derived from the traditional Chinese medicinal plants Aglaia, induces apoptosis through the intrinsic death pathway in various human leukemia cell lines and in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia cells freshly isolated from patients. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms by which Roc kills tumors revealed that it induces a consistent activation of the stress-response mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 accompanied with a long-term suppression of the survival MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These events affect proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins leading to depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger caspase-mediated apoptosis involving caspase-9, -8, -3 and -2. Importantly, Roc shows no effects on MAPKs in normal lymphocytes and therefore has no or very low toxicity on healthy cells. Up to now, more than 50 different Roc derivatives have been isolated from Aglaia. Our study suggests that Roc derivatives may be promising candidates for the development of new drugs against hematologic malignancies. PMID:17565740

Zhu, Jia Y; Lavrik, Inna N; Mahlknecht, Ulrich; Giaisi, Marco; Proksch, Peter; Krammer, Peter H; Li-Weber, Min

2007-10-15

109

A traditional Chinese herbal antilithic formula, Wulingsan, effectively prevents the renal deposition of calcium oxalate crystal in ethylene glycol-fed rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Wulingsan (WLS), on renal stone prevention using an ethylene glycol-induced nephrocalcinosis rat model. Forty-one male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (n=8) was the normal control; group 2 (n=11) served as the placebo group, and received a gastric gavage of starch and 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) as a stone inducer; group 3 received EG and a low dose of WLS (375 mg/kg); and group 4 received EG and a high dose of WLS (1,125 mg/kg). Baseline and final 24 h urine samples were collected individually; biochemical data of urine and serum were also obtained at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After 4 weeks, animals were killed and kidneys were harvested. The kidney specimens were examined by polarized light microscopy and the crystal deposits were evaluated by a semi-quantitative scoring method using computer software (ImageScoring). The results revealed that the rats of placebo group gained the least significant body weight; in contrast, the rats of WLS-fed groups could effectively reverse it. The placebo group exhibited lower levels of free calcium (p=0.059) and significantly lower serum phosphorus (p=0.015) in urine than WLS-fed rats. Histological findings of kidneys revealed tubular destruction, damage and inflammatory reactions in the EG-water rats. The crystal deposit scores dropped significantly in the WLS groups, from 1.40 to 0.46 in the low-dose group and from 1.40 to 0.45 in the high-dose group. Overall, WLS effectively inhibited the deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal and lowered the incidence of stones in rats (p=0.035). In conclusion, WLS significantly reduced the severity of calcium oxalate crystal deposits in rat kidneys, indicating that Wulingsan may be an effective antilithic herbal formula. PMID:18040675

Tsai, Chou-Huang; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Lieh-Der; Pan, Tien-Chien; Ho, Chien-Yi; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Wen-Chi

2008-02-01

110

Draft Genome Sequence of D-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040(T) was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132 bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

Doi, Katsumi; Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2013-01-01

111

Draft Genome Sequence of d-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040T was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132 bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2013-01-01

112

Zuo Jin Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Reverses P-gp-Mediated MDR In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW), a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been identified to have anticancer activity in recent studies. In this study, we determined the underlying mechanism of ZJW in the reversal effect of multidrug resistance on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that ZJW significantly enhanced the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP, SGC7901/DDP, and Bel/Fu MDR cells. Moreover, combination of chemotherapy with ZJW could reverse the drug resistance of HCT116/L-OHP cells, increase the sensitivity of HCT116/L-OHP cells to L-OHP, DDP, 5-Fu, and MMC in vitro, and inhibit the tumor growth in the colorectal MDR cancer xenograft model. ICP-MS results showed that ZJW could increase the concentration of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that ZJW could reverse drug resistance of colorectal cancer cells by decreasing P-gp level in vitro and in vivo, which has been represented as one of the major mechanisms that contribute to the MDR phenotype. Our study has provided the first direct evidence that ZJW plays an important role in reversing multidrug resistance of human colorectal cancer and may be considered as a useful target for cancer therapy. PMID:23533531

Sui, Hua; Liu, Xuan; Jin, Bao-Hui; Pan, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Li-Hong; Yu, Nikitin Alexander; Cai, Jian-Feng; Fan, Zhong-Ze; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi

2013-01-01

113

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2012-07-01

114

Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in documentation due to concerns of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) have been highlighted. PMID:22816312

Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

2012-06-01

115

Herbal Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

116

Are herbal compounds the next frontier for alleviating learning and memory impairments? An integrative look at memory, dementia and the promising therapeutics of traditional chinese medicines.  

PubMed

Recent advances in neuroscience have revealed a greater, in-depth understanding of the complexities associated with memory. Contemporary theories hold that an integral relationship between memory formation, stabilization and consolidation revolve around plasticity of neuronal networks. The associated requisite receptors ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and cellular mechanisms surrounding plasticity (posed to incite molecular functionality), also display strong correlations in the pathogenesis of dementias. When the brain is in a diseased state as a result of malignant neurotransmission (i.e. in Alzheimer's disease; AD), the homeostatic balance required for normal neuronal processes is disrupted, which leads to degeneration of neural circuitry. Present efforts to find new treatments aimed at reversing or halting neurodegeneration are immense, with increasing attention being placed on investigating various herbal medicines. A wide variety of herbal plants (i.e. Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia, Acorus gramineus and Huperzia serrata, examined here within), extracts and compounds have, to date, already presented advantageous results when tested against known pathogenic markers related to AD-associated dementia. The efficaciousness of herbal medicines appears to be a modulatory effect on neurotrophins, kinases and their substrates that, in turn, initiate or take part in intracellular cascades related to memory processes. PMID:21305632

Jesky, Robert; Hailong, Chen

2011-08-01

117

Traditional herbal formula Jakyakgamcho-tang (Paeonia lactiflora and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) impairs inflammatory chemokine production by inhibiting activation of STAT1 and NF-?B in HaCaT cells.  

PubMed

A traditional herbal formula Jakyakgamcho-tang (JYGCT; Paeonia lactiflora and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) has been used for treatment of backache, muscle pain, acute abdominal pain, neuralgia, bronchial asthma, and painful peripheral neuropathy in Oriental medicine. We report on our experiments using the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line showing that a traditional herbal formula JYGCT has inhibitory effects on inflammatory responses in skin. Stimulation with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) caused a significant increase in the production of the following chemokines: thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17; macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22; regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5; and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in HaCaT cells. By contrast, treatment with JYGCT extract significantly reduced the production of TARC, MDC, RANTES, and IL-8, but caused no cytotoxicity, compared with TNF-? and IFN-?-treated control cells. Consistently, JYGCT extract downregulated the mRNA expression of TARC, MDC, RANTES, and IL-8 induced by TNF-? and IFN-? in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-? and IFN-? markedly increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in HaCaT cells. By contrast, TNF-? and IFN-?-induced activation of STAT1 and NF-?B activation was inhibited by JYGCT treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Our data indicate that JYGCT attenuates TNF-? and IFN-?-mediated chemokine production by targeting the STAT1 and NF-?B signalling in keratinocytes. Our findings suggest that JYGCT has potential as a therapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25765840

Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lim, Hye-Sun; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Jin, Seong-Eun; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2015-02-15

118

Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

2014-01-01

119

Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions  

PubMed Central

Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

2014-01-01

120

Herbal medicine for rheumatic diseases: promises kept?  

PubMed

Traditional healers throughout the world have relied on herbal medicines in their practices for millennia to treat a wide array of conditions, including arthritis. Present-day patients continue to seek care from complementary and alternative providers and more effective and less toxic treatments. A broad foundation of laboratory studies suggests that many herbal products have pertinent medicinal effects for the management of diseases like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, few high quality clinical trials have yet been carried out to substantiate the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. Some of the best research to date in this area is summarized in this review. PMID:22996324

Kolasinski, Sharon L

2012-12-01

121

Maintaining A Physiological Blood Glucose Level with ‘Glucolevel’, A Combination of Four Anti-Diabetes Plants Used in the Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25?g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption (?49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 2–3 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400?±?50?mg/dl to 210?±?22?mg/dl (P herbal combinations of four plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis. PMID:18955212

Fulder, Stephen; Khalil, Khaled; Azaizeh, Hassan; Kassis, Eli; Saad, Bashar

2008-01-01

122

A traditional Japanese-style salt field is a niche for haloarchaeal strains that can survive in 0.5% salt solution  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the haloarchaeal strains have been isolated from hypersaline environments such as solar evaporation ponds, salt lakes, or salt deposits, and they, with some exceptions, lyse or lose viability in very low-salt concentrations. There are no salty environments suitable for the growth of haloarchaea in Japan. Although Natrialba asiatica and Haloarcula japonica were isolated many years ago, the question, "Are haloarchaea really thriving in natural environments of Japan?" has remained unanswered. Results Ten strains were isolated from a traditional Japanese-style salt field at Nie, Noto Peninsula, Japan by plating out the soil samples directly on agar plates containing 30% (w/v) salts and 0.5% yeast extract. They were most closely related to strains of three genera, Haladaptatus, Halococcus, and Halogeometricum. Survival rates in 3% and 0.5% SW (Salt Water, solutions containing salts in approximately the same proportions as found in seawater) solutions at 37°C differed considerably depending on the strains. Two strains belonging to Halogeometricum as well as the type strain Hgm. borinquense died and lysed immediately after suspension. Five strains that belonged to Halococcus and a strain that may be a member of Halogeometricum survived for 1–2 days in 0.5% SW solution. Two strains most closely related to Haladaptatus possessed extraordinary strong tolerance to low salt conditions. About 20 to 34% of the cells remained viable in 0.5% SW after 9 days incubation. Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated that haloarchaea are really thriving in the soil of Japanese-style salt field. The haloarchaeal cells, particularly the fragile strains are suggested to survive in the micropores of smaller size silt fraction, one of the components of soil. The inside of the silt particles is filled with concentrated salt solution and kept intact even upon suspension in rainwater. Possible origins of the haloarchaea isolated in this study are discussed. PMID:17346353

Fukushima, Tadamasa; Usami, Ron; Kamekura, Masahiro

2007-01-01

123

Herbal Products and Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... that all herbal health products and supplements are safer than medicines just because they occur in nature ... too long. View larger and print from your internet browser Can herbal health products or supplements change ...

124

Mother/Offspring Co-administration of the Traditional Herbal Remedy Yokukansan During the Nursing Period Influences Grooming and Cerebellar Serotonin Levels in a Rat Model of Neurodevelopmental Disorders.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions. PMID:25315739

Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

2015-04-01

125

Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

Gori, Luigi

2007-01-01

126

Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

2014-01-01

127

Comparison of the Effects on Rib Fracture between the Traditional Japanese Medicine Jidabokuippo and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Jidabokuippo is a traditional Japanese medicine used for contusion-induced swelling and pain. This open multicenter randomized study was designed to compare the efficacies of jidabokuippo and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rib fracture by analyzing the treatment duration. Our study involved 170 rib fracture patients capable of oral ingestion divided randomly into 2 groups: the jidabokuippo and NSAID groups. We compared the duration of treatment and healthcare expenditure between these 2 groups. Medication was continued in both groups until the visual analogue scale score decreased to less than 50% of the pretreatment score. We excluded the patients in whom medication was prematurely discontinued. We analyzed 81 patients belonging to the jidabokuippo and NSAIDs groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in age, gender, severity (injury severity score), and presence/absence of underlying disease. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P = 0.0003). Healthcare expenditure was significantly lower in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that compared to NSAIDs, jidabokuippo can shorten the duration of treatment in patients with rib fracture and is a promising analgesic agent based on the medical economic viewpoint. PMID:22888367

Nakae, Hajime; Yokoi, Aya; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Akira

2012-01-01

128

Er-Xian Decoction, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, intervening early in hypothalamic-pituitary axis of male rats with delayed puberty  

PubMed Central

Background: Er-Xian Decoction (EXD) is one of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with unique effect on osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome and delayed puberty in China for many years. Objective: We aim to evaluate the potential activity of starting hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis of male rats with delayed puberty. Materials and Methods: Delayed puberty model of male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were established with soy isoflavones (90 mg·kg-1) and were treated by EXD extract at doses of 5, 10 g·kg-1 or Testosterone undecanoate (TU) for 8 weeks. Body weight, body length, testis weight, T, E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in hypothalamus, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH in pituitary gland were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LH in pituitary gland. Results: Soy isoflavones could significantly decrease body weight, body length, testicular organ coefficient T in serum, GnRH in hypothalamus, FSH and LH in pituitary gland. Both of EXD and TU could improve the condition. E2 and LH in serum of all groups were non-significance of difference (P > 0.05). The immunohistochemical results were well consistent with LH in pituitary gland. Conclusion: The results of the present research indicate that EXD extract is effective to start the HPT axis in puberty and can significantly improve sexual developmental inhibition caused by soy isoflavones. PMID:25422555

Zhu, Zheng; Li, LiHong; Jin, Xin; Fang, JianWei; Zhang, DongFang

2014-01-01

129

Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up till now no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of “Qurs Tabasheer” in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from five various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). Methods Effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and trim down the HDL level. We have weighed up the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Results In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified. Conclusion Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride. PMID:23305114

2013-01-01

130

Simultaneous quantification of nine major active components in traditional Chinese prescription Mahuang decoction and the influence of herbal compatibility on their contents  

PubMed Central

Background: Mahuang decoction (MHD), a famous classic traditional Chinese formula, has been extensively applied for treating cold, influenza, asthma, acute bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. However, the interaction among four drugs of MHD has not been clearly deciphered from the aspect of molecular composition. Objective: To assess the quality of MHD and explore the interplay among different prescription drugs. Materials and Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine bioactive components was developed. A somatomedin A (SMA)-phenyl column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 ?m) was eluted by a gradient mobile phase contained acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid-0.05% triethylamine aqueous solution. Four detection wavelengths (210, 252, 278, and 291 nm) were utilized for the quantitative analysis due to the different ultraviolet (UV) spectra of these compounds. Results: Satisfactory separation was obtained for all the components, and the assay was fully validated in respects of linearity, precision, stability, and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2? 0.9991) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday repeatability were not more than 1.70 and 2.66%, respectively. The spike recoveries of nine components varied from 97.50 ± 1.69 to 99.27 ± 1.37%. Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to analyze nine active compounds in decoction samples of various drug compatibilities of MHD. The variations of contents were obvious for different combinations, which hinted the mutual promotion or inhibition of componential dissolution among four herbs of MHD. PMID:24914312

He, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ruping; Ge, Lijun; Wan, Haitong

2014-01-01

131

Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating erysipelas in pigs; the aerial parts of pellitory ( Parietaria judaica) in decoctions for treating haemorrhoids. Conclusions The fact that half of the most salient species documented in our case study – widely available both in Molise and in Dalmatia and Herzegovina – retain a Slavic name could indicate that they may have also been used in Dalmatia and Herzegovina before the migration took place. However, given the occurrence of several South-Italian plant names and uses, also a remarkable acculturation process affected the Slavic community of Montemitro during these last centuries. Future directions of research should try to simultaneously compare current ethnobotanical knowledge of both migrated communities and their counterparts in the areas of origin. PMID:22672636

2012-01-01

132

Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST. PMID:24410935

2014-01-01

133

Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development.  

PubMed

Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from the same species serve as different herbs): three herbs, madouling, qingmuxiang and tianxianteng, derived respectively from the fruit, root and stem of Aristolochia debilis; and (3) one-to-multiple (one herb refers to multiple species): the herb fangji refers to the root of either Aristolochia fangchi, Stephania tetrandra or Cocculus trilobus; in this case, the first belongs to a different family (Aristolochiaceae) than the latter two (Menispermaceae), and only the first contains aristolochic acid (AA), as demonstrated by independent analytical data provided in this article. Further, mutong (Akebia quinata) is allowed in TCM herbal medicine practice to be substituted with either guan mutong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) or chuan mutong (Clematis armandii); and mu fangji (Cocculus trilobus) by guang fanchi (Aristolochia fangchi) or hanzhong fangji (Aristolochia heterophylla), thereby increasing the risk of exposing renotoxic AA-containing Aristolochia species to patients. To avoid these and other confusions, we wish to emphasize the importance of a pharmaceutical name, which defines the species name, the plant part, and sometimes the special process performed on the herb, including cultivating conditions. The pharmaceutical name as referred to in this article is defined, and is limited to those botanicals that are intended to be used as drug. It is hoped that by following the pharmaceutical name, toxic herbs can be effectively identified and substitution or adulteration avoided. PMID:16863692

Wu, K M; Farrelly, J G; Upton, R; Chen, J

2007-04-01

134

Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.  

PubMed

Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of ?-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain. PMID:24701973

Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Michael Denbow, D; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2014-04-01

135

Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

2011-01-01

136

Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

2014-08-01

137

Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

Manchikanti, Padmavati

2013-01-01

138

Global herbal medicine: a critique.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

2003-04-01

139

Japanese; Japanese Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

140

Standardized herbal treatments on functional bowel disorders: moving from putative mechanisms of action to controlled clinical trials.  

PubMed

Symptom relief in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) is frequently sought with complementary and alternative medicine, and various herbal medicine compounds are popular in different parts of the world. Only a few products, however, are standardized and are backed by scientific evidence. This review mainly focuses on mechanistic and clinical data in support of the Japanese traditional compound Rikkunshi-to (RKT) and of STW-5. Their effects on gut sensori-motor function, neurohormonal network, and controlled clinical data in FGID are revised. RKT and STW-5 appear to possess some degree of gastroprokinetic, visceral analgesic properties, and seem to increase the gastric accommodation response. Controlled trials of RKT and STW-5 support at least a modest effect on symptoms of functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, with low side effects profile. With the widespread use of herbals and the relative paucity of effective pharmacological options for FGID, rigorous studies to further elucidate pharmacological actions and clinical applications of herbal compounds are a priority. PMID:24965903

Cremonini, F

2014-07-01

141

Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.  

PubMed

(1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

2008-06-01

142

Herbal therapy in migraine.  

PubMed

The use of herbal therapies is ancient and increasing worldwide. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of various "complementary" and alternative medicine approaches in the management of headache disorders. Promising tools to treat migraine patients are herbal products. In particular constituents of Petasites hybridus, Tanacetum Parthenium and Ginkgo Biloba have shown antimigraine action in clinical studies. A miscellaneous of recreational drugs and other herbal remedies have been supposed to have a role in headache treatment but quality of clinical studies in this field is low and inconclusive. Further research is warranted in this area. PMID:24867850

D'Andrea, G; Cevoli, S; Cologno, D

2014-05-01

143

Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

2010-01-01

144

[Research on the citation of Herbal in Dongeuibogam].  

PubMed

Dongeuibogam is the most prestigious traditional medical book in Korea, written by Heo Joon, who codified it by picking the essence of Chinese traditional medical books before the Ming Dynasty and some other ancient Chinese books and sorted them out. Among the citations of this book, those marked as"Herbal" is more complicated. We made a preliminary research on the citations of such Herbal, from their distribution, sources, citation manners, pharmacological features, to find that 23 rolls of main text to include citations of Herbal in each roll. We also found that most Herbal referred by Heo Joon come from Zheng lei ben cao (Classified Materia Medica), and a few of the contents are mixed with the contents of other medical books. Heo Joon abstracted and modified the citations from the source literature, embodying his ideas of pursuing conciseness and practicability. PMID:25429883

Xiao, Yongzhi; Dang, Zhizheng

2014-07-01

145

Safety surveillance of traditional chinese medicine: current and future.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717

Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli; Cheng, Yung-Chi

2015-02-01

146

[Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].  

PubMed

Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years. PMID:25665435

Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

2014-12-01

147

Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2011-01-01

148

Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

Amirghofran, Zahra

2012-06-01

149

Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels  

PubMed Central

Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

2008-01-01

150

Herbalism, home gardens, and hybridization: Wõthïhã medicine and cultural change.  

PubMed

Using the example of the Wõthïhã of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wõthïhã ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wõthïhã shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wõthïhã have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wõthïhã to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wõthïhã, each with its own herbal tradition. PMID:17405697

Heckler, S L

2007-03-01

151

A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.  

PubMed

Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

2014-11-15

152

Herbal medicine revisited: science looks anew at ancient Chinese pharmacology.  

PubMed

There is now increasing evidence that significant advances have been made in herbal medicine during the past 20-25 years since the official policy of China was established that encouraged a blend of Western and Chinese traditional medicine. Scientific studies in China and the United States, as well as other countries, are directed at collecting and cataloguing a great variety of the herbs listed in the folk pharmacopias. 1 of the most significant single agents identified recently is isodamine, an alkaloid isolated from the solancea plant. Its formula, pharmacological action, and clinical effects are very similar to those of atropine. On the basis of experimental and clinical studies, Chinese scientists report that anisodamine is a better spasmolytic agent than atropine by virtue of its milder activity on the salivary glands, the pupils, and the central nervous system. Several herbal drugs have recently been developed and subjected to successful clinical trials. These drugs tend to be combinations of herbs. The Chinese have made progress recently in the treatment of burns with herbal medicine. 1 of the reasons given for past failures of Western investigators to identify the medicinal properties of Chinese medications is that the research usually began with the isolation of individual chemical compounds. New studies in the U.S. are focusing on single ingredients, entire herbal concoctions, and the use of herbal medicines in conjunction with Western drug products. Virtually every city in the U.S. with a sizable Chinese ethnic community has 1 or more herbal "pharmacies." PMID:539531

Griffin, R J

1979-09-01

153

Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been suc- cessful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive

Bhushan Patwardhan; Dnyaneshwar Warude; P. Pushpangadan; Narendra Bhatt

2005-01-01

154

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

155

Herbal medicines in pediatric neuropsychiatry.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies have evaluated the role of herbal supplements in pediatric disorders, but they have numerous limitations. This review provides an overview of herbal components, regulation of supplements, and importance of product quality assurance. Use of herbal supplements is discussed with reference to factors that influence use in the pediatric population. The remainder of the article discusses the use of St John's wort, melatonin, kava, valerian, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, focusing on indications, adverse effects, and drug interactions, and providing a limited efficacy review. Herbal supplements used for weight loss are also briefly discussed. PMID:21281847

Feucht, Cynthia; Patel, Dilip R

2011-02-01

156

Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.  

PubMed

The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374

Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

2012-08-01

157

Japanese Fine Prints, Pre-1915  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online division of Prints and Photographs from the Library of Congress has digitized many of their more than 2500 Japanese woodblock prints. To become familiar with the print traditions in Japanese art, visitors should click on the link entitled "Background and Scope". Users can browse by creator, subject or format. Each individual image may be viewed in a variety of file sizes and formats, as well as downloaded.

158

Herbal Medicine Use in Parturients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative medicine use has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recently a 22% incidence of herbal medicine use in presurgical patients was reported. Of concern is the potential for these medications to cause adverse drug-herb interactions or other effects such as bleeding complications. We sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of herbal remedies in par- turients. A

David L. Hepner; Miriam Harnett; Scott Segal; William Camann; Angela M. Bader; Lawrence C. Tsen

2002-01-01

159

Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433

Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh

2009-10-01

160

HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients’ metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. Description HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski’s Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients’ targets databases). Conclusions A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/. PMID:23721660

2013-01-01

161

Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): Lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural\\/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from

K. M. Wu; J. G. Farrelly; R. Upton; J. Chen

2007-01-01

162

Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review  

PubMed Central

This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

2013-01-01

163

Analysis on nationality of Japanese Anime color  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an independent visual language, colour is an important modelling elements and narrative means in the animation. As an independent aesthetic object, colour has a rich aesthetic symbolic meaning in Japanese aesthetics. The significant ethnic characteristics of Japanese Anime are unique in the world. The Anime designers are adept in combining deep images of traditional colour system and animation design

Wenhui Cheng

2009-01-01

164

Development of Japanese green tea serving robot \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the amount of consumption of Japan green tea is increasing in recent years, the person who drinks green tea in traditional manners of Japanese green tea has decreased. Many consumers are drinking the commercial green tea in a beverage PET bottle. This paper introduces the automatic Japanese greed tea serving robot \\

Tadashi Masuda; Daigo Misaki

2005-01-01

165

Determination of In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects, Antioxidant Activities and Phenol Contents of Some Herbal Teas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied\\u000a for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an\\u000a in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol

Aynur Büyükbalci; Sedef Nehir El

2008-01-01

166

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder  

PubMed Central

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

2013-01-01

167

Drug interactions with herbal medicines.  

PubMed

In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

2012-02-01

168

Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

2012-01-01

169

The benefits of Japanese dance from a psychosomatic medical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nihonbuyo, a traditional Japanese dance, is one of many performing arts. It has been developed according to two prescriptions and is a combination of Mai and Odori. Traditional Japanese dance is more than just a hobby and a way of staying healthy. The dance is one way of inspiring oriental wisdom, which activates the spirit and, according to the literature,

Keiko Saito

2006-01-01

170

Capacity for clinical research on herbal medicines in Africa.  

PubMed

An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

Willcox, Merlin; Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

2012-06-01

171

Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

2012-01-01

172

Introduction to the Pharmacoeconomics of Herbal Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of herbal medicines and assesses the extent to which this approach has been applied so far to these products. There seems to be no compelling need for pharmacoeconomic analyses of herbal over-the-counter medicines, but such analyses are certainly warranted for herbal prescription medicines that have a high level of reimbursement. Such

Peter A. G. M. De Smet; Gouke Bonsel; Ary Van der Kuy; Yechiel A. Hekster; Marja H. Pronk; Mark J. A. Brorens; Jacques H. M. Lockefeer; Mark J. C. Nuijten

2000-01-01

173

Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

2008-01-01

174

Herbal Toothpowder Induced Erythema Multiforme  

PubMed Central

Herbal toothpowders are available in market in a wide varieties, which consist of various ingredients. In rural areas of the developing countries, they are still used for cleansing teeth. Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous disorder that is believed to be a sequel of a cytotoxic immunologic attack on keratinocytes which express non-self-antigens. A 31-year-old male who used herbal toothpowder for oral-hygiene maintenance presented with ulcers in mouth, encrustation on lips and target lesions on both hands, suggesting Erythema multiforme. An oral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report of an association of herbal extracts and EM in the English literature. With this report, we present a rare new triggering factor of Erythema mutiforme, thus adding it to the endless list of aetiologies. PMID:24783158

Satpute, Pranali; Yadav, Lalita; Ahmed, Riyaz; Kashid, Avinash; Peter, Kalpak

2014-01-01

175

Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products  

PubMed Central

Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

2013-01-01

176

Herbal medicines for the treatment of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders.  

PubMed

In many parts of the world, there continues to be a long-standing tradition of prescribing herbal products for a range of gastrointestinal conditions. Scientific evidence supporting the use of all herbal preparations is imperfect, however, and available studies are plagued by methodological limitations. For functional gastrointestinal disorders, there is limited evidence supporting the use of some well-characterized preparations. A number of herbals have immunomodulatory activity, and in inflammatory bowel disease there are limited positive placebo-controlled trials; other studies used active controls with suboptimal doses of the comparators. Like all drugs, herbals can lead to serious adverse events (eg, hepatic failure). Quality control is a serious issue to consider when prescribing herbal medicines. Many herbal preparations are marketed without evidence for stringent adherence to good manufacturing practice guidelines. Unpredictable environmental conditions may affect the composition and the concentration of the active ingredients of plant extracts. Further, commercial herbal products usually combine a variable plethora of chemical families with possible medicinal utility. While some of these ingredients might be of benefit, the concentration and dose of these constituents needs to be closely monitored. Physicians and regulators need to remain very cautious about the use of herbal remedies. Appropriate scientific evidence for the claimed clinical benefits should become mandatory worldwide, and the standards for production and safety monitoring should comply with established standards for chemically defined products. If these principles were adopted, the full value of herbal remedies may come to light, particularly as the individually bioactive compounds present in these preparations become recognized. PMID:24674944

Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

2015-03-01

177

HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

178

Herbal medicines: balancing benefits and risks.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines are preparations containing exclusively plant material. Their efficacy can be tested in clinical trials much like synthetic drugs but numerous methodological and logistical problems exist. For several herbal medicines, efficacy has been established; for many others, this is not the case mostly because the research has not been done. Many consumers believe that herbal medicines are natural and therefore safe. This is a dangerous simplification. Some herbal medicines are associated with toxicity others interact with synthetic drugs. The often under-regulated quality of herbal medicines amounts to another safety issue. Contamination or adulteration of herbal medicines are possible and can cause harm. In order to conduct a risk-benefit analysis of a specific herbal medicine for a specific indication, we require definitive efficacy and safety data. This is currently the case for only very few such preparations. It follows that, in order to advise consumers responsibly, the gaps in our present knowledge require filling. PMID:17913230

Ernst, Edzard

2007-01-01

179

Administration of Chinpi, a Component of the Herbal Medicine Ninjin-Youei-To, Reverses Age-Induced Demyelination  

PubMed Central

The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcR?/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcR?/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcR?/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5?kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcR?/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. PMID:21799684

Sato, Nanako; Seiwa, Chika; Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kayoko; Kawakita, Takuya; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Akio; Takao, Masakatsu; Kudo, Chiaki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ishige, Atushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Asou, Hiroaki

2011-01-01

180

Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

2012-01-01

181

Japanese encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

2014-01-01

182

The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

2012-01-01

183

Food Allergy Herbal Formula1 (FAHF-1) blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is a major cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. There is no curative therapy for this condition. Traditional Chinese medicines have been reported to have antiallergic properties, which might be useful for treating peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula, FAHF-1, on peanut

Xiu-Min Li; Teng-Fei Zhang; Chih-Kang Huang; Kamal Srivastava; Ariel A. Teper; Libang Zhang; Brian H. Schofield; Hugh A. Sampson

2001-01-01

184

Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of

E. M. Ritch-Krc; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

185

Normalizing Social Networking in a Beginners' Japanese Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the spread of the Internet, students now have greater opportunities to use Japanese outside of the classroom. For example, they can interact with other Japanese speakers through instant messaging or social networking, or utilize online dictionaries and translation tools to decipher websites in ways that would be impossible with traditional

Morofushi, Mari; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah Ellen

2014-01-01

186

Normalizing social networking in a beginners’ Japanese course  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the spread of the Internet, students now have greater opportunities to use Japanese outside of the classroom. For example, they can interact with other Japanese speakers through instant messaging or social networking, or utilize online dictionaries and translation tools to decipher websites in ways that would be impossible with traditional printed materials. One of the best ways to equip

Mari Morofushi; Sarah Ellen Pasfield-Neofitou

2012-01-01

187

Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

2012-01-01

188

Walking with dinosaurs: general trading companies in the reorganization of Japanese consumer goods distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Japanese economy going through a period of prolonged stagnation many of its established institutions have to redefine themselves. Among these are General Trading Companies (sôgô shôsha), which have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the Japanese economy and are currently trying to increase their role in the Japanese retail sector. This paper explores this development at an early

Hendrik Meyer-Ohle

2004-01-01

189

The U.S. and Japanese Education: Should They Be Compared?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Japanese education is considered from a Western perspective, the stereotypical image seems to be that of a rigid, achievement-oriented, and traditional system, producing technologically-focused human beings. This presentation focuses on the human and cultural dimensions of Japanese society and on how Japanese children are motivated to achieve…

Fereshteh, M. Hussein

190

Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

2013-01-01

191

Strategies for innovation in the Japanese banking industry  

E-print Network

In this study, I identify and discuss innovation strategies for the Japanese banking industry, with special focus on the R&D process through which banks are seeking to create new e-business opportunities. Traditionally, ...

Iguchi, Yasushi, 1969-

2004-01-01

192

Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use. PMID:7890220

Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S

1995-01-01

193

Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (A?)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

2010-01-01

194

Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: a literature review on case reports.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common amongst cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side-effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n=34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n=8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), noni (n=1) and Silymarin (n=1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D

2011-03-01

195

HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

196

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

197

The practice of traditional medicine in Africa.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine is a method of healing founded on its own concept of health and disease. Knowledge is passed on orally from father to son. Healing knowledge is jealously guarded in certain families. In Africa the popularity of traditional healers is attributed to the fact that they take full account of the socio-cultural background of the people. The components of traditional medicine include herbal medicine, therapeutic fasting and dieting, hydrotherapy, radiant healing therapy, venesection, surgery and bone-setting, spinal manipulation and massage, psychotherapy, therapeutic occultism, psychiatry and preventive medicine. In the African environment the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine is great and requires further indepth study to improve methods and training and to form a more effective organization within the ranks of traditional healers. In the physical medicine, vegetable, animal, and mineral substances may be used. In the metaphysical division of traditional medicine, prayers, invocations, or incantations are offered to some mysterious and powerful forces. The practioner usually excels in one or more practices to the exclusion of others. Herbal preparations should be studied with the idea of using them to replace more toxic, synthetic drugs. Some plants used by traditional healers are fennal, serpentine, cinchona, quinine, digitalis, and vinca rosea. PMID:525052

Tella, A

1979-01-01

198

THE FOREMAN PROBLEM IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE…

THURLEY, KEITH

199

Learning from Analysis of Japanese EFL Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan has a long tradition of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL). A common feature of EFL courses is reliance on specific textbooks as a basis for graded teaching, and periods in Japanese EFL history are marked by the introduction of different textbook series. These sets of textbooks share the common goal of taking students from…

Weir, George R. S.; Ozasa, Toshiaki

2010-01-01

200

and Its Reflection in Japanese Women's Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article is an analysis of the complex transformation of the concept of self as reflected in several major publications for women. Japan's conservative and traditional society has confined women within strict limitations relative to gender, age and social status. However, the profound changes Japanese society has undergone during the past two decades has prompted changes at the level

NICULINA NAE

201

Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

2013-01-01

202

Herbal product use by hispanic surgical patients.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that the use of herbal products is highly prevalent in Hispanic surgical patients on both sides of the U.S./México border. One hundred fifteen patients were interviewed in El Paso and 112 in Ciudad Juárez from December 2001 to June 2002. This prospective, randomized study evaluated patients aged 18 years or older that were scheduled for surgery. Sixty-two per cent of our sample in the United States and 81 per cent of patients in Mexico reported using herbal products in the past year. About 58 per cent of patients in the United States and 49 per cent in Mexico rated the products as "excellent" in treating their conditions. Ninety-two percent of U.S, and 93 per cent of Mexican patients did not inform their physician of their herbal use. Preoperative assessment of patients did not include inquiries about herbal products in either hospital. With the growing use of herbal products and because most users do not inform their physician, there is increasing concern related to the possible occurrence of herbal-related adverse events during and after surgery. The fact that health care personnel did not inquire about herbal product use before surgery is an added concern. PMID:15757062

Rivera, José O; Chaudhuri, Kallol; González-Stuart, Armando; Tyroch, Alan; Chaudhuri, Swapna

2005-01-01

203

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.  

PubMed

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

1999-01-15

204

Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

2014-01-01

205

Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

2014-01-01

206

[Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].  

PubMed

Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. PMID:25039195

Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

2014-04-01

207

Communication Characteristics of Asians in American Urban Settings: The Case of Honolulu Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group…

Ogawa, Dennis M.

208

Changes in Attitudes of Japanese Doctors toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine—Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2005 in Kyoto  

PubMed Central

We surveyed the attitudes of Japanese medical doctors toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in 1999. It is supposed that the situation concerning CAM has been changing recently. The aim of the present study is to survey the attitude of doctors toward CAM again, and to examine changes in attitude over the last 6 years. The attitudes of medical doctors belonging to the Kyoto Medical Association toward CAM were surveyed by a structured, self-administered questionnaire in 1999 and 2005. The results showed that the doctors familiar with the term “CAM”, practicing CAM therapies, and attending meetings or training courses related with CAM, increased significantly from 1999 to 2005. The doctors who possessed knowledge of CAM also increased significantly from 1999 to 2005. Almost all doctors believed in the effectiveness of Kampo (Japanese traditional herbal medicine) and acupuncture. The number of doctors who believed in the effectiveness of aromatherapy and ayurveda increased significantly in 2005, compared with 1999. In the near future, 58% of doctors desired to practice CAM therapies. In conclusion, the numbers of doctors who practice CAM therapies, possess CAM knowledge and desire to practice such therapies have increased over the last 6 years in Japan. PMID:19465404

Fujiwara, Kenji; Imanishi, Jiro; Watanabe, Satoko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Sakurada, Kumi

2011-01-01

209

Deleterious effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparations on the course of psoriasis--a case report.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic and difficult to treat condition which negatively affects the patient's quality of life. Frustrated and unsatisfied with the conventional therapies, psoriatic patients start looking for alternative treatment which they believe to be safe and effective. Very common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) appears to offer various topical and systemic herbal preparations, as well as massages, acupuncture, diet and lifestyle alternations. The presented study concerns a 48-year-old female patient with exacerbated psoriatic skin lesions (tending to become erythrodermic), and certain systemic complications that appeared after taking a TCM herbal medication, Fu Fang Quing Dai Wan, as well as the use of a Chinese herbal bath gel and staying on a diet rich in meat. After in vitro examinations were made of the herbal preparation and its biological properties determined, it was concluded that the TCM herbal preparation should not be considered harmless. Therefore, patients should be made aware of its adverse reactions. PMID:24364460

Pietrzak, Aldona; Bartosi?ska, Joanna; Dreiher, Jacob; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Podhorecka, Monika; Chodorowska, Gra?yna

2013-01-01

210

Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

2014-05-01

211

Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

2014-01-01

212

TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

2014-01-01

213

The Student of Japanese History Vs. the Japanese Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of Japanese history (graduate students with language competence seeking a career in Japanese studies, undergraduates studying the Japanese language, and non-linguist undergraduates and graduate students studying Japanese history for a variety of reasons) have to deal with the Japanese language in different ways. They should all, however,…

Buck, James H.

214

Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.  

PubMed

We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

2012-06-01

215

Sociocultural dilemma of Japanese steeplejacks.  

PubMed

Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive. PMID:11116667

Iwata, H

1997-12-01

216

Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.  

PubMed

Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available. PMID:8978213

Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

1997-01-01

217

Traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Chinese pharmacopoeia describes a large number of herbal formulations that are used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This therapeutic approach is ignored by many and considered to be an alternative to conventional medicine by others. The scientific proof and clinical validation of these herbal formulations require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological

Robert Yuan; Yuan Lin

2000-01-01

218

Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2014-01-01

219

PLANTS FROM THE TRADITIONAL MEDICAL SYSTEM OF THE NILGIRI TRIBES  

PubMed Central

This study highlights the medico-ethono botanical information interviewed from Nilgin tribes. The results of this study brought forth 41 medicinal applications involving 34 plants that have been found incorporated into their traditional therapeutic relam of herbal cure for various common ailments the observations are discussed in the light of cross-cltural perspective among nilgiri abongies. PMID:22556812

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.; Baburaj, D. Suresh

1997-01-01

220

Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China.  

PubMed

Over the centuries, Chinese herbal drugs have served as a major source of medicines for the prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus (known as 'Xiao-ke'). It is estimated that more than 200 species of plants exhibit hypoglycaemic properties, including many common plants, such as pumpkin, wheat, celery, wax guard, lotus root and bitter melon. To date, hundreds of herbs and traditional Chinese medicine formulas have been reported to have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This paper provides a brief review of the antidiabetic drugs of plant origin that have been approved by the Chinese health regulatory agency for commercial use in China. It was believed, through pharmacological studies, that medicinal herbs were meticulously organized in these antidiabetic drug formulas such that polysaccharide containing herbs restore the functions of pancreatic tissues and cause an increase in insulin output by the functional beta cells, while other ingredients enhance the microcirculation, increase the availability of insulin and facilitate the metabolism in insulin-dependent processes. Pharmacological and clinical evaluations indicated that these drugs had a mild, but significant, blood glucose lowering effect and that the long-term use of these agents may be advantageous over chemical drugs in alleviating some of the chronic diseases and complications caused by diabetes. Additionally, the use of these natural agents in conjunction with conventional drug treatments, such as a chemical agent or insulin, permits the use of lower doses of the drug and/or decreased frequency of administration which decreases the side effects most commonly observed. PMID:14669243

Jia, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Lida

2003-12-01

221

Neonatal jaundice--traditional Chinese medicine approach.  

PubMed

Herbal treatment of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) has been practiced in China for a long time. Even to-date, a variety of herbal items, including "Yin-chin" (Artemisia), "Huang-qin" (Scutellaria), "Da-huang" (Rheum officinale), "Gan-cao" (Glycyrrhiza), and "Huang-lin" (Coptis chinesis), are still being prescribed to jaundiced infants, often in combination with modern treatment such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Their efficacy has, however, not been tested by properly conducted randomised controlled trial. On the other hand, exposure to herbs either before or after birth has been suspected to be a cause of hemolysis and jaundice in the newborns. It is also widely believed in the Chinese community that a number of herbal items are hemolytic agents in infants deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The belief is so deep rooted that each infant detected to have G6PD deficiency by neonatal cord blood screening is given a G6PD deficiency alert card, which states that the child must avoid these herb items for life. In a cohort of 1008 mother-infant pairs, however, we have previously shown that there was no association between maternal herb consumption during pregnancy and the incidence or severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in their offsprings, including those who were deficient in G6PD. A thorough search of medical literature also fails to detect any evidence that any of the herbs stated in the G6PD deficiency alert card causes hemolysis in G6PD-deficient subjects. Thus, there are many misunderstandings and unsubstantiated beliefs about the relationship between herbal medicine and NNJ. Given the potential usefulness of Chinese traditional medicine, which has been practiced for almost 3000 years and is still gaining momentum in the modern days, extensive scientific studies to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential harmful effects of the various herbal items are warranted. PMID:11803427

Fok, T F

2001-12-01

222

Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Japanese, Japanese Americans, and Whites: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (FAs) are associated with less atherosclerosis in Japanese than Whites in the United States. Background Marine-derived n-3 FAs at low levels are cardioprotective through their anti-arrhythmic effect. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study in 281 Japanese, 306 White, and 281 Japanese American men aged 40–49 was conducted to assess intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (IMT), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and serum FAs. Results Japanese in Japan had the lowest levels of atherosclerosis whereas Whites and Japanese Americans had similar levels. Japanese in Japan had twofold higher levels of marine-derived n-3 FAs than Whites and Japanese Americans. Japanese in Japan had significant and non-significant inverse associations of marine-derived n-3 FAs with IMT and CAC prevalence, respectively. The significant inverse association with IMT remained after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Neither Whites nor Japanese Americans had such associations. Significant differences between Japanese in Japan and Whites in multivariable-adjusted IMT (mean difference 39 ?m (95% confidence interval (CI), 21 to 57), p<0.001) and CAC prevalence (mean difference 10.7% (95% CI, 2.9 to 18.4), p=0.007) became non-significant after further adjusting for marine-derived n-3 FAs (22 ?m (95% CI, ?1 to 46), p=0.065 and 5.0 % (95% CI, ?5.3 to 15.4), p=0.341, respectively). Conclusions Very high levels of marine-derived n-3 FAs have anti-atherogenic properties independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and may contribute to lower burden of atherosclerosis in Japanese in Japan, which is unlikely due to genetic factors. PMID:18672160

Sekikawa, Akira; Curb, J. David; Ueshima, Hirotusgu; El-Saed, Aiman; Kadowaki, Takashi; Abbott, Robert D.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Beatriz, L. Rodriguez; Okamura, Tomonori; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Kamal; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Willcox, Bradley J.; Takamiya, Tomoko; Mitsunami, Ken-ichi; Seto, Todd B.; Murata, Kiyoshi; White, Roger L.; Kuller, Lewis H.

2009-01-01

223

Family Roles as Perceived by Japanese and German Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study deals with inter- and intracultural differences in the perception of family roles. One hundred and fifty-six Japanese students (40 modern females, 76 traditional females, and 40 males) and 148 German students (58 modern females, 49 traditional females, and 41 males) answered questionnaires concerning the ideal and real decision-making…

Trommsdorff, Gisela

224

Acute renal failure following the use of herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Acute renal failure (ARF) complicated the use of traditional herbal remedies in six adult patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in a 2-year period (August 1984 to August 1986). This comprised 10.9% of all the cases of ARF and 24% of the cases of ARF due to medical causes. All the patients were oliguric and the period of oliguria in the four patients who survived ranged between 19-57 days (mean 26.3 days). Five of the patients had evidence of fluid overload. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were elevated in all the patients. The serum sodium was normal in all, while the serum potassium was elevated in 2 cases. Identity of the herbal medication was unknown in all the cases. The indication was abdominal pain in 4 cases, infertility and abdominal pain in one and prophylaxis against witchcraft in the other. All the patients were started on haemodialysis, two of them having had periods of peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 16 days. Two patients died. Of the four surviving patients, follow up has been carried out for 8, 6, 5 and 4 months. At four months follow up the creatinine clearance in the 4 surviving patients have been 54, 63, 51 and 43 ml/min. PMID:1800100

Otieno, L S; McLigeyo, S O; Luta, M

1991-12-01

225

Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.  

PubMed

In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves > sage > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > roselle. In particular, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities may be useful for meal planning in type 2 diabetes. They could contribute to sustain plasma antioxidant level because antioxidants present in plants and herbs prevent the development of vascular diseases seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:18183488

Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

2008-03-01

226

Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

2012-01-01

227

Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

2013-01-01

228

A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

2013-01-01

229

[Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].  

PubMed

Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G". PMID:25850288

Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

2014-11-01

230

The Japanese American Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

Fukei, Budd

231

Japanese Elementary School Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

Stevenson, Harold W.

1991-01-01

232

Japanese Balloon Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese permanent balloon base, Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC) established in 1971, was closed last year. From 2008, Japanese stratospheric balloons will be operated at Taiki-town, Hokkaido. New balloon facility will be available by the end of March, 2008. After check out of new launcher, so-called \\

Tetsuya Yoshida

2008-01-01

233

A Japanese Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a view of Japanese education based on the experiences and observations of an American educator. Explains cultural contrasts, educational aspects and model, and the question of discipline. A Japanese educator responds with a personal view on educational equality in ability. (RT)

DeVito, Alfred; Ogawa, Masakata

1989-01-01

234

JAPANESE KNOTWEED OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

(WCA 1981) states that "if any person plants or otherwise causes to grow in the wild any plant which of the plants listed in the Schedule. Anyone convicted of an offence under Section 14 of the WCA 1981 may face of Japanese Knotweed is restricted with concrete containment. 2. The soil contaminated with Japanese knotweed

Harman, Neal.A.

235

The Japanese containerless experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

Azuma, Hisao

1990-01-01

236

Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been increasing reports on the adverse reactions associated with herbal consumption. For many of these adverse reactions, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown, but bioactivation of herbal compounds to generate reactive intermediates have been implicated. This minireview updates our knowledge on metabolic activation of herbal compounds, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance. A number of studies have documented

Xiao-Wu Chen; Erini S. Serag; Kevin B. Sneed; Shu-Feng Zhou

2011-01-01

237

Japanese Economy Rallies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Tuesday, March 20, 2001, Tokyo share prices rallied due to rumors that the Bank of Japan may try to boost the economy by buying stocks. By Wednesday morning, the Nikkei 225 index surged 7.5 percent after the Japanese yen had hit a 22-month low of 123.5 yen per dollar earlier this week. The national banks have been saddled with massive debts, estimated at 64 trillion yen or $521 billion and have been researching ways to revive their economy. According to Japanese economic ministers, the Japanese government will have a plan for dealing with the national banks' debt within the next six months. The Japanese government's new plan of investing into its banking system worries some US government officials who fear that the falling price of the yen will make Japanese imports cheaper and, therefore, more competitive with products made in the US.

Missner, Emily D.

238

Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future  

PubMed Central

Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

2010-01-01

239

Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid.  

PubMed

Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism-which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

2010-12-01

240

Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid  

PubMed Central

Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism—which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

2010-01-01

241

Risks associated with the practice of traditional Chinese medicine: an Australian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the nature and frequency of adverse events that occur as a result of the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine) in Australia. Methods: Data on adverse events were obtained as part of a comprehensive survey of all occupational health groups, government-registered and unregistered, who practiced traditional Chinese medicine or 1 of its main

Alan Bensoussan; Stephen P Myers; Anne L Carlton

2000-01-01

242

Acute Ischemia of the Forearm in a Five Year Old Child Following Chinese Traditional Medical Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional medical therapies are popular alternative treatments for limbs sprain and strain in the Chinese society. We report a rare case of a five-year-old boy with left wrist sprain, who was treated by a Chinese traditional medical practitioner using herbal ointment and a bandage wrapped over the forearm. One week later the boy was found to have an acute compartment

Yao-Hung Tsai; Tsung-Jen Huang; Kao-Chin Huang

243

Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder.  

PubMed

Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ? 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

2013-01-01

244

Use of Herbal Supplements for Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ? 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

2013-01-01

245

Treatment of rosacea with herbal ingredients.  

PubMed

Since rosacea is a chronic disease and many patients find prescription therapies unsatisfactory, they frequently turn to herbal ingredients for relief of their persistent facial redness. The most useful and frequently used herbal compounds include licorice, feverfew, green tea, oatmeal, lavender, chamomile, tea tree oil, and camphor oil. The utility of most of these herbs is based on their purported anti-inflammatory properties. Some of these herbs have proven effects, many have potential benefits, and some may aggravate rosacea. Due to the fact that many patients fail to inform their physicians about their use of herbal ingredients, dermatologists should be aware of what patients may be using and be able to advise them about the efficacy of these ingredients or the potential for adverse effects. PMID:16468289

Wu, Jessica

2006-01-01

246

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2011-12-01

247

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

2011-01-01

248

An Integrative Platform of TCM Network Pharmacology and Its Application on a Herbal Formula, Qing-Luo-Yin  

PubMed Central

The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable. PMID:23653662

Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao

2013-01-01

249

Peek-a-boo, I See You: Watching Japanese Hard-core Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay proposes a phenomenological approach to the viewing of Japanese hard-core animation (widely known in the West as\\u000a “hentai”), a type of erotica frequently characterized by detailed, unusual and fantastic depictions of sexual activity habitually\\u000a intended for sexual arousal. Pertinent instances of Japanese traditions of erotica and visual representation, as well as Japanese\\u000a animation and its industry are briefly

Mariana Ortega-Brena

2009-01-01

250

Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) ... Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information in Multiple Languages page. ... Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

251

Online sources of herbal product information.  

PubMed

Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

2014-02-01

252

Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

Jenkins, Andrew P.

253

HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)  

PubMed Central

Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

2001-01-01

254

Kava: herbal panacea or liver poison?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following reports of liver toxicity, including liver failure, associated with extracts from the Pacific islands plant kava (Piper methysticum), these have been banned from sale as a herbal anxiolytic in many Western countries, to the detriment of Pacific island economies. ? Pacific Islanders have used kava extensively for centuries, without recognised liver toxicity. However, the population is small, and there

Robert F W Moulds; Joji Malani

255

[Traditional nostrum].  

PubMed

The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines. PMID:17153114

Sugiyama, Shigeru

2006-01-01

256

Super Hero, Japanese Style  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Super Sentai is a long-running Japanese TV series about regular humans who destroy bad guys using nothing but their color-coded uniforms, excellent martial arts skills and, you know, totally advanced weapons and gigantic...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-02

257

Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German colonial sovereignty in the Marshall Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls, depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This

Dirk H. R. Spennemann

1998-01-01

258

Research on artistic charm of the young girl images in Japanese anime  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to traditional culture Japanese anime has created a large number of classic young girls, who not only have the excellent image design and contains a wealth of ideas. That Japanese anime praises feminist consciousness, focuses form design and forms model style system impacts deeply contemporary animation. Colourful female roles lack systematic research. This passage attempts to analyse the image

Wenhui Cheng

2010-01-01

259

East Meets West in Japanese Doctoral Education: Form, Dependence, and the Strange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Against the background of current reforms in higher education, we analyze the traditional education of Japanese doctoral students in philosophy of education from Western and Japanese perspectives by focusing on learning as self-education, on being and learning with others, on the socialization into the profession, and on the study of the foreign…

McCarty, Luise Prior; Hirata, Yoshitsugu

2010-01-01

260

Physical Settings and Materials Recommended for Play Therapy with Japanese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room style), reading…

Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

2008-01-01

261

Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette  

PubMed Central

Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market.

Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

2015-01-01

262

Ophiopogonin D: A new herbal agent against osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, is a potent anti-oxidative agent. We hypothesized that OP-D demonstrates anti-osteoporosis effects via decreasing ROS generation in mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and a macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. We investigated OP-D on osteogenic and osteoclastic differentiation under oxidative status. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to establish an oxidative damage model. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Then, we searched the molecular mechanism of OP-D against osteoporosis. Our results revealed that OP-D significantly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and improved some osteogenic markers. Moreover, OP-D reduced TRAP activity and the mRNA expressions of osteoclastic genes in RAW264.7 cells. OP-D suppressed ROS generation in both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells. OP-D treatment reduced the activity of serum bone degradation markers, including CTX-1 and TRAP. Further research showed that OP-D displayed anti-osteoporosis effects via reducing ROS through the FoxO3a-?-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, our results indicated that the protective effects of OP-D against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in oxidative stress via the FoxO3a-?-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting that OP-D may be a beneficial herbal agent in bone-related disorders, such as osteoporosis. PMID:25582622

Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Wang, Long; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Jun; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Kang; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian

2015-05-01

263

The Japanese value of harmony and nursing ethics.  

PubMed

Harmony is one of the most fundamental Japanese values. It is derived from Confucianism and encompasses a state of mind, an action process and outcomes of the action. This article draws on research data and discusses Japanese nurses' perceptions of harmony as reflected in their everyday practice. The most important virtues for these nurses were reported as politeness and respect for other persons. The outcome from the nurses' harmonious practice, it is claimed, benefited patients and created peaceful, harmonious relationships for all. Because of the unique link between harmony and the location of interaction, the ideal 'workplace harmony' threatened some nurses' professional decision making. These nurses confused harmony with conformity by superficial agreement. The Japanese seniority system could be a major factor contributing to this problem. Ethics education that includes traditional values and concepts in Japanese culture is strongly urged. PMID:19671648

Konishi, Emiko; Yahiro, Michiko; Nakajima, Naoko; Ono, Miki

2009-09-01

264

JAPANESE VIDEOS Page 1 of 2 Last Updated 4/1/2013  

E-print Network

OF KABUKI, NOH &BANRARY (COPY 1) (ENGLISH) (COLOR) JPN/9 -- THE TRADITION OF PERFORMING ARTS IN JAPAN THE HEART OF KABUKI, NOH &BANRARY (COPY 2) (ENGLISH) (COLOR) #12;JAPANESE VIDEOS Page 2 of 2 Last Updated 4

Baskaran, Mark

265

Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of ?-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. PMID:25713534

Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

266

Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of ?-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. PMID:25713534

Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

267

Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico  

PubMed Central

The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

2013-01-01

268

Herbal tea identification using mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Herbal teas and other herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular, and it is essential to ensure their quality. Quality control methods that are simple, fast, and of low cost are needed by the producers and by inspections. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate mathematical methods has been shown to be useful for the identification and characterization of plant samples. In this work, we developed a method for the identification of herbal drugs in different herbal teas. 100 one-component herbal teas were first used to build an identification algorithm, which showed 100?% correct classification. In the next validation step, 13 samples from 7 herbal mixtures were analyzed, confirming high accurate results for classification. The influence of using different number of components in the principal component analysis is also explored. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and discriminant analysis was shown to be highly applicable for quality control procedures. PMID:25098931

Kokalj, Meta; Štih, Karmen; Kreft, Samo

2014-08-01

269

NATIONAl CHARACTER STUDIES OF JAPANESE  

E-print Network

In this paper, I suggest that the national character studies of Japanese have largely been focused on cultural explanations. Thus, they share the weaknesses attributed to this approach. After a review of the literature on Japanese national character...

Kato, Ryoko

1988-01-01

270

Technological Diversification of Japanese Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach for measuring industrial technological diversification behavior. Identifies sectoral patterns of Japanese industry as related to diversification behaviors. Delineates the mechanisms and effectiveness of Japanese corporate and government policies relevant to diversification. (ML)

Kodama, Fumio

1986-01-01

271

The quest for a herbal contraceptive.  

PubMed

An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support. PMID:8241931

Chaudhury, R R

1993-01-01

272

Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.  

PubMed

Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies. PMID:23293189

Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

2013-01-01

273

UCSF Japanese Prints Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at San Francisco has spent thirty years cultivating its collection of Japanese woodblock prints, and it has become an important part of the Library's East Asian Collection. The collection of 400 digitized prints concern Japanese health-related topics from the mid-19th century, and portray the gradual acceptance of Western medicine. Visitors can view the collection by theme or perform a search to find something more specific. The themes include "Contagious Diseases", which focuses on smallpox, measles and cholera, "Foreigners and Disease", which highlights the Japanese belief that foreigners carried diseases to Japan, and "Drug Advertisements". The "Drug Advertisements" are quite possibly the most beautiful drug ads in existence, and they feature elaborate images of drugs slaying disease, kabuki actors promoting a show sponsored by a children's medicine, Kindoru powder, and a detailed rendering of the interior of a drugstore, printed on a fan that was given out as a promotional item to advertise the business.

274

Japanese Ant Image Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2003 revised edition of the Japanese Ant Image Database was developed under the direction of the Japanese Ant Database Group (JADG). The website, which merges taxonomic information and stunning photographs, will no doubt delight myrmecologists and others. Information about different types of ants can be accessed through browseable, hyperlinked lists organized by subfamily, genus, and species. Genus and species profiles include images, references, descriptive information, simple distribution maps, and more. The site includes a Japanese Ant Image Library with hundreds of quality images, and a smaller SEM Image Library as well. The site also offers sections with Type Specimens and Taxonomic Keys. Please note that the site has not been updated since 2003; there are future plans to revisit the project when updates and corrections become necessary.

275

Involvement of p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the anti-melanogenic effect of San-bai-tang, a Chinese herbal formula, in B16 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studySan-bai-tang (SBT), a Chinese herbal formula, is traditionally used as a skin whitener in China. In our previous screening assays, SBT was identified as an effective tyrosinase inhibitor. In this study, we aim to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect and mechanisms of SBT in B16 cells.

Yan Ye; Jian-Hong Chu; Hui Wang; Hong Xu; Gui-Xin Chou; Alexander Kai-Man Leung; Wang-fun Fong; Zhi-Ling Yu

2010-01-01

276

Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Joint  

E-print Network

the Japanese investment of $98.2 million (66.9 percent). In 1981, the capital value of these joint ven- tures in Central and South America was $51.5 million, which is 73 percent more than in 1980. The Japanese in of joint ven- tures with Japanese participation in Asia and Oceania was $55.9 million, which is 13 percent

277

Japanese robotics – where to go?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to make an appeal to Japanese robotic community in an attempt to keep global competitivity for the future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Clarifies the cost structure of the robotic business. Analyses the needs of Japanese society. Leads to suggest the new direction of Japanese robotics. Findings – Specific target robots for the future are suggested. Originality\\/value – The new

Yoshihiro Kusuda

2005-01-01

278

Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

Koike, Shohei

279

A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE

BAILEY, DON C.

280

Teacher's Resistance: A Case of a Japanese Middle School Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the life history of a Japanese teacher who was actively involved in social and educational movements in the 1960s. There are traditions of teacher resistance against social oppression worldwide, and this study brings forth one such example in Japan. This study highlights how one teacher, collaborating with his colleagues,…

Kato, Reiko

2013-01-01

281

Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…

Taylor, Yuki Io

2010-01-01

282

Pathway as a Pharmacological Target for Herbal Medicines: An Investigation from Reduning Injection  

PubMed Central

As a rich natural resource for drug discovery, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in complementary and alternative medical systems. TCM shows a daunting complexity of compounds featuring multi-components and multi-targets to cure diseases, which thus always makes it extremely difficult to systematically explain the molecular mechanisms adequately using routine methods. In the present work, to reveal the systematic mechanism of herbal formulae, we developed a pathway-based strategy by combining the pathways integrating, target selection, reverse drug targeting and network analysis together, and then exemplified it by Reduning injection (RDN), a clinically widely used herbal medicine injection, in combating inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects exerted by the major ingredients of RDN at signaling pathways level were systematically investigated. More importantly, our predicted results were also experimentally validated. Our strategy provides a deep understanding of the pharmacological functions of herbal formulae from molecular to systematic level, which may lead to more successful applications of systems pharmacology for drug discovery and development. PMID:25830385

Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhengzhong; Shar, Piar Ali; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

2015-01-01

283

The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results. PMID:25839871

McEwen, Bradley J

2015-04-01

284

Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-01-01

285

Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-02-21

286

Syndrome Differentiation in Chinese Herbal Medicine for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Literature Review of Randomized Trials  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been commonly used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Syndrome differentiation is one of the important characteristics of TCM. To assess the application and basic characteristics of syndrome differentiation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS, we performed this paper. We conducted electronic searches in main Chinese and English databases till March 2012. A total of 735 RCTs involving 67,784 IBS participants were included. 224 (30.5%) studies applied syndrome differentiation. The major syndromes of IBS patients were the syndrome of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency (56.8%), spleen-stomach weakness (49.4%), spleen-kidney yang deficiency (48.1%), and cold and heat in complexity (29.6%). Herbal formulas were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation in 202 studies. Chinese patent medicine was more commonly used in studies that only enrolled patients with a specific syndrome. 15 studies compared the therapeutic effect among different syndromes, of which 6 studies showed that there were significant differences among different syndromes. The low use of TCM syndrome differentiation in randomized trials of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS results in the poor pertinence of treatment. TCM syndrome differentiation should be used in further studies at the stage of recruitment, treatment, and data analyses. PMID:23554827

Li, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yan; Liu, Jian-Ping

2013-01-01

287

[Inheritance of academic idea and experience about using traditional Chinese medicine from JIN Shi-yuan].  

PubMed

Professor Jin Shi-yuan has been worked in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) over 70 years. He made prominent contributions in identification, processing, dispensing of TCM and reasonable use proprietary Chinese medicine. In over 70 years, he has mastered herbal medicine and traditional Chinese Medicine. It is also professor JIN's academic characteristic. Professor JIN's practical experiences were summarized according to the current situation about clinical medication, change of species of Juhong and Chenpi has been different from species of medical history. The quality is lower than before. Medicinal parts of Danggui, Gancao, Huangqin and Wuyao has been changed. So the actions of these herbal medicines have been changed also. Fresh herbal Qianchangpu has disappeared but it should be used clinically. Medical history, change of species, change of medicinal part, and change of preparing process in professor JIN's academic idea were be summarized periodically. The result is hoped to be referred by administration, manufacture, medical treatment of TCM. PMID:25509316

Jin, Yan; Luo, Rong; Huang, Lu-Qi

2014-08-01

288

[Use of traditional Chinese medicine during the Red Army period in Chinese history].  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors make an analysis of the historical literature during the Red Army period of the agrarian revolution war, dealing with the situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Red Army. During that time the Red Army had created revolutionary medical hospitals, gathering herbal medicine, growing herbal plants and producing Chinese medicines. At the same time the Red Army paid great attention to enriching Chinese medicine, cultivating practitioners and treating and preventing diseases using traditional Chinese medicine. During the Red Army period there was an extreme lack of medical facilities; traditional Chinese medicine played an important role in ensuring the fighting capabilities of the Red Army units. Looking back at the Red Army period, the development of our tradition can be seen, which enables future development of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as integrated medicine. PMID:22015198

Wang, Fa-wei; Chen, Li-ping; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Gang

2011-10-01

289

Immune modulation and apoptosis induction: Two sides of antitumoural activity of a standardised herbal formulation of Withania somnifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulated apoptosis and suppressed tumour reactive immunity render tumour cells to grow amok in the host body. Traditionally used botanicals may offer potential anticancer chemo-immunotherapeutic leads. We report in this study a chemically standardised herbal formulation (WSF) of Withania somnifera possessing anticancer and Th1 immune up-regulatory activities. WSF produced cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines in vitro.

Fayaz Malik; Ajay Kumar; Shashi Bhushan; Dilip M. Mondhe; Harish C. Pal; Rohit Sharma; Anamika Khajuria; Surjeet Singh; Gurdarshan Singh; Ajit K. Saxena; Krishan A. Suri; Ghulam N. Qazi; Jaswant Singh

2009-01-01

290

Native American Healing Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

291

Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

2013-01-01

292

Potential anti-osteoporotic effects of herbal extracts on osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy. PMID:24438322

2014-01-01

293

Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of these species. In addition, cytoxicity assays, to test the anticancer activity of methanolic extracts of Alnus incana and Shepherdia canadensis against mouse mastocytoma cells, were shown to be positive. PMID:8771456

Ritch-Krc, E M; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-07-01

294

Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

Aoki, Haruo

1972-01-01

295

Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

Kama, Amit

2011-01-01

296

Japanese Comics in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translating manga, Japanese comics, into a European language, in this case German, involves even more complex translation decisions than translating comics from one European language into another. These decisions concern words as well as pictures. Manga are written back to front; the text in the speech balloons must be read top to bottom (in a vertical direction) and right to

Heike Elisabeth Jüngst

2004-01-01

297

Japanese Experiences: Hentai Narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, Queer Voices from Japan can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

Amit Kama

2011-01-01

298

An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

2015-01-01

299

Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

2010-01-01

300

Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and herbal medicines (Interacciones entre fármacos antiepilépticos y medicinas herbales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been

Cecilie JOHANNESSEN LANDMARK; Philip N. PATSALOS

2008-01-01

301

Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

2014-01-01

302

Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of herbal medicines among patients under cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is widespread. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between herbal medicines and cardiovascular drugs. The Medline database was searched for clinical articles published between January 1996 and February 2003. Forty-three case reports and eight clinical trials were identified. Warfarin was the most common cardiovascular

Angelo A. Izzo; Giulia Di Carlo; Francesca Borrelli; Edzard Ernst

2005-01-01

303

Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

2006-01-01

304

Herbal bioactivation: The good, the bad and the ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites\\/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to

Shufeng Zhou; Hwee-Ling Koh; Yihuai Gao; Zhi-yuan Gong; Edmund Jon Deoon Lee

2004-01-01

305

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

306

Homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in general practice in Scotland  

PubMed Central

What is already known about this subject Homoeopathy and herbalism are increasingly popular among the public and prescribed by general practitioners in the NHS. Doctors and regulatory authorities have expressed concerns about their efficacy and safety. Studies from the 1990s suggest that between 5.9 and 7.5% of English NHS general practitioners have prescribed homoeopathy, while less than 1% have prescribed herbal remedies. Current levels of prescribing are unknown but are thought to have increased. What this study adds Sixty percent of Scottish general practices now prescribe homoeopathic or herbal remedies. The prevalence of homoeopathic prescribing in those under 16 years has doubled since 2000 and is maximal in children < 1 year old, of whom 1% are prescribed a homoeopathic remedy. Recognized drug–herb interactions were identified in 4% of patients prescribed oral herbal remedies. Aims To investigate the current levels of homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in Scottish general practice. Methods Prescribing of homoeopathic and herbal remedies in primary care was assessed in 1891 669 patients for the year 2003–2004, using computerized prescribing data retrieved from 323 general practices in Scotland. Results Forty-nine percent of practices prescribed homoeopathic and 32% herbal remedies. A total of 193 homoeopathic and 17 herbal remedies were prescribed, with 5% of practices accounting for 46% of patients and 50% of remedies. Four thousand one hundred and sixty patients (2.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one homoeopathic remedy during the study period, with the highest prevalence to children under 12 months of age (9.5/1000 children of that age). Children under the age of 16 made up 16% of the population prescribed homoeopathic remedies (2.2/1000 registered patients of that age). Three hundred and sixty-one patients (0.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one herbal remedy during the study period, 44 of whom were children < 16 years old. Patients prescribed a homoeopathic or herbal remedy were also prescribed a median of four and five conventional medicines, respectively. Of patients prescribed an oral herbal remedy, 4% were also concomitantly prescribed a conventional medicine with which a drug–herb interaction has been documented. Conclusions Our study reports that a substantial number of Scottish general practitioners prescribe homoeopathic and herbal remedies, with an approximate doubling in the number of children prescribed homoeopathic remedies. The level of homoeopathic and herbal prescribing raises questions about homoeopathic/herbal provision in the National Health Service and should prompt critical review. PMID:16796701

Ross, Sarah; Simpson, Colin R; McLay, James S

2006-01-01

307

Chips and Qi: microcomponent-based analysis in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years or so Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been subject to intensive basic and clinical research. Although the effectiveness and remarkable safety of TCM have been documented after controlled clinical studies, there are several herbal and animal parts that are toxic or difficult to identify. DNA polymorphism-based assays have recently been developed for the identification of

Maria Carles; Thomas Lee; Shanti Moganti; Ralf Lenigk; Karl W. K. Tsim; Nancy Y. Ip; I-Ming Hsing; Nikolaus J. Sucher

2001-01-01

308

Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

309

Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

2014-01-01

310

Chionanthus virginicus L.: phytochemical analysis and quality control of herbal drug and herbal preparations.  

PubMed

Root barks of Chionanthus virginicus L. are used in homeopathic medicines in the treatment of icterus and hepatitis. The objective of this study is to identify novel secoiridoids and lignans and to develop a simple and reliable HPLC method for the determination of oleuropein, phillyrin, total secoiridoids and total lignans for quality control and stability studies of C. virginicus herbal drug and preparations. Secoiridoids and lignans were purified by preparative HPLC. Compounds previously described were identified by HPLC according to their retention times and UV spectra. Structures of new compounds were determined by NMR. Two compounds namely excelside B and acetoxypinoresinol-4"-O-beta-D-glucoside are described for the first time in the drug. HPLC separation was performed on Symmetry C18 (Waters) by gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification for simultaneous determination of secoiridoids and lignans in herbal drug and herbal preparations as mother tinctures. The proposed HPLC method is linear in the range studied (r2 > or = 0.9989) for all the analytes. The method is precise with intra- and inter-day variations of less than 4%. The mean recoveries of the analytes range from 99.65 to 102.81%. The method is successfully applied to the quantification of nine compounds belonging to secoiridoids and lignans and for the stability studies of these compounds. The study allowed completing the phytochemical knowledge of C. virginicus. This simple developed assay could be used as tools for routine quality control of C. virginicus herbal drug and herbal medicinal products. PMID:21815404

Boyer, Laurent; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Bun, Sok-Siya; Taoubi, Khalil; Diaz-Lanza, Ana; Elias, Riad; Ollivier, Evelyne

2011-06-01

311

Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines  

PubMed Central

Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

2014-01-01

312

DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research  

PubMed Central

Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

2006-01-01

313

Antiviral natural products and herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

2014-01-01

314

Characterization of temporary metabolic changes following Cantonese herbal tea intervention.  

PubMed

Cantonese herbal tea (CHT) has been consumed in South China to alleviate feelings of discomfort due to the heat and humidity in the body according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To understand the in vivo mechanism of CHT, a ¹H-NMR-based metabonomic approach was used to investigate the global biological characterization of rat serum following the intake of CHT and to understand the mechanisms of action of CHT. Serum samples from rats with consecutive CHT intake after 10, 20 and 30?days and corresponding control rats were analysed by high-resolution ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were utilized for ¹H-NMR spectra analysis and temporal metabolic changes identification. For the 10-day CHT intake group, no significant metabolic response was detected, whereas the 20-day group showed elevation of glucogeneogenesis and a shift in energy metabolism from carbohydrate metabolism to lipid metabolism. In addition, a notable decrease in pyruvate content with a consistent increase in lactate content, and significant decrease in both lipoprotein and glucose contents was observed for the 30-day group, indicating potential metabolic dysfunction. The metabonomics technique combining metabolic profiles with multivariate analysis enhanced our current understanding of the host's metabolic response to CHT intake. PMID:22228579

You, Rong; Xu, Zhenbo; Hu, Songqing; Li, Lin

2012-07-01

315

Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: application of the "bracketing and matrixing" concept using the example of Valerianae radix (valerian root).  

PubMed

An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus demonstrating the lack of a genotoxic potential. In conclusion the two guidelines on genotoxicity provide a practically applicable concept. Valerianae radix has no genotoxic potential, supporting its use in HMPs and its inclusion in the Community list. PMID:24837473

Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin

2014-01-01

316

JAPANESE (JAPN) (Department of East Asian Languages  

E-print Network

Japanese 101 (3)--Exploring Japanese Language and Society This course is an introduction to spoken Japanese cultural scenarios, media presentations, and film, stu- dents explore how language functions in contemporary Japanese society. This course is not a prerequisite for Japanese 111, nor does it allow a student

Dresden, Gregory

317

Spatially Filtered Magnetoencephalographic Analysis of Cortical Oscillatory Changes in Basic Brain Rhythms during the Japanese ‘Shiritori’ Word Generation Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ‘Shiritori’ (capping verses) is a traditional Japanese word generation game, and is very familiar to native Japanese speakers. The shiritori task is expected to more strongly activate temporal language-related regions than conventional word generation to letters because of its characteristic way to make cue letters. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the cortical oscillatory changes in

Masakiyo Yamamoto; Satoshi Ukai; Kazuhiro Shinosaki; Ryouhei Ishii; Shunsuke Kawaguchi; Asao Ogawa; Yuko Mizuno-Matsumoto; Norihiko Fujita; Toshiki Yoshimine; Masatoshi Takeda

2006-01-01

318

Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Japanese sake-brewing rice as revealed by AFLP and nuclear and chloroplast SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars that are strictly used for the brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine) represent a unique and traditional group. These cultivars are characterized by common traits such as large grain size with low protein content and a large, central white-core structure. To understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic characteristics of sake-brewing rice, we performed

Z. Hashimoto; N. Mori; M. Kawamura; T. Ishii; S. Yoshida; M. Ikegami; S. Takumi; C. Nakamura

2004-01-01

319

Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

Toh, Glenn

2013-01-01

320

Japanese refrigerators field testing  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, A.T.

1989-03-01

321

Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing.  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, Albert T.

1989-03-01

322

Japanese international marketing strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 30 years, Japan has come from a second-rate status to the world?s economic giant, leading the world in electronics, automobiles, steel, shipbuilding and virtually anything else to which she has set her mind. The Japanese aim was and still is to be world-class suppliers of the major high volume items in the largest international markets. This focus

Alain Genestre; Paul Herbig; Alan T. Shao

1995-01-01

323

Japanese supercomputer technology.  

PubMed

Under the auspices of the Ministry for International Trade and Industry the Japanese have launched a National Superspeed Computer Project intended to produce high-performance computers for scientific computation and a Fifth-Generation Computer Project intended to incorporate and exploit concepts of artificial intelligence. If these projects are successful, which appears likely, advanced economic and military research in the United States may become dependent on access to supercomputers of foreign manufacture. PMID:17802456

Buzbee, B L; Ewald, R H; Worlton, W J

1982-12-17

324

[Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].  

PubMed

Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years. PMID:15998989

Puodzi?niene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

2005-01-01

325

Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Six herbal infusions used worldwide (Matricaria chamomilla, Tilia cordata, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Uncaria tomentosa and Valeriana officinalis) were assayed for anti-genotoxicity using the Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. All these infusions are traditionally used for various medical purposes, including anti-inflammatory processes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidative genotoxicant to test the anti-genotoxic potency of the medicinal infusions. None of these infusions showed a significant genotoxicity, quite the reverse they were able to behave as desmutagens, detoxifying the mutagen hydrogen peroxide. The phenolic content of such herbal infusions is argued to be the possible scavenger of reactive oxygen radicals produced by the hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16005256

Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Campos-Sánchez, Juan; Analla, Mohamed; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles

2005-08-01

326

History and Experience: A Survey of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM. PMID:24624220

Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping

2014-01-01

327

Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) GTT (????????) - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Two Reasons I Find Time to Prevent Diabetes: My Future and Theirs ??? (Japanese) PDF National ...

328

Herbal therapy: what every facial plastic surgeon must know.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine (phytomedicine) uses remedies possessing significant pharmacological activity and, consequently, potential adverse effects and drug interactions. The explosion in sales of herbal therapies has brought many products to the marketplace that do not conform to the standards of safety and efficacy that physicians and patients expect. Unfortunately, few surgeons question patients regarding their use of herbal medicines, and 70% of patients do not reveal their use of herbal medicines to their physicians and pharmacists. All surgeons should question patients about the use of the following common herbal remedies, which may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures: feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, and Asian ginseng. Physicians should exercise caution in prescribing retinoids or advising skin resurfacing in patients using St John's wort, which poses a risk of photosensitivity reaction. Several herbal medicines, such as aloe vera gel, contain pharmacologically active ingredients that may aid in wound healing. Practitioners who wish to recommend herbal medicines to patients should counsel them that products labeled as supplements have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration and that no guarantee of product quality can be made. PMID:11368667

Pribitkin, E D; Boger, G

2001-01-01

329

Multigenerational family structure in Japanese society: impacts on stress and health behaviors among women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid population aging in Japan has led to rising demands for informal care giving. Traditionally, care giving for aging parents has fallen disproportionately on the shoulders of women living in multigenerational households. However, rising labor force participation by Japanese women, declining marriage and fertility rates, and women's changing expectations have combined to produce unprecedented strains on traditional multigenerational households where

Yasuhisa Takeda; Ichiro Kawachi; Zentaro Yamagata; Shuji Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Matsumura; Shigenori Oguri; Akira Okayama

2004-01-01

330

Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

2012-01-01

331

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

332

Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements  

PubMed Central

We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

2010-01-01

333

Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.  

PubMed

We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

2010-11-27

334

Study on beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of herbal yogurt.  

PubMed

Different types of herbal yogurts were developed by mixing standardized milk with pretreated herbs, namely tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum), pudina leaf (Mentha arvensis) and coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum), with leaves separately and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the strains of lactic starter cultures---Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIM 2903) and Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIM 2083)-followed by incubation at 40 degrees C for 6 h. The beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of the abovementioned herbal yogurts was determined and interestingly noted to exhibit higher enzymatic activity compared with the control yogurt (without any herbs). Among all herbal yogurts, tulsi yogurt had the maximum beta-galactosidase activity. PMID:17852503

Chowdhury, Banani Ray; Chakraborty, Runu; Raychaudhuri, Utpal

2008-03-01

335

Herbal pharmacology and medical therapy in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

A scientific delegation visited the People's Republic of China for the purpose of assessing the current status of herbal pharmacology and medicine there. China is attempting to wed traditional and Western medicine so as to take advantage of the potential contributions of both. This wedding seems possible at the empiric level despite theoretical contradictions. Traditional remedies are widely prescribed, but the actual impact of such medication on disease is difficult to assess, because of the failure of the Chinese up until now to evaluate such remedies by modern clinical trial methodology. All Western drugs are readily available in China, and indeed are manufactured for export as well as for use within the country. The current chinese approach to the patient-doctor relation, and some novel ideas with regard to both medical and surgical therapy pose provocative questions for Western physicians. PMID:1200537

Lasagna, L

1975-12-01

336

Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (1–42 days). Group 2–10 chicks were fed with basal diet containing cadmium at 100 ppm from day 1 to day 28 (4 weeks). From 29th to 42nd day (2 weeks), basal diet alone was fed to group 2 chicks which acted as toxic control and group 3–10 birds were fed with feed containing 0.1% powder of W. somnifera, O. sanctum, Aspe. recemosus, An. paniculata, Asph. panjabinum (Shilajith), G. sylvestre, S. platensis, and P. ginseng, respectively. Body weight gain, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), liver functional markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), kidney functional markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and concentration of cadmium in liver and kidney were investigated. Results: Body weight gains were significantly decreased in birds of groups 2–10 compared to group 1 at the end of 4th week. Supplementation of various medicinal herbs in feed after 4th week significantly improved the body weight gain compared to that in group 2 chicks. The increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in cadmium intoxicated birds were significantly reversed by the above-said herbs. The liver and kidney functional markers were also restored to normal levels. Highest concentration of cadmium was found accumulated in kidney, followed by liver in birds of group 2. Herbal supplementation in groups 3–10 prevented Cd bioaccumulation which was most evident in liver, followed by kidney. Conclusions: Administration of herbal adaptogens at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of Cd and reversed the Cd-induced oxidative tissue damage. PMID:21455421

Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, D. Srinivas; Prasadini, P. Prabhu

2011-01-01

337

Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers  

PubMed Central

We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions. PMID:25191281

Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

338

Social Networks and the Maintenance of Conformity: Japanese sojourner women  

PubMed Central

Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other “company wives.” Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families. PMID:23162609

Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J.

2011-01-01

339

Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

2013-01-01

340

Hepatotoxicity induced by herbal and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Herbals and dietary supplements (HDS) can cause hepatotoxicity. Regulation of HDS varies across the globe. In the United States, it is defined by a law that is now two decades old. More recent regulatory approaches in Europe still do not require testing for premarket safety. The true incidence of hepatotoxicity from HDS is unknown. The presentation is most often with a hepatocellular enzyme pattern, and the outcomes can be severe, leading to transplantation in some circumstances. The diagnosis of hepatotoxicity due to HDS is made in the same way as for drugs. However, patients often must be coaxed into revealing a history of use. No causality assessment approach is perfectly suited for hepatotoxicity from HDS, but the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is most used. Future endeavors must focus on defining epidemiology, establishing an accepted nomenclature, and identifying culprit ingredients, predisposing host factors, and useful biomarkers for injury. PMID:24879982

Navarro, Victor J; Lucena, M Isabel

2014-05-01

341

Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

2011-01-01

342

Doshu Kanamaya: Contemporary Japanese Calligraphy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new online exhibition from the Huntington Archive (discussed in the June 30, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) highlights the work of renowned Japanese calligrapher, Doshu Kanayama. The exhibition includes an introduction to Japanese calligraphy and Kanayama, as well as a selection of twenty calligraphic paintings with short descriptions. Future plans for the site include a collection of essays.

343

Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

2006-01-01

344

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

345

Language Habits of the Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts Japanese language habits with Western language habits, asserting that Japanese need to speak more concisely, express themselves clearly and frankly, and eliminate superfluous polite language and preliminaries in order to be successful in the efficiency-oriented civilization that is a product of Western culture. (RAE)

Kinosita, Koreo

1988-01-01

346

The Japanese Language: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…

Backhouse, A. E.

347

Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

Kimura, Yukiko

348

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0000-00-00

349

Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Network Pharmacology Could Lead to New Multicompound Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug. PMID:23346189

Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping

2012-01-01

350

Chromatographic fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics for quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

The holistic system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is reflected by the integrity of the ingredients contained in herbal medicines, which creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards for raw materials and the standardization of finished herbal drugs because no single component contributes to the total efficacy. Thus, the chromatographic fingerprinting technique of TCM has proved to be a comprehensive strategy for assessing the intact quality of herbal medicine, since the origin of the herbal medicines could be identified and classified based on so-called phytoequivalence. On the other hand, chromatographic fingerprinting is essentially a high-throughput technique and an integral tool to explore the complexity of herbal medicines. In order to further control the comprehensive quality of TCMs, some strategies are proposed to trace the chemical changes of chromatographic fingerprints both in product processing and/or after their administration by modern chromatographic techniques and chemometrics. Combined with the techniques developed in systems biology, it seems also possible to reveal the working mechanism of TCMs and to further control their intrinsic quality. PMID:22273377

Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Wei-Ping

2011-01-01

351

Use of herbal remedies among patients undergoing hemodialysis.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, and associated factors for the use of herbal remedies in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred participants were selected by stratified sampling and were systematically interviewed. One hundred and twenty-six patients (63%) had used herbal remedies some time since their initiation of dialysis treatment. The users of herbal remedies had a significantly older age than nonusers, but no other significant differences were observed. The most prevalent complaints that led to herbal remedies use were gastroenterological complaints, flushing, and excessive thirst. Cichorium intybus, Borage officinalis, Mentha longifolia, and Matricaria recutita were the most prevalently used herbs in our patients. More study should be done on safety and efficacy of these herbs for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24241097

Roozbeh, Jamshid; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Heydari, Mojtaba

2013-11-01

352

POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

Said, Hakim Mohammed

1984-01-01

353

Predicting Japanese American drinking behavior.  

PubMed

Empirical data on Japanese American drinking behavior are scarce. The present study was a random sample (N = 295) of households in Los Angeles with Japanese surnames. Japanese Americans born in the United States tended to drink less than those born in Japan. The study also observed significant gender differences in Japanese American drinking behavior which were attributed to ascribed social roles. Other demographic and social determinants of drinking were examined through two logistic regression models. The first model predicted drinking (as opposed to abstaining), while the other distinguished heavy drinkers from those who drank alcohol in more moderate amounts. Potential reference groups (e.g., parents, friends, church groups, etc.) were often significant in predicting whether and how much a Japanese American drank. PMID:3384511

Kitano, H H; Lubben, J E; Chi, I

1988-04-01

354

Fox smell abrogates the effect of herbal odor to prolong mouse cardiac allograft survival  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicines have unique odors, and the act of smelling may have modulatory effects on the immune system. We investigated the effect of olfactory exposure to Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese herbal medicine, on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Methods Naïve or olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 heart and were exposed to the odor of TJ-23 until rejection. Some naïve CBA recipients of an allograft were given olfactory exposure to Sairei-to (TJ-114), trimethylthiazoline (TMT), individual components of TJ-23, or a TJ-23 preparation lacking one component. Adoptive transfer studies were performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Results Untreated CBA mice rejected their C57BL/6 allografts acutely, as did olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice exposed to the odor of TJ-23. CBA recipients of a C57BL/6 heart given olfactory exposure to TJ-23 had significantly prolonged allograft survival, whereas those exposed to the odor of TJ-114, TMT, one component of TJ-23, or TJ-23 lacking a component did not. Secondary allograft recipients that were given, at 30 days after transplantation, either whole splenocytes, CD4+ cells, or CD4+CD25+ cells from primary recipients exposed to the odor of TJ-23 had indefinitely prolonged allograft survival. Conclusions Prolonged survival of cardiac allografts and generation of regulatory cells was associated with exposure to the odor of TJ-23 in our model. The olfactory area of the brain may have a role in the modulation of immune responses. PMID:24886081

2014-01-01

355

Clinical Study on Constitutional Herbal Tea for Treating Chronic Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720

Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

2014-01-01

356

Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México  

PubMed Central

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

2008-01-01

357

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-02-15

358

Japanese (Japn) (Department of East Asian Languages  

E-print Network

activities. Staff. Spring Japanese 101 (3)--exploring Japanese Language and society This course to the three writing systems. Through cultural scenarios, media presentations, and film, stu- dents explore how language functions in contemporary Japanese society. This course is not a prerequisite for Japanese 111

Dresden, Gregory

359

Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

Shin, Jung Cheol

2012-01-01

360

Antibacterial screening of traditional herbal plants and standard antibiotics against some human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent. PMID:24191314

Awan, Uzma Azeem; Andleeb, Saiqa; Kiyani, Ayesha; Zafar, Atiya; Shafique, Irsa; Riaz, Nazia; Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Uddin, Hafeez

2013-11-01

361

Recent progress of traditional chinese medicine and herbal medicine for the treatment and prevention of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  TCM represents the enormous accumulation of daily experiences in medical practice by the Chinese people from ancient time.\\u000a The description of the therapeutic usage in classic books of Chinese materia medica are informative even today, for example,\\u000a Angelica sinensis ameliorates menstruation disorder and Artemisia annua is effective against malaria. All these therapeutic\\u000a effects have been confirmed by contemporary scientific research.

Rui Han

1995-01-01

362

Bangpungtongseong-san, a traditional herbal medicine, attenuates chronic asthmatic effects induced by repeated ovalbumin challenge.  

PubMed

Airway remodeling is characterized by airway wall thickening, subepithelial ?brosis, increased smooth muscle mass, angiogenesis and increased mucus secretion, which can lead to chronic and obstinate asthma and can obstruct pulmonary function. In this study, the effects of Bangpungtongseong-san water extract (BPTS) on airway remodeling were examined using a murine model of bronchial asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge. We focused on the effects of BPTS on the regulation of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups, some of which were sensitized and challenged with OVA for 4 weeks. After the final ovalbumin challenge, typical asthma-like morphological changes were observed in the lung tissue with hematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff, as well as with Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and Smad3 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were also detected by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that BPTS reduced the OVA-induced increase in the infiltration of leukocytes, mucus hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Compared with the OVA-challenged group, the BPTS group had lower expression levels of adhesion molecules, TGF-?1, Smad3 and VEGF proteins in the lung tissues. The results of the current study suggest that BPTS prevents asthma airway remodeling in chronic asthma by inhibiting the activation of the TGF-?1-Smad3-signaling pathway, as well as the expression of VEGF and adhesion molecules. BPTS may thus be a potential drug for the treatment of patients with changes that occur in the airways due to severe asthma. PMID:24535550

Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, Nara; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2014-04-01

363

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of paeonia lactiflora pall., a traditional chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea. PMID:21687505

He, Dong-Yi; Dai, Sheng-Ming

2011-01-01

364

Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall., a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea. PMID:21687505

He, Dong-Yi; Dai, Sheng-Ming

2011-01-01

365

Inhibition of the p38 and PKA signaling pathways is associated with the anti-melanogenic activity of Qian-wang-hong-bai-san, a Chinese herbal formula, in B16 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceQian-wang-hong-bai-san (QW), a Chinese herbal formula, is traditionally used as a skin whitening agent in China. Aim of study: In our previous screening assays, QW was identified as an effective tyrosinase inhibitor. In this study, we aim to investigate the underlying mechanism of the anti-melanogenic effect of QW in B16 cells.

Ting-Fung Tsang; Yan Ye; William Chi-Shing Tai; Gui-Xin Chou; Alexander Kai-Man Leung; Zhi-Ling Yu; Wen-Luan Wendy Hsiao

366

A Comparison of the ancient use of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known medicinal herb native to China and Korea, and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. However, there is different evidence of ginseng efficacy between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. In TCM, ginseng is a highly valued herb and has been applied

2008-01-01

367

TCMGeneDIT: a database for associated traditional Chinese medicine, gene and disease information using text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complementary and alternative medical system in Western countries, has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in East Asian countries. In recent years, many herbal medicines were found to exhibit a variety of effects through regulating a wide range of gene expressions or protein activities. As available TCM data continue to

Yu-Ching Fang; Hsuan-Cheng Huang; Hsin-Hsi Chen; Hsueh-Fen Juan

2008-01-01

368

Ultrasound-assisted extraction methodology as a tool to improve the antioxidant properties of herbal drug Xiao-chia-hu-tang.  

PubMed

Xiao-chai-hu-tang (XCHT) is an important Chinese herbal prescription for curing many types of liver diseases. The contents of bioactive constituents (saikosaponins a, c and d, baicalin, baicalein, and glycyrrhizic acid), and antioxidant properties of XCHT extracts prepared with ultrasound-assisted (US) extraction in combination with ethanol (up to 95%) as extraction modifier were studied. The results showed that the US extraction significantly increased the bioactive constituents concentrations and antioxidant properties of XCHT extracts when compared with the XCHT prepared with traditional boiling-water extraction. Among the XCHT extracts made with US extraction, the sample prepared with 95% ethanol showed the highest bioactive constituent concentrations and the best antioxidant functionalities. The results suggest that US extraction of XCHT is feasible to replace the traditional time-consuming and low efficiency preparation procedure in the future modernized and commercialized manufacture of this highly valuable Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:15894141

Liu, Chu-Ting; Wu, Ching-Yi; Weng, Yih-Ming; Tseng, Chin-Yin

2005-06-01

369

Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Psychopharmacology: Building Bridges  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates that in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, there are striking similarities between the mechanisms of psychoactive agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and those of western psychopharmacology. While western researchers search for new treatments and novel mechanisms of action, investigators in Asia are analyzing traditional remedies in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for their effectiveness. A review of contemporary pharmacologic studies of agents used in TCM for psychiatric indications reveals that virtually all of the active principles of drug action established in 20th century psychopharmacology were encountered empirically in Chinese herbal medicine over the past 2000 years. Building bridges between these two traditions may thus be of benefit to both cultures. In addition to providing western patients with a wider selection of treatment options, the effort may help Asian clinicians and researchers avoid some of the errors that have troubled their western counterparts. PMID:23418138

Shorter, Edward; Segesser, Kathryn

2013-01-01

370

Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

2003-01-01

371

Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known about the mechanisms of IMOD to modulate immunity. Here we have investigated whether IMOD modulates the immunological function of human dendritic cells (DCs). IMOD alone did not induce DC maturation nor production of cytokines. Notably, IMOD decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF? by LPS-activated DCs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, treatment with IMOD did not affect LPS induced-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, IMOD inhibited T cell activation/proliferation by LPS-treated DCs and skewed T-cells responses toward the T helper type 2 polarization. These data strongly indicate that IMOD has a potent immunomodulatory ability that affects TLR signaling and thereby modulates DC function. Insight into the immunomodulatory effect of herbal medicine IMOD may provide innovative strategies to affect the immune system and to help combat various diseases.

Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M.; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

2015-01-01

372

Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations.  

PubMed

Uva-ursi folium (bearberry leaf) has been traditionally used to treat symptoms of lower urinary tract infections. The most representative constituent of this herbal drug is arbutin that is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes hepatic conjugation to form hydroquinone (HQ) conjugates. As free HQ is crucial for the safety of the herbal preparation, we reviewed published and unpublished experimental and human studies to clarify some outdated assumptions and to support the safety of therapeutic daily doses of Uva-ursi folium extract. Specifically, data on pharmacokinetics and the human exposure of arbutin and HQ were reviewed. A therapeutic recommended human daily dose of bearberry leaf extract (420 mg hydroquinone derivatives calculated as anhydrous arbutin) liberates free HQ in urine at a maximum exposure level of 11 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d. By means of an experimental no observed effect level value, a permitted daily exposure dose below which there is a negligible risk to human health was estimated for free HQ (100 µg/kg bw/d). Dietary sources of arbutin/HQ that are regularly consumed long term by humans generate comparable free HQ exposure levels. There is no direct evidence, regarding human data, supporting the fact that free HQ causes convulsion, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or promotion of tumors in humans. Free HQ had no activity promoting pancreatic, bladder, stomach, or liver carcinogenesis. In conclusion, under the recommended use conditions Uva-ursi folium is a safe therapeutic option for treating lower urinary tract infections. PMID:24296864

de Arriba, Susana Garcia; Naser, Belal; Nolte, Klaus-Ulrich

2013-01-01

373

Identification of dendrobium species used for herbal medicines based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence.  

PubMed

Stems of genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) have been traditionally used as an herbal medicine (Dendrobii Herba) in Eastern Asia. Although demand for Dendrobium is increasing rapidly, wild resources are decreasing due to over-collection. This study aimed to identify plant sources of Dendrobii Herba on the market based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. We constructed an ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence database of 196 Dendrobium species, and the database was employed to identify 21 herbal samples. We found that 13 Dendrobium species (D. catenatum, D. cucullatum, D. denudans, D. devonianum, D. eriiflorum, D. hancockii, D. linawianum, D. lituiflorum, D. loddigesii, D. polyanthum, D. primulinum, D. regium, and D. transparens) were possibly used as plant sources of Dendrobii Herba, and unidentified species allied to D. denudans, D. eriiflorum, D. gregulus, or D. hemimelanoglossum were also used as sources. Furthermore, it is clear that D. catenatum is one of the most important sources of Dendrobii Herba (5 out of 21 samples). PMID:21532173

Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Tajima, Natsuko; Shioda, Nao; Lu, Jun Feng; Wen, Chi Luan; Wu, Jin Bin; Handa, Takashi; Iijima, Hiroshi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Yukawa, Tomohisa

2011-01-01

374

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946

McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.

2012-01-01

375

Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.  

PubMed

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

376

Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes: “not medicine but less harmful”?  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes. Methods Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Results Twenty?three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb?only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb?only product. Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal?tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal?tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal?tobacco brands as key for development. Conclusion Asian herbal?tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal?tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting. PMID:17400933

Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

2007-01-01

377

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

378

In Vivo Screening for Anti-Osteoporotic Fraction from Extract of Herbal Formula Xianlinggubao in Ovariectomized Mice  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Fufang or formula Xianlinggubao (XLGB) is a prescribed TCM drug in China registered for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Fufang in TCM is comprised of a group of herbal compounds contributing in group to the treatment efficacy. The present study aims to identify the bioactive fraction(s) in XLGB extract that account(s) dominantly for its osteogenic effects. Methods The extract of XLGB formula was separated into three fractions using chromatography, i.e., XLGB-A, XLGB-B and XLGB-C. They were administrated to 4-month old ovariectomized (OVX) mice for 6 weeks to determine which bioactive fraction(s) were more effective for preventing OVX-induced bone loss evaluated by microCT, biomechanical testing and biochemical markers. The main peaks of the key fraction were identified using reference compounds isolated from the fraction. In addition, the effects of the composite compounds in XLGB-B on osteoblasts’ proliferation and mineralization were evaluated in UMR 106 cells. Results XLGB-B with a yield of 13.0% from herbal Fufang XLGB was identified as the most potential one among the three fractions for prevention of OVX-induced bone loss confirmed with bone mass, bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone turnover markers. Nine compounds in HPLC fingerprint were identified in the XLGB-B fraction, including phenylpropanoids from Herba Epimedii, terpenes from Radix Dipsaci and coumarins from Fructus Psoraleae. In addition, the identified compounds effectively promoted proliferation and/or mineralization of osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells in vitro. Conclusion XLGB-B with defined phytochemical structures was screened as the key fraction that demonstrated preventive effects on OVX-induced bone loss in mice. The present study laid down a foundation towards a new generation of herbal Fufang characterized with “less herbal materials for achieving equal treatment efficacy” in development strategy of TCM for prevention of OVX-induced osteoporosis. PMID:25695519

Wang, Xinluan; He, Yixin; Guo, Baosheng; Tsang, Man-Ching; Tu, Fengjuan; Dai, Yi; Yao, Zhihong; Zheng, Lizhen; Xie, Xinhui; Wang, Nan; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

2015-01-01

379

A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

2014-01-01

380

A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic) Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

2014-01-01

381

Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the safety of oral administration of Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods The toxicological information of HLXLD and its individual constituent herbs was searched in cintcm or TCMlars (www.cintcm.com), PubMed (MEDLINE), Chinese Herbal Medicine (1999) and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Vol. I—III). Single-dose acute toxicity was assessed by using the highest possible dosage. Motor function test was used to determine whether the herbal formula might cause motor impairment. Nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects, and 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects in rats were also assessed. Results The literature searches showed that HLXLD and its eleven ingredient herbs had no side/adverse effects listed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature. Under the dosages proposed in the formula, the HLXLD formula had no side/adverse effects according to MEDLINE, Chinese Herbal Medicine and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. The studies in rats showed: (1) in single-dose acute toxicity assessment, the maximal feasible single oral dose, 9.20 g/kg HLXLD, showed no significant effect on clinical signs, or body weight and mortality over a 14-day period in rats; (2) during motor function test, nine-day repeat-dose of daily HLXLD treatment at 4.60 g/kg did not cause motor impairment; (3) in nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessment, there were no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes or obvious adverse reactions and signs in complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats (highest observed dosage: 4.60 g/kg), and no noticeable adverse effects were observed during, or 14 days after nine-day treatment at 4.60 g/kg in non-inflamed rats; (4) during 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessments, no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes, no obvious adverse reactions and signs were observed in normal rats administered with HLXLD at a dose of 2.30 g/kg and the values of serum biochemistry and histopathology were in normal range. Conclusion Both existing information and animal data support that Modified HLXLD is a safe herbal product for clinical application. PMID:20456842

FAN, Arthur Yin; LAO, Lixing; ZHANG, Rui-xin; ZHOU, An-nan; BERMAN, Brian M.

2013-01-01

382

Favorite Family Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the text The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant as a springboard for discussion about family traditions. After identifying the traditions observed by the relatives, students meet in small groups to brainstorm new traditions that could arise from the families gathering together during the winter. The lesson is concluded by having each student write about their own favorite family tradition and share it with a small group.

2012-12-08

383

Beverage and culture. "Zhourat", a multivariate analysis of the globalization of a herbal tea from the Middle East.  

PubMed

The "Zhourat" herbal tea consists of a blend of wild flowers, herbs, leaves and fruits and is a typical beverage of Lebanon and Syria. We aim to evaluate cultural significance of "Zhourat", to determine cultural standards for its formulation including key ingredients and to determine acceptable variability levels in terms of number of ingredients and their relative proportions, in summary what is "Zhourat" and what is not "Zhourat" from an ethnobotanical perspective. For this purpose we develop a novel methodology to describe and analyse patterns of variation of traditional multi-ingredient herbal formulations, beverages and teas and to identify key ingredients, which are characteristics of a particular culture and region and to interpret health claims for the mixture. Factor analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to display similarities between samples whereas salience index was used to determine the main ingredients which could help to distinguish a standard traditional blend from a global market-addressed formulation. The study revealed 77 main ingredients belonging to 71 different species of vascular plants. In spite of the "Zhourat's" highly variable content, the salience analysis resulted in a determined set of key botanical components including Rosa x damascena Herrm., Althaea damascena Mouterde, Matricaria chamomilla L., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Zea mays L. and Elaeagnus angustifolia L. The major health claims for "Zhourat" as digestive, sedative and for respiratory problems are culturally coherent with the analysis of the traditional medicinal properties uses of its ingredients. PMID:24703931

Obón, Concepción; Rivera, Diego; Alcaraz, Francisco; Attieh, Latiffa

2014-08-01

384

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

next class #12;Traditional Cel Animation · Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps) ­ That's 1440 stand - Transfer onto film by taking a photograph of the stack #12;Principles of Traditional AnimationAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

Treuille, Adrien

385

A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique  

PubMed Central

Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

2014-01-01

386

Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ?-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

2015-01-01

387

[Studies and safety evaluation of aflatoxins in herbal plants].  

PubMed

Herbs and herbal products are commonly used in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to test herbal plants for contamination with aflatoxins (AF), genotoxic, cancerogenic and hepatotoxic compounds which can cause immunotoxic and allergic effects as well as growth disorders. Aflatoxins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post column derivatization involving bromination with pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide (PBPB). Extracts was cleaned-up by immunoaffinity columns (IAC). The contents of aflatoxins B, B, G, and G, in more than 500 herbal plants samples mainly from Eastern Poland were investigated. Samples were supplied by manufacturers (herbal facilities) in 2006-2010 years. In all the evaluated samples the levels of aflatoxins above the detection limits of methods applied were not observed: for AF B1--0.2 microg/kg; AF B2--0.03 microg/kg; AF G1--0.3 microg/kg; AF G2--0.03 microg/kg (PN-EN 14123) and for AF B1--0.15 microg/kg (Ph. Eur.6, 2008:2.8.18). All the herbal plants tested for contamination with aflatoxins should be considered safe, which indicates that manufacturers used good manufacturing practices during drying and storage of raw materials. PMID:22435291

Ledzion, Ewa; Rybi?ska, Krystyna; Postupolski, Jacek; Kurpi?ska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Ma?gorzata

2011-01-01

388

JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

389

The Morikami Museum & Japanese Gardens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Palm Beach County in Southern Florida is the home of the Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens. For armchair travelers, the quickest way there is via their fine website, where some of their exhibitions and collections can be found. The "Collection" tab at the top of the page will take the visitor to over 1000 images of items in their collection, most of which are from the mid 19th century to the late 20th century, and are articles of daily Japanese life, such as bottles, door pulls, dolls, and foot warmers. Visitors should not miss the "Japanese Gardens" section of the website, as there is a photo gallery of the six gardens on the museums grounds. The introduction to the gardens state that the Journal of Japanese Gardening ranks these gardens eighth out of over 300 Japanese gardens outside of Japan. There is a PDF of a "Garden Guide" available in English and Spanish, and the link to all of the photos of the gardens is in the middle of the "Japanese Gardens" page. [KMG

390

Usage patterns and adverse experiences in traditional Korean medicine: results of a survey in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Although traditional medicine (TM) in South Korea is included in the national health care system, it is considered complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and not mainstream medicine. Therefore, the lack of statistical data regarding the usage and adverse experiences of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) makes difficult to understand the current status of TM. In this study, we aimed to report usage patterns and adverse experiences on TKM targeting consumers in South Korea. Methods A total of 2000 consumers participated in the survey on usage and adverse experiences in 2008. Among the 2,000 participants, 915 (45.8%) had taken herbal medicine or received traditional medicinal therapies; these individuals were further surveyed on the internet or in an interview. Results The usage rate was higher among women and among patients in their 30s. Of the total TKM usage, acupuncture accounted for 36.7%, and herbal medicine accounted for 13.4%. Regarding the frequency of use of TKM, 73.8% of patients reported using TM less than 5 times in 1 year. Of the 915 respondents, 8.2% of individuals had some type of adverse experience resulting from TKM. Adverse experiences were primarily caused by acupuncture and herbal medicines, and they primarily involved diseases of the digestive system and skin. The incidence of adverse experiences was less than 3.7% for acupuncture and 3.8% for herbal medicine. Overall, the incidence rate of adverse experiences for TKM for the entire population was 0.04 per 10,000 individuals. Conclusions The medical usage and occurrence of adverse events on TKM should be surveyed periodically, and the statistical trends should be analysed. The disparity between the survey results for traditional herbal medicines and medical practices, and those for the national pharmacovigilance system or academic reports of adverse experiences should be examined. The national pharmacovigilance system must be improved to compensate for the disparities. Policies and regulations are required to enhance the reporting of adverse experiences not only for herbal medicines but also for traditional medicinal therapies. PMID:24289266

2013-01-01

391

Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed\\/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. METHODS: Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which

Kathryn A Vickers; Kate B Jolly; Sheila M Greenfield

2006-01-01

392

The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (????? Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (????? Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

2013-01-01

393

Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: A literature review on case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common amongst cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side-effects and less likely to cause dependency.The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports

Oluwadamilola Olaku; Jeffrey D. White

2011-01-01

394

Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

2005-01-01

395

Potential benefits of Chinese Herbal Medicine for elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), as the most common form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been playing an important role in the treatment of elderly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China. In this paper, we briefly discuss on the potential benefits of CHM for elderly patients with CVDs. Initially, we summarize the characteristics of CVDs in the elderly, the present treatment of CVDs in the elderly, and the clinical applications of CHM for CVDs. Secondly, in addition to introducing the features of CHM, we discuss the differences between CHM and Western medicine. Lastly, the potential benefits of CHM are presented. We came to a conclusion that as mutual complementary, Western medicine and TCM together shall benefit the elderly patients with CVDs. PMID:24454321

Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Chen, Ke-Ji

2013-01-01

396

Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future. PMID:24960051

Fujimaki, Takahiro; Saiki, Shinji; Tashiro, Etsu; Yamada, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imoto, Masaya

2014-01-01

397

[Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].  

PubMed

Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

Szafra?ski, Tomasz

2014-01-01

398

DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

2013-01-01

399

DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

2013-01-01

400

Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

2012-10-01

401

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

Wang, Zhijun

2013-01-01

402

Safety of Chinese herbal medicines during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Miscarriage and infertility have long been public concerns due to the mental and physical suffering they bring to potential parents. There is a strong need for effective and affordable treatments. Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been shown to be effective for preventing miscarriage and treating infertility; however, due to the limited knowledge of their pharmacological mechanisms and unknown potential toxicity, their use has been restricted. This paper reviews 24 clinical trials of CHMs to prevent miscarriage and treat infertility. Most of these studies did not meet the requirements of randomized controlled trials. Even when using quality assessments based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies, most studies did not meet the requirements. The reviewed papers were evaluated for maternal and embryonic adverse effects, including those in animal experiments. Slight maternal effects were noted, with some reports of severe toxic effects of CHMs for preventing miscarriage and severe adverse maternal effects of CHMs used for infertility. Owing to the poor quality of the randomized controlled clinical trials and the limited number of studies, it is not possible to draw a conclusion. From animal studies, for all three gestational periods, growth delay and congenital anomalies were the most commonly recorded adverse effects. However, baseline toxicological data and detailed mechanisms are still lacking. To gain a better understanding of the potential toxic effects of CHMs, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials should be conducted, and high-throughput in vitro screening method for baseline data should be considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25663446

Liang, Bo; Li, Lu; Tang, Ling Yin; Wu, Qi; Wu, Xiao Ke; Wang, Chi Chiu

2015-05-01

403

Herbal medications and plastic surgery: a hidden danger.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine is a multibillion-pound industry, and surveys suggest that ~10% of the UK population uses herbal supplements concurrently with prescription medications. Patients and health care practitioners are often unaware of the adverse side effects of herbal medicines. In addition, because many of these herbal supplements are available over the counter, many patients do not disclose these when listing medications to health care providers. A 39-year-old nurse underwent an abdominoplasty with rectus sheath plication after weight loss surgery. Postoperatively, she experienced persistent drain output, and after discharge, a seroma developed requiring repeated drainage in the clinic. After scar revision 10 months later, the woman bled postoperatively, requiring suturing. Again, a seroma developed, requiring repeated drainage. It was discovered that the patient had been taking a herbal menopause supplement containing ingredients known to have anticoagulant effects. Complementary medicine is rarely taught in UK medical schools and generally not practiced in UK hospitals. Many supplements are known to have anticoagulant, cardiovascular, and sedative effects. Worryingly, questions about herbal medicines are not routinely asked in clinics, and patients do not often volunteer such information. With the number and awareness of complementary medications increasing, their usage among the population is likely to increase. The authors recommend specific questioning about the use of complementary medications and consideration of ceasing such medications before surgery. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 . PMID:24488003

Mohan, Arvind; Lahiri, Anindya

2014-04-01

404

Database of traditional Chinese medicine and its application to studies of mechanism and to prescription validation  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely practised and is viewed as an attractive alternative to conventional medicine. Quantitative information about TCM prescriptions, constituent herbs and herbal ingredients is necessary for studying and exploring TCM. Experimental approach: We manually collected information on TCM in books and other printed sources in Medline. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Database TCM-ID, at http://tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcm-id/tcmid.asp, was introduced for providing comprehensive information about all aspects of TCM including prescriptions, constituent herbs, herbal ingredients, molecular structure and functional properties of active ingredients, therapeutic and side effects, clinical indication and application and related matters. Results: TCM-ID currently contains information for 1,588 prescriptions, 1,313 herbs, 5,669 herbal ingredients, and the 3D structure of 3,725 herbal ingredients. The value of the data in TCM-ID was illustrated by using some of the data for an in-silico study of molecular mechanism of the therapeutic effects of herbal ingredients and for developing a computer program to validate TCM multi-herb preparations. Conclusions and Implications: The development of systems biology has led to a new design principle for therapeutic intervention strategy, the concept of ‘magic shrapnel' (rather than the ‘magic bullet'), involving many drugs against multiple targets, administered in a single treatment. TCM offers an extensive source of examples of this concept in which several active ingredients in one prescription are aimed at numerous targets and work together to provide therapeutic benefit. The database and its mining applications described here represent early efforts toward exploring TCM for new theories in drug discovery. PMID:17088869

Chen, X; Zhou, H; Liu, Y B; Wang, J F; Li, H; Ung, C Y; Han, L Y; Cao, Z W; Chen, Y Z

2006-01-01

405

Japanese pitch accent acquisition by learners of Japanese: Effects of training on Japanese accent instruction, perception, and production  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigated 1) American L2 learners' perceptual ability to accurately identify Japanese pitch accent, and 2) learners' realization of Japanese pitch accent. This study was conducted to determine whether these abilities could...

Hirano-Cook, Erika

2011-07-13

406

Immunopharmacology of the main herbal supplements: a review.  

PubMed

It is debated whether the use of herbal supplements in endurance sports, in order to have a better performance, is correct or not, from the perspective of both as safety and as effectiveness. In this review we try to find out if the most common herbal supplements (Echinacea, Rhodiola, Ginseng) are effective in the improvement of performance or in the modulation of the immune system. According to the results of our review, the prevalent effect is adaptogenic rather than ergogenic, with a better tolerance of the exercise induced stress, related to enhancement of the whole immune system and decrease of the oxidative damage. PMID:24456264

Amico, Angelo P; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Damiani, Sabino; Ranieri, Maurizio; Megna, Marisa; Fiore, Pietro

2013-12-01

407

Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.  

PubMed

Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027

Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

2013-11-01

408

Antitumor activities and tumor necrosis factor producibility of traditional Chinese medicines and crude drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumor activities and capacity for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production of traditional Chinese herbal preparations (Zhu-ling-tang, Xiao-chai-hu-tang), crude drugs (Polyporus, Hoelen, Bupleuri radix, Angelica radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Cinnamomum cortex), and Krestin (PSK) were investigated. These drugs were given to DDY mice in the drinking water before and after transplantation of Ehrlich tumors, and the development of the intradermally transplanted

Katsuyuki Haranaka; Nobuko Satomi; Akiko Sakurai; Ruriko Haranaka; Naoko Okada; Mosaburo Kobayashi

1985-01-01

409

Ferment this: The transformation of Noni, a traditional polynesian medicine ( Morinda Citrifolia , Rubiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the use of plants and other complementary medicines in Hawai’i drew our attention toMorinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae). Noni, as it is commonly known, is representative of both currently popular medicinal plants in Ha-wai’i and\\u000a the pharmacopoeias of traditional cultures of this poly ethnic population. It is also prominent among the increasing number\\u000a of botanicals currently promoted by the “herbal

Anna R. Dixon; Heather Mcmillen; Nina L. Etkin

1999-01-01

410

Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: Studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice.\\u000a The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes,

Sara K. Swanston-Flatt; Caroline Day; Clifford J. Bailey; Peter R. Flatt

1989-01-01

411

Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities.  

PubMed

The oldest remedies known to mankind are herbal medicines. India is known worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. Euphorbia hirta is often used traditionally for female disorders, respiratory ailments (cough, coryza, bronchitis, and asthma), worm infestations in children, dysentery, jaundice, pimples, gonorrhea, digestive problems, and tumors. It is reported to contain alkanes, triterpenes, phytosterols, tannins, polyphenols, and flavanoids. This review describes the medicinal properties, chemical constituents, and other important aspects of Euphorbia hirta. PMID:22228942

Kumar, Sunil; Malhotra, Rashmi; Kumar, Dinesh

2010-01-01

412

Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders. PMID:23864888

Pandey, M. M.; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, A. K. S.

2013-01-01

413

Herbals and Ruminant Health: A Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional sheep, hair sheep and meat goat industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region, particularly on small farms, to help produce meats to satisfy ethnic markets demands. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products for these niche markets provides production incent...

414

Efficacy and mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines for treating asthma and allergy  

PubMed Central

Background While corticosteroids and ?-2 agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. Objective This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Methods We first reviewed five clinical studies of “anti-asthma” TCM herbal remedies published between 2005–2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects based on data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available data bases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Conclusion Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest potential efficacy of FAHF-2 for food allergy. PMID:19203653

Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne

2009-01-01

415

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review  

PubMed Central

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-01-01

416

Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters  

PubMed Central

To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

2010-01-01

417

The American Perception of Japanese Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development of U.S. interest in Japanese education. Lists myths, exaggerations, and cautiously acknowledged strengths of Japanese education in American commentaries. Suggests that Japanese educational practices have had little impact on American education, partly because of a lack of truly comparative studies. Contains 19 references.…

Cummings, William K.

1989-01-01

418

The Japanese in America. In America Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life of Japanese immigrants in America is explored, and the accomplishments of Japanese Americans are reviewed in this book which is part of a series for children. The wartime contributions and experiences of Japanese Americans, including the experience of relocation camps, are described. Particular attention is paid to the experience of…

Leathers, Noel L.

419

The Work Values of Japanese Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

Engel, John W.

420

Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

Silva, David J., Ed.