Sample records for japanese traditional herbal

  1. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  2. Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, protects against sarcopenia in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Yuki; Kagawa, Syota; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Nakanishi, Miho; Sakashita, Noriko; Otsuka, Shizue; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hagihara, Keisuke

    2015-01-15

    Sarcopenia is characterized by age-associated skeletal muscle atrophy and reduced muscle strength; currently, no pharmaceutical treatment is available. Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that is used to alleviate various age-related symptoms, especially motor disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of GJG on aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy by using senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8). Immunohistochemical and western blotting analyses clearly showed that GJG significantly reduced the loss of skeletal muscle mass and ameliorated the increase in slow skeletal muscle fibers in SAMP8 mice compared to control mice. The expression levels of Akt and GSK-3?, the phosphorylation of FoxO4, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and mitochondrial-related transcription factors such as PGC-1? were suppressed, while the expression of MuRF1 increased in SAMP8 mice, but approximated that in senescence-accelerated aging-resistant (SAMR1) mice after GJG treatment. We demonstrate for the first time that GJG has a therapeutic effect against sarcopenia. PMID:25636865

  3. Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, alleviates the emotional abnormality induced by maladaptation to stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Minoru; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Ishii, Daisuke; Imai, Taro; Takeda, Kotaro; Kitajima, Masaki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that is composed of Atractylodis lanceae Rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii Rhizoma, Uncariae Uncis cum Ramulus, Angelicae Radix, Bupleuri Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix, on the emotional abnormality induced by maladaptation to stress in mice. Mice were exposed to repeated restraint stress for 60 or 240 min/day for 14 days. From the 3rd day of stress exposure, mice were given yokukansan orally (p.o.) or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan intraperitoneally (i.p.) immediately after the daily exposure to restraint stress. After the final exposure to restraint stress, the emotionality of mice was evaluated using an automatic hole-board apparatus. A single exposure to restraint stress for 60 min induced a decrease in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test. This emotional stress response disappeared in mice that had been exposed to repeated restraint stress for 60 min/day for 14 days, which confirmed the development of stress adaptation. In contrast, mice that were exposed to restraint stress for 240 min/day for 14 days did not develop this stress adaptation, and still showed a decrease in head-dipping behavior. The decreased emotionality observed in stress-maladaptive mice was significantly recovered by chronic treatment with yokukansan (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as flesinoxan (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after daily exposure to stress. These findings suggest that yokukansan may have a beneficial effect on stress adaptation and alleviate the emotional abnormality under conditions of excessive stress. PMID:24129119

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  5. Interaction between Pirenzepine and Ninjinto, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on the Plasma Gut-Regulated Peptide Levels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuhki; Hiroki, Itoh; Suzuki, Yosuke; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) Ninjinto has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, esogastritis, gastric atony, gastrectasis, vomiting, and anorexia. The pharmacological effects of Ninjinto on the gastrointestine are due to changes in the levels of gut-regulated peptide, such as motilin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The release of these peptides is controlled by acetylcholine (ACh) from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240?min (AUC0?240?min) in humans. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine significantly reduced the Ninjinto-induced elevation of plasma motilin and substance P release (AUC0?240?min). Combined treatment with Ninjinto and pirenzepine significantly increased the release of plasma somatostatin (AUC0?240?min) compared with administration of Ninjinto alone or placebo. Ninjinto appeared to induce the release of substance P and motilin into plasma mainly through the activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Ninjinto by the elevation of plasma substance P, motilin, and somatostatin. PMID:23606863

  6. Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25565296

  7. Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Reduces 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice by Inhibiting Cytokine-Mediated Apoptosis in Intestinal Crypt Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100–1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25565296

  8. Regulation of traditional herbal medicinal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Hikoichiro; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Kampo medicines are the main traditional herbal medicines in Japan and are classified as pharmaceuticals. They are based on ancient Chinese medicine and have evolved to the Japanese original style over a long period of time. Ethical Kampo formulations are prescribed in general practice by physician under the National Health Insurance reimbursement system. Over-the-counter (OTC) Kampo formulations can be purchased and used for self-medication in primary health care settings. Kampo medicines have a substantial role in the Japanese healthcare system. In the early 1970s, "The Internal Assignments on the Review for Approval of OTC Kampo Products", known as "210 OTC Kampo Formulae", was published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). In 2008, "210 OTC Kampo Formulae" was revised and presented as "The Approval Standards for OTC Kampo Products" and now 294 Kampo formulae are listed in the standards. These products have had wide spread usage in Japan. Crude drugs and Kampo extracts have been listed in The Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Both The Approval Standards and The Quality Standards play a key role in regulation of Kampo products. "Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs" was published in 2007. Other ethnopharmaceuticals mostly from Europe could be approved as OTC drugs in Japan. PMID:25043783

  9. Effects of Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine containing furanocoumarin derivatives, on the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Junji; Takashima, Ayaka; Yoshida, Kousuke; Soraoka, Hiromi; Ding, Tong-Bin; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Motoki; Oniki, Kentaro; Miyata, Keishi; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2014-10-01

    Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional medicine used to treat acne in Asian countries, contains twelve herbal components, including Angelica dahurica root, a source of furanocoumarin derivatives. In this study, we investigated potential herb-drug interactions of seijo-bofu-to in healthy male volunteers. Thirty-two young, healthy, non-smoking males were assessed for the baseline activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase according to the urinary metabolic indices of 8-hr urine samples collected after the administration of a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan, and the ratio of urinary excretion of 6?-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. Thereafter, the volunteers received 3.75 g of seijo-bofu-to twice daily for 7 days and underwent the same tests on post-dose day 7. The geometric mean ratio of the CYP1A2 activity on day 7 to that observed at baseline was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.79, p = 0.001). The geometric mean phenotypic indices for CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase on day 7 did not differ from the baseline values. The findings of the present study suggest that seijo-bofu-to may inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, whereas it is unlikely to participate in herb-drug interactions involving medications predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 or xanthine oxidase. PMID:24612940

  10. Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Using the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Saikokeishikankyoto: A Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Controlled Trial in Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    GunFan, Shen; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ? 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634

  11. Evaluation of the Safety and Adverse Effects of Goreisan/Wulingsan, a Traditional Japanese-Chinese Herbal Formulation (Kampo), in a Rat Model: a Toxicological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, ARM Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

  12. Evaluation of the safety and adverse effects of goreisan/wulingsan, a traditional Japanese-chinese herbal formulation (kampo), in a rat model: a toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, Arm Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

  13. Triphala: The Thai traditional herbal formulation for cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich; Kanjana Jaijoi; Seewaboon Sireeratawong

    Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz.

  14. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  15. Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region. PMID:16322804

  16. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

  17. Discovering herbal functional groups of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Deng, Ke; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Delin; Liu, Jun S; Geng, Zhi

    2012-03-30

    For the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a prescription for a patient often contains several herbs. Some herbs are often used together in prescriptions, and these herbs can be considered as a functional group. In this paper, we propose an approach for discovering herbal functional groups from a large set of prescriptions recorded in TCM books. These functional groups are allowed to overlap with each other. Our approach is validated with a simulation study and applied to a data set containing thousands of TCM prescriptions. PMID:21413055

  18. The antioxidative activity of traditional Japanese herbs.

    PubMed

    Xiufen, Wang; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Matsubara, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the radical scavenging activity of traditional Japanese herbs. Samples used in the experiments were gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var.indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama). The water-soluble components of the herbs were extracted in boiling water, and the volatile oil was extracted by a distillation apparatus or steeping in some organic solvents such as petroleum ether and ethyl ether. The radical scavenging activity was determined by the decrease of free radicals of DPPH detected by both colorimetric assay and HPLC method at 517 nm. The extracts of gennoshoko, yomogi and iwa-tobacco showed remarkable radical scavenging activity. The volatile oil of yomogi obtained by distillation or steeping in organic solvents had especially strong antioxidative activity. PMID:15630212

  19. Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

  20. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2007-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in Westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine therapies including traditional Chinese medicines. This trend has begun to attract interest from mainstream health care providers and scientific investigators and has stimulated government agencies in the United States to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of complementary and alternative medicine. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better health care/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  1. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation. PMID:25086408

  2. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Glenn, Ashley; Meyer, Karen; Kuhlman, Alyse; Townesmith, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition. PMID:20226092

  3. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

  4. Treatment of asthma and food allergy with herbal interventions from traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2-3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with a high prevalence of anxiety, particularly in adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine, used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western healthcare. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine for asthma treatment. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of "antiasthma" herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention is the only antiasthma traditional Chinese medicine product that is a Food and Drug Administration investigational new drug that has entered clinical trials in the United States. Research into the effects and mechanisms of action of antiasthma herbal medicine intervention in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on traditional Chinese medicine herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 is the only Food and Drug Administration botanical investigational new drug under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. This review article discusses promising traditional Chinese medicine interventions for asthma, food allergy, and comorbid conditions, and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

  5. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

  6. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  7. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. S Tabuti; K. A Lye; S. S Dhillion

    2003-01-01

    We present here an inventory of the medicinal plants of Bulamogi county in Uganda, including their medicinal use, preparation and administration modes. Fieldwork for this study was conducted between June 2000 and June 2001 using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and participant observation as well as transect walks in wild herbal plant collection areas. We recorded 229 plant species belonging to 168

  8. Analysis of adulterants in a traditional herbal medicinal product using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aik-Jiang Lau; Michael J Holmes; Soo-On Woo; Hwee-Ling Koh

    2003-01-01

    Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with herbal medicine and this can potentially cause serious adverse effects. It is therefore important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicine to ensure patients’ safety. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and specific methods to analyse phenylbutazone, caffeine and oxyphenbutazone present in a traditional Indonesian herbal

  9. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

  10. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures. PMID:25914456

  11. Shosaiko-to and other Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicines: a review of their immunomodulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Borchers, A T; Sakai, S; Henderson, G L; Harkey, M R; Keen, C L; Stern, J S; Terasawa, K; Gershwin, M E

    2000-11-01

    The use of alternative medicine, including consumption of herbal products and dietary supplements, has been increasing substantially both in the United States and in Western Europe. One area that is garnering increased attention is the use of Oriental Medicine including Kampo, or Japanese herbal medicine. Herein, we review representative examples of research available on the most common use of Kampo medicinals, namely to improve the immune response. We also provide an extensive background on the history of Kampo. There are more than 210 different Kampo formulae used in Japan and most uses of Kampo are to modulate the immune response, i.e. to improve immunity. We have extracted data on seven common Kampo medicinals, and the data are reviewed with respect to in vitro and in vivo activities for both humans and experimental animals; the ingredients as well as the problems with classification of these materials are presented. Research suggests that Kampo herbals are biologically active and may have therapeutic potential. While it is believed that Kampo medicines have few side effects, there is a paucity of data on their toxicity as well as a relative lack of knowledge of the bioactive constituents and potential drug interactions of these agents. PMID:11025134

  12. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis—a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic

  13. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  14. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  15. Effects of traditional herbal medicine on gastric mucin against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Goso; Y. Ogata; K. Ishihara; K. Hotta

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the traditional herbal medicine, Rikkunshi-to and its component crude drugs, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix, on the gastric mucin was studied using a method developed to separate and quantify the mucin localized in the different layers of rat gastric mucosa. The oral administration of spray-dried extract to Rikkunshi-to (1000 mg\\/kg), Zingiberis Rhizoma (500 mg\\/kg) and Glycyrrhizae Radix

  16. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

  17. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  18. Constipation and herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  19. Rapid identification of traditional Chinese herbal medicine by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Chunmei; Huang, Liang; Liu, Li; Guo, Yunlong; Ma, Li; Liu, Shuying

    2014-10-01

    Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed as a novel fast method to identify traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In order to obtain high quality mass spectra, the ionization temperature was optimized for every kind of sample. With minimal or no sample pretreatment, major TCHM components, including alkaloids, flavonoids and some ginsenosides, were directly detected within several seconds, while thirteen ginsenosides need derivatization to get good mass spectra. Pseudoginsenoside F11, compound K, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), for the first time were detected without derivatization. Among five of eight tested Chinese herbal medicines, Rhizoma Corydalis, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Arecae Semen, Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis and Scutellariae Radix, were first time identified by DART-MS. In addition, the ionization mechanisms of major herbal components, alkaloids, flavonoids and ginsenosides, were discussed in detail. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS could provide a rapid, reliable and environmental friendly method for the rapid identification of TCHM, and may be applicable to other plants. PMID:25201274

  20. Inhibitory effect of Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treating disorder, diabetic mellitus and neurosis in China (Liu-wei-di-huang-tang in Chinese), Japan (Lokumijio-to in Japanese) and Korea for many years. In this study, we investigated the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang water extract (YJT) on the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. Methods A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of TP for 4?weeks to induce BPH. YJT (200 or 400?mg/kg) was administered daily for 4?weeks to two groups by oral gavage concurrently with the TP. The animals were euthanized, the prostate and body weights were recorded, and tissues were subjected to hormone assays and histomorphology. In addition, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the prostate using immunoblotting. Results Animals with BPH showed significantly increased absolute and relative prostate weights, increased dihydrotestosterone levels in the serum or prostate and increased PCNA expression in the prostate; however, YJT-treated animals showed significant reductions compared with the animals with TP-induced BPH. Histomorphology also showed that YJT inhibited TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions These findings indicate that YJT effectively inhibited the development of BPH and might be a useful drug clinically. PMID:22520510

  1. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mizue Ohsugi; Wenzhe Fan; Koji Hase; Quanbo Xiong; Yasuhiro Tezuka; Katsuko Komatsu; Tsuneo Namba; Tomohiro Saitoh; Kenji Tazawa; Shigetoshi Kadota

    1999-01-01

    The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium

  2. Proliferative effect of Hachimijiogan, a Japanese herbal medicine, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Tadakawa, Mari; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hachimijiogan (HJG), Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Muscle atrophy plays an important role in aging-related disabilities such as sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of HJG on skeletal muscle. Methods Cells of murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 were used as an in vitro model of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of HJG on C2C12 cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed. We counted the number of myotubes morphologically to assess the degree of differentiation. Results HJG treatment (200 ?g/mL) for 3 days significantly increased C2C12 cell number by 1.23-fold compared with that of the control. HJG promoted the proliferation of C2C12 cells through activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the Akt signaling pathway. HJG did not affect the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Conclusion HJG had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation. These findings may provide a useful intervention for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:25709418

  3. Enhancement of catecholamine release from PC12 cells by the traditional Japanese medicine, rikkunshito

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rikkunshito is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that is used to treat appetite loss associated with cancer and other disorders. The formulation contains various constituents that influence cell signaling, and rikkunshito may accordingly affect human homeostasis through multiple regulatory pathways, including those governed by the endocrine system. We investigated the actions of rikkunshito on catecholamine release from PC12 cells, an adrenal chromaffin cell line. Methods The actions of rikkunshito on PC12 cells were evaluated by measuring intracellular cAMP levels, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA expression levels, and catecholamine levels in the culture medium. The transcriptional activation of VIP gene by rikkunshito was assessed by using a VIP promoter-driven reporter gene assay. Results Rikkunshito dose-dependently enhanced forskolin-induced elevations in cAMP in PC12 cells, and also increased the gene expression of TH and VIP. The transcriptional activation of VIP gene by rikkunshito was confirmed. Norepinephrine and dopamine secretion into the culture medium of PC12 cells were also dose-dependently augmented by rikkunshito and/or forskolin, but experiments with a protein kinase C (PKC) activator and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor revealed that the effects of rikkunshito were not simply due to the modulation of PKC or phosphodiesterase activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that rikkunshito enhances the release of catecholamines by a novel mechanism involving cAMP. PMID:25038801

  4. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  5. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  6. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  7. Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq

    PubMed Central

    Kizaibek, Murat; Popescu, Ruxandra; Prinz, Sonja; Upur, Halmurat; Singhuber, Judith; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500?mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5?L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients. PMID:21837249

  8. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  9. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  10. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ali; N. H. Hashim; B. Saad; K. Safan; M. Nakajima; T. Yoshizawa

    2005-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as ‘jamu’ and ‘makjun’ in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween

  11. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Among Hypertensive Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liwa, Anthony C.; Smart, Luke R.; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Peck, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Results Four hundred eighty-one references were retrieved, and 4 articles from 2 countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7%-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). Conclusion More than a third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

  12. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  13. Determination of Methanol Concentrations in Traditional Herbal Waters of Different Brands in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time. PMID:23493100

  14. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  15. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  16. Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

    2013-01-01

    Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC. PMID:23956767

  17. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  18. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  19. Significance of Kampo, Japanese Traditional Medicine, in the Treatment of Obesity: Basic and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (?????) and boiogito (?????), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine. PMID:23662155

  20. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Hashim, N H; Saad, B; Safan, K; Nakajima, M; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-12-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated. PMID:16019122

  1. Herbal medicines for asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, A; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to determine if there is any evidence for the clinical efficacy of herbal preparations for the treatment of asthma symptoms.?METHODS—Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data were extracted in a standardised, predefined manner and assessed critically.?RESULTS—Seventeen randomised clinical trials were found, six of which concerned the use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and eight described traditional Indian medicine, of which five investigated Tylophora indica. Three other randomised trials tested a Japanese Kampo medicine, marihuana, and dried ivy leaf extract. Nine of the 17 trials reported a clinically relevant improvement in lung function and/or symptom scores.?CONCLUSIONS—No definitive evidence for any of the herbal preparations emerged. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine with asthma patients, there is urgent need for stringently designed clinically relevant randomised clinical trials for herbal preparations in the treatment of asthma.?? PMID:11050261

  2. Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

    2013-03-01

    Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

  3. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  4. Biotransformation and in vitro metabolic profile of bioactive extracts from a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, Polygonum capitatum.

    PubMed

    He, Chi-Yu; Fu, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yi; Feng, Ru; Tan, Xiang-Shan; Huang, Min; Shou, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Chen, Yangchao; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth of four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, P. capitatum probably exhibits potential antitumor activity. However, there is very little information on the metabolism of substances present in P. capitatum extracts. In this study, gallic acid, quercetrin, ethanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of ethnolic extract (EtOAc fraction) of P. capitatum were cultured anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of fight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) technique was employed to identify and characterize the resulting metabolites. A total of 22 metabolites (M1-M22), including tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were detected and characterized. The overall results demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria played an important role in the metabolism of P. capitatum, and the main metabolic pathways were hydrolysis, reduction and oxidation reactions. Our results provided a basis for the estimation of the metabolic transformation of P. capitatum in vivo. PMID:25033057

  5. [Drugs in Kamigata Rakugo (a traditional style of Japanese story-telling in Osaka)].

    PubMed

    Goino, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Rakugo, traditional Japanese story-telling, has a history of over 300 years. The stories consist of jokes, anecdotes, and funny messages. The content often includes critical points of view from the perspective of normal people. Some of the targets of criticism are physicians and druggists. This study looked at the number of medical and medicinal items mentioned in kamigata rakugo (rakugo in Osaka). There were ten occasions in which medical/medicinal items were used for practical purposes in scenarios and 27 occasions in which they were simply mentioned. Some of the uses show us the medical and pharmaceutical situation in the 18-19th century in a humorous way. For example, mentions of kyu:moxibustion, biwayoutou:loquat herb tea, and ninjin:ginseng. PMID:21032893

  6. Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

    2010-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

  7. Simultaneous determination of six active components in traditional herbal medicine 'Oyaksungisan' by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Ma, Choong Je

    2012-07-01

    In this study, an effective high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for simultaneous determination of six marker compounds, ephedrine hydrochloride, 6-gingerol, glycyrrhizin, hesperidin, imperatorin and ferulic acid, in a Korean traditional prescription, Oyaksungisan, which is used for hemiplegia, arthralgia and paralysis. The six marker compounds of Oyaksungisan were separated on a LUNA C18 column (S-5 ?m, 4.6 mm I.D. × 250 mm) at a column temperature of 35°C. The gradient elution was composed of water with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol. The detection UV wavelengths were set at 207, 250, 280 and 320 nm. Calibration curves for the six compounds showed good linear regressions (R (2) > 0.9999). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.003-0.01 and 0.01-0.04 ?g/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of intra- and inter-day testing were within the ranges 0.10-1.82 and 0.04-1.59%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 95.05-104.27% with a RSD value of 0.11-1.85%. In conclusion, the simultaneous determination method developed was useful in the quality evaluation of Oyaksungisan. PMID:22359188

  8. In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, “Attarin” drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). Methods In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 ?g/ml and 68 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 ?g/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 ?g/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 ?g/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 ?g/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 ?g/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 ?g/ml). Conclusion Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

  9. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

  10. Isolation of acetoin-producing Bacillus strains from Japanese traditional food-natto.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yixiao; Tian, Yanjun; Zhao, Xiangying; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus strains with an ability to produce acetoin were isolated from a Japanese traditional food, natto, on the basis of the Voges-Proskauer (VP) reaction, and strain SF4-3 was shown to be a predominant strain in acetoin production. Based on a variety of morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as the nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, the strain SF4-3 was identified as Bacillus subtilis. When it was incubated at 37°C with a speed of 180 rpm for 96 hr in the flasks, the maximum acetoin concentration was up to 33.90 g/L. The fermentation broths were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses; the results showed that the major metabolite was acetoin, and the purity could reach more than 95% without butanedione and 2,3-butanediol, which were usually produced together with acetoin in other strains. A novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of hydrophilic solvents and inorganic salts was developed for the extraction of acetoin from fermentation broths. The ethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate system could be used to extract acetoin from fermentation broths. The influences of phase composition on partition of acetoin were investigated. The maximum partition coefficient (9.68) and recovery (94.6%) of acetoin were obtained, when 25% (w/w) dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and 24% (w/w) ethanol were used. PMID:23742087

  11. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934

  12. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPAR? and PPAR? and to inhibit TNF-?-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPAR? or PPAR? (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-?B (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

  13. Identification and sensory evaluation of flavour enhancers in Japanese traditional dried herring ( Clupea pallasii) fillet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. M. A. Shah; Masashi Ogasawara; Makoto Egi; Hideyuki Kurihara; Koretaro Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Flavour-enhancing components of dried herring fillet (migaki-nishin in Japanese) were isolated and evaluated for their effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation revealed that addition of dried herring fillet water-soluble extracts to Japanese noodle soup significantly (P<0.05) enhanced soup flavour characters, such as thickness, mouthfulness and continuity. The extracts were fractionated by dialysis and chromatography. Fractions containing flavour enhancers were isolated

  14. Microarray analysis on germfree mice elucidates the primary target of a traditional Japanese medicine juzentaihoto: acceleration of IFN-? response via affecting the ISGF3-IRF7 signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The traditional Japanese medicine juzentaihoto (JTX) is a pharmaceutical grade multi-herbal medicine widely used for the prevention of cancer metastasis and infection in immuno-compromized patients in Japan. The effect of JTX has been supposed to be intimately affected by the immunological properties of host and enteric microflora. The influence of JTX on the gene expression profile in the large and small intestines was investigated by microarray analyses using mice of different strains with or without enteric microflora. Results In all types of mice, including germfree (GF) animals, the genes most affected by two-week oral JTX treatment were the type 1 interferon (IFN)-related genes including Stat1, Isgf3g and Irf7, which play a critical role in the feedback loop of IFN-? production cascade. In IQI specific pathogen free (SPF) mice JTX increased the steady state level of the expression of IFN-related genes, but had the opposite effect in IQI GF and BALB/c SPF mice. Promoter analysis suggests that tandem repeated $IRFF (the promoter sequences for interferon regulatory factors) may be a primary target for JTX action. Pre-treatment of JTX accelerated the effects of an oral IFN "inducer" 2-amino-5-bromo-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (ABMP) (up-regulation of IFN-? production in IQI strain and down-regulation in BALB/c mice), which is in good accordance with the effect of JTX on gene expression of type 1 IFN-related genes. Conclusions Microarray analysis revealed that the target of JTX might be the transcription machinery regulating the steady-state level of genes involved in the ISGF3-IRF7 cascade, whose effect is bi-directional in a strain- and microbiota-dependent manner. PMID:22257721

  15. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

  16. Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

  17. Chiiori: Survey and Analysis of Structural Problems Facing a Traditional Japanese Farmhouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conway Carter

    Chiiori is the name of a Japanese farmhouse (minka), located in Iya Valley, a remote mountainous area in the center of Japan's southern Shikoku island. Iya is probably best known as the refuge for survivors of the Heike clan, after their defeat at the end of the 12 th century in a struggle for control of Japan. The remoteness and

  18. [Determination of aristolochic acids A and B in Chinese herbals and traditional Chinese patent medicines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Han, Shen; Feng, Qian; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of aristolochic acids A and B in some Chinese herbals and traditional Chinese patent medicines by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Fourteen samples, including Radix Bupleuri, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Radix Platycodonis, Longdanxieganwan, Xiaopangwan, Slimming Tea, etc., were extracted with methanol-water (70: 30, v/v) and purified with Oasis MAX solid-phase extraction cartridges, then analyzed on an Eclipse RP HD C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (pH 7.5)-acetonitrile (75: 25, v/v) as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometric acquisition was carried out by means of electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI+) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. The good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were achieved within the ranges of 0.5 - 200 microg/L and 1 - 200 microg/L for aristolochic acids A and B, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 5 microg/kg for aristolochic A and 7.5 microg/kg for aristolochic B, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 12.5 microg/kg and 25 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of aristolochic acids A and B at the spiked levels of 100 microg/kg and 500 microg/kg ranged from 60.3% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) not more than 10.2%. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is efficient, sensitive, reproducible, reliable and suitable for the trace determination of aristolochic acids A and B in Chinese herbals and traditional Chinese patent medicines. PMID:22393694

  19. The Yin?Yang?Wu?Hsing doctrine in the textual tradition of Tokugawa Japanese Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    Japanese agricultural scholarship reached its peak in the Tokugawa period (1603–1868). Most of its representative works were imbued with the Chinese metaphysical doctrine of yin?yang?wu?hsing. They used the ideas of yin?yang, wu?hsing, yun?ch'i, hexagrams, and feng?shui extensively to develop their views and to explain various practices. There were two different attitudes towards Chinese concepts among Tokugawa scholars. Some regarded Chinese

  20. The Traditional Herbal Medicine Saireito Exerts Its Inhibitory Effect on Murine Oxazolone-Induced Colitis via the Induction of Th1-Polarized Immune Responses in the Mucosal Immune System of the Colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Watanabe; Takeshi Yamamoto; Minako Yoshida; Kanae Fujiwara; Natsuko Kageyama-Yahara; Hirofumi Kuramoto; Yutaka Shimada; Makoto Kadowaki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis is an intractable inflammatory colonic disease, and its etiology remains unclear. Saireito, a traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for treating ulcerative colitis in Japan. We analyzed the immunological characteristics of an oxazolone (OXZ)-induced colitis (OC) model and examined the effects of sareito on this model. Methods: OXZ was injected into the colon of BALB\\/c mice. Saireito

  1. Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Murakami; Satoshi Sasaki; Yoshiko Takahashi; Hitomi Okubo; Yoko Hosoi; Hyogo Horiguchi; Etsuko Oguma; Fujio Kayama

    Background:Little is known about the relation of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) to metabolic risk factors, partic- ularly in non-Western populations. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations between dietary GI and GL and several metabolic risk factors in healthy Japanese women with traditional dietary habits. Design: The subjects were 1354 Japanese female farmers aged 20-78 y from

  2. Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

  3. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  4. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 ?g/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 ?g/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 ?g/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 ?g/mL). PMID:24250509

  5. CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2011-06-01

    A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

  6. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhiro Hayashi; Kyoko Shimura; Toshiaki Makino; Hajime Mizukami

    2010-01-01

    Herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (mao-zai) are among the most important medicinal prescriptions in Japanese traditional\\u000a kampo medicine to treat cold symptoms, bronchial asthma, arthralgia, and rheumatism. Shokan-zatsubyo-ron (Shanghan zabing lun in Chinese), a classical textbook of kampo medicine published in 220 A.D., describes that when herbal formulas containing\\u000a ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and

  7. Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly blocked SSE-induced increases in Beclin-1, LC3-II, and Bax expression and decreases in Bcl-2 expression, indicating that JNK activation plays critical role in cell death caused by SSE. Conclusions These findings suggest that SSE efficiently induces cancer cell death via apoptosis as well as autophagy through modification of the Akt/mTOR and JNK signaling pathways. SSE may be as a potent traditional herbal medicine for treating malignancies. PMID:24053190

  8. An Astronomical Problem in a Japanese Traditional Mathematical Text: The 49th Problem of the Kenki-sanpo of Takebe Katahiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ôhashi, Yukio

    During the Edo period (Tokugawa-shogunate period) (1603-1867), there was a mathematical tradition now called "Wasan" which was primarily based on Chinese mathematics, but Japanese mathematicians also created new devices. It was quite popular, and common people could enjoy solving mathematical problems through Wasan regardless of their social status. Some astronomical problems were also treated there.

  9. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae. PMID:22754074

  10. Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeji; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin- (IL-) 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-?/interferon-? TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25838833

  11. Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

    2014-02-01

    In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

  12. Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

  13. Significance of Kampo, Traditional Japanese Medicine, in Supportive Care of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Moriya, Junji; Ogawa, Masao; Uenishi, Hiroaki; Akazawa, Sumiyo; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Matomo; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The current standard treatment for cancer is a multidisciplinary therapy whereby various types of treatment are properly combined. Chemotherapy with multiple anticancer drugs is now common, and traditional, complementary, and alternative therapies are adopted as supportive measures. Medical care in Japan is distinguished by the ability for patients to access both Western and Kampo medical cares at the same time. There is a high degree of trust in the safety of Kampo therapies because they are practiced by medical doctors who are educated with fundamental diagnosis of Western medicine. Highly reliable clinical studies are being published, demonstrating that palliative or supportive care for cancer patients using Kampo preparations alleviates adverse effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This paper reports the circumstances around cancer care in Japan where traditional therapeutic Kampo formulas are used for patients undergoing cancer treatment with cutting-edge chemotherapy, specifically to alleviate adverse effects of anticancer drugs. PMID:23861712

  14. Antimutagenicity of Japanese traditional herbs, gennoshoko, yomogi, senburi and iwa-tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoko; Xiufen, Wang; Takechi, Ryusuke; Itoh, Yoshimi; Mamo, John; Pal, Sebely

    2004-01-01

    The multistage induction theory is generally regarded as the mechanism of carcinogenesis. In order to prevent the initiation stage of carcinogenesis, it is meaningful to discover the functional components of edible plants. The objective of this research was to test the antimutagenicity of the functional components of several typical traditional herbs used in Japan. The traditional herbs, gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var. indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyeehiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama) were examined by Ames mutagenesis assay test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 against mutagens, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2 and B(a)P. The water-soluble components or volatile oil of the herbs were extracted in boiling water. The extracts of gennoshoko showed strong antimutagenicity against B(a)P with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100, as well as Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 with S. typhimurium TA98. Yomogi, senburi and iwa-tobacco were also proved to have good antimutagenicity against Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 with S. typhimurium TA98, but weaker antimutagenicity against B(a)P. Other herbs did not show any obvious antimutagenicity against these mutagens. In addition, the volatile oil of yomogi also had remarkable antimutagenic effect against the mutagens we used with S. typhimurium TA98. PMID:15630266

  15. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  16. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto. PMID:22453301

  17. Analysis of the antioxidative function of the radioprotective Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, hangeshashinto, in an aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nyui, Minako; Ueno, Megumi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Omiya, Yuji; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese traditional medicine, is known to alleviate radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM; however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to clarify the details of the antioxidative functions of HST against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. The hydroxyl radical (•OH)-scavenging ability and the reduction ability was simultaneously measured using a modified electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping method. The superoxide (O2 (•-))-scavenging ability was estimated by an EPR redox probing method. Water suspensions of powdered HST and of its seven constitutive crude drugs were tested. In addition, some of the main water-soluble ingredients of the crude drugs were also tested. HST was found to scavenge both •OH and O2 (•-). Furthermore, HST was observed to reduce relatively stable nitroxyl radicals. Glycyrrhizae Radix (kanzo), Ginseng Radix (ninjin), Zizyphi Fructus (taiso) and glycyrrhizin (an ingredient of kanzo) were all found to be relatively good •OH scavengers. Scutellariae Radix (ogon) and Coptidis Rhizoma (oren) demonstrated reducing ability. In addition, acteoside and berberine chloride, which are water-soluble ingredients of ogon and oren, respectively, also demonstrated reducing ability. Oren exhibited oxidative ability at higher concentrations, which may have a function in maintaining catalytic redox action. The antioxidative function of HST probably worked via a balance of scavenging ROS, reducing stable free radicals, and some minor oxidizing activities. PMID:25883171

  18. Analysis of the antioxidative function of the radioprotective Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, hangeshashinto, in an aqueous phase

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nyui, Minako; Ueno, Megumi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Omiya, Yuji; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese traditional medicine, is known to alleviate radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM; however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to clarify the details of the antioxidative functions of HST against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. The hydroxyl radical (•OH)–scavenging ability and the reduction ability was simultaneously measured using a modified electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping method. The superoxide (O2•?)–scavenging ability was estimated by an EPR redox probing method. Water suspensions of powdered HST and of its seven constitutive crude drugs were tested. In addition, some of the main water-soluble ingredients of the crude drugs were also tested. HST was found to scavenge both •OH and O2•?. Furthermore, HST was observed to reduce relatively stable nitroxyl radicals. Glycyrrhizae Radix (kanzo), Ginseng Radix (ninjin), Zizyphi Fructus (taiso) and glycyrrhizin (an ingredient of kanzo) were all found to be relatively good •OH scavengers. Scutellariae Radix (ogon) and Coptidis Rhizoma (oren) demonstrated reducing ability. In addition, acteoside and berberine chloride, which are water-soluble ingredients of ogon and oren, respectively, also demonstrated reducing ability. Oren exhibited oxidative ability at higher concentrations, which may have a function in maintaining catalytic redox action. The antioxidative function of HST probably worked via a balance of scavenging ROS, reducing stable free radicals, and some minor oxidizing activities. PMID:25883171

  19. Chinese Herbalism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

  20. Herbal Safety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

  1. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Debbie; Graeme, Ladds; Pierre, Duez; Elizabeth, Williamson; Kelvin, Chan

    2012-04-10

    Pharmacovigilance is essential for developing reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines as used in Europe and the US. The existing systems were developed for synthetic medicines and require some modification to address the specific differences of medicinal herbs. Traditional medicine from many different cultures is used in Europe and the US which adds to the complexities and difficulties of even basic questions such as herb naming systems and chemical variability. Allied to this also is the perception that a 'natural' or herbal product must be safe simply because it is not synthetic which means that the safety element of monitoring for such medicines can be overlooked because of the tag associated with such products. Cooperation between orthodox physicians and traditional practitioners is needed to bring together the full case details. Independent scientific assistance on toxicological investigation, botanical verification can be invaluable for full evaluation of any case report. Systematic pharmacovigilance is essential to build up reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines for the development of appropriate guidelines for safe effective use. PMID:22342381

  2. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne P. Boyle; Paul J. Doolan; Clare E. Andrews; Raymond G. Reid

    2011-01-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western

  3. Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits. PMID:20452484

  4. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  5. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  6. Herbal remedies: integration into conventional medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nuala

    There is evidence of increasing use of complementary therapies. The benefits and possible side-effects of herbal and dietary supplements in respiratory disorders are discussed. Questions have been raised about the safety of herbal products, yet their legal status is uncertain. Promotion of the integration of conventional and traditional medicine is suggested as the way forward, together with standardisation of practice and manufacturing procedures of these products. PMID:14515565

  7. [A historical study of coffee in Japanese and Asian countries: focusing the medicinal uses in Asian traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Namba, Tsuneo; Matsuse, Tomoco

    2002-01-01

    The medicinal properties of coffee, making it a diuretic and stimulant, because of the effects of caffeine, have been known since ancient times, and coffee is today a popular beverage worldwide. In Japan it was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century through overseas trading with the Netherlands. During this period, various Western cultures flowed into Japan, and coffee was one of the subjects introduced through the translations of Dutch medical books. The pharmacological effects of coffee have been presented by Yamamoto in "K?m? Honzou, (--, 1783)"; by K. Takahashi, G. Ohtsuki, and Y. Udagawa et al. in "K?sei Shimpen (--, 1811)"; and by Kai Hirokawa in "Nagasaki Bunkenroku (--, 1795)." In the Chinese and Arabic traditional systems of medicine, the uses of coffee were based on its diuretic and central nervous system stimulant properties, attributed in general to caffeine. This study dealt with the uses of coffee in the traditional medicines of Asian countries and with some biological activities related to aging, infectious diseases, and cardioprotective effects. In various biological tests, the water extract of coffee showed no notable effect on myocardial cell beating; however, it did show superoxide anion-scavenging effects, inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These biological activities are closely related to the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, especially chlorogenic acid. The findings suggest that besides its stimulant effect, coffee has properties to prevent the deleterious actions of free radicals and viral infections. PMID:12412599

  8. Documenting and evaluating herbal remedies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward M. Croom

    1983-01-01

    Ethnobotanists are frequently involved in the initial documentation of plant remedies used in traditional and popular domestic\\u000a medicine. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine as actually practiced requires the recording of the variables\\u000a that can influence the therapeutic outcome. For pharmacological and toxicological testing, the factors controlling the final\\u000a amount of active compound(s) taken by the patient

  9. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of patients with shrinking of uterine fibroids or average volume of uterine fibroids, but less effective than mifepristone on reducing average size of uterus (mean difference 23.23 cm3, 95% confidence interval 17.85 to 28.61). There was no significant difference between Nona Roguy herbal product and GnRH agonist in average volume of uterine fibroids or size of uterus. No serious adverse effects from herbal preparations was reported. Authors’ conclusions Current evidence does not support or refute the use of herbal preparations for treatment of uterine fibroids due to insufficient studies of large sample and high quality. Further high quality trials evaluating clinically relevant outcomes are warranted. PMID:19370619

  10. Mother/offspring co-administration of the traditional herbal remedy yokukansan during the nursing period influences grooming and cerebellar serotonin levels in a rat model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions. PMID:25315739

  11. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

  12. Goshajinkigan, a traditional Japanese medicine, prevents oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy by suppressing functional alteration of TRP channels in rat.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Keita; Kono, Toru; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Miyagi, Chika; Omiya, Yuji; Miyano, Kanako; Kase, Yoshio; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    The acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin treatment occurs very frequently and is aggravated by exposure to cold. Goshajinkigan (GJG), a traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, was recently shown to be effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy. However, because the effects of GJG and its mechanism in relation to those of its ingredients and its mechanism are not well understood, we examined the effects of GJG on acute neuropathy. Further, we investigated whether GJG affects the functions and gene expressions of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels using a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Administration of oxaliplatin increased withdrawal responses from cold stimulation, and GJG or calcium gluconate/magnesium sulfate significantly inhibited the oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity. Application of menthol, a TRPA1/TRPM8 agonist, or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a selective TRPA1 agonist, to the hind paw of oxaliplatin-treated rats enhanced the nocifensive behaviors evoked by each agonist, whereas oxaliplatin had no significant effect on nocifensive behaviors evoked by capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. GJG treatment reduced menthol- or AITC-evoked withdrawal responses potentiated by oxaliplatin. Furthermore, GJG suppressed the increase of TRPA1 and TRPM8 mRNA expression induced by oxaliplatin in dorsal root ganglia. These findings suggest that GJG prevented oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy by suppressing functional alteration of TRP channels, especially TRPA1 and TRPM8. PMID:24784702

  13. Comparison of the Effects on Rib Fracture between the Traditional Japanese Medicine Jidabokuippo and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Hajime; Yokoi, Aya; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Jidabokuippo is a traditional Japanese medicine used for contusion-induced swelling and pain. This open multicenter randomized study was designed to compare the efficacies of jidabokuippo and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rib fracture by analyzing the treatment duration. Our study involved 170 rib fracture patients capable of oral ingestion divided randomly into 2 groups: the jidabokuippo and NSAID groups. We compared the duration of treatment and healthcare expenditure between these 2 groups. Medication was continued in both groups until the visual analogue scale score decreased to less than 50% of the pretreatment score. We excluded the patients in whom medication was prematurely discontinued. We analyzed 81 patients belonging to the jidabokuippo and NSAIDs groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in age, gender, severity (injury severity score), and presence/absence of underlying disease. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P = 0.0003). Healthcare expenditure was significantly lower in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that compared to NSAIDs, jidabokuippo can shorten the duration of treatment in patients with rib fracture and is a promising analgesic agent based on the medical economic viewpoint. PMID:22888367

  14. Cytotoxic effect of four herbal medicines on gastric cancer (AGS) cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tooba Ghazanfari; Roya Yaraee; Jalaleddin Shams; Batool Rahmati; Tayebeh Radjabian; Hoda Hakimzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-cancer herbal drugs is of importance. Herbal medication is now being used for treatment of various diseases, including cancer in many countries. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of traditional herbal medicines (Aloe vera, Ginger, Ziziphora and Saffron extracts)

  15. Tea not Tincture: Hepatotoxicity Associated with Rooibos Herbal Tea

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Michael; Matoso, Andres; Maidan, Eyal; Wands, Jack

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old male presented with signs of acute hepatitis and liver failure. Laboratory investigations for common etiologies were unrevealing, but history suggested liver injury secondary to ingestion of a traditional South African herbal tea made with rooibos and buchu. Livery biopsy confirmed a toxin-mediated liver injury. The patient recovered liver function after stopping the herbal tea. Although hepatotoxicity associated with rooibos and buchu has rarely been reported, anecdotal correspondence with South African physicians confirmed suspected cases. Hepatotoxicity may be due to the heterogeneous composition of herbal teas due to small-batch manufacturing. Our case clearly outlines the need to suspect herbal causes of idiopathic liver injury.

  16. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  17. Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up till now no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of “Qurs Tabasheer” in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from five various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). Methods Effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and trim down the HDL level. We have weighed up the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Results In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified. Conclusion Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride. PMID:23305114

  18. Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of ?-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain. PMID:24701973

  19. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach for quantifying multi-components in traditional complex herbal medicines, Qiong-Yu-Gao as an example.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-08-10

    An improved high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed to quantitatively evaluate the holistic quality of traditional complex herbal medicines (CHMs). Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), a classical CHM consisting of Rehmanniae Radix, Poriae and Ginseng Radix, was used as an example. Thirty-eight major components (including six pairs of epimers/isomers) belonging to five chemical types, i.e., iridoid glycosides, phenethylacohol glycosides, furfural derivatives, ginsenosides and triterpenoid acids, were selected as marker compounds. Programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning were designed to improve the sensitivity of the MS detection concerning the diverse chemical features of the analytes. The reference compounds of the analytes were individually injected directly into MS to optimize the ionization cone voltage and to select monitoring ion of each analyte. Nine channels with eight time segments were determined for monitoring the thirty-eight analytes, among which six were detected in positive and thirty-two in negative ion modes respectively. Higher signal-to-noise ratios of the analytes were achieved when compared with full time scanning. In addition, the linearity, precision, accuracy and stability of the method were also validated. The established method was applied for the quantitative evaluation of QYG samples prepared with three different methods. Obvious difference in the contents of thirty-eight components, in particular the original ginsenosides, degraded ginsenosides and furfural derivatives, was found among these QYG samples. All these results demonstrated that the established HPLC-ESI-MS with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach is very suitable for the standardization investigation of CHMs. PMID:25982197

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G0/G1 phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel®, and 3D Gelfoam® culture visualized with FUCCI imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G2/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G0/G1 (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 ?m), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G2/M. In 2.5D Matrigel® culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G2/M. LQ arrested the cells in G0/G1 after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G2/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam® culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G2/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G0/G1 phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G2/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time. PMID:25779660

  1. Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

  2. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health. PMID:18797616

  3. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  4. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  5. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

  6. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

  7. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  8. Standardized herbal treatments on functional bowel disorders: moving from putative mechanisms of action to controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Cremonini, F

    2014-07-01

    Symptom relief in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) is frequently sought with complementary and alternative medicine, and various herbal medicine compounds are popular in different parts of the world. Only a few products, however, are standardized and are backed by scientific evidence. This review mainly focuses on mechanistic and clinical data in support of the Japanese traditional compound Rikkunshi-to (RKT) and of STW-5. Their effects on gut sensori-motor function, neurohormonal network, and controlled clinical data in FGID are revised. RKT and STW-5 appear to possess some degree of gastroprokinetic, visceral analgesic properties, and seem to increase the gastric accommodation response. Controlled trials of RKT and STW-5 support at least a modest effect on symptoms of functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, with low side effects profile. With the widespread use of herbals and the relative paucity of effective pharmacological options for FGID, rigorous studies to further elucidate pharmacological actions and clinical applications of herbal compounds are a priority. PMID:24965903

  9. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases. PMID:20626333

  10. Herbal therapy in migraine.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, G; Cevoli, S; Cologno, D

    2014-05-01

    The use of herbal therapies is ancient and increasing worldwide. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of various "complementary" and alternative medicine approaches in the management of headache disorders. Promising tools to treat migraine patients are herbal products. In particular constituents of Petasites hybridus, Tanacetum Parthenium and Ginkgo Biloba have shown antimigraine action in clinical studies. A miscellaneous of recreational drugs and other herbal remedies have been supposed to have a role in headache treatment but quality of clinical studies in this field is low and inconclusive. Further research is warranted in this area. PMID:24867850

  11. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  12. Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  13. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-11-10

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  14. Quality control of herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zeng Liang; Peishan Xie; Kelvin Chan

    2004-01-01

    Different chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques commonly used in the instrumental inspection of herbal medicines (HM) are first comprehensively reviewed. Chemical fingerprints obtained by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, especially by hyphenated chromatographies, are strongly recommended for the purpose of quality control of herbal medicines, since they might represent appropriately the “chemical integrities” of the herbal medicines and therefore be used for

  15. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds. PMID:25808157

  16. Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Amirghofran, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

  17. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cohosh, dong quai, and soy), saw palmetto, and St. John’s wort. How do I safely take herbal products and ... not work the way it should. For example, St. John’s wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by ...

  18. Herbalism, home gardens, and hybridization: Wõthïhã medicine and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Heckler, S L

    2007-03-01

    Using the example of the Wõthïhã of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wõthïhã ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wõthïhã shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wõthïhã have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wõthïhã to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wõthïhã, each with its own herbal tradition. PMID:17405697

  19. Toxic effects of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Ridker, P M

    1987-01-01

    At least 26 herbal teas contain toxic ingredients, many of which have caused serious gastrointestinal, hematologic, cardiac, and nervous system disease. The severity of illness following herbal tea use has ranged from contact dermatitis to fulminant hepatic failure and death. Most of these teas are available in health food stores and there is no requirement that their toxic potential be labeled for consumer protection. Patients on anticoagulant drugs should avoid herbal teas containing coumarin. PMID:3300573

  20. Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

  1. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies. PMID:17111709

  2. Herbal Medicine Use in Parturients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Hepner; Miriam Harnett; Scott Segal; William Camann; Angela M. Bader; Lawrence C. Tsen

    2002-01-01

    Alternative medicine use has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recently a 22% incidence of herbal medicine use in presurgical patients was reported. Of concern is the potential for these medications to cause adverse drug-herb interactions or other effects such as bleeding complications. We sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of herbal remedies in par- turients. A

  3. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this element in the…

  4. African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Mills; Curtis Cooper; Dugald Seely; Izzy Kanfer

    2005-01-01

    In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV\\/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for

  5. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

  6. Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh

    2009-10-01

    Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433

  7. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  8. The use of herbal therapies in pediatric oncology patients: treating symptoms of cancer and side effects of standard therapies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Erin L

    2007-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasing in use in the pediatric oncology population. Although there is a multitude of herbal therapies used, the focus of this article is a review of the literature addressing some herbal therapies used to treat the symptoms of cancer and side effects of traditional methods of treatment. Ginger is used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. St. John's wort is successful in treating depression and anxiety. Echinacea is used as an immunostimulant. Herbal therapies in the pediatric oncology population are usually initiated and managed by parents. Many herbal therapies are beneficial, but some potential herb-drug interactions should be considered. This poses a challenge to the oncology nurse because herbal treatments are managed by the parents and pharmaceuticals are managed by the practitioner. Educating the patient, family, and practitioner is important in ensuring a thorough health history assessment and, subsequently, safe and effective herbal and pharmacological therapies. PMID:17185400

  9. The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

  10. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

    2013-08-23

    Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467

  11. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  12. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

  13. Skills and Life Strategies of Japanese Business Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwao, Sumiko

    In this paper, case studies of two successful Japanese businesswomen illustrate how traditional Japanese cultural values and female sex roles have enabled women to succeed in business. These two cases were chosen as representative from a sample of 56. The businesses discussed are in very different sectors of the economy. One is a traditional and…

  14. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, D

    2001-06-01

    A young couple come to see you for a pretravel consultation. They are planning to spend a month backpacking in Thailand over December and January. They have read about Japanese encephalitis in travel books and seek your advice on the need for vaccination against this disease. PMID:11458591

  15. Some herbal remedies from Manzini region of Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Amusan, Oluwole O G; Dlamini, Pricilla S; Msonthi, Jerome D; Makhubu, Lydia P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, recipes for 41 herbal remedies used for treating 25 illnesses in traditional medicine in Swaziland are reported. Preparation of the herbal remedies involved the use of different parts of 47 species from 32 families, some of which have never been described previously in the flora of Swaziland. Descriptions of the plants used, the preparation of each remedy, dosage, route of administration and medical uses are reported. Some of the diseases the remedies are used to treat include asthma, backache, candidiasis, cardiac problems, cough, diarrhoea, dizziness, eye problems, constipation, menorrhagia, painful shoulders, scabies, threatened abortion, toothache, ulcers and vomiting among others. The remedies were obtained from traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) in an ethnomedical survey carried out in the Manzini region of Swaziland. Voucher samples of the plants used for the remedies were collected, identified and deposited in the National Herbarium of Swaziland. PMID:11744303

  16. GC\\/MS analysis of an herbal dietary supplement containing ephedrine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Uekusa; Takiyoshi Ono; Makiko Hayashida; Makoto Nihira; Youkichi Ohno

    2009-01-01

    An unconscious 20-year-old female was admitted to hospital with a heart rate of 164, a blood pressure of 132\\/90mmHg, and hypokalemia. “Triage” urine screening tests were negative on arrival and 12h later. The next day, her SGOT and SGPT levels rose remarkably; however, on the third day, the patient regained consciousness. Two Japanese OTC drugs and an American herbal dietary

  17. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Herbal Medicine URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  19. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  20. Herbal therapy: a new pathway for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It has been a clinical challenge to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present commentary we discuss whether herbal therapy could be a novel treatment method for AD on the basis of results from clinical trials, and discuss the implications for potential therapy for AD pathophysiology. There is evidence to suggest that single herbs or herbal formulations may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits to the approved drugs. The current evidence supporting their use alone, however, is inconclusive or inadequate owing to many methodological limitations. Herbal mixtures may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in the view of traditional Chinese medicine. Several clinical trials using herbal mixtures are being conducted in China and will hopefully show promising results for treating AD in the near future. PMID:21067555

  1. Herbal medicines for the treatment of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    In many parts of the world, there continues to be a long-standing tradition of prescribing herbal products for a range of gastrointestinal conditions. Scientific evidence supporting the use of all herbal preparations is imperfect, however, and available studies are plagued by methodological limitations. For functional gastrointestinal disorders, there is limited evidence supporting the use of some well-characterized preparations. A number of herbals have immunomodulatory activity, and in inflammatory bowel disease there are limited positive placebo-controlled trials; other studies used active controls with suboptimal doses of the comparators. Like all drugs, herbals can lead to serious adverse events (eg, hepatic failure). Quality control is a serious issue to consider when prescribing herbal medicines. Many herbal preparations are marketed without evidence for stringent adherence to good manufacturing practice guidelines. Unpredictable environmental conditions may affect the composition and the concentration of the active ingredients of plant extracts. Further, commercial herbal products usually combine a variable plethora of chemical families with possible medicinal utility. While some of these ingredients might be of benefit, the concentration and dose of these constituents needs to be closely monitored. Physicians and regulators need to remain very cautious about the use of herbal remedies. Appropriate scientific evidence for the claimed clinical benefits should become mandatory worldwide, and the standards for production and safety monitoring should comply with established standards for chemically defined products. If these principles were adopted, the full value of herbal remedies may come to light, particularly as the individually bioactive compounds present in these preparations become recognized. PMID:24674944

  2. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  3. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  4. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  5. Administration of Chinpi, a Component of the Herbal Medicine Ninjin-Youei-To, Reverses Age-Induced Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Nanako; Seiwa, Chika; Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kayoko; Kawakita, Takuya; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Akio; Takao, Masakatsu; Kudo, Chiaki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ishige, Atushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Asou, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcR?/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcR?/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcR?/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5?kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcR?/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. PMID:21799684

  6. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnection of herbal medicines and its potential solutions with cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Lu, Meng; Ji, Wei; Niu, Fang; Zha, Weibin; Wu, Xiaolan; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji

    2012-06-01

    Recently, there is a global trend of using herbal medicines to treat various chronic diseases and promote health. But the controversy over the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines is a focus of attention, primarily because of the many unknown and unrevealed natures of herbal medicines, which strongly restricts their application and development. Pharmacokinetics is a bridge linking the herbal medicines and their pharmacological responses. It is assumed in traditional pharmacokinetics that an excellent drug should have appropriate pharmacokinetic behaviours and its pharmacological effect is related with plasma drug concentrations. However, most herbal medicines exhibit excellent pharmacological responses despite poor pharmacokinetic behaviours. As most drugs are intracellulartargeted, we put forward cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy, which is focused on the intracellular fate of drugs. This strategy could partially explain the marked pharmacological activities of herbal medicines from their intracellular pharmacokinetic behaviours, rather than their plasma concentrations. It is a helpful complementarity to traditional pharmacokinetics, and takes a potential role in the research and development of new herb-origined drugs. In this review, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnections of herbal medicines (such as ginseng, berberine and danshen) are retrospected. Then our proposed cellular pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic strategy, its characteristics, as well as its research procedures are described, followed by the subcellular distributions of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes which are the determinants of cellular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics. Finally, our successful applications of cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy in elucidating ginsenoside Rh2 as an adjuvant agent and tanshinone IIA as an anticancer agent are illustrated. PMID:22475335

  7. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  8. Review: The speech corpus and database of Japanese dialects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuko Nagano-madsen

    is a recording of readings of words, phrases, sentences, and texts in Japanese dialects. The focus of the speech material is on prosody, in particular, on accentual variations, and to a lesser extent on intonation. In addition to the dialectal materials, SCDJD contains speech of the minority language Ainu, Japanese traditional singings, school children's speech, and speech by the foreign

  9. Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Thuille; Manfred Fille; Markus Nagl

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts has been investigated. The MIC of extracts of Evodia rutaecarpa and grape kernel ranged between 0.25 and 1 mg\\/ml against gram-positive cocci and P. aeruginosa. Cocci were killed after 30 – 90 min of incubation in grape kernel extract (0.5 – 1.5 mg\\/ml), and after 8 h in evodia extract (0.5 – 1

  10. Mortality among Japanese Zen priests.

    PubMed

    Ogata, M; Ikeda, M; Kuratsune, M

    1984-06-01

    A cohort study was done on 1396 deaths seen among 4352 Japanese male Zen priests during a follow up period from 1 January 1955 to 31 December 1978. Standardised mortality ratios were computed for major causes of death by comparing with the counterparts of the general Japanese male population. The SMR for all causes of death was 0.82 (p less than 0.001) and the SMR values for cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia and bronchitis, peptic ulcer, liver cirrhosis, cancer of the respiratory organs, and cancer of the lung were all significantly smaller than unity. Taking regional mortality differences into account, a similar computation was made dividing the cohort into two subcohorts--that is, the priests living in eastern Japan and those in western Japan. Both subcohorts showed a highly significantly smaller SMR than unity for all causes of death. With the exception of only a few causes of death for which the observed number of deaths was small, they also showed such reduced SMRs for nearly all of the causes of death tested. A questionnaire survey on the current life style of active priests showed that they smoke less, eat less, meat and fish as they follow the more traditional Japanese dietary habits, and live in less polluted areas, but their drinking habits do not differ much from that of the average Japanese adult man. Possible reasons for their reduced mortality are discussed. PMID:6747517

  11. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  12. Food Allergy Herbal Formula1 (FAHF-1) blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Min Li; Teng-Fei Zhang; Chih-Kang Huang; Kamal Srivastava; Ariel A. Teper; Libang Zhang; Brian H. Schofield; Hugh A. Sampson

    2001-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergy is a major cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. There is no curative therapy for this condition. Traditional Chinese medicines have been reported to have antiallergic properties, which might be useful for treating peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula, FAHF-1, on peanut

  13. Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

    1997-01-01

    China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

  14. Nudity in Japanese visual media: a cross-cultural observation.

    PubMed

    Downs, J F

    1990-12-01

    The depiction of nude human beings in Japanese print, film, and electronic media is reported. Modern practices are then related to traditional Japanese culture. The various contexts in which nudes are regularly presented are described and various types of nude presentations are classified. It is suggested that the nude body evokes different responses in Japanese culture and is not always intended to convey sexual or erotic meanings. Sentiment, particularly that evoked by the family and motherhood, and nonsexual humor, are other responses that nudity is intended to elicit. The Japanese situation is compared to presentation of nudity in the United States. PMID:2082862

  15. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Lai, Yunfeng; Yang, Qing; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  16. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  17. Early Modern Japanese Art History: An Overview of the State of the Field

    E-print Network

    Graham, Patricia J.

    2002-09-01

    will focus on “Blood in Early Modern Japanese Culture.” If readers would like to organize future panels, please contact Philip Brown at Department of History, 230 West 17th Avenue, Columbus OH 43210 or at brown.113@osu.edu. Early Modern Japanese Art... constructed histories of particular types of Japanese arts, according to media, thematic cohesiveness (for example, the chanoyu tea ceremony), and/or artistic lineages. This methodology follows traditional approaches to the discipline of Japanese art...

  18. Determination of lead in Smilax luzonensis herbal preparations in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

    2005-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented the phase 3 registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation containing Smilax luzonensis, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of lead, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that 14% of the above products possessed 10.02 to 21.21 ppm of lead, and, therefore, they failed to comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia ( <10 ppm). Although this study showed that 86% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to lead, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:16040569

  19. Contamination of mercury in tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2006-08-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. PMID:16567029

  20. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative].

    PubMed

    Krenn, Liselotte

    2002-01-01

    Extracts and fluid extracts from the aerial parts from Passiflora incarnata L. are widely used as components of herbal sedatives. Many pharmacological investigations confirm the sedative effects of Passiflorae herba. From some of the studies also anxiolytic effects can be deduced. As Passionflower is mainly used in combinations, clinical studies of the single drug are not available. Based on pharmacological data, the experiences of traditional use and the use in combinations Passiflora extracts are an important factor in the phytotherapy of tenseness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep. PMID:12244887

  1. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  2. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  3. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  4. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  5. The History of Chinese herbal Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyao Wang

    After using and accumulating information about herbal medicine for thousands of years, the first book of Chinese herbal medicine, Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Ben means root and Cao means shoot) was written about 2500 years after the death of Shen Nong. The authors named the book after Shen Nong to call attention from people (Zhu Jianping). The book recorded

  6. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  7. Deadly Love: Mothers, Whores, and Other Demonic Females in Japanese Theatre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei

    1994-01-01

    Co?existing with the traditional Japanese view of woman as docile, self?sacrificing, and nurturing is an equally ancient image of woman as powerful shamaness, terrifying demon, sexual enchantress, or suffocating mother. Misogynistic and gynophobic tendencies in traditional and contemporary Japanese culture represent to certain male artists an authentic, pre?Buddhist, pre?Shinto Japanese soul.Fear of female sexuality and female power is traced in

  8. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets. PMID:16322803

  9. Communication Characteristics of Asians in American Urban Settings: The Case of Honolulu Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Dennis M.

    Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group…

  10. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  11. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Shimura, Kyoko; Makino, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (mao-zai) are among the most important medicinal prescriptions in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to treat cold symptoms, bronchial asthma, arthralgia, and rheumatism. Shokan-zatsubyo-ron (Shanghan zabing lun in Chinese), a classical textbook of kampo medicine published in 220 A.D., describes that when herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and kakkonto (gegen-tang) are prepared, ephedra herb is first boiled alone, the scum is removed, and then other crude drugs are added and decocted. In the present study, we evaluated evidence for the benefit of boiling ephedra herb prior to other crude drugs by analyzing the contents of the extract and four ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norephedrine), which are considered the main active ingredients in ephedra herb. We prepared two different decoctions of maoto and kakkonto: one decoction was prepared by boiling all the crude drugs at the same time and the other decoction was prepared according to the classical textbook. In both decoctions of maoto and kakkonto, neither alkaloid contents in the extract nor extracting ratio of four ephedrine alkaloids exhibited significant difference. As far as the ephedrine alkaloid content goes, there is no evidence for the benefit of the boiling method for ephedra herb described in the classical textbook of kampo medicine. PMID:20091242

  12. Safety of herbal supplements: a guide for cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Ernst, E

    2010-08-01

    Many patients use herbal supplements to treat chronic cardiovascular conditions and often combine herbal ingredients with cardiovascular medications. However, physicians do not reliably elicit a history of herbal use from their patients and may overlook herbal supplements' adverse effects. Although often considered harmless by patients, herbal supplements may cause adverse cardiovascular effects from an herbal ingredient, a contaminant, or an herb-drug interaction. Herbal stimulants, including bitter orange, ephedra, caffeine, guarana, maté, kola, areca, lobelia, khat, and others are the most common category of herbal therapies to cause cardiovascular effects. However, dozens of other herbal ingredients have also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In addition to listed ingredients, herbal supplements may become contaminated at a number of stages during production. Pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and pharmaceutical agents have been detected in herbal supplements. Supposedly "herbal" products that are adulterated with prescription anorectics, antidepressants, diuretics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors along with other medications have been identified throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. All of these adulterants have potential cardiovascular effects. Herbal interactions with a variety of cardiovascular medications may also lead to adverse events. Herbal ingredients may cause pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions. We review clinically relevant patterns of adverse cardiovascular reactions to herbal supplements, and we provide resources and recommendations for practicing cardiologists evaluating patients with suspected herbal adverse effects. PMID:20633025

  13. Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (A?)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

  14. Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: a literature review on case reports.

    PubMed

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D

    2011-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use is common amongst cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side-effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n=34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n=8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), noni (n=1) and Silymarin (n=1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

  15. The practice of traditional medicine in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tella, A

    1979-01-01

    Traditional medicine is a method of healing founded on its own concept of health and disease. Knowledge is passed on orally from father to son. Healing knowledge is jealously guarded in certain families. In Africa the popularity of traditional healers is attributed to the fact that they take full account of the socio-cultural background of the people. The components of traditional medicine include herbal medicine, therapeutic fasting and dieting, hydrotherapy, radiant healing therapy, venesection, surgery and bone-setting, spinal manipulation and massage, psychotherapy, therapeutic occultism, psychiatry and preventive medicine. In the African environment the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine is great and requires further indepth study to improve methods and training and to form a more effective organization within the ranks of traditional healers. In the physical medicine, vegetable, animal, and mineral substances may be used. In the metaphysical division of traditional medicine, prayers, invocations, or incantations are offered to some mysterious and powerful forces. The practioner usually excels in one or more practices to the exclusion of others. Herbal preparations should be studied with the idea of using them to replace more toxic, synthetic drugs. Some plants used by traditional healers are fennal, serpentine, cinchona, quinine, digitalis, and vinca rosea. PMID:525052

  16. Herbal medicines--what do clinicians know?

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    In 1986, DTB published an article called Herbal medicines - safe and effective?, which discussed some of the issues around the availability, safety and efficacy of such treatments.1 We highlighted how the failure of orthodox medicines to cure, and anxiety about their potentially serious unwanted effects, had led some people to turn to herbal medicines for treatment for chronic and disabling conditions often in the belief, that natural medicines must be intrinsically safe. The article concluded by discussing the potential problems associated with herbal medicines and the role that doctors should play in asking about patients' use of such products. Revisiting these themes, here we present an overview of the results of an online survey conducted among DTB readers to explore four key issues: What do healthcare professionals know about herbal medicines? What challenges (if any) does patients' use of herbal medicines raise for healthcare professionals? What awareness do healthcare professionals have about the regulatory arrangements for herbal medicines? What sources of information (if any) do healthcare professionals use to inform themselves about herbal medicines? PMID:20392781

  17. The evolution of Japanese management: lessons for U.S. managers.

    PubMed

    Marsland, S; Beer, M

    1983-01-01

    To find the key to the success of Japanese economic performance since World War II, Marsland and Beer explore five main "environmental" factors used by Japanese firms to build a successful human resources management approach: Japanese social values, the structure of private enterprise, the structure of labor markets, the historic development of the Japanese employment system, and the structure of Japanese management. This discussion shows that post-war Japanese management, faced with rapid change, introduced new concepts and techniques that reinforced and maintained certain social values and traditions that fit well with human resources management objectives. This skillful blend of new ideas with traditional values enabled the Japanese to achieve superior economic performance. PMID:10259590

  18. The Virtual Museum of Japanese Arts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website of traditional Japanese treasures and culture was produced for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and is a virtual museum that includes physical objects and other more intangible items of cultural patrimony, such as fighting styles and performance art. Visitors can scroll over any of the seven "galleries" to read a description of what types of work are contained within. The "Fine Arts" gallery is defined as those visual arts primarily concerned with the creation of beauty, such as architecture and gardens, painting, sculpture, and Ukiyoe. Upon choosing a section of the gallery, visitors can click on it, see examples of the art form, and read about the history of these traditions. The "Cafe" gallery is particularly interesting, and it is described as a "'refreshment space'...to enjoy learning more about the Japanese culture and traditions from many exotic perspectives." The Virtual Museum Theatre allows visitors to watch "Movies of Japanese Festivals" and "Movies of Japanese Martial Arts". An exhibit of Wagashi representing all seasons of the year, and celebrations, is worth a look and can also be found in the "Cafe" gallery. [KMG

  19. Hepatotoxicity Associated with Herbal Tea Containing Kelp

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Lavanya

    2013-01-01

    A 40-yr-old Sri Lankan female presented to the gastroenterology clinic with jaundice. Further work-up revealed extrahepatic cholestasis with a hepatocellular component; however, subsequent work-up revealed no significant findings. Hospitalization revealed hepatotoxicity associated with ingestion of a homemade herbal tea containing kelp (Laminaria), which was confirmed with further history. Hepatotoxicity associated with herbal tea ingestion is rare, but should be a consideration in patients with unexplained jaundice. Inquiries into dietary or herbal supplements should always be made during routine history taking, as it may be useful in achieving the diagnosis.

  20. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

  1. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

    2008-06-01

    Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

  2. Alternative and Herbal Livestock Health Sourcebook

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Alternative and Herbal Livestock Health Sourcebook University of Connecticut College of Agriculture University of Connecticut College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Department of Plant Science, particularly antibiotics and chemical residues in meat and milk, have stimulated renewed interest

  3. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

  4. Herbal remedy for diabetes: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kulambil Padinjakara, R N; Ashawesh, K; Butt, S; Nair, R; Patel, V

    2009-01-01

    We present case histories of two patients with type 2 diabetes who were taking herbal medicines that was claimed to be effective for the management of diabetes. Both patients had purchased their herbal medicines from India. On chemical analysis, these medicines were found to contain glibenclamide. Here we discuss the use of alternative medicines in the developed world and highlight the problem that adulteration of complimentary alternative medicines with modern medicines can cause in the management of diabetes. PMID:19140093

  5. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

  6. 197Japanese/Journalism and Mass Communications Japanese 311 (3)--Advanced Japanese I

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    197Japanese/Journalism and Mass Communications Japanese 311 (3)--Advanced Japanese I Prerequisites and written responses to a variety of literary materials, including relevant journal and newspaperarticles.) Staff. Offeredwheninterestisexpressedanddepartmental resourcespermit. JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATIONS

  7. Regulatory issues concerning the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Colin G; Schachter, Howard

    2003-12-01

    Herbal remedies and alternative medicines are used throughout the world, and in the past herbs were often the original sources of most drugs. Today we are witnessing an increase in herbal remedy use throughout the Western world raising the question as to how safe are these preparations for the unborn fetus? Many women use herbal products during pregnancy. The dilemma facing most regulatory authorities is that the public considers these products as either traditional medicines or natural food supplements. The user sees no reason for regulation. Most countries have laws concerning foods, drugs, and cosmetics, the details of which seldom clearly define to what section of the law and regulations alternative remedies belong. In most countries alternative remedies are regulated as foods, provided that no medicinal claim is made on the label. The global regulatory sector, however, is changing rapidly. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia created a Complimentary Medicines Evaluation Committee in late 1997 to address this issue, and Canada has created a new Natural Health Products Directorate in the realigned Therapeutic Products and Foods Branch in 2000. In parallel, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products has drafted test procedures and acceptance criteria for herbal drug preparations and herbal medicinal products. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration classifies these natural products as dietary supplements. Manufacturers must label a dietary supplement thus: "this statement has not been evaluated by the FDA [, and] this product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease." Whether these products are foods or drugs is undecided. To add complexity to this issue, most of the potential deleterious effects of natural products on the unborn may be related to hormonal effects (e.g., phytoestrogens) and nutriceutical drug interactions (e.g., St. John's Wort and antidepressants), rather than direct embryotoxicity per se. We suggest that ensuring quality of herbal products should receive immediate attention by regulatory authorities, before embarking on the more arduous tasks of safety and efficacy. PMID:14745988

  8. Yin Zi Huang, an Injectable Multicomponent Chinese Herbal Medicine, Is a Potent Inhibitor of T-Cell Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Chen; Teresa Krakauer; Joost J. Oppenheim; O. M. Zack Howard

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical efficacy of many multiherbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) is partially at- tributable to their immunoregulatory properties. In this study we evaluated the effect of eight commonly used, commercially available multiherbal Chinese medicines on T-cell activation. We focused on Yin Zhi Huang (YZH, an injectable herbal medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases in China), because

  9. Advancing Japanese Electric Propulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimiya Komurasaki

    2007-01-01

    The electric propulsion attracts a lot of Japanese academic and engineers. On the basis of their achievements various kinds of electric propulsion are prepared for the microsatellites and operational in space. This paper reports the recent activities on the electric propulsion in Japanese universities, industries and JAXA.

  10. Japanese refrigerators field testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual

  11. Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert T

    1989-01-01

    Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual

  12. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  13. A Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Ogawa, Masakata

    1989-01-01

    Presents a view of Japanese education based on the experiences and observations of an American educator. Explains cultural contrasts, educational aspects and model, and the question of discipline. A Japanese educator responds with a personal view on educational equality in ability. (RT)

  14. Japanese American Identity Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykovich, Minako K.

    The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these concepts as they are used in different…

  15. Lessons learned from herbal medicinal products: the example of St. John's Wort (perpendicular).

    PubMed

    Nahrstedt, Adolf; Butterweck, Veronika

    2010-05-28

    The example of St. John's wort offers convincing evidence for the concept that modern methods of pharmacological and phytochemical research are effective in advancing the development of traditional herbal remedies. As a consequence of these efforts, it is known today that several compounds from different structural groups and with different mechanisms of action seem to be responsible for the observed antidepressant efficacy of St. John's Wort. Co-effectors in the extract improve the bioavailability of active constituents such as hypericin (1) (pharmacokinetic synergy). Unwanted side effects are preventable without remarkable loss of activity when the responsible constituent(s) are carefully removed during the extraction process, as demonstrated for hyperforin (3), which is responsible for the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4, in particular). On the basis of our findings, it is likely that positive interactions between single compounds occur more frequently in traditionally used herbal preparations than is known presently. PMID:20408551

  16. Genipin, a metabolite derived from the herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to, and suppression of Fas-induced lethal liver apoptosis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Yamamoto; Naoko Miura; Nobuhiro Ohtake; Sakae Amagaya; Atsushi Ishige; Hiroshi Sasaki; Yasuhiro Komatsu; Kazunori Fukuda; Takashi Ito; Katsutoshi Terasawa

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: We showed previously that a Kampo (Chinese\\/Japanese herbal) medicine, Inchin-ko-to (ICKT), inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor ?1 in vitro. The present study investigated whether ICKT or its ingredients inhibit Fas-mediated liver apoptosis in vivo. Methods: Acute liver injury was induced by an intravenous injection of anti-Fas antibody, Jo2. The effects of ICKT and its

  17. Bioactive and Sensory Properties of Herbal Spirit Enriched with Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) Polyphenolics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Draženka Komes; Ana Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?; Dunja Horži?; Helena Drmi?; Svjetlana Škrabal; Borislav Mili?evi?

    In the Southeast European and Mediterranean regions, consumption of various alcoholic beverages in the form of plain and aromatized\\u000a spirits and liqueurs is an important part of traditional local gastronomy. Especially herbal spirits and liquors are widely\\u000a spread and consumed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using cocoa raw materials (cocoa beans,\\u000a cocoa nibs or

  18. Analysis of lead content in herbal preparations in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, E L; Matsumoto, K

    2003-08-01

    In Malaysia, the phase 3 registration for traditional medicines was implemented on 1 January 1992 under the Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulation 1984, emphasizing quality, efficacy and safety (including the detection of the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. Therefore, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, were analysed for lead content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 8% (eight products) possessed 10.64-20.72 ppm of lead, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. One of these products, M-Tongkat Ali (exhibited 10.64 +/-0.37 ppm of lead), was in fact already registered with the DCA Malaysia. The rest, Sukarno Tongkat Ali, Eurycoma Madu, Super Pill Tongkat Ali, Force Pill Tongkat Ali, Tender Pill Tongkat Ali, Super Pill Tongkat Ali Plus and Great Pill Tongkat Ali Plus have not registered with the DCA Malaysia and exhibited 12.24-20.72 ppm of lead. Although this study showed that only 92% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:12948085

  19. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

    2008-03-01

    In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves > sage > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > roselle. In particular, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities may be useful for meal planning in type 2 diabetes. They could contribute to sustain plasma antioxidant level because antioxidants present in plants and herbs prevent the development of vascular diseases seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:18183488

  20. Negotiating tradition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Moreno; Mary Ann Littrell

    2001-01-01

    Retailers serve as intermediaries between artisans and tourist consumers in the marketing of textile and craft products. This study examines the role of intermediaries by exploring retailers' perceptions of tradition as they contemplate, blend, and juxtapose textile product features for a tourism market. Qualitative research methods were employed to collect data. A related group of product characteristics emerged as being

  1. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  2. Peek-a-boo, I See You: Watching Japanese Hard-core Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Ortega-Brena

    2009-01-01

    This essay proposes a phenomenological approach to the viewing of Japanese hard-core animation (widely known in the West as\\u000a “hentai”), a type of erotica frequently characterized by detailed, unusual and fantastic depictions of sexual activity habitually\\u000a intended for sexual arousal. Pertinent instances of Japanese traditions of erotica and visual representation, as well as Japanese\\u000a animation and its industry are briefly

  3. Chinese Herbal Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122

  4. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  5. Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations. PMID:19842218

  6. Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst

    2002-01-01

    Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese

  7. Internet websites selling herbal treatments for erectile dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Thurairaja; B Barrass; R Persad

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the safety and reliability of internet websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes for Viagra. Using keywords ‘Herbal’ and ‘Viagra’, websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes were identified. The top 50 sequential sites were assessed for safety and reliability against the Health on the Net (HON) criteria.

  8. Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism—which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

  9. Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid.

    PubMed

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

    2010-12-01

    Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism-which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

  10. Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  11. The Development of Perceptual Grouping Biases in Infancy: A Japanese-English Cross-Linguistic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Iversen, John R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and…

  12. Physical Settings and Materials Recommended for Play Therapy with Japanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room style), reading…

  13. Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German colonial sovereignty in the Marshall Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk H. R. Spennemann

    1998-01-01

    In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls, depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This

  14. Japanese resource dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    This thesis is an examination of Japan's strategic resource dependence and her reliance of the three raw materials-rich regions of Southeast Asia (ASEAN), the Persian Gulf, and Southern Africa. A discussion of the Japanese formula for securing resources in the less developed countries of the 'South' is included along with a brief overview of her onshore resource utilization in business/industry. The roles of direct foreign investment, official development assistance, energy conservation, and Japanese multinationalization are discussed.

  15. Motivating Bilingual and Semibilingual University Students of Japanese: An Analysis of Language Learning Persistence and Intensity Among Students from Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Kimi

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with "Shin Nisei," new second-generation Japanese, university students reveal how strongly motivation influences persistence in taking Japanese courses and the intensity with which these students use Japanese outside the classroom. The discussion stresses problems facing Shin Nisei students in traditional college foreign-language…

  16. An Integrative Platform of TCM Network Pharmacology and Its Application on a Herbal Formula, Qing-Luo-Yin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao

    2013-01-01

    The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable. PMID:23653662

  17. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  18. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  19. Herbal medicines for asthma: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Huntley; E Ernst

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDAsthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to

  20. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  1. Herbal remedies: adverse effects and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Cupp, M J

    1999-03-01

    A growing number of Americans are using herbal products for preventive and therapeutic purposes. The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before marketing. For this reason, the adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies are largely unknown. Ginkgo biloba extract, advertised as improving cognitive functioning, has been reported to cause spontaneous bleeding, and it may interact with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. St. John's wort, promoted as a treatment for depression, may have monoamine oxidase-inhibiting effects or may cause increased levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Although St. John's wort probably does not interact with foods that contain tyramine, it should not be used with prescription antidepressants. Ephedrine-containing herbal products have been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, seizures and even death. Ginseng, widely used for its purported physical and mental effects, is generally well tolerated, but it has been implicated as a cause of decreased response to warfarin. Physicians must be alert for adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies, and they should ask all patients about the use of these products. PMID:10088878

  2. Traditional and complementary therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Sánchez-Ramos, J R

    1999-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has existed in different parts of the world since ancient times. The first clear description is found in the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda under the name Kampavata. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, levodopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of PD in India, China, and the Amazon basin. Scientific reevaluation of these therapies may be valuable, as shown in the case of Mucuna pruriens and Banisteria caapi. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, biofeedback, and acupuncture may have beneficial effects for patients and deserve further study. PMID:10410773

  3. Japanese firms and the decline of the Japanese expatriate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Beamish; Andrew C. Inkpen

    1998-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that Japanese firms use large numbers of expatriates and are reluctant to allow local nationals a significant role in subsidiary management. Japanese firms have been criticized for their unwillingness to capitalize on the internal diversity in their international managerial ranks. It has been suggested that a rice paper ceiling in Japanese firms restricts local managers from advancement

  4. Technological Diversification of Japanese Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Fumio

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach for measuring industrial technological diversification behavior. Identifies sectoral patterns of Japanese industry as related to diversification behaviors. Delineates the mechanisms and effectiveness of Japanese corporate and government policies relevant to diversification. (ML)

  5. New Frontiers for Japanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

  6. Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Japanese knotweed

    E-print Network

    -seed- ed, shiny, dark brown to black, three-sided fruit. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc Japanese;Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Japanese knotweed continued Similar weeds Giant knotweed (P. sachalinense F. W

  7. Safety assessment of mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jong Ho; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-03-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette "A" was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette "T". The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette "A" did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette "A" were higher than those in the general cigarette "T". The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette "A" were higher than those in the general cigarette "T", but cresol contents in herbal cigarette "A" were lower than those in the general cigarette "T". The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette "A" was higher than that in the general cigarette "T"; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette "A" were lower than those in the general cigarette "T". The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette "A" exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette "T" at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  8. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  9. Japanese Ant Image Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The 2003 revised edition of the Japanese Ant Image Database was developed under the direction of the Japanese Ant Database Group (JADG). The website, which merges taxonomic information and stunning photographs, will no doubt delight myrmecologists and others. Information about different types of ants can be accessed through browseable, hyperlinked lists organized by subfamily, genus, and species. Genus and species profiles include images, references, descriptive information, simple distribution maps, and more. The site includes a Japanese Ant Image Library with hundreds of quality images, and a smaller SEM Image Library as well. The site also offers sections with Type Specimens and Taxonomic Keys. Please note that the site has not been updated since 2003; there are future plans to revisit the project when updates and corrections become necessary.

  10. Verbs and Adjectives in Literary Japanese According to Suzuki Akira.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, George

    This paper presents two views on the categorization of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives into form classes: the traditional view and a view set forth in the writing of Suzuki Akira. The fundamental issue here is the criterion for categorization. Is it the meaning of words, or is it their grammatical behavior that determines the system of…

  11. From Knowledge Seeking to Knowledge Creation: The Japanese University's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the Japanese university system encourages conformity, which may also stifle creativity and initiative. Japan needs reforms that inject flexibility and reverse the traditional focus of education. Current reform proposals to expand graduate education, break down the chair system, and expand university-industry collaboration are seen…

  12. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of ?-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. PMID:25713534

  13. A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoki Iwasaki; Yoshio Kasuga; Shiro Yokoyama; Hiroshi Onuma; Hideki Nishimura; Ritsu Kusama; Gerson Shigeaki Hamada; Ines Nobuko Nishimoto; Maria Socorro do Maciel; Juvenal Motola Jr; Fábio Martins Laginha; Roberto Anzai; Shoichiro Tsugane

    2011-01-01

    Background  Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries.\\u000a Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To\\u000a clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among\\u000a Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the

  15. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  16. [Development of throat clearing herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodzi?niene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Milasius

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal herbs in tea for throat clearing are used from ancient times. Taking into consideration the bronchial mucus secretion stimulating and antispasmodic, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic and stimulating effect on the ciliated epithelium two new formulations of throat clearing herbal tea were originated. The first formulation consists of liquorice roots, sweet fennel and thyme, and the second one consists of pine gemmae, thyme and elder flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances of the components were adapted. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by the limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. Expiry date of both throat clearing herbal teas was confirmed to be 2 years. PMID:15299995

  17. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of herbal products.

    PubMed

    Wilasrusmee, Chumpon; Siddiqui, Josephine; Bruch, David; Wilasrusmee, Skuntala; Kittur, Smita; Kittur, Dilip S

    2002-10-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs have been developed from natural products such as soil and fungi, which are also the sources of some commonly used herbal products. However, the effect of herbal products on immune response has not been investigated. Because these products can affect the host immune system they can induce either rejection or tolerance after a transplant procedure. To investigate the effects of ten commonly used herbal products on transplant-related immune function we performed in vitro lymphocyte proliferation tests using phytohemagglutinin, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) assay, and interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 production from MLC. Dong quai, ginseng, and milk thistle had nonspecific immunostimulatory effects on lymphocyte proliferation, whereas ginger and green tea had immunosuppressive effects. Dong quai and milk thistle increased alloresponsiveness in MLC, whereas ginger and tea decreased these responses. The immunostimulatory effects of dong quai and milk thistle were consistently seen in both cell-mediated immune response and nonspecific lymphoproliferation, whereas that of ginseng was not. The immunosuppressive effect of green tea and ginger were mediated through a decrease in IL-2 production, but the immunostimulatory effects of dong quai and milk thistle were not. We conclude that green tea, dong quai, ginseng, milk thistle, and ginger have effects on in vitro immune assays that may be relevant in transplantation in humans. PMID:12412711

  18. Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies. PMID:23293189

  19. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  20. Japanese Experiences: Hentai Narratives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Kama

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, Queer Voices from Japan can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  1. Japanese Foreign Minister Nobutaka

    E-print Network

    China Iter Defense and Foreign Policy FAMU01 Thu, 5 May 2005 04:46:59 GMT © AFP TOP | | | | | | | | | | | | Press Review The Business Connection Front Page Defense and Foreign Policy Politics and Society StyleJapanese Foreign Minister Nobutaka Machimura told reporters in Paris Wednesday that he wanted

  2. ‘Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  3. JAPANESE KNOTWEED OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    . Sustainability Officer Approved by: Heidi Smith PURPOSE: To control the Japanese Knotweed growth on Campus be classed as controlled waste but may be hazardous if herbicide is present. #12;Swansea University PROCEDURE been treated with certain herbicides, may be classified as hazardous waste. EFFECTS & ACTIONS ON NON

  4. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  5. Native American Healing Traditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarrell A. A. Portman; Michael T. Garrett

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American healing practices requires helping professionals to have knowledge of Native American cultural belief systems about

  6. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  7. Lead contamination in Eugenia dyeriana herbal preparations from different commercial sources in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H

    2008-06-01

    The Drug Control Authority (DCA) of Malaysia implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January, 1992. A total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Eugenia dyeriana, either single or combined preparations (more than one medicinal plant), were analyzed for the presence of lead contamination, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These samples were bought from different commercial sources in the Malaysian market, after performing a simple random sampling. Results showed that 22% of the above products failed to comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Although this study showed that 78% of the products fully complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to lead, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:18328612

  8. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows. PMID:24467962

  9. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Junko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  10. [Feasibility for inhibiting tumor metastasis with Chinese herbal medicines as angiogenesis inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-rong; Li, Xiu-rong

    2007-07-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the important ways to control tumor growth and metastasis, and searching for anti-angiogenesis herbs targeting tumor angiogenesis has become a hot topic in both basic and clinical research for tumor. Utilizing the traditional Chinese medicine theory, authors of this article discussed the feasibility and research of anti-angiogenesis effect of Chinese medicine on tumor. To develop new drugs inhibiting tumor angiogenesis from the Chinese native herbal medicine has an extremely vital significance in blocking tumor invasion and metastasis, as well as improving the patients' prognosis and their survival rates. PMID:17631799

  11. Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies.

    PubMed

    Ritch-Krc, E M; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

    1996-07-01

    The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of these species. In addition, cytoxicity assays, to test the anticancer activity of methanolic extracts of Alnus incana and Shepherdia canadensis against mouse mastocytoma cells, were shown to be positive. PMID:8771456

  12. Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

  13. Is the Improvement of Prognosis of Patients With Metastatic Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Treated With TCM Herbal Medicine due to Lag Time to Treatment Bias?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiru Guo; Luming Liu; Jan P. A. Baak

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine was associated with improved prognosis in patients with performance score 0-1 at the time of diagnosis of stage IV pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy (PBT). Objective. The authors investigated the effect of 1- to 4-month lag time to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment on the median and 1-year survival of PBT-PAC patients. Methods.

  14. An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

  15. Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki

    Herbal medicines include a range of pharmacologically active compounds: in some cases it is not well understood which ingredients are important for a therapeutic effect. The supporters of herbal medicine believe that isolated ingredients in the majority of cases have weaker clinical effects than whole plant extract, a claim that would obviously require proof in each case. Generalizations about the

  16. Quality Assurance and Safety of Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER P. FU; HSIU-MEI CHIANG; QINGSU XIA; TAO CHEN; BAI HSIUN CHEN; JUE-JIE YIN; KUO-CHING WEN; GE LIN; HONGTAO YU

    2009-01-01

    Since the U.S. Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994, use of herbal products has been growing rapidly worldwide. To ensure consumer health protection, the quality and safety of herbal plants, particularly those used for dietary supplement preparations, must be determined. To date, toxicological data on the identification of genotoxic and tumorigenic ingredients in many

  17. Commonly used herbal medicines in the United States: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bent; Richard Ko

    2004-01-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in the United States, with approximately one quarter of adults reporting use of an herb to treat a medical illness within the past year. Herbs contain complicated mixtures of organic chemicals, the levels of which may vary substantially depending upon many factors related to the growth, production, and processing of the herbal product. While many

  18. Psychosis Related to Ephedra-containing Herbal Supplement Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Walton; Gail H. Manos

    2003-01-01

    Ephedra, a psychoactive substance with stimulant prop- erties, is found in many herbal products. Often perceived by the lay public as benign, the potential health-related dangers of using these products are beginning to be recognized. We review four cases associated with ephedra-containing herbal products and report three additional cases. Unlike the previously reported cases, the patients presented in this report

  19. Know the benefits and risks of using common herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jecklin, Kari; Hoggatt, Byron; Badzek, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Although Americans are increasingly using herbal products for a variety of health conditions, they may not be aware of the demonstrated risks and benefits of these products. This study found public knowledge of 5 commonly used herbal products to be quite low, even among users of the investigated herbs. PMID:15346714

  20. Japanese technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Albus, J.

    1986-01-01

    This series of studies assesses Japanese technology in four of today's most visible high-technology areas. Selected part and chapter titles: COMPUTER SCIENCE - Artificial Intelligence and Man-Machine Interface, Processor Architecture and Computer Organization; OPTO- and MICROELECTRONICS - Metal Contacts to III-V Semi-conductors, Josephson Devices and Technology; MECHATRONICS - Flexible Manufacturing Systems Development, Manipulators/Actuators; BIOTECHNOLOGY - Genetic Information Transfer Biosensors.

  1. Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditional medicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Miraldi; S Ferri; V Mostaghimi

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation of the traditional ethnobotany and ethnomedicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran). In this region medicinal plants are often the only easily accessible health care alternative for most of the population in rural areas and in fact folk herbal medicine is the most used remedy to cure common diseases. In this paper we present the

  2. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AMONG THE RURAL FOLK OF MORENA DISTRICT MADHYA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Sikarwar, R.L.S.; Kaushik, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The present study carried out in the rural areas of Morena district of Madhya Pradesh, concerns the traditional use of indigenous herbal medicines against various diseases. Thirty medicinal plants have been mentioned along with their botanical name, families, local name, locality, medicinal use and field numbers. PMID:22556602

  3. In vitro and in vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Momordica balsamina Alone or in a Traditional Mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Benoit-Vical; P. Grellier; A. Abdoulaye; I. Moussa; A. Ousmane; A. Berry; K. Ikhiri; C. Poupat

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the dramatic situation of malaria in Africa, there is an urgent need to find new and cheap drugs, such as herbal medicines. Here we report the study of the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of Momordica balsamina alone or in a traditional mixture used in Niger. Methods: Extracts were obtained with different solvents and tested

  4. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  5. The peri-operative implications of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P J; Kam, P C A

    2002-09-01

    An increasing number of patients are taking herbal medicines such as echinacea, garlic, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, St John's Wort, valerian, ephedra, kava, grapefruit juice and ginger. Although these herbal medications are considered 'natural' products that may have some benefits, adverse effects such as increased bleeding tendencies and drug interactions are associated with their use. Surgeons and anaesthetists may be unaware of their patients' use of these medications because it is common for patients not to disclose their use of this form of medication, and both surgeons and anaesthetists often fail to enquire about their use. Anaesthetists and surgeons must be familiar with the effects of herbal medicines and should specifically enquire about the use of herbal medicines during pre-operative assessment. Currently available data suggest that all herbal medicines should be ceased 2 weeks before surgery. PMID:12190754

  6. Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Motor Vehicle Safety Safety with Car Seats and Booster Seats ... Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Traumatic Brain Injury Brain Scan ??????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  7. Gynaecomastia and the herbal tonic "Dong Quai".

    PubMed

    Goh, S Y; Loh, K C

    2001-03-01

    We present a case of a man who developed gynaecomastia after ingestion of "Dong Quai" pills. "Dong Quai" is the Chinese name for the herb Angelica polymorpha var. sinensis which is widely used as a panacea for gynaecological problems, and it is also proclaimed as an invigorating tonic for both women and men. The pharmacological effects of "Dong Quai" are likely related to the phytoestrogen that it contains. This report highlights the potential adverse effects associated with its consumption in the male, especially for the processed "Dong Quai" pills which may contain significantly higher levels of phytoestrogen than its original herbal product. PMID:11405562

  8. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  9. Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612. PMID:24893603

  10. Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Determination of Glycyrrhizin in Herbal Extract and in Herbal Gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varsha M. Jadhav; Uttam S. Kedar; Sachin B. Gholve; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    A new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of glycyrrhizin has been developed and validated for the determination of glycyrrhizin in herbal extracts and in herbal gel. The analyte was extracted with ethanol and applied on TLC aluminium plates along with standard using Linomat 5 spray on sample applicator (CAMAG). Analysis of glycyrrhizin

  11. Effects of Chinese Herbal Compound “Xuemai Ning”on Rabbit Atherosclerosis Model and Expression of ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease. PMID:24170990

  12. The Japanese Education System is a Failure, Say Some Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1997-01-01

    A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…

  13. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  14. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David R

    2002-12-27

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity. PMID:12505367

  15. Herbal remedies for asthma treatment: between myth and reality.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, Istvan; Brune, Kay

    2002-04-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. To treat this widespread disease there is a high prevalence of usage of herbal medicine. The use of plants is as old as humankind and it has been steadily increasing over the past 10 years. Plant-based remedies are now one of the most popular complementary treatments. Herbal supplements are receiving increasing exposure through media, including the Internet, in lay journals and more recently in the scientific press. Interest in herbal medicine has been facilitated by multiple factors, including the perception that pharmaceutical medications are expensive, overprescribed and may often be dangerous. Alternatively, herbal medicine is often perceived as being "natural" and therefore is considered safe. However, the scientific literature supporting the efficacy of herbal therapies is incomplete. There are few well-controlled studies that support the efficacy of herbal remedies in the treatment and clinical improvement of patients with asthma. Available scientific evidence has not yet confirmed the validity of their popular role in the treatment of asthma. The present review evaluates herbs and their efficacy in asthma to provide a balanced and objective view for the reader seeking information on herbal therapy PMID:12532195

  16. Herbal therapy: what every facial plastic surgeon must know.

    PubMed

    Pribitkin, E D; Boger, G

    2001-01-01

    Herbal medicine (phytomedicine) uses remedies possessing significant pharmacological activity and, consequently, potential adverse effects and drug interactions. The explosion in sales of herbal therapies has brought many products to the marketplace that do not conform to the standards of safety and efficacy that physicians and patients expect. Unfortunately, few surgeons question patients regarding their use of herbal medicines, and 70% of patients do not reveal their use of herbal medicines to their physicians and pharmacists. All surgeons should question patients about the use of the following common herbal remedies, which may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures: feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, and Asian ginseng. Physicians should exercise caution in prescribing retinoids or advising skin resurfacing in patients using St John's wort, which poses a risk of photosensitivity reaction. Several herbal medicines, such as aloe vera gel, contain pharmacologically active ingredients that may aid in wound healing. Practitioners who wish to recommend herbal medicines to patients should counsel them that products labeled as supplements have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration and that no guarantee of product quality can be made. PMID:11368667

  17. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  18. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  19. Inequities in Japanese Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, June A.

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with Japanese public school educators allow a distinctive view of how the continuing economic decline in Japan has affected educational motivation and decision-making among students and parents. The nature of socioeconomic stratification within Japanese educational opportunity is seen as a continuing situation exacerbated by the costs…

  20. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  1. Inequities in Japanese Urban Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June A. Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with Japanese public school educators allow a distinctive view of how the continuing economic decline in Japan has affected educational motivation and decision-making among students and parents. The nature of socioeconomic stratification within Japanese educational opportunity is seen as a continuing situation exacerbated by the costs of education in a context of chronic economic uncertainty.

  2. Combining ZHENG Theory and High-Throughput Expression Data to Predict New Effects of Chinese Herbal Formulae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuhao; Guo, Zhizhong; Guan, Yan; Lu, Yi-Yu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Su, Shi-Bing

    2012-01-01

    ZHENG is the key theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it is very important to find the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese herbal formulae. One ZHENG is related to many diseases and the herbal formulae are aiming to ZHENG. Therefore, many herbal formulae whose effects on a certain disease have been confirmed might also treat other diseases with the same ZHENG. In this study, the microarrays collected from patients with QiXuXueYu ZHENG (Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis syndrome) before treatment and after being treated with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule were analyzed by a high-throughput gene microarrays-based drug similarity comparison method, which could find the small molecules which had similar effects with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule. Besides getting the results of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis drugs which embody the known effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, many other small molecules were screened out and could reflect other types of effects of this formula in treating QiXuXueYu ZHENG, including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hyposenstive effect. Then we integrated this information to display the effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule and its potential multiple-target molecular pharmacology. Moreover, through using clinical blood-tested data to verify our prediction, Fuzheng Huayu Capsule was proved to have effects on diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:22666299

  3. Detection of estrogenic activity in herbal teas by in vitro reporter assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirao Kohno; Katsuyasu Kouda; Rikio Tokunaga; Yoshiaki Sonoda

    2007-01-01

    Herbal teas have become popular as alternatives to caffeinated beverages during past two decades. However, toxicological studies\\u000a of herbal teas have been limited and the safety of herbal teas thus remains unknown. We focused on the estrogenic activities\\u000a of herbal teas since some of their ingredients are similar to those used in herbal remedies for menopause relief and therefore\\u000a contain

  4. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

  5. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  6. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  7. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  8. Japanese space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Takashi

    Japanese space activities are based on principles of peaceful use, response to advancing and diversifying needs, and consistency with the goals of international society. Commercial space activities in Japan include several communications satellites and broadcasting satellites utilized by the private sector. The budget in the public sector in FY 1992 is 189.5 billion yen, an increase of 6.7% over the last fiscal year. The latest notable results in the space science field are the aurora phenomena images taken by the ultraviolet TV camera and a series of soft X-ray images of solar coronas, observed by the satellites EXOS-D and SOLAR-A launched in 1989 and 1991 respectively. GEOTAIL, the geomagnetic tail observation satellite, will be launched this year as a joint project between ISAS and NASA. For Earth observation, JERS-1 was launched this February. The high-resolution optical images and all-weather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from it are to be distributed for research on the Earth environment, surveys of Earth resources, and so on. The currently operating meteorological satellite, GMS-4, is in good condition. Its valuable meteorological data is continuously used not only in Japan but also in the Asian/Pacific countries. Earth observation programs are becoming more important for the Mission to Planet Earth due to their global observation capabilities. The Space Station/Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program is now entering the manufacturing phase, and half of its total development cost has already been authorized in the budget.

  9. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

  10. The Value of MBA Education in the Japanese Labor Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryusuke Shimizu; Yoshio Higuchi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze master of business administration (MBA) education, which now accounts for a major portion of advanced professional studies and has gained an important place as the education of choice among those in the white-collar business world. Traditionally, Japanese companies have provided all education internally through on-the-job training, creating little demand for specialized business education by

  11. [Herbalism and germplasm of deltaleaf goldthread rhizome].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunchu; Wang, Yan; Song, Liangke; Li, Xiaofeng; Dong, Guantao; Tang, Hao

    2011-06-01

    Through textual research of herbalism about Chinese Goldthread Rhizome in different periods of ancients and some modern study, and analysis on correlativity between its name and different germplasm, it showed that the knowledge level of quality of the medicinal materials was gradually increased in its historical record of application by the society improvement and increasing of requirements and population from producing area, diversity of character to germplasm resources. The materials name of Chinese Goldthread Rhizome was from unitary to diversity and referred to the rhizomes of all plants of Coptis in China, while Deltaleaf Goldthread Rhizome took an important role in the evolution of Chinese Goldthread Rhizome. The aim of the work was to provide a reference for the correlative study of phylogeny, individual distribution, ecological environment and medical resources. PMID:22779194

  12. [Herbal supplements in sports: use and abuse].

    PubMed

    Caprino, Luciano; Braganò, Maria Cristina; Botrè, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The use of natural supplements, included herbal supplements, by athletes has become an habit which often lacks any valid scientific rationale. It appears evident that this habit may entail health risks (including more or less serious adverse effects), consequent either: 1) to the pharmacodynamic effects of the drugs at high doses; or 2) to the occurrence of accumulation especially when their administration is not justified by a reduced synthesis or an increased demand; or 3) to the occurrence of intolerance; or, finally, 4) to the presence of unlabelled ingredients. The abuse of this kind of products always entails risks to the consumer, not only to the elite athlete, that can incur an adverse analytical finding on the occasion of anti-doping tests, but also to the amateur sportsman, for the possible occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR). PMID:16037647

  13. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata.

  14. POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hakim Mohammed

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Network Pharmacology Could Lead to New Multicompound Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug. PMID:23346189

  16. Clinical Study on Constitutional Herbal Tea for Treating Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720

  17. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  18. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  19. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patrícia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration. PMID:17173107

  20. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China and other Asian countries for long time. We conducted this review to systematically summarize the evidences of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the prevention and treatment of recurrent miscarriage in randomized trials, and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM compared with placebo or conventional medicine. Methods We searched studies in PubMed, ClinicalTrials, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed and VIP databases until December, 2012. Randomized trials on CHM alone or in combination with conventional medicine for recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo or conventional medicine were included. We evaluated the methodological quality of each included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 41 RCTs (3660 participants) were included. The majority of trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. CHM used alone or plus progesterone-based treatment showed superior effect over progesterone-based treatment in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state (measured by B ultrasound). However, there is substantial heterogeneity within each subgroup analysis (I2 ranging from 35% to 71%). CHM plus progesterone and hCG-based treatment was superior to progesterone and hCG-based treatment in improving the embryonic developmental state, but not live birth rate. No severe adverse events were reported in relation to CHM. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines or in combination with progesterone-based treatment demonstrated potentially beneficial effect in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state for women with recurrent miscarriage. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the herbal interventions and limitations of methodological quality of the included trials, it is not possible to recommend any specific CHMs for recurrent miscarriage. Further rigorous clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM. PMID:24245671

  1. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946

  2. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  3. Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-ling Sun; Yuan-liang Hu; De-yun Wang; Bao-kang Zhang; Jia-guo Liu

    2006-01-01

    Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological

  4. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Rados?aw; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Gra?yna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of herbal plants used in the traditional medicine of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel M Mahasneh; Ahmad A El-Oqlah

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum ether, ethanol, butanol, and aqueous crude extracts of the whole aerial parts of nine plants exhibited variable degrees of antimicrobial activity against four bacterial and three fungal species. Methanol and hexane extracts did not show any activity. Compared with standard antibiotics, extracts had low to moderate activity. The activity spectrum is wide against gram-positive and negative bacteria as well

  6. A Comparison of the ancient use of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known medicinal herb native to China and Korea, and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. However, there is different evidence of ginseng efficacy between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. In TCM, ginseng is a highly valued herb and has been applied

  7. TCMGeneDIT: a database for associated traditional Chinese medicine, gene and disease information using text mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ching Fang; Hsuan-Cheng Huang; Hsin-Hsi Chen; Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complementary and alternative medical system in Western countries, has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in East Asian countries. In recent years, many herbal medicines were found to exhibit a variety of effects through regulating a wide range of gene expressions or protein activities. As available TCM data continue to

  8. Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele, Rivers State.

    PubMed

    Tatfeng, Y M; Olama, E H; Ojo, T O

    2010-01-01

    Herbal antimalarials still remain an alternative to our traditional communities who can not afford orthodox antimalarials. This study was aimed at investigating the microbial quality of six herbal antimalarials using standard microbiological methods. Of the six preparations analyzed, "schnapps", palm wine and water were the media of preparation; the water base preparations recorded higher microbial load. The mean microbial load was 159.5 × 10(5) cfu/ml and 217.4 × 10(2)cfu/ml in water and alcohol base preparations respectively. The microbial profile of the preparations showed that the schnapps base preparations were predominantly contaminated with Bacillus sp (Aerobic spore bearers) and Mucor spp. The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor spp. Conclusively, this study underlines the public health importance of these preparations given the high burden of such human pathogen as Ecoli O157H7, Ps aeruginosa, Stahp aureus, etc. in the preparations. PMID:21304626

  9. Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    de Arriba, Susana Garcia; Naser, Belal; Nolte, Klaus-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Uva-ursi folium (bearberry leaf) has been traditionally used to treat symptoms of lower urinary tract infections. The most representative constituent of this herbal drug is arbutin that is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes hepatic conjugation to form hydroquinone (HQ) conjugates. As free HQ is crucial for the safety of the herbal preparation, we reviewed published and unpublished experimental and human studies to clarify some outdated assumptions and to support the safety of therapeutic daily doses of Uva-ursi folium extract. Specifically, data on pharmacokinetics and the human exposure of arbutin and HQ were reviewed. A therapeutic recommended human daily dose of bearberry leaf extract (420 mg hydroquinone derivatives calculated as anhydrous arbutin) liberates free HQ in urine at a maximum exposure level of 11 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d. By means of an experimental no observed effect level value, a permitted daily exposure dose below which there is a negligible risk to human health was estimated for free HQ (100 µg/kg bw/d). Dietary sources of arbutin/HQ that are regularly consumed long term by humans generate comparable free HQ exposure levels. There is no direct evidence, regarding human data, supporting the fact that free HQ causes convulsion, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or promotion of tumors in humans. Free HQ had no activity promoting pancreatic, bladder, stomach, or liver carcinogenesis. In conclusion, under the recommended use conditions Uva-ursi folium is a safe therapeutic option for treating lower urinary tract infections. PMID:24296864

  10. Antiviral Effects of Novel Herbal Medicine KIOM-C, on Diverse Viruses.

    PubMed

    Talactac, Melbourne R; Chowdhury, Mohammed Y E; Park, Min-Eun; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify new potential antiviral agents, recent studies have advocated thorough testing of herbal medicines or natural substances that are traditionally used to prevent viral infections. Antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of the total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C, a novel herbal medicine, against diverse types of viruses were investigated. In vitro antiviral activity against A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) through the induction of type-I interferon related protein phosphorylation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were determined. In vivo, KIOM-C-treated BALB/c mice showed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W81/2005 (H5N2), A/PR/8/34(H1N1), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W44/2005(H7N3) or A/Chicken/Korea/116 /2004(H9N2) influenza subtypes in contrast with the non-treated group. The present study revealed that total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C stimulates an antiviral state in murine macrophage cells and in mice leading to inhibition of viral infection and protection against lethal challenges. PMID:25942440

  11. Studies on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of herbal remedies used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Steenkamp; M. C. Gouws; M. Gulumian; E. E. Elgorashi; J. van Staden

    2006-01-01

    Crude water and ethanolic extracts of five herbal remedies reported in the literature for traditional treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and\\/or prostatitis were investigated for their effect on hydroxyl scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis. Both the water and ethanol extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Epilobium parviflorum

  12. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  13. Combined effect of ozonized water pretreatment and ozonized flake ice on maintaining quality of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Lu; Shu-Lai Liu; Ran Liu; Qiao-Mei Ru; Yu-Ting Ding

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the combined application of ozonized water pretreatment and ozonized flake ice (O+OIce) as compared with traditional flake ice (CK), ozonized flake ice (OIce), and ozonized water pretreatment and traditional flake ice (O) was investigated for the storage of Japanese sea bass. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory analysis and moisture content were carried out throughout a storage period of

  14. Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan

    PubMed Central

    FAN, Arthur Yin; LAO, Lixing; ZHANG, Rui-xin; ZHOU, An-nan; BERMAN, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of oral administration of Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods The toxicological information of HLXLD and its individual constituent herbs was searched in cintcm or TCMlars (www.cintcm.com), PubMed (MEDLINE), Chinese Herbal Medicine (1999) and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Vol. I—III). Single-dose acute toxicity was assessed by using the highest possible dosage. Motor function test was used to determine whether the herbal formula might cause motor impairment. Nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects, and 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects in rats were also assessed. Results The literature searches showed that HLXLD and its eleven ingredient herbs had no side/adverse effects listed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature. Under the dosages proposed in the formula, the HLXLD formula had no side/adverse effects according to MEDLINE, Chinese Herbal Medicine and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. The studies in rats showed: (1) in single-dose acute toxicity assessment, the maximal feasible single oral dose, 9.20 g/kg HLXLD, showed no significant effect on clinical signs, or body weight and mortality over a 14-day period in rats; (2) during motor function test, nine-day repeat-dose of daily HLXLD treatment at 4.60 g/kg did not cause motor impairment; (3) in nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessment, there were no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes or obvious adverse reactions and signs in complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats (highest observed dosage: 4.60 g/kg), and no noticeable adverse effects were observed during, or 14 days after nine-day treatment at 4.60 g/kg in non-inflamed rats; (4) during 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessments, no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes, no obvious adverse reactions and signs were observed in normal rats administered with HLXLD at a dose of 2.30 g/kg and the values of serum biochemistry and histopathology were in normal range. Conclusion Both existing information and animal data support that Modified HLXLD is a safe herbal product for clinical application. PMID:20456842

  15. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs, supplements and herbal products Smoking, alcohol and drugs Don’t smoke, drink alcohol or use drugs ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  16. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  17. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  18. Identification and standardization of anti food allergy Chinese herbal formula FAHF-5 by HPLC chromatographic fingerprint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. M. Zou; H. W. Zhang; K. D. Srivastava; H. A. Sampson; X. M. Li

    2004-01-01

    RationaleChinese herbal formula is a complex mixture of chemical components. Chromatographic fingerprint has been suggested to be a practical and comprehensive approach for identifying authenticity and evaluating the quality, consistency and the stability of raw herbal materials and herbal extracts. We recently generated a simplified anti-food allergy herbal formula FAHF-5. This study was undertaken to establish the chromatographic fingerprint HPLC

  19. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  20. A Cross-National Analysis of the Japanese Character among Japanese-Americans in Honolulu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Attitudinal aspects of Japanese culture are focused upon in order to examine to what extent and in what ways Japanese character is found among Japanese Americans in Honolulu. Several suggestions are offered as to what constitute good indicators of the extent to which Japanese characteristics are maintained. (Author/GC)

  1. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non?embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25873199

  2. Herbal drug ninjin'yoeito accelerates myelopoiesis but not erythropoiesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Muennu, Kanitta; Tanaka, Yuka; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Sugiyama, Daisuke

    2014-05-01

    Some Kampo medicines that are herbal and traditional in Japan have had beneficial effects when given to patients with anemia. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their effects are unclear. To address this question, four Kampo medicines used to treat anemia-ninjin'yoeito (NYT), shimotsuto (SMT), juzentaihoto (JTT), and daibofuto (DBT)-were tested separately using in vitro cultures of mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells. Among them, NYT was most effective in stimulating cell proliferation and up-regulating Myc expression. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that, among hematopoietic components of those cultures, myeloid cells expressing CD45/Mac-1/Gr-1/F4/80 increased in number, but Ter119/CD71 erythroid cells did not. Accordingly, real-time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of the myeloid gene Pu.1, whereas the erythroid genes Gata1 and Klf1 were down-regulated. Overall, these findings provide molecular evidence that NYT accelerates myelopoiesis but not erythropoiesis in vitro. PMID:24636045

  3. Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Saiki, Shinji; Tashiro, Etsu; Yamada, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imoto, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future. PMID:24960051

  4. Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songlin Li; Quanbin Han; Chunfeng Qiao; Jingzheng Song; Chuen Lung Cheng; Hongxi Xu

    2008-01-01

    Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components

  5. Herbal and alternative medicine use during pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Gibson; Raymond Powrie; Jami Star

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal and alternative medical therapies has been increasing rapidly across the United States over the past 10 years. Women of reproductive age often are users of herbs. The use of herbal and alternative medical therapies among pregnant women is important but poorly studied to date.Objective: To determine the frequency of use of herbal and alternative medicine

  6. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

  7. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100 mg of enriched Boswellia serrata extract improved symptoms compared to placebo. Mean pain was 40 points on a 0 to 100 point VAS scale (0 is no pain) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata reduced pain by a mean of 17 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 8 to 26); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 2; the 95% CIs did not exclude a clinically significant reduction of 15 points in pain. Physical function was 33 points on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 0 to 100 point subscale (0 is no loss of function) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata improved function by 8 points (95% CI 2 to 14); NNTB 4. Assuming a minimal clinically important difference of 10 points, we cannot exclude a clinically important benefit in some people. Moderate-quality evidence (one study, 96 participants) indicated that adverse events were probably reduced with enriched Boswellia serrata (18/48 events versus 30/48 events with placebo; relative risk (RR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92). Possible benefits of other Boswellia serrata extracts over placebo were confirmed in moderate-quality evidence from two studies (97 participants) of Boswellia serrata (enriched) 100 mg plus non-volatile oil, and low-quality evidence from small single studies of a 999 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata extract and 250 mg daily dose of enriched Boswellia serrata. It was uncertain if a 99 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata offered benefits over valdecoxib due to the very low-quality evidence from a small single study. It was uncertain if there was an increased risk of adverse events or withdrawals with Boswellia serrata extract due to variable reporting of results across studies. The studies reported no serious adverse events. Quality of life and radiographic joint changes were not measured. Six studies examined the ASU product Piasclidine®.Moderate-quality evidence from four studies (651 participants) indicated that ASU 300 mg produced a small and clinically questionable improvement in symptoms, and probably no increased adverse events

  8. Herbal medicines with psychiatric indications: a review for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Goethe, J W; Price, A L

    2000-06-01

    The use of herbal medicines remains controversial despite their wide use by consumers. By U.S. standards few of these products have been sufficiently evaluated in scientific studies to determine with certainty their efficacy and safety. The authors review the herbal medicines with reputed psychiatric indications and discuss the potential adverse events with which physicians should be familiar. Whatever their potential benefits, some of these herbal products have potentially serious side effects, and many can interact with prescription medications. Patients frequently do not tell their physicians about their use of alternative medicines, and practitioners must ask specifically about products patients may be taking for health promotion and disease prevention as well as for the treatment of the presenting complaint. PMID:10909198

  9. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Pathak, A. K.; Tailang, Mukul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs–Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory. PMID:21731396

  10. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  11. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  12. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  13. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

  14. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafra?ski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

  15. Cultural categorization of febrile illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J

    2003-04-01

    The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84%), oral powders (63%), use as soaps and creams (40%) in a multiple response system, were the most prevalent routes of administration of prepared herbs used in the treatment of the fevers. Boiling in water or alcohol was the most common method used in the preparation of the remedies. The four most frequently mentioned (multiple response system) plants in the Southwest ethnobotany for fevers were Azadirachta indica (87.5%), Mangifera indica (75.0%), Morinda lucida (68.8%) and Citrus medica (68.8%). PMID:12639738

  16. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

  18. Generations and Identity: The Japanese American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Harry H. L.

    The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…

  19. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  20. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  1. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027

  2. The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic effects of many herbal medicines have been well established; however, definitive mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated for many psychoactive herbal medications. Although several mechanisms have been identified, they are often insufficient to account for the observed effects of the plant or its extracts. This review emphasizes that, in addition to searching for more potent mechanisms, one must consider the additive and supra-additive effects of a plant's multiple constituents. Synergy may occur through pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions. Examples are given that illustrate synergistic actions in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), kava kava (Piper methysticum), and valerian (Valeriana officinalis). PMID:11991792

  3. Immunopharmacology of the main herbal supplements: a review.

    PubMed

    Amico, Angelo P; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Damiani, Sabino; Ranieri, Maurizio; Megna, Marisa; Fiore, Pietro

    2013-12-01

    It is debated whether the use of herbal supplements in endurance sports, in order to have a better performance, is correct or not, from the perspective of both as safety and as effectiveness. In this review we try to find out if the most common herbal supplements (Echinacea, Rhodiola, Ginseng) are effective in the improvement of performance or in the modulation of the immune system. According to the results of our review, the prevalent effect is adaptogenic rather than ergogenic, with a better tolerance of the exercise induced stress, related to enhancement of the whole immune system and decrease of the oxidative damage. PMID:24456264

  4. Italian Renaissance and Japanese Zen Gardens: An Approach for Introducing Cultural Landscapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purkayastha, Bandana

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method for teaching about cultural landscapes in introductory geography classes by comparing Italian Renaissance gardens with Japanese Zen gardens. Discusses the background and attributes of both garden types. Maintains that, by contrasting the two traditions, it is possible to illustrate cultural landscapes. (CFR)

  5. "Soaking" Model for Learning: Analyzing Japanese Learning/Teaching Process from a Socio-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing how Japanese people learned in the Edo Period (1603-1867), one realizes that Japan had one of the highest literacy rates in the world in the 17th century. By studying this period, I will introduce traditional non-directive teaching and learning theories which still influence educational practices in today's Japan. I will further propose…

  6. The Changing Self-Perceptions of Japanese University Students of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.; Maki, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, Japanese learners of English (JLEs) were regarded as poor language learners who underachieved in international comparisons, and cultural factors were often blamed for their underperformance. A university group of JLEs (N = 259) was investigated to discover whether their attitudes toward language learning are becoming more flexible…

  7. Learning Japanese by Reading "Manga": The Rise of "Soft Power Pedagogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal examples of Japanese language input (such as "manga" and anime) have now become the default choice for curriculum designers, material developers, and classroom teachers to make learning "fun". More traditional written only text-based materials are now in direct competition with such materials. While there has been a comfortable…

  8. The Effect of "Origami" Practice on Size Comparison Strategy among Young Japanese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzawa, Masamichi; Bart, William M.; Kinne, Lenore J.; Sukemune, Seisoh; Kataoka, Minako

    1999-01-01

    Explored the effect of folding traditional origami forms on size comparison strategies among 4- to 6-year-old Japanese and American children. Found that girls in particular improved superimposition skills through practice, and children's use of superimposition strategies rather than less effective strategies also increased. (JPB)

  9. Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of Japanese and American Advertising Appeals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Barbara

    A study examined the advertising of Japan and the United States to determine if commercial messages reflect the cultural values of a particular society, thereby indicating the need for specialized campaigns. It was hypothesized that the majority of Japanese advertisements would use the traditional appeals of group, consensus, soft sell, veneration…

  10. Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Malhotra, Rashmi; Kumar, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    The oldest remedies known to mankind are herbal medicines. India is known worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. Euphorbia hirta is often used traditionally for female disorders, respiratory ailments (cough, coryza, bronchitis, and asthma), worm infestations in children, dysentery, jaundice, pimples, gonorrhea, digestive problems, and tumors. It is reported to contain alkanes, triterpenes, phytosterols, tannins, polyphenols, and flavanoids. This review describes the medicinal properties, chemical constituents, and other important aspects of Euphorbia hirta. PMID:22228942

  11. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  12. [Three case reports of the use of herbal combinations resulted in stent thrombosis: herbal combinations; friend or foe?].

    PubMed

    Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Erdo?an, Ercan; Göktekin, Ömer

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, herbal combinations are commonly used in Turkey and around the world. In particular, an herbal combination including Tribulus terrestris (TT), Avena sativa (AS), and Panax Ginseng (PG), which may be effective in treatment of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, is used by patients with coronary artery disease. In this paper, we will report three cases with coronary stents who were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome while using this herbal combination of TT, AS and PG together with anti-aggregant medications. A 45-year-old man presented with chest pain and coronary angiography confirmed a total occluded stent in left anterior descending artery which was implanted a year ago. Balloon dialation was performed to dilate the stent, resulting in full opening of the vessel. The second case, a 53-year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital with chest pain. Coronary angiography confirmed a total occluded stent, which had been implanted three months ago. A balloon was performed to dilate the stent and it was fully opened. The third case, a 62-year-old man, presented with chest pain. Coronary angiography was performed and there was a 98% stenosis of the circumflex stent, which was implanted three months ago. A balloon was performed to dilate the stent and it was fully opened. It was learnt that all three patients had used the same herbal combination (TT, AS and PG) with dual anti-aggregant therapy for three months ago to presentation in the clinic. Patients were discharged with the suggestion not to use this herbal combination with dual anti-aggregant therapy. There were no problems during the four month follow-up period. Stent thrombosis may be caused by interactions between herbal combination (TT, AS and PG) and clopidogrel in these patients under dual antiaggregant therapy. PMID:22864325

  13. [Exploration of influencing factors of price of herbal based on VAR model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nuo; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Based on vector auto-regression (VAR) model, this paper takes advantage of Granger causality test, variance decomposition and impulse response analysis techniques to carry out a comprehensive study of the factors influencing the price of Chinese herbal, including herbal cultivation costs, acreage, natural disasters, the residents' needs and inflation. The study found that there is Granger causality relationship between inflation and herbal prices, cultivation costs and herbal prices. And in the total variance analysis of Chinese herbal and medicine price index, the largest contribution to it is from its own fluctuations, followed by the cultivation costs and inflation. PMID:25751965

  14. Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, M. M.; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders. PMID:23864888

  15. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  16. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  17. CHIN3050.03 / THEA3350.03 TOPICS IN ASIAN CINEMA Modernity and Tradition in Asian Cinema

    E-print Network

    Lotze, Heike K.

    and modernity. But, given the great differences both between Chinese and Japanese cultural traditions and howCHIN3050.03 / THEA3350.03 TOPICS IN ASIAN CINEMA Modernity and Tradition in Asian Cinema Chinese century, has engaged with and itself exhibited the challenges of westernization and the complex ways

  18. Overview of Japanese aerospace plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuo

    1992-12-01

    The Japanese NAL, NASDA, and ISAS agencies have undertaken development of a Highly Maneuverable Experimental Spaceplane ('HIMES') which will integrate hypersonic technologies currently under development. A development status evaluation of these activities is presented. Attention is given to the configurational features of HIMES, its aerodynamic developmental tests to date, structures and materials considerations, flight control/guidance systems, airbreathing propulsion options, and CFD modeling.

  19. Recent Advances in Japanese Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Solomon

    2003-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide, is confined to Asia, but its geographical area is spreading. West Nile virus, and other closely related flaviviruses, cause similar disease elsewhere. Recent cryoelectron microscopic studies have characterized the flavivirus en- velope protein as a new class of viral fusion protein (class II), and examined its arrangement on the

  20. The Effects of Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    In this paper, selected evidence on the effects of Japanese schools is presented. The author believes that Japan is one modern society where the schools have fostered individual and social development. The primary focus is on the effects for individuals in the area of cognitive skills, motivation, educational and occupational attainments, and…

  1. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  2. Dilemmas of Japanese Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osako, Masako Murakami

    1978-01-01

    Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)

  3. Power Play: The Japanese Situation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Beder

    2006-01-01

    The Japanese electricity industry is currently being gradually deregulated in the hopes that high electricity prices can be reduced. At the same time the government is keen to encourage more use of nuclear power. It is aiming to reuse nuclear fuel in order to close the nuclear fuel cycle and thereby reduce Japan’s reliance on imports to fuel electricity generation.1

  4. The Secret of Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goya, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Japanese students are tracked, not into different programs within a school, but into entirely different high schools--academic, vocational, and commercial--that educate them poorly. Virtually 100% of public school graduates would fail college entrance exams without the "juku," or cram school. Reforms are not imminent, since the current system…

  5. Traditional Construction in Burma

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

  6. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  7. Trends in Utilization of Herbal Medicine: Implications for Health Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behjat A. Sharif

    Abstract English: Over the last few decades, people have increasingly used herbal medicine as an alternative or adjunct to modern drugs. Few of the herbs available to the public have undergone testing for safety, efficacy, or potential interaction with other drugs taken for an ailment. Alt hough herbs are generally safe when used properly, they can be harmful and even

  8. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  9. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Rodriguez-Fragoso; Jorge Reyes-Esparza; Scott W. Burchiel; Dea Herrera-Ruiz; Eliseo Torres

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we

  10. Usage and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Y K Chan; Julian A J H Critchley

    1996-01-01

    The great majority of Chinese herbal preparations are safe, and in the past, some useful Western drugs have been derived from these herbs.Nearly all serious poisonings are due to the few preparations containing aconitine, podophyllin or anti cholinergics or else proprietary preparations containing dangerous Western drugs or heavy metals. Both medical professionals and the general public should be alerted to

  11. Antibacterial Potentials of Some Herbal Preparations Available in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Dahikar; M. D. Lahare

    2009-01-01

    The use of herbal drugs for treating various diseases predates human history and us ed increasingly as dietary supplement to f ight or prevent common disease. The antibacterial potentials of some herba l preparations were investigated by preparing s olvent extract of Triphala chu rna (Baidyanath), Haritaki churna (Ayurveedya A rkashala) M ahasudarshan churna (Baidyanath), and Lavanbhaskar churna (Baidyanath) and

  12. Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

  13. Perioperative risks and benefits of herbal supplements in aesthetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David J; Baker, Arden C

    2009-01-01

    Most medications, herbal preparations, and nutraceutical supplements have notable effects on biochemical pathways and may influence wound healing, coagulation, and cardiovascular function. They can also interact with other drugs. A large portion of the data available regarding the effects of naturopathic medicines is anecdotal. Marketing of certain products may be misleading and potentially harmful, and quality control standards are highly variable. In order to ensure quality control and standardization of products, it is prudent to work with preparations manufactured by companies that adhere to pharmaceutical (good manufacturing practice [GMP]) standards. However, many of these higher-quality products are not readily available to the public over the counter. A large percentage of patients undergoing plastic surgery use one or more herbal medications, but the disclosure of such medications to allopathic providers is often incomplete. In addition, patients may not understand the importance of discontinuing such medications before surgery. The authors review research on the possible benefits and risks of commonly used herbal medications such as arnica montana, St. John's wort, bromelain, echinacea, ginkgo biloba, ephedra, valerian, and others, focusing on their potentially positive or negative impact during the perioperative period of aesthetic surgery. Good communication with surgical patients, including the administration of a presurgical questionnaire to help identify any use of herbal medications, is emphasized. PMID:19371848

  14. A survey on herbal management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Nabil Mohie; Nazmy, Maiiada Hasan; Mahmoud, Ahmed Wahid; Fawzy, Michael Atef; Youssof, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this review we outline the different mechanisms mediating hepatocarcinogenesis. We also discuss possible targets of bioactive herbal agents at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and highlight their role at each individual stage. We gathered information on the most common herbal prescriptions and extracts thought to be useful in prevention or sensitization for chemotherapy in management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The value of this topic may seem questionable compared to the promise offered for HCC management by chemotherapy and radiation. However, we would recommend the use of herbal preparations not as alternatives to common chemo /and or radiotherapy, but rather for prevention among at-risk individuals, given that drug/herb interactions are still in need of extensive clarification. The bioactive constituents of various herbs seem to be promising targets for isolation, cancer activity screening and clinical evaluation. Finally, herbal preparations may offer a cost effective protective alternative to individuals known to have a high risk for HCC and possibly other cancers, through maintaining cell integrity, reversing oxidative stress and modulating different molecular pathways in preventing carcinogenesis. PMID:21866249

  15. Safety of Popular Herbal Supplements in Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Amer, Marwa R; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-08-01

    The increasing popularity and use of dietary supplements has required health care professionals to become more knowledgeable of their properties, interactions, and adverse effects. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety of popular dietary supplements in breastfeeding mothers and the effects on the infants. Nine of the most popular herbal dietary supplements were identified based on the 2011 US market report of the top 10 selling botanicals and the most frequently received inquiries by the Ruth A. Lawrence Lactation Study Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Relevant publications were identified through June 2014 using PubMed and EMBASE; tertiary references, including the Drugs and Lactation Database and Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, were also reviewed. These herbals include black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, evening primrose, garlic, ginseng, melatonin, milk thistle, and St John's wort. Studies varied greatly with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Findings suggested that dietary/herbal supplements have not been evaluated in high-quality clinical trials, and there is limited evidence supporting safety of use, particularly among lactating women. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to provide counseling for nursing mothers seeking information on dietary supplements, highlighting reliable safety profiles, inquiring about the potential benefits the patient is seeking, and assessing the patient's perception of this supplement during breastfeeding. More research and clinical trials are required in this area to guide the recommendations and expand our current knowledge of these products. PMID:25881578

  16. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) ?3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) ?10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7.5 points on a 30 point scale in the ibuprofen-treated group; treatment with Arnica gel reduced function by 0.4 points (MD ?0.4, 95% CI ?1.75 to 0.95), absolute improvement 1% (6% improvement to 3% decline)). Total adverse events were higher in the Arnica gel group (13% compared to 8% in the ibuprofen group): relative risk (RR) 1.65 (95% CI 0.72 to 3.76). Moderate quality evidence from a single trial of 99 people with knee osteoarthritis indicated that compared with placebo, Capsicum extract gel probably does not improve pain or knee function, and is commonly associated with treatment-related adverse events including skin irritation and a burning sensation. At four weeks follow-up, mean pain in the placebo group was 46 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Capsicum extract reduced pain by 1 point (MD ?1, 95%CI ?6.8 to 4.8), absolute reduction of 1%(7%reduction to 5% increase). Mean knee function in the placebo group was 34.8 points on a 96 point scale at four weeks; treatment with Capsicum extract improved function by a mean of 2.6 points (MD ?2.6, 95% CI ?9.5 to 4.2), an absolute improvement of 3% (10% improvement to 4% decline). Adverse event rates were greater in the Capsicum extract group (80% compared with 20% in the placebo group, rate ratio 4.12, 95% CI 3.30 to 5.17). The number needed to treat to result in adverse events was 2 (95% CI 1 to 2). Moderate evidence from a single trial of 220 people with knee osteoarthritis suggested that comfrey extract gel probably improves pain without increasing adverse events. At three weeks, the mean pain in the placebo group was 83.5 points on a 100 point scale. Treatment with comfrey reduced pain by a mean of 41.5 points (MD ?41.5, 95% CI ?48 to ?34), an absolute reduction of 42% (34% to 48% reduction). Function was not reported. Adverse events were similar: 6%(7/110) reported adverse events in the comfre

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these species is endangered, one species is critically endangered, eight species are vulnerable, one is listed in CITES II, three are listed in Regional Red Data Book and the remaining 224 species are in the least concerned conservation category. Conclusions The liáng chá industry of southern China reflects the plant species richness and cultural diversity of the region. Future research on safety and efficacy of herbal drinks as well as ecological and cultural conservation efforts are needed for the sustainable growth of China’s botanical industry. PMID:24354903

  18. [The herbals and floristic albums of Eliza Orzeszkowa].

    PubMed

    Ku?nicka, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In many of her literary works, the writer and columnist Eliza Orzeszkowa (1841-1910), who was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature (1905, 1909), depicted the life of the Polish society in the eastern lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 19th century. A great lover of nature, Orzeszkowa appreciated the botanical knowledge of the local rural population in the vicinities of Grodno. She combined attempts to master that knowledge with her other great passion, that of investigating folk culture, and was always ready to listen to what women who were village herbalists had to tell her about medicinal plants, and about the customs and legends connected with the medical practices based on herbal remedies. She then passed on the information to botanists for scientific verification. Orzeszkowa's naturalist and ethnographic fascinations led her to write a cycle of articles on "The people and flowers on the Niemen river", published in 1888-1891 in the ethnographic-tourist magazine "Wis?a". This collection of articles has been analysed not only by historians of literature, but also, since 1985, by historians of science. The first analysis was conducted at the Section for the History of Pharmacy of the Institute of the History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences. This yielded Ewa Kami?ska's study: Zio?oznawstwo i zio?olecznictwo w publikacjach etnograficznych Elizy Orzeszkowej [The knowledge of herbs and medicine based on herbal remedies in the ethnographic publications of Eliza Orzeszkowa] published as part of the Institute's Historia leków naturalnych [History of natural medicines], ed. Barbara Ku?nicka, vol. I: Zród?a do dziejów etnofarmacji polskiej [Sources for the history of Polish ethnopharmacy], Warszawa 1996, pp.25-88. The subject-matter of the publication aroused much interest among historians of pharmacy from Pozna?. The first sign of that interest could be seen in the article by Jan Majewski and S?awoj Kucharski entitled Pasje pisarki [The writer's passions], published in 1998 in "Gazeta Farmaceutyczna" [Pharmaceutical Journal] and illustrated with pages from the herbal created by Orzeszkowa. One of the authors, Jan Majewski, has found also other herbal-albums, kept, among other places, at the Museum of the Marist Fathers near London, and in the archival collections of the Ossolineum publishing house. A major surprise was connected with the discovery of a herbal that had the features of genuine botanical documentation. The title page of the herbal, which was discovered (by Jan Majewski and S?awoj Kucharski ) at Pozna?, in the collections of the Pozna? Society of the Friends of Science, carries the inscription: Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej. Z pól, lak i lasów, nadnieme?skich miejscowo?ci, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemu?, Horny, Ko?paki [The Herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. From the fields, meadows and woods of localities on the Niemen river, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemu?, Horny, Ko?paki]. The value of the herbal for the history of botany has been appreciated by Anna Maria Kielak, the author of a beautiful bibliophile publication entitled Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej nieznany zabytek botaniczny przechowywany w zbiorach Pozna?skiego Towarzystwa Przyjació? Nauk. [The herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. An unknown botanical aabytek kept in the collections of the Pozna? Society of the Friends of Science], Pozna? 2004, pp. 151. The author has presented Eliza Orzeszkowa's biography, as well as her botanical and ethnographic passions. She has also made a list of the plants mentioned in the herbal, as well as appendices containing Orzeszkowa's correspondence with botanists. The author also describes the artistic albums composed by Orzeszkowa from dried herbs. PMID:17333878

  19. Herbal interactions with anticancer drugs: mechanistic and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Yang, An-Kui; He, Shu-Ming; Liu, Liang; Liu, Jun-Ping; Wei, Ming Qian; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2010-01-01

    A large number of herbal remedies (e.g. garlic, mistletoe, Essiac, Lingzhi, and astragalus) are used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicities of chemotherapeutic drugs. Some herbal medicines have shown potentially beneficial effects on cancer progression and may ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxicities. However, there is no or weak scientific basis for the clinical use of these herbal medicines in cancer management and almost none of these plant medicines have been tested in rigorous clinical trials. There are increased reports on the interaction of herbal medicines and anticancer drugs that is becoming a safety concern. For example, a clinical study in cancer patients reported that treatment of St John's wort at 900 mg/day orally for 18 days decreased the plasma levels of the active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38, by 42%. In healthy subjects, 2 weeks of treatment with St John's wort at 900 mg/day significantly decreased the systemic exposure of imatinib by 32%. In women with advanced breast cancer, coadministration of garlic supplement reduced the clearance of docetaxol by 23.1-35.1%, although the difference did not achieve statistical significance. Most anticancer drugs undergo Phase I and/or II metabolism and are substrates of P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, multidrug resistance associated proteins, and/or other transporters. Induction and inhibition of these enzymes and transporters is considered an important mechanism for herb-anticancer drug interactions. Further studies are warranted to investigate potentially harmful herbal interactions with anticancer drugs in patients. PMID:20345351

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management.

    PubMed

    Stern, Judith S; Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-06-01

    The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m². Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m²; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  1. Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Washio, Masakazu; Mori, Mitsuru; Mikami, Kazuya; Miki, Tsuneharu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakao, Masahiro; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Suzuki, Koji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is high in Western and Northern Europe and North America, and low in Asia. Although the incidence of RCC in Japan is lower than the rates in the other industrialized countries, there is no doubt that it is increasing. In this paper, we would like to introduce the summary of findings of JACC study, which evaluate the risk factors for RCC in a Japanese population. JACC study suggests nine risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, low physical activity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, beef, fondness for fatty food and black tea) and one preventive factor (i.e., starchy roots such as taro, sweet potato and potato) in a Japanese population. In Japan, however, drinking black tea may be a surrogate for westernized dietary habits while eating starchy roots may be a surrogate for traditional Japanese dietary habits. Further studies may be needed to evaluate risk factors for RCC because the number of cases is small in our studies. PMID:25422180

  2. Beyond shamanism: the relevance of African traditional medicine in global health policy.

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the tension between African traditional medicine and orthodox medicine, and argues for a cosmopolitan and inclusive health policy that integrates ethnomedical therapies into the core framework of global health architecture. The paper argues that age-old traditional therapies in Africa are relegated to the peripheries of orthodox health policy. The paper briefly discusses the accelerating pace of globalization of intellectual property rights (patents) as a factor that would continue to perpetrate bio-piracy and threaten traditional herbal therapies with extinction. The search for an inclusive global health policy opens a new vista in the interaction of traditional and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that a sustained relegation of African traditional medicine to the margins of orthodox health policy is a phenomenon that would likely project the globalization of public health as predatory, discriminatory and unfair. PMID:17639845

  3. JAPANESE FATHERS IN THE UNITED STATES: NEGOTIATING DIFFERENT CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUKA ABE

    Japanese fathers residing abroad have not been given much attention in Japanese scholarship. In this study, I examine how Japanese fathers in the United States negotiate between Japanese and American cultural expectations regarding fatherhood. Relying on a symbolic interactionist perspective, and through qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with 24 Japanese fathers who live in the United States for business, I

  4. Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male?=?1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study conducted a large scale pharmaco-epidemiology survey of Chinese herbal medicine use in OA patients by analyzing the NHIRD in Taiwan in year 2002. PMID:24606767

  5. Components of the peptidome and transcriptome persist in lin wa pi: The dried skin of the Heilongjiang brown frog ( Rana amurensis) as used in traditional Chinese medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Zhou; Yang Liu; Tianbao Chen; Xuexun Fang; Brian Walker; Chris Shaw

    2006-01-01

    Although the ancient practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilizes predominantly herbal ingredients, many of which are now the subject of intense scientific scrutiny, significant quantities of animal tissue-derived materials are also employed. Here we have used contemporary molecular techniques to study the material known as lin wa pi, the dried skin of the Heilongjiang brown frog, Rana amurensis, that

  6. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD. PMID:25279787

  7. Gene Expression Profiling as an Initial Approach for Mechanistic Studies of Toxicity and Tumorigenicity of Herbal Plants and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Guo; Nan Mei; Qingsu Xia; Tao Chen; Po-Chuen Chan; Peter P. Fu

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are consumed by more than 300 million people worldwide, and herbal dietary supplements represent the most rapidly growing portion of this industry. Even though adverse health effects of many herbal dietary supplements have been reported, safety assurances are not being addressed adequately. Toxicological data on the identification of genotoxic and tumorigenic ingredients in many raw herbs are also

  8. Herbal Tea Garden Herbal tea is always a delight, especially when prepared from garden-fresh herbs. Here are a few good tea herbs to try in

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Herbal Tea Garden Herbal tea is always a delight, especially when prepared from garden-fresh herbs. Here are a few good tea herbs to try in your own garden: Plant Height Width Peppermint 1'-2' spreads) Italian Parsley 1'-2' 1' If garden space is at a premium, most of the herbs listed above will do well

  9. [Japanese demography: paradoxes and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-10-01

    Japan is one of the most densely-populated countries with a population estimated at 127.4 millions and an average density of 337 persons per square kilometer. But the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research is concerned: since 1950, the total fertility rate is declining and some pessimistic projections predict the japanese population extinction to 3000. During 2008, several reports, based on the major results of 2005 census, analyse population process components and establish projections based on alternative assumptions, looking for solutions limiting the population dependency ratio. On the site of the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, the population pyramids are shown from 1930 to 2055. Recently, the French National Institute for demographic studies gave a comprehensive report on the Japanese demographic status, explaining the possible consequences for the country's demographic future. PMID:19849991

  10. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe. PMID:25090898

  11. Herbal bioactivation: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Gao, Yihuai; Gong, Zhi-yuan; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2004-01-01

    It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to toxicity via multiple mechanisms such as direct cytotoxicity, oncogene activation, and hypersensitivity reactions. This is exemplified by aristolochic acids present in Aristolochia spp, undergoing reduction of the nitro group by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1/2) or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to reactive cyclic nitrenium ion. The latter was capable of reacting with DNA and proteins, resulting in activation of H-ras oncogene, gene mutation and finally carcinogenesis. Other examples are pulegone present in essential oils from many mint species; and teucrin A, a diterpenoid found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming diets. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that was a glutathione depletory, and the furan ring of the diterpenoids in germander was oxidized by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase. On the other hand, some herbal/dietary constituents were shown to form reactive intermediates capable of irreversibly inhibiting various CYPs. The resultant metabolites lead to CYP inactivation by chemical modification of the heme, the apoprotein, or both as a result of covalent binding of modified heme to the apoprotein. Some examples include bergamottin, a furanocoumarin of grapefruit juice; capsaicin from chili peppers; glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root; isothiocyanates found in all cruciferous vegetables; oleuropein rich in olive oil; dially sulfone found in garlic; and resveratrol, a constituent of red wine. CYPs have been known to metabolize more than 95% therapeutic drugs and activate a number of procarcinogens as well. Therefore, mechanism-based inhibition of CYPs may provide an explanation for some reported herb-drug interactions and chemopreventive activity of herbs. Due to the wide use and easy availability of herbal medicines, there is increasing concern about herbal toxicity. The safety and quality of herbal medicine should be ensured through greater research, pharmacovigilance, greater regulatory control and better communication between patients and health professionals. PMID:14672753

  12. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Japanese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Horai; Ei Matsunaga

    1986-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 116 Japanese was analyzed with nine restriction enzymes that recognize a four or five base pair sequence. The sizes of the mtDNA fragments produced by digestion by each enzyme were compared after gel electrophoresis. Double digestion experiments indicated that, in the coding region from URF2 (unidentified reading frame) to tRNAAsn (bp 5274–5691), there is an insertion

  13. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Japanese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Horai; Takashi Gojobori; Ei Matsunaga

    1984-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 120 Japanese was analysed with 15 restriction enzymes that recognize six base pairs, of which 11 enzymes showed at least one atypical cleavage pattern. Digestion patterns with HincII and HaeII were highly polymorphic. The observed restriction enzyme morphs were classified into 22 types of distinct cleavage patterns. By pairwise comparison of each restriction type, the

  14. A Sustainable Southwest Japanese Garden

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rhonda Spidell

    Project Description (Microsoft Word 14kB Jan26 10) Water collection and usage in the Sustainable SW Japanese Garden The Albuquerque Water Authority has several activities on their web site to help with making a personal water audit, selecting xeriscape plants, designing garden areas as well as forms for rebates. We used the ABQ Water Authority design format to calculate which plants to install. Students start with a personal water audit and then move to the design of the garden. Personal water audit http://www.abcwua.org/Understanding_Your_Bill.aspx Techniques to consevere water outdoors http://www.abcwua.org/Save_Water_Outdoors.aspx Planning Xeriscape - students create their own personal garden and we transfer the concepts to the Japanese Garden. We are looking at Japanese design elements with a SW flare and thereby modeling what the internees did when they were limited to the surrounding rock, vegetation and water collection. http://www.abcwua.org/Xeriscaping.aspx Calculating roof area using a Google satellite image We use a measurable square on the pathway for the scale and then we calculate the square feet of the roof area. A transparency is used to overlay the image and calculate the water harvest. Calculating the capacity of the 1500 gallon cistern in terms of water needed per plant Students experiment with buckets to see ascertain the best collection site. The water is measured after rainfalls and compared to the weather data collected by the NOAA.

  15. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  16. Elementary Japanese I Enjoy learning online from a native Japanese speaker with long

    E-print Network

    JPNS 101 Elementary Japanese I ONLINE! Enjoy learning online from a native Japanese speaker by learning online. (4 credits, transferable). JPNS 102 Elementary Japanese I M,T,W,TH 10:00 ­ 10:50 a.m. & 11 and vocabulary sufficient to maintain a conversation and understanding at an elementary level. Learn to read

  17. Usefulness of studies on the molecular mechanism of action of herbals/botanicals: The case of St. John's wort.

    PubMed

    Choudhuri, Supratim; Valerio, Luis G

    2005-01-01

    The use of herbals/botanicals has been gaining wide popularity in recent years in the United States as well as in other parts of the world. The mechanism of action of most of these herbals/botanicals has not been subjected to thorough scientific investigations. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) represents a useful case study in this sense. Traditionally, it is used as a natural treatment for depression; however, in recent years its molecular mechanism of action has been elucidated by a number of laboratories across the world. Such studies have helped understand potential interactions of St. John's wort with drugs and other xenobiotics. St. John's wort activates a nuclear receptor called pregnane X receptor (PXR). PXR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that induces a number of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and transporters including cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) in humans. Because CYP3A4 alone metabolizes about 60% of all clinically relevant drugs, induction of CYP3A4 may result in the rapid elimination of these drugs and a consequent reduction in drug efficacy. Ironically, such enzyme-inducing effects may not produce any immediate adverse symptomatology in the person taking St. John's wort. Therefore, the case of St. John's wort should serve as a good example of the usefulness and importance of studies on the mechanism of action of the herbals/botanicals, particularly those with widespread use. Scientists, physicians, and other health professionals can make use of the knowledge from such studies as an additional risk management tool. PMID:15736155

  18. Peginterferon plus Chinese herbal therapy is associated with a higher virological response than only peginterferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, D; Liu, E; Li, Y; Liu, R; Bai, L; Chen, Y; Wang, Y; Chu, Y; Wu, M; Cheng, G; Zhao, S

    2014-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapies are widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in China and several Asian countries. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing peginterferon therapy with peginterferon plus Chinese herbal therapy for the treatment of CHC. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and China Biomedical Database were searched to identify RCTs that evaluated the virological response of CHC patients to peginterferon therapy and peginterferon plus Chinese herbal therapy. We statistically combined data using a fixed-effects meta-analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle. The literature search yielded 905 studies and nine RCTs composed of 858 patients matched the selection criteria. Overall, sustained virological response (SVR) was significantly higher in patients treated with peginterferon plus Chinese herbs than in patients treated with peginterferon alone (81 % vs. 64 %, respectively; odds ratio, 2.60; 95 % confidence interval: 1.32–5.14; p < 0.05). A combined therapy of peginterferon plus Chinese herbs was also superior to peginterferon therapy in achieving an early viral response (EVR, 80 % vs. 70 %, respectively), a viral response at week 24 of treatment (82 % vs. 73 %, respectively), and end-of-treatment viral response (ETVR, 73 % vs. 62 %, respectively). The combined therapy resulted in fewer relapses, fewer adverse events, and more rapid alanine transaminase normalization; however, both treatments yielded a similar rapid viral response (RVR, 53 % vs. 57 %, respectively). The current evidence suggests that combined therapy of peginterferon plus Chinese herbs yields a higher viral response and results in fewer relapses and fewer adverse events than peginterferon therapy alone. PMID:24022094

  19. Fundamental Frequency Range in Japanese and English: The Case of Simultaneous Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Graham, Calbert

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to test whether Japanese and English speakers vary their fundamental frequency (f0) range as a function of the language spoken. Speech samples of Japanese-(American) English simultaneous bilinguals (5 males, 5 females; all undergraduates at UC Berkeley) performing comparable reading tasks in their two native languages were analysed. The study builds on a relatively new approach to measuring f0 range that computes its high and low points from tonal targets in the intonational phonology. Unlike in most previous studies where f0 range is traditionally treated as a one-dimensional measure, f0 range in this study is measured along two quasi-independent dimensions: level and span. Findings revealed statistically significant crosslanguage differences between Japanese and English in both dimensions. This provides new insights into the relation between prosodic structure and f0 range in these two typologically different prosodic systems. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25997935

  20. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  1. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0??M) and collagen- (2.0??g/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H2O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM?:?MeOH 1?:?1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM?:?MeOH 1?:?1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM?:?MeOH 1?:?1), and L. apiculata (H2O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  2. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0??M) and collagen- (2.0??g/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM?:?MeOH 1?:?1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM?:?MeOH 1?:?1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM?:?MeOH 1?:?1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  3. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  4. Herbal 'health' products: what family physicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Zink, T; Chaffin, J

    1998-10-01

    Patients who self-medicate with herbs for preventive and therapeutic purposes may assume that these products are safe because they are "natural," but some products cause adverse effects or have the potential to interact with prescription medications. The United States lacks a regulatory system for herbal products. Although only limited research on herbs has been published, St John's wort shows promise as a treatment for depression. Ginkgo biloba extract is possibly effective for cerebrovascular insufficiency and dementia. Feverfew is used extensively in Canada for migraine prophylaxis but needs more rigorous study. Ephedrine has been regulated by many states because its misuse has been associated with several deaths. Echinacea is being tried as an agent for immune stimulation, and garlic is under study for cholesterol-lowering properties, but both require more study. Physicians should educate themselves and their patients about the efficacy and adverse interactions of herbal agents and the limitations of our present knowledge of them. PMID:9787279

  5. Efficacy of Iranian traditional medicine in the treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi Fard, Mehri; Shojaii, Asie

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki), Bryonia alba (Fashra), Ferula persica (Sakbinaj), Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar), and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan) there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed. PMID:23936834

  6. Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

  7. Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thavasimuthu Citarasu

    2010-01-01

    Hormones, antibiotics, vitamins and several other chemicals have been tested in aquaculture operations for various remedies.\\u000a Even though they give positive effects, they cannot be recommended due to their residual and other side effects. The alternative\\u000a herbal bio-medicinal products in the aquacultural operations, that have the characteristics of growth promoting ability and\\u000a tonic to improve the immune system, act as

  8. Comparative study on adjuvanticity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deyun Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Junling Sun; Xiangfeng Kong; Baokang Zhang; Jiaguo Liu

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) and filtrate best prescription and dose, two initial screened cCHMIs were prepared and mixed with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine respectively at three doses to vaccinate 17-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant vaccines as controls. On day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after

  9. The use of herbal teas and remedies in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J M; Grant, D; Hutchinson, S; Wilks, R

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of the use of herbs among adults and children in Jamaica in 1996. Two concurrent surveys were conducted in randomly selected urban and rural areas: among adults and among caretakers of young children. From over 90% of the selected households, all caretakers of children under 6 years and one randomly selected adult (18 years or older) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The 457 adults reportedly used 156 types of herbs: a mean of 6 +/- 3 (mean +/- standard deviation) by the urban adults, and 10 +/- 6 by the rural adults (t-test, p < 0.001). Almost 100% of respondents had at some time used herbs for teas or for treating illnesses. The most common method of preparation was by infusion or boiling in water, then adding sugar. Urban respondents, women and those who were employed were more likely to buy medicines than to use herbal remedies. One hundred and sixty-seven caretakers of 203 children under 6 years were interviewed. The mean number of herbs given to each child was between 2 and 3. The most common herbs were introduced within the first 6 months of life. Many caretaker factors were associated with herbal use. Public health implications include the potential toxicity of some herbs, the possibility that herbal teas given to young children may displace more nutritious foods and delay presentation to health care facilities. The findings will allow policy makers to target those most likely to use herbal preparations or to give them to young children, and target herbs to be analyzed for toxic or beneficial properties. PMID:11211545

  10. [Herbal textural analysis on the Chinese drug xuancaogen].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T J

    1993-09-01

    The results of herbal textural research showed that the original plants of Xuancaogen in ancient times were Hemerocallis fulva, H. fulva var. kwanso, H. citrina, H. lilio-asphodelus and H. minor. The cause of confusion about Xuancao, Lilu and Lucong was discriminated. The erroneous scientific names of Beihuanghuacai and Shexiangcao in contemporary literature were corrected. A suggestion that H. aurentiaca be supplemented as an independent specise was raised. PMID:8011103

  11. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali K. Atoui; Abdelhak Mansouri; George Boskou; Panagiotis Kefalas

    2005-01-01

    Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1±0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216±32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)\\/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and

  12. Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Chan

    2003-01-01

    A World Health Organisation survey indicated that about 70–80% of the world populations rely on non-conventional medicine mainly of herbal sources in their primary healthcare. In recent years, we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of over-the-counter (OTC) health foods, nutraceuticals, and medicinal products from plants or other natural sources in developed countries. This indirectly indicates that the public

  13. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Africa: Questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2015-08-01

    In order to describe and evaluate Herbal Medicine (HM) pharmacovigilance in African countries who are members of the WHO International Programme for Drug Monitoring a survey questionnaire was sent to the national centres and national drug regulatory agencies of these countries. Data collection was carried out from October 1st to 31st December, 2014. Among the total of 39 African countries, 34 (87.2%) answered the questionnaire and 25 (64.1%) accepted to share their data in this publication. Spontaneous adverse reaction reporting for HM is voluntary in 7 (43.7%) countries. HM pharmacovigilance programmes covered suspected adverse HM reactions in 14 (87.5%) countries; HM information in 7 (43.7%) countries; HM dependence or abuse in 6 (37.5%) countries; medication errors in 5 (31.2%) countries; falsification and adulteration in 2 (each 12.5%) countries and HM-drug interactions in 1 (6.3%) country. Groups in countries encouraged to submit herbal reports were pharmacists and physicians (both n=15); nurses (n=13); herbal therapists (n=12); patients (n=11) and local manufacturers (n=8). The number of herbal reports received by most countries was very low or even insignificant. VigiFlow is used by 10 countries. Information from pharmacovigilance activities is disseminated using many means. Only five countries have regulatory status and quality control of their HM products. The participants identified a need for HM regulation, technical and training assistance, and funding as being major challenges to HM pharmacovigilance in countries. Particular attention to the development of pharmacovigilance of HM is required in Africa. PMID:26027756

  14. A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley “Over-use” as an Herbal Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal products in patients with allergic diseases is a special problem and still controversial. But, many people often use herbs to maintain good health. The patients use self-prescribed remedies as medications but do not inform their physicians about herbal use. Unfortunately, some herbal self-medications may have unexpected effects and interactions which may lead to fatal complications. In this report, we describe a female patient who suffered near-fatal anaphylaxis to parsley. PMID:25648063

  15. Interactions of a herbal combination that inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinh Q. Chung; Martin Tattersall; H. T. Andrew Cheung

    2004-01-01

    Purpose PC SPES is an eight-component herbal product marketed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The manufacturer of PC SPES claims that the herbal combination is a synergistic blend, but the purported synergy has never been tested. We examined the interaction in cell culture of these eight individual herbal components by the use of an isobologram. Methods US patent no. 5,665,393 (1997)

  16. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•?) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•? was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•?. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•? and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  17. Chinese Herbal Therapy for Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tong, YanQing; Yu, LiXiang; Sun, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05) shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache.

  18. Herbal medicines today and the roots of modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Goldman, P

    2001-10-16

    The transformation of digitalis from a folk medicine, foxglove, to a modern drug, digoxin, illustrates principles of modern pharmacology that have helped make drugs safer and more effective. Digitalis was improved because its preparation was standardized, first by bioassay and then by chemical methods; however, few of today's herbs are standardized by methods that can ensure a consistent product and, hence, consistent safety and efficacy profiles. Many herbs have been evaluated in randomized, controlled trials, and several-St. John's wort and ginkgo, for example-are apparently effective. Yet, many trials of herbs have limited value because of poor design, small samples, and, above all, use of products of uncertain composition and consistency. The uncertain composition of many herbal products raises questions about their safety, as does evidence indicating that herbs may have harmful interactions with prescription drugs. Such adverse effects of herbs are probably underreported. Meanwhile, systematic studies, such as those identifying adverse reactions to drugs, are hindered because herbal preparations are not standardized-one brand of St. John's wort, for example, will differ chemically from another-and, unlike for prescription drugs, there are no databases linking herb consumption to later medical problems. Since herbal medicines are regulated as dietary supplements, they are not subject to the premarketing regulatory clearance required for drugs. The burden of proof is on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to show a dietary supplement is unsafe, unlike for drugs, which cannot be approved until the manufacturer has demonstrated safety and effectiveness. PMID:11601931

  19. Herbal weight loss pill overdose: sibutramine hidden in pepper pill.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu Gunaydin, Gul; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Levent, Sevcan; Kurtoglu Celik, Gulhan

    2015-01-01

    Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5?mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times. PMID:25861489

  20. Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  1. Preserving neural retina through re-emerging herbal interventions.

    PubMed

    Anand, Akshay; Modgil, Shweta; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Shri, Richa; Kaushik, Sushmita

    2014-10-01

    Eye related diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, conjunctivitis are very common worldwide. With the current scenario India will be among the top five countries in the number of glaucoma cases. Limited discovery of successful drugs for the treatment of such diseases led scientists to look towards the use of conventional sources for treatment. Herbal extracts from Ayurveda have remained an important part of treatment regime in many parts of world even today. For this reason, local herbs possessing curative properties are still being used by local inhabitants due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Because retinal damage involves alterations in oxidative enzymes, blood flow changes and increase in apoptotic signals, herbal extracts are being tested for their ability to moderate antioxidant machinery and trigger neuroprotective pathways. The present review summarizes some of such herbal extracts which have been tested for their neuroprotective role in eye related diseases. The active components that exert neuroprotective effects have also been discussed along with possible mechanisms of action. PMID:24819477

  2. Antidiarrheal Efficacy and Cellular Mechanisms of a Thai Herbal Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl? channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl? channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1?50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca2+ agonist-induced Cl? conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ?50% inhibition at a 1?5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl? inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl? channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  3. Do Herbal Formulas Influence the International Normalized Ratio of Patients Taking Warfarin? A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsu-Yuan; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Park, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Warfarin is a common anticoagulant agent for cardiovascular diseases, and it is known to interact with several foods and drugs. Several studies report an interaction between warfarin and herbal medicines; however, the influence of herbal medicines on the international normalized ratio (INR) is still controversial. We investigated the influence of herbal formulas on INR of patients taking warfarin. We searched electronic medical records of inpatients for INR results. Then, we compared the changes in INR and any adverse events between the group taking herbal formulas and warfarin (herbal group) and another group taking warfarin only (nonherbal group). Eighty-six patients were included; 45 patients were assigned to the herbal group and 41 patients to the nonherbal group. The herbal group had taken the same dose of warfarin for a longer period. The nonherbal group had a slightly higher mean INR value than the herbal group. The ratio of INR less than 2 and greater than 3, the ratio of INR that increased or decreased by one or more compared to the initial INR, and the ratio of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. It is suggested that use of herbal formulas may not influence INR value. PMID:25861354

  4. Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of specific herbal medicinal products, potential effects of long term use as well as possible interactions of herbal medicinal products with concomitantly used conventional medicines. PMID:24988878

  5. A survey of traditional medicinal plants from the Callejón de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, Perú.

    PubMed

    Hammond, G B; Fernández, I D; Villegas, L F; Vaisberg, A J

    1998-05-01

    The medicinal uses of local flora from the Callejón de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, northeastern Perú, are reported. This geographical area has an old tradition of herbal healing. A total of 33 species have been documented through interactions with village elders, traditional doctors and herbalists. Of the 33 medicinal plant species surveyed in the Callejón de Huaylas, six have not been previously reported, seven have received only minor phytochemical coverage in the literature, and the medicinal uses of seven other plants have not been corroborated with traditional medicinal reports from around the world. The traditional medicinal uses of six medicinal plants have been corroborated with previously published reports but their biological activities have yet to be confirmed in the laboratory. The medicinal uses of four other plants have been corroborated with previously published reports and their biological activities have been confirmed in the laboratory. The purported medicinal use of three plant species could not be confirmed in the laboratory. PMID:9687078

  6. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  7. Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Neil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

  8. Looking beyond Traditional Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Lynda; McKenna, Constance

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the evaluation of the home economics specialized adviser program in Illinois Extension regions, including specific recommendations for program revisions. The evaluation was based on the Provus Discrepancy Evaluation Model, which provides an alternative to traditional evaluation techniques by considering descriptions of…

  9. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  10. Value of Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

  11. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  12. Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun-Ling; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Wang, De-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Kang; Liu, Jia-Guo

    2006-03-20

    Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological saline in the control, were respectively injected to the rabbits vaccinated with inactivated rabbit hemorrhagic disease vaccine. On Days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of serum antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In chicken immune trial, all of cCIs and cCMs were mixed respectively with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine virus to vaccinate chickens, taking oil-adjuvant and non-adjuvant vaccine as controls. On Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers were tested respectively by MTT method and HI test method. The results showed that both cCIs could significantly raise antibody titer in rabbits, which the effect of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 1 (cCIs 1) was better than that of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 2 (cCIs 2). All of cCIs and cCMs could markedly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance antibody titer in chickens, which was similar to oil adjuvant, the immunologic enhancement of cCIs were slightly superior to that of the cCMs. PMID:16378665

  13. Estimation of salivary and tongue coating pH on chewing household herbal leaves: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Madhusudan, A. S.; Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Batra, Mehak; Sharma, Ashish; Patel, Srikant Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH and also to assess the degree of tongue coating in healthy subjects before and after chewing herbal leaves (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf). Materials and Methods: A double-blind, randomized, concurrent, parallel-group study was conducted among 60 volunteer subjects, who were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf) and were asked to chew five to six fresh leaves of the respective plants twice daily for 7 days. Salivary and tongue coating pH were measured by a digital pH meter and color pH indicators. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measure analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Mean salivary pH values showed an increase immediately and 30 min after chewing the herbal leaves. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed between mint and curry leaf groups immediately after chewing and between tulsi and curry leaf groups (P < 0.05) 30 min after chewing the leaves. Tongue coating pH showed an increase toward alkalinity in all the groups. The assessment of tongue coating showed an increase in scores among tulsi and curry leaf groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Chewing traditional medicinal plant leaves can be considered as safe, effective, and economical alternate options for maintaining good oral health. PMID:24167330

  14. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods. PMID:22312286

  15. The Effect of Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Herbal Remedy PADMA 28 on Immunological Angiogenesis and Granulocytes Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Le?niewska, Dorota M.; Skopi?ski, Piotr; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, S?awomir; Kocik, Janusz; Skopi?ska-Ró?ewska, Ewa; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    PADMA 28 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, angioprotecting, and wound healing properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of this remedy on immunological angiogenesis and granulocytes metabolic activity in Balb/c mice. Mice were fed daily, for seven days, with 5.8?mg of PADMA (calculated from recommended human daily dose) or 0.085?mg (dose in the range of active doses of other herbal extracts studied by us previously). Results. Highly significant increase of newly formed blood vessels number in ex vivo cutaneous lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis test (LIA) after grafting of Balb/c splenocytes from both dosage groups to F1 hybrids (Balb/c × C3H); increase of blood lymphocytes and granulocytes number only in mice fed with lower dose of remedy; and significant suppression of metabolic activity (chemiluminescence test) of blood granulocytes in mice fed with higher dose of PADMA. Conclusion. PADMA 28 behaves as a good stimulator of physiological angiogenesis, but for this purpose it should be used in substantially lower doses than recommended by producers for avoiding the deterioration of granulocyte function. PMID:23864768

  16. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  17. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  18. Acculturation of Personality: A Three-Culture Study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-07-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants' fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers' patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more "American" and less "Japanese" in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence. PMID:23935211

  19. Acculturation of Personality: A Three-Culture Study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants’ fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers’ patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more “American” and less “Japanese” in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence. PMID:23935211

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopi?ski, P.; Ba?an, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopi?ska-Ró?ewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  1. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  2. JAPANESE OYSTER-CULTURE. By BASHFORD DEAN,

    E-print Network

    OOMMISSION. For the rest, Japanese oyster-culture proved to be worthy of careful study, not only for itsJAPANESE OYSTER-CULTURE. By BASHFORD DEAN, Adjunct Professor hI Zoology, Columbia UniiJersity. European oyster-culture, especially as practiced in France and Holland, is gen- erally regarded as the most

  3. Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Shrimp Import

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Shrimp Import Trends for 1963·80 Told Japanese imports of frozen shrimp in 1980 amounted to 143,256 metric tons (t), valued at ¥240,353 million ($1,073 million. This was the first decline in shrimp imports since 1974 and the lowest imports in the past 3 years. The decline

  4. Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Frozen Shrimp

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Japanese Frozen Shrimp Imports Continue to Climb Japanese imports of frozen shrimp in 1978 amounted to 143,962 t, a new all-time high surpassing by 15 percent the previous import value. The unit import price of shrimp in yen fell in 1978 due to the rise in the value of the yen

  5. Expression in the Japanese Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satoh, Kiyo

    1996-01-01

    In revising their kindergarten curriculum, Japanese educators have adapted Western ideas of creativity and expression. Explains that this is especially visible in the goal of "expression" in the current kindergarten curriculum. Provides details on the new curriculum's aims, specifically in relation to the use of Japanese paper and murals. (MOK)

  6. Robotization in the Japanese automotive industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kusuda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the robotization of the Japanese automotive industry. The automotive industry is still the major segment of the industrial robot market in Japan. At the moment, however, annual shipments of industrial robots to the industry are at only 60 per cent of the peak in 1991. This reflects the struggling Japanese economy and low capital investment in domestic car production.

  7. Effective School Research from Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Over the past 25 years, much educational research in the United States has focused on effective schools. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the characteristics of Japanese education, which is often considered effective by American researchers. It compares features of the Japanese education system to characteristics of effective…

  8. Inside a Japanese Transplant: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…

  9. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  10. Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

  11. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  12. Cognitive Tempo in Japanese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, Neil J.; Kojima, Hideo

    The purpose of this study was to compare performances by Japanese and American children on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the primary measure of cognitive tempo. Data on more than 3400 Japanese and American children (approximately half male, half female) were used. Factorial analyses of variance revealed significant age x nationality…

  13. The BBN Byblos Japanese OCR System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehry Macrostie; Premkumar Natarajan; Michael Decerbo; Rohit Prasad

    2004-01-01

    The BBN Byblos OCR system implements a script-independent methodology for OCR using hidden Markov models (HMMs). We have successfully ported the system to Arabic, Pashto, English, and Chinese. We discuss our effort in configuring the system to perform recognition of noisy machine printed Japanese documents. The data for our experimentation was taken from the University of Washington (UW-II) Japanese OCR

  14. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  15. Neuroanatomical database of normal Japanese brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori Sato; Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Fukuda; Ryuta Kawashima

    2003-01-01

    To develop a high-resolution in vivo human neuroanatomy database for Japanese brains, a data set on 1547 normal subjects between the ages of 16 and 79 years has been collected. First, we determined individual reference brains of normal Japanese for each age and gender group. We found there exists cross-generational changes in brain shape, that is, the young generation has

  16. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  17. Maturation and Activation of Dendritic Cells by Botanicals Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Role in Immune Enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Chen

    \\u000a The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually attributed to its up- or downregulation of immune\\u000a responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a central role in the initiation and\\u000a regulation of immune responses. A number of TCM herbal medicines or their components have in vitro and in vivo activity in promoting major functions of

  18. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  19. [Prevention and Sanfujin Tianjin therapy of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2006-08-01

    This paper aims to introduce the experience of treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, health care is disease prevention by means of integrating the body with the environment in a manner which takes account of the changing seasons as well as of the weather. Sanfujin Tianjin therapy, a special Chinese herbal moxibustion of surgical treatments, contributes to the prevention of disease by nurturing Yang in spring and summer and treating winter diseases in summer. Even though this treatment is effective, convenient and safe, it should be noted that there are indications and contraindications. In the future, more efforts should be put into evidence-based study in order to verify the scientific effectiveness of Sanfujin Tianjin therapy. PMID:16874605

  20. Adverse Events Associated with Metal Contamination of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Korea: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunah; Hawes, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473

  1. Origins and development of psychology in Japan: The interaction between western science and the Japanese cultural heritage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Azuma; Hiroshi Imada

    1994-01-01

    It is a part of universal human nature to take an interest in the state of mind of others; we find, though, that each culture influences the aspects of human behaviour to which this interest is more intensively directed. The attention of Japanese people has traditionally been directed to the affective side of the mind. Thus, the majority of more

  2. ‘Ignorance’ as a rhetorical strategy: how Japanese language learners living in Japan maneuver their subject positions to shift power dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Kumagai; Shinji Sato

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the goal of foreign language education has been to teach learners linguistic and cultural knowledge so that they could function successfully in the target language and cultural environment. But does demonstrating knowledge always help learners accomplish their interactional goals? To explore this question, this study investigate when and how the learners of Japanese-as-Foreign-Language used their ‘ignorance’ as a rhetorical

  3. DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal products available to consumers in the marketplace may be contaminated or substituted with alternative plant species and fillers that are not listed on the labels. According to the World Health Organization, the adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. Our research aimed to investigate herbal product integrity and authenticity with the goal of protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination. Methods We used DNA barcoding to conduct a blind test of the authenticity for (i) 44 herbal products representing 12 companies and 30 different species of herbs, and (ii) 50 leaf samples collected from 42 herbal species. Our laboratory also assembled the first standard reference material (SRM) herbal barcode library from 100 herbal species of known provenance that were used to identify the unknown herbal products and leaf samples. Results We recovered DNA barcodes from most herbal products (91%) and all leaf samples (100%), with 95% species resolution using a tiered approach (rbcL + ITS2). Most (59%) of the products tested contained DNA barcodes from plant species not listed on the labels. Although we were able to authenticate almost half (48%) of the products, one-third of these also contained contaminants and or fillers not listed on the label. Product substitution occurred in 30/44 of the products tested and only 2/12 companies had products without any substitution, contamination or fillers. Some of the contaminants we found pose serious health risks to consumers. Conclusions Most of the herbal products tested were of poor quality, including considerable product substitution, contamination and use of fillers. These activities dilute the effectiveness of otherwise useful remedies, lowering the perceived value of all related products because of a lack of consumer confidence in them. We suggest that the herbal industry should embrace DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal products through testing of raw materials used in manufacturing products. The use of an SRM DNA herbal barcode library for testing bulk materials could provide a method for 'best practices? in the manufacturing of herbal products. This would provide consumers with safe, high quality herbal products. PMID:24120035

  4. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  5. TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS: ANCIENT AND MODERN APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. C.; Ahmad, S. Aziz

    1992-01-01

    History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity. PMID:22556588

  6. Traditional medicinal plants: ancient and modern approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Ahmad, S A

    1992-07-01

    History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity. PMID:22556588

  7. Antibacterial properties of Chinese herbal medicines against nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan. PMID:18186590

  8. Problems and Prospects for Good Manufacturing Practice for Herbal Drugs in Indian Systems of Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pulok K. Mukherjee

    2002-01-01

    The concept of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is well known to every pharmaceutical company in the world. Many countries express GMP in regulations, codes, and guidelines. In this era of worldwide herbal drug revolution, there is a need to implement GMP in the production of medicinal products from natural resources (herbal drugs). In addition to the widespread use of phytomedicine

  9. System Biology Approach for Elucidating the Relationship Between Indonesian Herbal Plants and the Efficacy of Jamu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farit Mochamad Afendi; Latifah K. Darusman; Aki Hirai; Hiroki Takahashi; Kensuke Nakamura; Shigehiko Kanaya

    2010-01-01

    Jamu is Indonesian herbal medicine made from a mixture of several plants. Some plants perform as main ingredients and the others as supporting ingredients. By utilizing biplot configuration, we explored the relationship between Indonesian herbal plants and the efficacy of jamu. Among 465 plants used in 3138 jamu, we determined that 190 plants were efficacious in at least one efficacy.

  10. Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy: The Potential for Benefit and Adverse Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Spinella

    2001-01-01

    The widespread availability and use of herbal medicines raise the potential for adverse effects in the epilepsy population. Herbal sedatives (kava, valerian, chamomile, passionflower) may potentiate the effects of antiepileptic medications, increasing their sedative and cognitive effects. Despite some antiseizure effects in animal models, they should not be used in place of standard seizure medications because efficacy has not been

  11. A Preliminary ACT-R Compiler in Herbal Jaehyon Paik (jaehyon.paik@psu.edu)

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    A Preliminary ACT-R Compiler in Herbal Jaehyon Paik (jaehyon.paik@psu.edu) Department of Industrial easily. We have started to create an ACT-R compiler in Herbal because of these features. Although several easy to use frameworks exists to develop ACT-R models, such as ACT- Simple (Salvucci & Lee, 2003

  12. Folk herbal medicines used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribals of southern Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Jain; S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Praveen Galav

    2004-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey of tribal area of southern Rajasthan was carried out during the year 2001–2002 for ethnosexicological herbal medicines. The information on ethnosexicological herbs is based on the exhaustive interview with local medicine-men and -women, birth attendants and other knowledgeable persons who prescribe their own herbal preparation to check birth control, including abortion at initial stages, preventing conception or

  13. An in vitro approach to investigate medicinal chemical synthesis by three herbal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann L. Smith; Hideka Kobayashi; Margaret Gawienowski; Donald P. Briskin

    2002-01-01

    Ever since regulatory changes introduced herbals into mainstream supermarkets and pharmacies, there has been an explosion of demand for herbal plants and extracts which can be used to improve human health and well being. Science still lacks a basic mechanistic understanding of how environmental triggers regulate phytochemical accumulation, but this gap can be bridged using in vitro models to examine

  14. Herbal Medications Commonly Used in the Practice of Rheumatology: Mechanisms of Action, Efficacy, and Side Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arathi R. Setty; Leonard H. Sigal

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the literature on herbal preparations commonly utilized in the treatment of rheumatic indications. METHODS Search of MEDLINE (PubMed) was performed using both the scientific and the common names of herbs. Relevant articles in English were collected from PubMed and reviewed. RESULTS This review summarizes the efficacy and toxicities of herbal remedies used in complementary and alternative medical

  15. Analysis of essential elements in Pragya-peya—a herbal drink and its constituents by neutron activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kumar; A. G. C. Nair; A. V. R. Reddy; A. N. Garg

    2005-01-01

    Ayurvedic herbal formulations are a good source of several nutrient elements essential for metabolic processes. Pragya-peya, a herbal drink and its 12 herbal constituents have been analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, K, P) and 15 trace (Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sc, Se, Th, V, Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation

  16. Identification of Western Medicines as Adulterants in Chinese Herbal Medicines Using a Broad-Spectrum Drug Screening HPLC System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jason Lai; Steven R. Binder; Herbert Essien; Kuo-Ching Wen

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of herbal medicines is a difficult task because of the complexity and variety of the available formulations. Identification of adulterants in herbal medicines poses an even greater challenge to the laboratories which are required to conduct a routine surveillance program. There is no single broad spectrum screening method which will be able to screen all non-herbal medicine in a

  17. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of Japanese herbal (kampo) medicine, "shahakusan," and its possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hokari, Rei; Nagai, Takayuki; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Background. A Kampo medicine, Shahakusan (SHS), has been prescribed in late phase of infection that causes inflammations in the lung. But effect of SHS on viral infection in respiratory tract has never been reported. Objectives. To evaluate anti-influenza virus activity of SHS and its mode of actions through immune systems. Methods. SHS (0.3?g/kg/day) was orally administered to BALB/c miceforupper (URI) or lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) of influenza virus A/PR/8/34. The virus titer of nasal lavage fluid (NLF) at 5 or 2 day postinfection (p.i.) and cytokine mRNA expressions in mandibular lymph node or lung at 5 or 4 day p.i. were evaluated for URI or LRI, respectively. The histopathological examinations of lung tissue and NK cell activity in the splenocytes were also evaluated at 4 day p.i. on LRI. Results. When SHS was administered from 7 days before to 4 days p.i. for URI, the virus titer was significantly decreased in comparison with water-treated control, and IL-4, IL-1?, and IL-10 mRNA expression was decreased, but IL-12A mRNA expression was increased. Administration of SHS from one day before to one day p.i. for LRI significantly decreased the virus titer. SHS also decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar spaces and damage of desquamated mucosal epithelia of bronchiole, decreased IP-10 mRNA expression, and increased NK cell activity. Conclusion. SHS has no direct effect on influenza virus infection but exerts antiviral effect in mice by its immunomodulating activity through action of NK cells and anti-inflammatory activity in the lung. PMID:23346216

  18. Bioactivity Enhancement of Herbal Supplements by Intestinal Microbiota Focusing on the Ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-You; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota contributes to diverse mammalian processes including the metabolic function of drugs. It is a potential new territory for drug targeting, especially for dietary herbal products. Because most of herbal drugs are orally administered, the chemical profile and corresponding bioactivities of herbal medicines may be altered by intestinal microbiota. Ginseng is one of the most commonly used herb and it is always an attractive natural product to understand. In this review, after briefly introduce the interactions of herbal products and gut microbiota, we discussed the microbiota-mediated metabolism of ginsenosides in ginseng and red ginseng. In particular, the major metabolite Compound K and its pharmacological advances are commented including anticancer, antidiabetic and antiinflammatory effects. In summary, the intestinal microbiota may play an important role in mediating the metabolism and enhancement of bioactivity of herbal medicines. PMID:22083984

  19. Herbal medicine: Is it an alternative or an unknown? A brief review of popular herbals used by patients in a pain and symptom management practice setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica A. Leak

    1999-01-01

    This article will briefly discuss herbals frequently used by patients in a pain and symptom management practice setting with\\u000a regard to common indications, potential side effects, and drug interactions, as well as a review of available research on\\u000a each substance. An overview of the regulatory morass that continues to surround the herbal products industry will be presented.\\u000a The author will

  20. [An attempt to identify to cryptogamic plants in Syreniusz's herbal].

    PubMed

    Majewski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The current paper constitutes an attempt to identify the algae, fungi, lichens and liverworts mentioned in the extensive Herbal by Syreniusz, published in Cracow in 1613. All four algae mentioned are maritime species. As for fungi, Syreniusz described the fungus Fomitopsis officinalis, which was then used in medicine, and he listed several Polish names of edible and poisonous macromycetes, and also mentioned rust on wheat. The lichen that has been identified is the species Lobaria pulmonaria, and the liverwort is Marchantia polymorpha, both used in medicine. PMID:17153151