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Sample records for japanese traditional herbal

  1. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness) and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation. (2) BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan (KSS), are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems. (3) Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce four possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito (HET), Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito (NYT) that are frequently used to improve both immunosuppression and deficiencies of Ki, Ketsu, and Sui in oral cancer patients. (4) Heat- and cold-dryness stages exist in dry mouth and SJS. Byakkokaninjinto is useful for heat-dryness, while NYT, Bakumondoto, and HET have moisturizing effects in the cold-dryness stage. Thus, Kampo therapy is useful for many oral diseases that cannot be cured by western medicine. PMID:26379550

  2. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Woerdenbag, H J

    1995-07-28

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal medicine in China. It also describes modern scientific research into and the quality control of Chinese herbal medicines in China. Some examples of how new drugs derived from Chinese herbs have been developed on the basis of traditional therapeutic experience are presented. Finally, the situation of Chinese herbal medicine in the West is discussed. PMID:7581215

  3. Immune adjuvant effect of Juzentaihoto, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, on tumor vaccine therapy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Nobuhiro; Inujima, Akiko; Shinohara, Kanna; Yamada, Miyuki; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo; Koizumi, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) have been used to improve the general physical condition after surgery and to mitigate the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy in tumor patients. Juzentaihoto (JTT) consists of ten medical herbs, and is also called Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese herbal medicine. Among Kampo medicines, JTT has especially gained attention as a biological response modifier. Currently, clinical trials of various tumor vaccine therapies are being performed world-wide. However, tumor antigens that are inoculated as vaccines do not have high immunogenicity; thus, it is difficult to obtain an effective therapeutic effect. Thus, it is necessary to develop a tumor vaccine adjuvant that is more potent and very safe. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of JTT as an oral adjuvant when given together with tumor vaccines. As a result, JTT enhanced the phagocytic ability of OVA antigen and the presentation ability of OVA antigen in dendritic cells in vitro. Furthermore, tumor growth was markedly decreased, and the survival period was significantly prolonged in mice inoculated with mouse lymphoma, which is expressed with tumor model antigen. In conclusion, these findings suggest that JTT can be used with tumor vaccines as an immune adjuvant. PMID:26496932

  4. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity. PMID:18955322

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  6. “Ninjinto” (Ginseng Decoction), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Improves Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Immune Competence in Patients with Chronic Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treating functional gastrointestinal disorders is extremely difficult. We herein report the effect of the oral administration of Ninjinto (NJT, ginseng decoction), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, on chronic intestinal failure. Patients and Methods. Seven patients with chronic intestinal failure treated with NJT were evaluated in this study. The primary diseases included chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO: n = 4), short bowel syndrome (SBS: n = 2), and intestinal atresia (n = 1). All patients orally received NJT extract granules at a dose of 0.3?g/kg BW per day. The treatment outcomes were then assessed according to the patients' symptoms and consecutive abdominal X-ray findings. Results. The targeted symptoms were abdominal distension in four patients, diarrhea in three patients, and frequent hospitalization due to infections in two patients. An improvement in the symptoms was observed in six of the seven patients, whereas one patient with SBS did not show any improvement. An improvement in an abdominal roentgenogram was observed in the four patients with remarkably dilated bowel loops due to CIPO. Conclusions. NJT may be effective in controlling functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with chronic intestinal failure. The use of Kampo medicine in the field of pediatric surgery may help to improve the quality of life in children suffering from such conditions. PMID:26495014

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Saireito (Chai-Ling-Tang), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on Lymphedema Caused by Radiotherapy: A Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of radiotherapy machines and technologies, a proportion of patients suffer from radiation-induced lymphedema. Saireito (SRT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been used for treating edema and inflammation in conditions such as nephritic disease. This study investigated the effect of SRT on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy. Four patients were treated with SRT at a dose of 9?g/day. The severity of lymphedema was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 and Numerical Rating Scale before and after SRT treatment. After the treatment with SRT, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed apparent improvement in lymphedema. One of the cases had difficulty in wearing the custom-made thermoplastic cast, but after SRT administration, he could wear the mask easily. One case decided to stop taking SRT 3 days after initiation because cough and fever appeared. In conclusion, it is important to control the side effects of radiotherapy, which leads to improved tumor control rates. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to confirm the findings of this case series study. PMID:23861700

  8. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  9. The clinical use of Kampo medicines (traditional Japanese herbal treatments) for controlling cancer patients’ symptoms in Japan: a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kampo medicines are traditional Japanese medicines produced from medicinal plants and herbs. Even though the efficacy of Kampo medicines for controlling cancer-related symptoms is being reported, their actual nationwide clinical use has not been comprehensively investigated. We aimed to investigate physicians’ recognition of Kampo medicines and their clinical use for cancer patients in the field of palliative care. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 549 physicians working in palliative care teams at 388 core cancer treatment hospitals and 161 certified medical institutions that have palliative care units (PCUs). Results Valid responses were obtained from 311 physicians (response rate, 56.7%) who were evenly distributed throughout the country without significant geographical biases. Kampo medicines were prescribed for controlling cancer-related symptoms by 64.3% of the physicians. The symptoms treated with Kampo medicines were numbness/hypoesthesia (n?=?99, 49.5%), constipation (n?=?76, 38.0%), anorexia/weight loss (n?=?72, 36%), muscle cramps (n?=?71, 35.5%) and languor/fatigue (n?=?64, 32.0%). Regarding open issues about prescription, 60.7% (n?=?173) of the physicians raised the issue that the dosage forms need to be better devised. Conclusions To increase the clinical use of Kampo medicines, more evidence from clinical studies is necessary. In addition, their mechanisms of action should be clarified through laboratory studies. PMID:23167528

  10. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of two Japanese traditional herbal medicines, Hachimi-jio-gan and Gosha-jinki-gan, for lower urinary tract symptoms with cold sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG; ????? b? wèi dì huáng wán) and Gosha-jinki-gan (GJG; ????? jì sh?ng shèn qì wán), two traditional Japanese medicines, in 60 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) having cold sensitivity unresponsive to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. All patients received a mixture of HJG or GJG for 12 weeks in addition to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs as add-on therapy. International Prostate Symptom Score, International Prostate Symptom Score–Quality of Life, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index, and the number of nocturnal voids were statistically much improved. However, there was no change in maximal urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine was statistically greatly improved from baseline after treatment in the HJG group compared to the GJG group. Adverse reactions were observed in 8.3% of patients, but all reactions were mild. Both HJG and GJG mixtures can serve as safe and effective potential therapeutic alternatives in patients with LUTS and cold sensitivity unresponsive to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. Additionally, HJG mixture was found to have anti-oxidative activity, and therefore further long-term clinical investigations are needed to examine its anti-aging effects in addition to its effect on urinary symptoms. PMID:26587398

  11. Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Y; Kato, A; Nishiyama, Y; Kawanishi, K; Tobe, H; Juma, F D; Ogeto, J O; Mathenge, S G

    1993-08-01

    Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Potent mitogenic activities for human and mouse lymphocytes were found in the three plants: Croton macrostachyus, Croton megalocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), and Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae). All the gel chromatographic patterns of these protein fractions progressed toward the smaller molecule site with pronase treatment, while their mitogenic activities decreased significantly. Protein fractions from these three plants induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. By testing further fractionated protein fractions with gel filtration chromatography, it was found that all three plants contained several mitogens having different molecule sizes. PMID:8372153

  12. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  13. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation. PMID:12313336

  14. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  15. Traditional herbal remedies in Buldhana District (Maharashtra, India).

    PubMed

    Ahirrao, Y A; Patil, P S; Aher, U P; Dusing, Y A; Patil, D A

    2009-04-01

    The paper documents traditional herbal remedies from buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). The plant parts most commonly used are bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, apart from plant products like latex and gum. The medicaments include recipes like decoction, infusion, paste, ash, extract juice, besides gum and latex. There are mainly used afresh. Occasionally, these are supplemented by domestic edible substances of plant-origin. The reliance on herbal medicines for healthcare is associated with traditional belief of effectiveness as well as poor economic status. Role of homestead gardens in native phytotherapy is being focused for the first time from this region. The first-hand information adduced is desired to divulge new lead molecules or will add new sources of herbal medicine. PMID:22557332

  16. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications. PMID:25780657

  17. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

  18. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26152912

  19. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  20. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

  1. Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

  2. Antioxidant and antiadipogenic activities of galkeun-tang, a traditional korean herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

  3. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies.

  4. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation. PMID:25086408

  5. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  6. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

  7. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  8. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  9. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

  10. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  11. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures. PMID:25914456

  12. Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28?a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

  13. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  14. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention. PMID:21144003

  15. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and safety of FAHF-2 for treating food allergy in a murine model. A clinical study demonstrated that FAHF-2 is safe, well tolerated, and exhibited beneficial immunomodulatory effects. A clinical report showed that TCM treatment reduced eczema scores and improved quality of life. Herbal interventions, ASHMI and FAHF-2 may be further developed as botanical drugs for treating asthma and food allergy. TCM may also be of benefit for comorbid conditions such as anxiety and recalcitrant eczema. More controlled studies are warranted. In conclusion, novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions such as anxiety and eczema are urgently needed. This article discusses promising interventions for such conditions from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

  16. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  17. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  18. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

  19. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Liang Q; Xie M

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation.

  20. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  1. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Dong; Li, Chao-Yuan; Cui, Wen-Peng; Guo, Qiao-Yan; Dong, Chang-Qing; Zou, Hong-Bin; Liu, Shu-Jun; Dong, Wen-Peng; Miao, Li-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20-40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  2. Rapid identification of traditional Chinese herbal medicine by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Chunmei; Huang, Liang; Liu, Li; Guo, Yunlong; Ma, Li; Liu, Shuying

    2014-10-01

    Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed as a novel fast method to identify traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In order to obtain high quality mass spectra, the ionization temperature was optimized for every kind of sample. With minimal or no sample pretreatment, major TCHM components, including alkaloids, flavonoids and some ginsenosides, were directly detected within several seconds, while thirteen ginsenosides need derivatization to get good mass spectra. Pseudoginsenoside F11, compound K, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), for the first time were detected without derivatization. Among five of eight tested Chinese herbal medicines, Rhizoma Corydalis, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Arecae Semen, Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis and Scutellariae Radix, were first time identified by DART-MS. In addition, the ionization mechanisms of major herbal components, alkaloids, flavonoids and ginsenosides, were discussed in detail. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS could provide a rapid, reliable and environmental friendly method for the rapid identification of TCHM, and may be applicable to other plants. PMID:25201274

  3. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  4. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p?=?0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR?=?3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p?=?0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p?=?0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p?=?0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda. PMID:23209545

  5. Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiobara, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…

  6. The herbal market of Thessaloniki (N Greece) and its relation to the ethnobotanical tradition.

    PubMed

    Hanlidou, E; Karousou, R; Kleftoyanni, V; Kokkini, S

    2004-04-01

    The results of a survey of the medicinal plants found in the herbal market of Thessaloniki, which comprises traditional shops, modern shops and open-air market stalls, are presented. A total number of 172 taxa, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, were found in 18 selected market spots. Information is provided on the origin, the plant parts used, the ways of drug preparation and the medicinal uses of the herbs found. The majority of them (133 taxa) are of Greek origin and are gathered from the wild (99). A remarkable number of herbs (93) found in the market of Thessaloniki are mentioned by Dioscurides whereas the comparison to the recent ethnobotanical information shows that the utilization of Dioscurides' plants remains uninterrupted. Thus it is suggested that the herb trade is still based on the Greek ethnobotanical tradition, dating from antiquity. PMID:15120452

  7. Japanese herbal medicine TJ-48 prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Koji; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F; Shimada, Mitsuo; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is mainly caused by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell infiltration into islets. Recently, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the prevention of the onset of T1DM was reported. We reported that TJ-48, a common Japanese herbal medicine, decreased Treg population in cancer patients, thus we investigated whether TJ-48 had an influence on T1DM onset using NOD mice. In the TJ-48 group, TJ-48 (2.0g/kg/day) was administered in the drinking water for NOD mice from three weeks of age to 20 weeks of age. Their body weight and fast blood glucose (FBG) were measured every week. Histology (Hematoxylin-Eosin staining) was investigated every month. Lymphocyte profiles were investigated every month with FACS. The results were compared to the age-matched NOD mice control group. FBG of the control group mice showed diabetic status of 66.7% at 18 weeks of age. On the other hand, the TJ-48 group mice showed diabetic status of 16.7% at 18 weeks of age (p = 1.905E-06). There were no significant differences in general conditions or body weight between the two groups. Lymphocyte infiltrations into islets were dramatically suppressed in the TJ-48 group. The effect of TJ-48 on decreasing Tregs was less apparent in the NOD mice model. TJ-48 inhibited lymphocyte infiltrations into islets, which led to preventing the onset of T1DM in NOD mice. PMID:21721154

  8. Systems biology in a commercial quality study of the Japanese Angelica radix: toward an understanding of traditional medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Akira; Fukuda, Shinzo; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hayasaki, Tomoyuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Komura, Hajime; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Shojo, Masayuki; Takeno, Kanokwan Jumtee

    2011-01-01

    The commercial quality of Japanese Angelica radices -- Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Yamato-toki) and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyama Hikino (Hokkai-toki) -- used in Kampo traditional herbal medicines, was studied by use of omics technologies. Complementary and alternative medical providers have observed in their clinical experience that differences in radix commercial quality reflect the differences in pharmacological responses; however, there has been little scientific examination of this phenomenon. The approach of omics, including metabolomics, transcriptomics, genomics, and informatics revealed a distinction between the radix-quality grades based on their metabolites, gene expression in human subjects, and plant genome sequences. Systems biology, constructing a network of omics data used to analyze this complex system, is expected to be a powerful tool for enhancing the study of radix quality and furthering a comprehensive understanding of all medicinal plants. PMID:21721155

  9. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  10. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  11. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 ?g/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk. PMID:24373151

  12. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

  13. Letter: Fixed drug eruption caused by the Japanese herbal drug kakkonto.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Megumi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Yukie; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2010-01-01

    Herbal drugs are now widely used throughout the world. The general public tends to believe these agents to be safe because of their natural origin; thus, they are used frequently. However, the side effects of many of these potent chemicals may be significant. Several cases of fixed drug eruption (FDE) caused by herbal drugs have been reported. We herein report a case of FDE caused by kakkonto. PMID:21199639

  14. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  15. Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

  16. Chylous ascites treated by traditional Chinese herbal medicine: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Lijuan; Yan, Bing; Qin, Zhifeng; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wei, Pinkang

    2015-02-01

    Chylous ascites, which can lead to peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, metabolic disorder, and even death from pyemia, is a rare complication of abdominal surgery. Currently, first-line treatment involves conservative management, which includes oral diet and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). However, the efficacy of these treatments cannot be guaranteed. For example, single diet control can result in consecutive drainage for up to 1 month, and salvage surgery is required for some invalid cases. Here, we report 6 cases of chylous ascites after abdominal surgery. In addition to diet control, we delivered traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) twice daily orally. The drainage volume of the chylous fistula showed an obvious decrease 1 day after the TCHM administration and all 6 patients completely recovered within 4 to 8 days (median: 5.5 days). Although relevant data are limited, our cases would suggest that TCHM could play an important role in the management of chylous ascites. However, randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm its efficacy in a larger population. PMID:25637154

  17. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  18. Multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto to prevent bowel dysfunction after adult liver transplantation (DKB 14 Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Shirabe, Ken; Yamamoto, Michio; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial will aim to determine the ability of an extract (TJ-100) of Daikenchuto (traditional Japanese herbal medicine; Kampo) to prevent bowel dysfunction in at least 110 patients after liver transplantation (LT). Methods and analysis The following co-primary end points will be evaluated on postoperative day 7: total oral and enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension and abdominal pain. The secondary end points will comprise sequential changes of total oral and enteral caloric intake after LT, sequential changes in numeric rating scales for abdominal distension and pain, elapsed time to the first postoperative passage of stool, quality of life assessment using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale score (Japanese version), postoperative liver function, liver regeneration rate, incidence of bacteraemia and bacterial strain, trough level of immunosuppressants, occurrence of acute cellular rejection, discharge or not within 2?months after LT, sequential changes of portal venous flow to the graft and ascites discharge. The two arms of the study will comprise 55 patients per arm. Ethics and dissemination The study has been conducted according to the CONSORT statement. All participants signed a written consent form, and the study has been approved by the institutional review board of each participating institute and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1996. The findings will be disseminated through scientific and professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number The DKB 14 Study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN-CTR), Japan (registration number: UMIN000014326) during 2014. PMID:26419681

  19. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Among Hypertensive Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liwa, Anthony C.; Smart, Luke R.; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Peck, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Results Four hundred eighty-one references were retrieved, and 4 articles from 2 countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7%-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). Conclusion More than a third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

  20. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  1. Determination of Methanol Concentrations in Traditional Herbal Waters of Different Brands in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time. PMID:23493100

  2. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  3. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  4. The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053

  5. Quality Assessment of Ojeok-San, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Ojeok-san (OJS) is a traditional herbal formula consisting of 17 herbal medicines that has been used to treat various disorders. In this study, quantitative analytical methods were developed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector to determine 19 marker compounds in OJS preparations, which was then combined with chemometric analysis. The method developed was validated in terms of its precision and accuracy. The intra- and interday precision of the marker compounds were <3.0% of the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the recovery of the marker compounds was 92.74%–104.16% with RSD values <3.0%. The results of our quantitative analysis show that the quantities of the 19 marker compounds varied between a laboratory water extract and commercial OJS granules. The chemometric analysis used, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), also showed that the OJS water extract produced using a laboratory method clearly differed from the commercial OJS granules; therefore, an equalized production process is required for quality control of OJS preparations. Our results suggest that the HPLC analytical methods developed are suitable for the quantification and quality assessment of OJS preparations when combined with chemometric analysis involving PCA and HCA. PMID:26539304

  6. Effect of Processing on the Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Flos Lonicerae: An NMR-based Chemometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Wang, Mei; Avula, Bharathi; Zhong, Lingyun; Song, Zhonghua; Xu, Qiongming; Li, Shunxiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-06-01

    The processing of medicinal materials, known as Pao Zhi in traditional Chinese medicine, is a unique part of traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used for the preparation of Chinese materia medica. It is believed that processing can alter the properties and functions of remedies, increase medical potency, and reduce toxicity and side effects. Both processed and unprocessed Flos Lonicerae (flowers of Lonicera japonica) are important drug ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine. To gain insights on the effect of processing factors (heating temperature and duration) on the change of chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the processing of F. Lonicerae. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data were analyzed by means of a heat map and principal components analysis. The results indicated that the composition changed significantly, particularly when processing at the higher temperature (210?°C). Five chemical components, viz. 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and myo-inositol, whose concentration changed significantly during the processing, were isolated and identified. The patterns for the concentration change observed from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis during the processing were confirmed and quantitatively determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The study demonstrated that a nuclear magnetic resonance-based chemometric approach could be a promising tool for investigation of the processing of herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26039268

  7. Effect of Guibi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Proliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    Ocular pathologic angiogenesis is an important causative risk factor of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular macular degeneration. Guibi-tang (GBT) is a frequently used oriental herbal formula in East Asian countries, and is also called Qui-pi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-To in Japanese. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of GBT on retinal pathogenic neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% hyperoxia for five days on postnatal day 7 (P7). The mice were then exposed to room air from P12 to P17 to induce ischemic proliferative retinopathy. GBT (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days (from P12 to P16). On P17, Retinal neovascularization was measured on P17, and the expression levels of 55 angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed using protein arrays. GBT significantly decreased retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in OIR mice, and protein arrays revealed that GBT decreased PAI-1 protein expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GBT reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in OIR mice. GBT promotes potent inhibitory activity for retinal neovascularization by decreasing VEGF, FGF2, and PAI-1 levels. PMID:26694358

  8. Effect of Guibi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Proliferative Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    Ocular pathologic angiogenesis is an important causative risk factor of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular macular degeneration. Guibi-tang (GBT) is a frequently used oriental herbal formula in East Asian countries, and is also called Qui-pi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-To in Japanese. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of GBT on retinal pathogenic neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% hyperoxia for five days on postnatal day 7 (P7). The mice were then exposed to room air from P12 to P17 to induce ischemic proliferative retinopathy. GBT (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days (from P12 to P16). On P17, Retinal neovascularization was measured on P17, and the expression levels of 55 angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed using protein arrays. GBT significantly decreased retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in OIR mice, and protein arrays revealed that GBT decreased PAI-1 protein expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GBT reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in OIR mice. GBT promotes potent inhibitory activity for retinal neovascularization by decreasing VEGF, FGF2, and PAI-1 levels. PMID:26694358

  9. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  10. Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

    2013-03-01

    Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

  11. Wound Healing Activity of a Traditionally Used Poly Herbal Product in a Burn Wound Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Shirin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burns are known as one of the most common and destructive forms of injury with a vast spectrum of consequences. Despite the discovery of various antibacterial and antiseptic agents, burn wound healing still has remained a challenge to modern medicine. Plants, with a valuable traditional support, have been considered as potential agents for prevention and treatment of disorders in recent years. However, modern scientific methods should be applied to validate the claims about the therapeutic effects of the herbal products. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a poly herbal cream (PHC), retrieved from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), in a rat burn wound model in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, PHC containing aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals was used. Second-degree burn wounds were induced in four groups of five rats each. Group 1 received no treatment while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given cream base, silver sulfadiazine (SS) 1% and PHC, respectively to compare the efficacy of PHC with the negative and positive control groups. The percentage of wound healing on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 and histopathological parameters of healed wounds on the 14th day were assessed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PHC were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and micro-dilution methods, respectively. Results: There was a significant improvement in healing percentage of PHC-treated rats in comparison to the other groups at the end of the treatment period (87.0% ± 2.1% for PHC in comparison to 32.2% ± 1.6%, 57.0% ± 5.3% and 70.8% ± 3.5% for the control, cream base and SS groups, respectively). Moreover, the healed wounds in PHC-treated animals contained less inflammatory cells and had desirable re-epithelialization with remarkable neovascularization. In addition to the antioxidant activity, PHC exhibited antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Poly herbal cream experimentally and histopathologically revealed a burn wound healing activity probably due to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of its phytochemical contents. Therefore, this study confirms the use of M. sylvestris, S. nigrum and R. damascena in burn prescriptions in ITM. PMID:26473072

  12. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  13. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P?

  14. A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

  15. Anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of the traditional Korean herbal formula Samchulgeonbi-tang: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here we report in vitro anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of Samchulgeonbi-tang (SCGBT), a traditional Korean herbal formula. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without SCGBT. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and leptin production. In addition, its effect on scavenging activities of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in in vitro systems. Results: In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, SCGBT significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and triglyceride production, and mediated inactivation of GPDH, a major enzyme in the process of adipogenesis. Consistent with this, SCGBT stimulation significantly decreased the amount of leptin in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Furthermore, SCGBT enhanced the scavenging activities on ABTS and DPPH radicals. The generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was significantly reduced by SCGBT treatment. Of interest, SCGBT extract inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that SCGBT has the potential for anti-adipogenic activity and antioxidant properties. PMID:26309521

  16. Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

    2010-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

  17. Neuroprotective effect of the traditional Chinese herbal formula Tongxinluo: a PET imaging study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Haoxuan; Zhou, Lihua; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Jingbo; Huang, Yan; Luo, Enli; Cai, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Tongxinluo has been widely used in China for the treatment of acute stroke and for neuroprotection. However, there are few positron emission tomography (PET) studies on the neuroprotective effect of Tongxinluo on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in small animals. In the present study, Tongxinluo superfine powder suspension or its vehicle was administered intragastrically to rats for 5 successive days before middle cerebral artery occlusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) small animal PET imaging showed that at 1 and 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, glucose metabolism in the ischemic area was greater in rats that had received Tongxinluo than in those that had received the vehicle. Nissl staining showed that 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, there was less neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex in Tongxinluo-treated rats than in controls. In addition, Tongxinluo-treated animals showed better neurologic function and lower cerebral infarct volume than rats that received the vehicle. These findings suggest that Tongxinluo exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and demonstrates that 18F-FDG small animal PET imaging is a useful tool with which to study the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25221578

  18. Traditional Japanese Formula Kigikenchuto Accelerates Healing of Pressure-Loading Skin Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Mari; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Jo, Michiko; Kaneko, Maria; Nogami, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Makoto; Goto, Hirozo; Shimada, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of kigikenchuto (KKT), a traditional Japanese formula, in a modified rat pressure-loading skin ulcer model. Rats were divided into three groups, KKT extract orally administered (250 or 500?mg/kg/day for 35 days) and control. KKT shortened the duration until healing. Immunohistochemically, KKT increased CD-31-positive vessels in early phase and increased ?-smooth muscle actin-(?-SMA-) positive fibroblastic cells in early phase and decreased them in late phase of wound healing. By Western blotting, KKT showed the potential to decrease inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-1?, and TNF-?) in early phase, decrease vascular endothelial growth factor in early phase and increase it in late phase, and modulate the expression of extracellular protein matrix (?-SMA, TGF-?1, bFGF, collagen III, and collagen I). These results suggested the possibility that KKT accelerates pressure ulcer healing through decreases of inflammatory cytokines, increase of angiogenesis, and induction of extracellular matrix remodeling. PMID:21660308

  19. In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, “Attarin” drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). Methods In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 ?g/ml and 68 ?g/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 ?g/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 ?g/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 ?g/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 ?g/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 ?g/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 ?g/ml). Conclusion Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

  20. The Traditional Herbal Medicine, Dangkwisoo-San, Prevents Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Sun Haeng; Kim, Young Whan; Ha, Jung Min; Bae, Sun Sik; Lee, Guem San; Cho, Su In; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Dangkwisoo-San (DS) is an herbal extract that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine to treat traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effect of DS in cerebrovascular disease has not been examined experimentally. The protective effects of DS on focal ischemic brain were investigated in a mouse model. DS stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). DS (10–300??g/mL) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in mouse aorta, which was significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting that DS causes vasodilation via a NO-dependent mechanism. DS increased resting cerebral blood flow (CBF), although it caused mild hypotension. To investigate the effect of DS on the acute cerebral injury, C57/BL6J mice received 90?min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22.5?h of reperfusion. DS administered 3 days before arterial occlusion significantly reduced cerebral infarct size by 53.7% compared with vehicle treatment. However, DS did not reduce brain infarction in mice treated with the relatively specific endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of DS is primarily endothelium-dependent. This correlated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS in the brains of DS-treated mice. DS acutely improves CBF in eNOS-dependent vasodilation and reduces infarct size in focal cerebral ischemia. These data provide causal evidence that DS is cerebroprotective via the eNOS-dependent production of NO, which ameliorates blood circulation. PMID:21423636

  1. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and conclusions later. If Qishe Pill can alleviate neck pain without adverse effects, it may be a unique strategy for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01274936 PMID:24099350

  2. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

  3. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Methods Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) ?14.00?mm?Hg, 95% CI ?18.84 to ?9.16 mm?Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD ?8.00?mm?Hg, 95% CI ?11.35 to ?4.65 mm?Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusions This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP and adverse effects, are warranted. PMID:26656978

  4. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis by a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Modifying Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Matsubara, Yosuke; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Aiba, Setsuya; Yamasaki, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Macrophages serve as sweepers of microbes and inflammation-derived wastes and regulators of inflammation. Some traditional Japanese medicines are reported to have adjuvant effects by modifying macrophages. Our aim was to characterize the actions of jumihaidokuto (JHT) for treatment of skin inflammations including acne vulgaris, in which Propionibacterium acnes has pathogenic roles. Methods. Dermatitis was induced in rat ears by intradermal injection of P. acnes. JHT or prednisolone (PDN) was given orally, and ear thickness and histology were evaluated. The effects of constituents and metabolites of JHT on monocytes were tested by cell-based assays using the human monocytic THP-1 cell. Results. JHT and PDN suppressed the ear thickness induced by P. acnes injection. Histological examinations revealed that JHT, but not PDN, promoted macrophage accumulation at 24?h after the injection. PDN suppressed the macrophage chemokine MCP-1 in the inflamed ears, while JHT did not affect it. The JHT constituents liquiritigenin and isoliquiritin increased expression of CD86 (type-1 macrophage marker) and CD192 (MCP-1 receptor) and enhanced phagocytosis by THP-1. Conclusions. JHT suppressed dermatitis, probably by enhancing type-1 macrophage functions, with an action different from PDN. JHT may be a beneficial drug in treatment of skin inflammation induced by P. acnes. PMID:26495013

  5. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis by a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Modifying Macrophage Functions.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Matsubara, Yosuke; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Aiba, Setsuya; Yamasaki, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Macrophages serve as sweepers of microbes and inflammation-derived wastes and regulators of inflammation. Some traditional Japanese medicines are reported to have adjuvant effects by modifying macrophages. Our aim was to characterize the actions of jumihaidokuto (JHT) for treatment of skin inflammations including acne vulgaris, in which Propionibacterium acnes has pathogenic roles. Methods. Dermatitis was induced in rat ears by intradermal injection of P. acnes. JHT or prednisolone (PDN) was given orally, and ear thickness and histology were evaluated. The effects of constituents and metabolites of JHT on monocytes were tested by cell-based assays using the human monocytic THP-1 cell. Results. JHT and PDN suppressed the ear thickness induced by P. acnes injection. Histological examinations revealed that JHT, but not PDN, promoted macrophage accumulation at 24?h after the injection. PDN suppressed the macrophage chemokine MCP-1 in the inflamed ears, while JHT did not affect it. The JHT constituents liquiritigenin and isoliquiritin increased expression of CD86 (type-1 macrophage marker) and CD192 (MCP-1 receptor) and enhanced phagocytosis by THP-1. Conclusions. JHT suppressed dermatitis, probably by enhancing type-1 macrophage functions, with an action different from PDN. JHT may be a beneficial drug in treatment of skin inflammation induced by P. acnes. PMID:26495013

  6. The Design of the Automatic Control System of the Gripping-Belt Speed in Long-Rootstalk Traditional Chinese Herbal Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Junfa; Yu, Yonghong

    This article aims to design a kind of gripping-belt speed automatic tracking system of traditional Chinese herbal harvester by AT89C52 single-chip micro computer as a core combined with fuzzy PID control algorithm. The system can adjust the gripping-belt speed in accordance with the variation of the machine's operation, so there is a perfect matching between the machine operation speed and the gripping-belt speed. The harvesting performance of the machine can be improved greatly. System design includes hardware and software.

  7. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPAR? and PPAR? and to inhibit TNF-?-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPAR? or PPAR? (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-?B (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

  8. Effect of Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Goreisan on Reoperation Rates after Burr-Hole Surgery for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Analysis of a National Inpatient Database.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Goreisan is a herbal Kampo medicine used for treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in Japan. Experimental studies have suggested that Goreisan exerts a hydrogogue effect, but clinical evidence for the effectiveness of Goreisan in CSDH is currently lacking. Using a national Japanese inpatient database, we examined the association between Goreisan use and reoperation rates after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. We identified 36,020 patients, including 3,889 Goreisan users and 32,131 nonusers. Propensity scores of receiving Goreisan were calculated based on hospital characteristics and patient backgrounds (age, sex, body mass index, activities of daily living, consciousness level, comorbidities, antithrombotic agent use, mannitol infusion, and corticosteroid infusion). One-to-one propensity-score matching created 3,879 pairs of Goreisan users and nonusers. Propensity-matched analysis revealed that Goreisan use was significantly associated with a lower reoperation rate (4.8%) compared with nonuse (6.2%) (risk difference, -1.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.4% to -0.38%). The number needed to prevent one reoperation was 72 (95% CI, 41-265). Instrumental-variable analysis showed similar results to the propensity-matched analysis. These results suggest that Goreisan use reduced the need for reoperation after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. PMID:26495025

  9. Effect of Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Goreisan on Reoperation Rates after Burr-Hole Surgery for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Analysis of a National Inpatient Database

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Goreisan is a herbal Kampo medicine used for treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in Japan. Experimental studies have suggested that Goreisan exerts a hydrogogue effect, but clinical evidence for the effectiveness of Goreisan in CSDH is currently lacking. Using a national Japanese inpatient database, we examined the association between Goreisan use and reoperation rates after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. We identified 36,020 patients, including 3,889 Goreisan users and 32,131 nonusers. Propensity scores of receiving Goreisan were calculated based on hospital characteristics and patient backgrounds (age, sex, body mass index, activities of daily living, consciousness level, comorbidities, antithrombotic agent use, mannitol infusion, and corticosteroid infusion). One-to-one propensity-score matching created 3,879 pairs of Goreisan users and nonusers. Propensity-matched analysis revealed that Goreisan use was significantly associated with a lower reoperation rate (4.8%) compared with nonuse (6.2%) (risk difference, ?1.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), ?2.4% to ?0.38%). The number needed to prevent one reoperation was 72 (95% CI, 41–265). Instrumental-variable analysis showed similar results to the propensity-matched analysis. These results suggest that Goreisan use reduced the need for reoperation after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. PMID:26495025

  10. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

  11. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies

    PubMed Central

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

  12. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  13. Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine): A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-01-01

    Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system. PMID:22319543

  14. Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

  15. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  16. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  17. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 ?g/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 ?g/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 ?g/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 ?g/mL). PMID:24250509

  18. Exploratory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Topical Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuhe; Liu, Wali; Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Chantalat, Laurent; Briantais, Philippe; Lin, Albert; Feng, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal ointment, Shi Du Ruan Gao, in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. Design. Single-center, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel group, placebo-controlled study. Participants. One hundred outpatients with mild to moderate chronic plaque-type psoriasis were enrolled. Intervention. The patients applied either Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment or vehicle ointment topically to for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. The outcomes were assessed using the following criteria: Total Severity Score (TSS, sum of erythema, scaling, and plaque elevation/induration, on a 0 to 4 scale), Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) evaluated on a 0 (Clear) to 4 (s to very severe) scale, and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment response on a 7-point scale from ?1 (worse) to 5 (Cleared). Results. Significant reductions in the Total Severity Score (P < 0.001) (mean score: 2.7 after Shi Du Ruan Gao treatment versus 5.1 in control subjects). Both Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment are better in the Shi Du Ruan Gao group than the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment was a safe, and effective therapy for plaque-type psoriasis. PMID:25834623

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the Jack-Bean Urease Inhibition by Randomly Selected Traditionally Used Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 ?g/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 ?g/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 ?g/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 ?g/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 ?g/mL). PMID:24250509

  20. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  1. CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2011-06-01

    A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

  2. Traditional Chinese Herbal Patch for Short-Term Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Cao, Yuelong; Pang, Jian; Du, Jiong; Guo, Chaoqing; Liu, Ting; Wei, Songpu; Zheng, Yuxin; Chen, Rongming; Zhan, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of two kinds of Traditional Chinese herbal patches, Fufang Nanxing Zhitong Gao (FNZG) and Shangshi Jietong Gao (SJG), for painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive FNZG (n = 60), SJG (n = 60), or placebo patch (n = 30) for 7 days. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Questionnaire (TCMSQ) subscale. Results. Although there was no significant difference among, three groups in short-term pain management, patients receiving FNZG got significant improvement in symptom of fear of coldness as compared with placebo patch (P = 0.029). The most common local adverse events of rash, itching, erythema, and slightly damaged skin were observed in 7% of participants. Conclusions. FNZG may be a useful treatment for symptom of knee OA and merits long-term study in broader populations. PMID:22454655

  3. Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeji; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin- (IL-) 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-?/interferon-? TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25838833

  4. A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

  5. Traditional Korean Herbal Formula Samsoeum Attenuates Adipogenesis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Adipogenesis is the cell differentiation process from preadipocytes into adipocytes and the critical action in the development of obesity. In the present study, we conducted in vitro analyses to investigate the inhibitory effects of Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal decoction. SSE had no significant cytotoxic effect against either the undifferentiated or differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining results showed that SSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in adipocytes. SSE treatment consistently reduced the intracellular triglyceride content in the cells. SSE significantly inactivated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a major link between carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and markedly inhibited the production of leptin, an important adipokine, in differentiated cells. SSE markedly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipogenesis-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). Importantly, SSE increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK and JNK, in adipose cells. Overall, our results indicate that SSE exerts antiadipogenic activity and modulates expressions of adipogenesis-related genes and ERK1/2 activation in adipocytes. PMID:26483846

  6. The protective effect of Yi-Qi-Yang-Yin-Ye, a compound of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    He, Guang-Wei; Qu, Wei-Jing; Fan, Bin; Jing, Rong; He, Rong

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of Yi-Qi-Yang-Yin-Ye (Y-Q-Y-Y-Y), a compound of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on insulin resistance (IR) in the diet-induced obese rat model induced by intravenous injection with a low dose of streptozotocin and fed a high fat and high caloric diet. Y-Q-Y-Y-Y (2, 4, 8 g/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 4 weeks. The results showed that Y-Q-Y-Y-Y treatment decreased the levels of body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), insulin (INS) and fast blood glucose (FBG) and increased the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the diet-induced obese rats. Glucose tolerance was improved in the diet-induced obese rats treated with Y-Q-Y-Y-Y as well as GIR (glucose infusion rate) in the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp experiment compared to the model control rats (p < 0.01). Moreover, treatment with Y-Q-Y-Y-Y up-regulated glycogen contents in both liver and skeletal muscle and increased insulin receptor amounts on the erythrocytes surface as assessed by using (125)I-labeled auto-antibodies against insulin receptors. Taken together, our data suggested that Yi-Qi-Yang-Yin-Ye ameliorates insulin resistance in the diet-induced obese rats. PMID:18711768

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of d-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040T was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132 bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of D-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle.

    PubMed

    Doi, Katsumi; Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040(T) was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132 bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

  9. Significance of Kampo, Traditional Japanese Medicine, in Supportive Care of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Moriya, Junji; Ogawa, Masao; Uenishi, Hiroaki; Akazawa, Sumiyo; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Matomo; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The current standard treatment for cancer is a multidisciplinary therapy whereby various types of treatment are properly combined. Chemotherapy with multiple anticancer drugs is now common, and traditional, complementary, and alternative therapies are adopted as supportive measures. Medical care in Japan is distinguished by the ability for patients to access both Western and Kampo medical cares at the same time. There is a high degree of trust in the safety of Kampo therapies because they are practiced by medical doctors who are educated with fundamental diagnosis of Western medicine. Highly reliable clinical studies are being published, demonstrating that palliative or supportive care for cancer patients using Kampo preparations alleviates adverse effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This paper reports the circumstances around cancer care in Japan where traditional therapeutic Kampo formulas are used for patients undergoing cancer treatment with cutting-edge chemotherapy, specifically to alleviate adverse effects of anticancer drugs. PMID:23861712

  10. Effect of a Traditional Herbal Prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko, on Male Mouse Spermatogenic Ability after Heat-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Sodam; Hong, Nam Doo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a well-known traditional Korean medicinal formula, has long been used to invigorate the essential qi. This use of KOK may be associated with reproductive ability as a more modern concept. The protective effect of KOK was evaluated against deterioration of testicular function induced by heat exposure in male mice. Male fertility was disrupted by scrotal heat stress at 43°C for 5 weeks. KOK (0.25, 0.50, and 2.00?g/kg/day) was administered orally at 3?h after the stress. To evaluate the protective effect of KOK, body weight, testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and histopathological changes in the testes were evaluated. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered their general health, as evidenced by body weight. KOK-treated mice also showed significantly higher testes weights, sperm counts, and sperm motility than did the heat stress group. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered the morphological appearance of the seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, KOK-treated mice significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the protein expressions of apoptosis in the testes. KOK significantly protects against heat-induced damage to testicular function in male mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis, indicating that KOK may be an effective agent for treatment of heat-induced male infertility. PMID:26539239

  11. Effects of traditional herbal medicine, Hwaotang, on atherosclerosis using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits and the venous thrombosis rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Hong, Mun-Yeob; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-10-01

    Hwaotang (HOT), a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of seven herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Ciniamomi Cortex, Cnidii Rhizoma, Persicae Semen and Carthami Flos. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and anti thrombic properties of HOT on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions were studied using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits and rats. Changes in blood chemistry, pathology and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were measured in a control and HOT group. In the control group, the area of atheromatous plaques of the aorta progressed between week 12 (36.65%) and week 14 (46.22%). This progression of atherosclerotic lesions did not occur in the HOT-treated group after 12 (24.24%) and 14 (23.34%) weeks. Antioxidative effects on LDL were seen in the HOT in weeks 12 and 14. HOT improved the hypercholesterolemia in the KHC rabbits. On the other hand, HOT and five of the seven herbs, except Cnidii Rhizoma and Carthami Flos, inhibited the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis in high cholesterol diet-treated rats. However, Ciniamomi Cortex showed a very weak inhibitory effect on the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis. The extract also inhibited the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood platelets and fibrinogen, and endotoxin-induced increase in fibrin degradation products (FDP) on disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that HOT has inhibitory effects on the development of atheromatous plaque formation in spontaneous FH rabbits. It is also suggested that the antioxidative effects of HOT on LDL led to the beneficial effects observed in this study. The protection by HOT and its herbs on the artificially induced ischemic infarction might be related to their inhibitory effects on disseminated intravascular coagulation, platelet coagulation and thrombotic action. PMID:16261513

  12. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto. PMID:22453301

  13. Analysis of the antioxidative function of the radioprotective Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, hangeshashinto, in an aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nyui, Minako; Ueno, Megumi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Omiya, Yuji; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese traditional medicine, is known to alleviate radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM; however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to clarify the details of the antioxidative functions of HST against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. The hydroxyl radical (•OH)-scavenging ability and the reduction ability was simultaneously measured using a modified electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping method. The superoxide (O(2) (•-))-scavenging ability was estimated by an EPR redox probing method. Water suspensions of powdered HST and of its seven constitutive crude drugs were tested. In addition, some of the main water-soluble ingredients of the crude drugs were also tested. HST was found to scavenge both •OH and O(2) (•-). Furthermore, HST was observed to reduce relatively stable nitroxyl radicals. Glycyrrhizae Radix (kanzo), Ginseng Radix (ninjin), Zizyphi Fructus (taiso) and glycyrrhizin (an ingredient of kanzo) were all found to be relatively good •OH scavengers. Scutellariae Radix (ogon) and Coptidis Rhizoma (oren) demonstrated reducing ability. In addition, acteoside and berberine chloride, which are water-soluble ingredients of ogon and oren, respectively, also demonstrated reducing ability. Oren exhibited oxidative ability at higher concentrations, which may have a function in maintaining catalytic redox action. The antioxidative function of HST probably worked via a balance of scavenging ROS, reducing stable free radicals, and some minor oxidizing activities. PMID:25883171

  14. Analysis of the antioxidative function of the radioprotective Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, hangeshashinto, in an aqueous phase

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nyui, Minako; Ueno, Megumi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Omiya, Yuji; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese traditional medicine, is known to alleviate radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM; however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to clarify the details of the antioxidative functions of HST against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. The hydroxyl radical (•OH)–scavenging ability and the reduction ability was simultaneously measured using a modified electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping method. The superoxide (O2•?)–scavenging ability was estimated by an EPR redox probing method. Water suspensions of powdered HST and of its seven constitutive crude drugs were tested. In addition, some of the main water-soluble ingredients of the crude drugs were also tested. HST was found to scavenge both •OH and O2•?. Furthermore, HST was observed to reduce relatively stable nitroxyl radicals. Glycyrrhizae Radix (kanzo), Ginseng Radix (ninjin), Zizyphi Fructus (taiso) and glycyrrhizin (an ingredient of kanzo) were all found to be relatively good •OH scavengers. Scutellariae Radix (ogon) and Coptidis Rhizoma (oren) demonstrated reducing ability. In addition, acteoside and berberine chloride, which are water-soluble ingredients of ogon and oren, respectively, also demonstrated reducing ability. Oren exhibited oxidative ability at higher concentrations, which may have a function in maintaining catalytic redox action. The antioxidative function of HST probably worked via a balance of scavenging ROS, reducing stable free radicals, and some minor oxidizing activities. PMID:25883171

  15. Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Polyphenols in a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Which Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsubara, Yousuke; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Maemura, Kazuya; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Most orally administered polyphenols are metabolized, with very little absorbed as aglycones and/or unchanged forms. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies are therefore necessary to understand the pharmacological mechanisms of polyphenols. Jumihaidokuto (JHT), a traditional Japanese medicine, has been used for treatment of skin diseases including inflammatory acne. Because JHT contains various types of bioactive polyphenols, our aim was to clarify the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the polyphenols in JHT and identify active metabolites contributing to its antidermatitis effects. Orally administered JHT inhibited the increase in ear thickness in rats induced by intradermal injection of Propionibacterium acnes. Quantification by LC-MS/MS indicated that JHT contains various types of flavonoids and is also rich in hydrolysable tannins, such as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl glucose. Pharmacokinetic and antioxidant analyses showed that some flavonoid conjugates, such as genistein 7-O-glucuronide and liquiritigenin 7-O-glucuronide, appeared in rat plasma and had an activity to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation. Furthermore, 4-O-methylgallic acid, a metabolite of Gallic acid, appeared in rat plasma and inhibited the nitric oxide reaction. JHT has numerous polyphenols; it inhibited dermatitis probably via the antioxidant effect of its metabolites. Our study is beneficial for understanding in vivo actions of orally administered polyphenol drugs. PMID:26437394

  16. Chiral amino acid analysis of Japanese traditional Kurozu and the developmental changes during earthenware jar fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Yurika; Nagano, Masanobu; Ishigo, Shoto; Ito, Yusuke; Hashiguchi, Kazunori; Hishida, Naoto; Mita, Masashi; Lindner, Wolfgang; Hamase, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Enantioselective amino acid metabolome analysis of the Japanese traditional black vinegars (amber rice vinegar, Kurozu) was performed using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography combining a microbore-monolithic ODS column and narrowbore-enantioselective columns. d-Amino acids, the enantiomers of widely observed l-amino acids, are currently paid attention as novel physiologically active substances, and the foodstuffs and beverages containing high amounts of d-amino acids are the subjects of interest. In the present study, the amino acid enantiomers were determined by two-dimensional HPLC techniques after pre-column fluorescence derivatization with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole. In the first dimension, the amino acid enantiomers are separated as their d plus l mixtures by the reversed-phase mode, then the d-amino acids and their l-counterparts are separately determined in the second dimension by the enantioselective columns. As a result, large amounts of d-Ala (800-4000nmol/mL), d-Asp (200-400nmol/mL) and d-Glu (150-500nmol/mL) were observed in some of the traditionally produced Kurozu vinegars. Relatively large or small amounts of d-Ser (50-100nmol/mL), d-Leu (10-50nmol/mL) and d-allo-Ile (less than 20nmol/mL) were also present in these samples. Developmental changes in the d-amino acid amounts during the fermentation and aging processes have also been investigated. PMID:24582151

  17. A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of ‘Oketsu’ (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    ‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19) or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods. PMID:18955217

  18. Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits. PMID:20452484

  19. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  20. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-10-01

    The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension.Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone.In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P?

  1. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  2. A traditional Japanese-style salt field is a niche for haloarchaeal strains that can survive in 0.5% salt solution

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Tadamasa; Usami, Ron; Kamekura, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Most of the haloarchaeal strains have been isolated from hypersaline environments such as solar evaporation ponds, salt lakes, or salt deposits, and they, with some exceptions, lyse or lose viability in very low-salt concentrations. There are no salty environments suitable for the growth of haloarchaea in Japan. Although Natrialba asiatica and Haloarcula japonica were isolated many years ago, the question, "Are haloarchaea really thriving in natural environments of Japan?" has remained unanswered. Results Ten strains were isolated from a traditional Japanese-style salt field at Nie, Noto Peninsula, Japan by plating out the soil samples directly on agar plates containing 30% (w/v) salts and 0.5% yeast extract. They were most closely related to strains of three genera, Haladaptatus, Halococcus, and Halogeometricum. Survival rates in 3% and 0.5% SW (Salt Water, solutions containing salts in approximately the same proportions as found in seawater) solutions at 37°C differed considerably depending on the strains. Two strains belonging to Halogeometricum as well as the type strain Hgm. borinquense died and lysed immediately after suspension. Five strains that belonged to Halococcus and a strain that may be a member of Halogeometricum survived for 1–2 days in 0.5% SW solution. Two strains most closely related to Haladaptatus possessed extraordinary strong tolerance to low salt conditions. About 20 to 34% of the cells remained viable in 0.5% SW after 9 days incubation. Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated that haloarchaea are really thriving in the soil of Japanese-style salt field. The haloarchaeal cells, particularly the fragile strains are suggested to survive in the micropores of smaller size silt fraction, one of the components of soil. The inside of the silt particles is filled with concentrated salt solution and kept intact even upon suspension in rainwater. Possible origins of the haloarchaea isolated in this study are discussed. PMID:17346353

  3. Comprehensive multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of 74 pesticides and metabolites in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by accelerated solvent extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhengwei; Mao, Xiuhong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multiresidue method for the simultaneous target analysis of 74 pesticides and metabolites in traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) was developed using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with HPLC/MS/MS. Pesticide residues were extracted from the different samples using ASE, then purified by gel permeation chromatography and graphitized carbon black/primary, secondary amine SPE. Gradient elution was used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization MS/MS to detect 74 pesticides and metabolites from Cortex Cinnamomi, Flos Carthami, Folium Ginkgo, Herba Pogostemonis, Radix Ginseng, and Semen Ginkgo using a single chromatographic run. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of extracts spiked at three concentration levels ranging from 0.005 to 0.125 mg/kg for each pesticide and metabolite. In general, recoveries ranging from 70 to 110%, with RSDs better than 15%, were obtained. The recovery and repeatability data were in good accordance with European Union guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The LOD for most of the targeted pesticides and metabolites tested was below 0.01 mg/kg. PMID:21140670

  4. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

  5. Comparison of the Effects on Rib Fracture between the Traditional Japanese Medicine Jidabokuippo and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Hajime; Yokoi, Aya; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Jidabokuippo is a traditional Japanese medicine used for contusion-induced swelling and pain. This open multicenter randomized study was designed to compare the efficacies of jidabokuippo and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rib fracture by analyzing the treatment duration. Our study involved 170 rib fracture patients capable of oral ingestion divided randomly into 2 groups: the jidabokuippo and NSAID groups. We compared the duration of treatment and healthcare expenditure between these 2 groups. Medication was continued in both groups until the visual analogue scale score decreased to less than 50% of the pretreatment score. We excluded the patients in whom medication was prematurely discontinued. We analyzed 81 patients belonging to the jidabokuippo and NSAIDs groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in age, gender, severity (injury severity score), and presence/absence of underlying disease. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P = 0.0003). Healthcare expenditure was significantly lower in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that compared to NSAIDs, jidabokuippo can shorten the duration of treatment in patients with rib fracture and is a promising analgesic agent based on the medical economic viewpoint. PMID:22888367

  6. Goshajinkigan, a traditional Japanese medicine, prevents oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy by suppressing functional alteration of TRP channels in rat.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Keita; Kono, Toru; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Miyagi, Chika; Omiya, Yuji; Miyano, Kanako; Kase, Yoshio; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    The acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin treatment occurs very frequently and is aggravated by exposure to cold. Goshajinkigan (GJG), a traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, was recently shown to be effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy. However, because the effects of GJG and its mechanism in relation to those of its ingredients and its mechanism are not well understood, we examined the effects of GJG on acute neuropathy. Further, we investigated whether GJG affects the functions and gene expressions of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels using a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Administration of oxaliplatin increased withdrawal responses from cold stimulation, and GJG or calcium gluconate/magnesium sulfate significantly inhibited the oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity. Application of menthol, a TRPA1/TRPM8 agonist, or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a selective TRPA1 agonist, to the hind paw of oxaliplatin-treated rats enhanced the nocifensive behaviors evoked by each agonist, whereas oxaliplatin had no significant effect on nocifensive behaviors evoked by capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. GJG treatment reduced menthol- or AITC-evoked withdrawal responses potentiated by oxaliplatin. Furthermore, GJG suppressed the increase of TRPA1 and TRPM8 mRNA expression induced by oxaliplatin in dorsal root ganglia. These findings suggest that GJG prevented oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy by suppressing functional alteration of TRP channels, especially TRPA1 and TRPM8. PMID:24784702

  7. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST. PMID:24410935

  8. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating erysipelas in pigs; the aerial parts of pellitory ( Parietaria judaica) in decoctions for treating haemorrhoids. Conclusions The fact that half of the most salient species documented in our case study – widely available both in Molise and in Dalmatia and Herzegovina – retain a Slavic name could indicate that they may have also been used in Dalmatia and Herzegovina before the migration took place. However, given the occurrence of several South-Italian plant names and uses, also a remarkable acculturation process affected the Slavic community of Montemitro during these last centuries. Future directions of research should try to simultaneously compare current ethnobotanical knowledge of both migrated communities and their counterparts in the areas of origin. PMID:22672636

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G0/G1 phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel®, and 3D Gelfoam® culture visualized with FUCCI imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G2/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G0/G1 (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 ?m), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G2/M. In 2.5D Matrigel® culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G2/M. LQ arrested the cells in G0/G1 after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G2/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam® culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G2/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G0/G1 phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G2/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time. PMID:25779660

  10. Clinical Efficacy of a West African Sorghum bicolor-Based Traditional Herbal Preparation Jobelyn Shows Increased Hemoglobin and CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayuba, Godwin I.; Jensen, Gitte S.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Okubena, Ademola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a traditional herbal preparation, Jobelyn,® for its effects on anemia and CD4+ T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) patients in Nigeria. Design: An open-label pilot study involving 10 confirmed (HIV+) patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) was performed, in which the patients consumed Jobelyn for 8 weeks, at a dose of 500?mg twice daily. The pilot study was followed by a controlled trial involving 51 patients, all confirmed HIV+, where the patients with CD4+ T-cell counts below 350 cells/?L were receiving ARVT. The eight patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/?L received Jobelyn. The remaining patients who all received ARVT were randomized to ARVT alone versus ARVT+Jobelyn for 12 weeks. Results: Patients receiving ARVT showed a statistically significant improvement in their CD4+ T-cell counts across the 12-week study period (p<0.01). Patients receiving ARVT+Jobelyn showed a faster improvement, reaching a high level of statistical significance compared to baseline already at 6 weeks (p<0.001), and remained highly significant at 12 weeks (p<0.001). Conclusions: This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV+ patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4+ T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV+ patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function. PMID:24283768

  11. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach for quantifying multi-components in traditional complex herbal medicines, Qiong-Yu-Gao as an example.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-08-10

    An improved high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed to quantitatively evaluate the holistic quality of traditional complex herbal medicines (CHMs). Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), a classical CHM consisting of Rehmanniae Radix, Poriae and Ginseng Radix, was used as an example. Thirty-eight major components (including six pairs of epimers/isomers) belonging to five chemical types, i.e., iridoid glycosides, phenethylacohol glycosides, furfural derivatives, ginsenosides and triterpenoid acids, were selected as marker compounds. Programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning were designed to improve the sensitivity of the MS detection concerning the diverse chemical features of the analytes. The reference compounds of the analytes were individually injected directly into MS to optimize the ionization cone voltage and to select monitoring ion of each analyte. Nine channels with eight time segments were determined for monitoring the thirty-eight analytes, among which six were detected in positive and thirty-two in negative ion modes respectively. Higher signal-to-noise ratios of the analytes were achieved when compared with full time scanning. In addition, the linearity, precision, accuracy and stability of the method were also validated. The established method was applied for the quantitative evaluation of QYG samples prepared with three different methods. Obvious difference in the contents of thirty-eight components, in particular the original ginsenosides, degraded ginsenosides and furfural derivatives, was found among these QYG samples. All these results demonstrated that the established HPLC-ESI-MS with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach is very suitable for the standardization investigation of CHMs. PMID:25982197

  12. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  13. Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

  14. Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Enhances the L-DOPA-Induced Rotational Response in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats: Possible Inhibition of COMT.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasushi; Ebihara, Kosuke; Tabuchi, Masahiro; Imamura, Sachiko; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Kase, Yoshio; Koganemaru, Go; Abe, Hiroshi; Ikarashi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan (YKS) on the function of dopamine (DA) in the rat nigrostriatal system. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were produced in the rat nigrostriatal system. Despite a marked loss in the striatal immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase on the lesion side, striatal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity was not affected. Treatment using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in conjunction with benserazide for 15?d induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) such as locomotive (rotational response), axial, forelimb, and orolingual movements in the lesioned rats. The L-DOPA-induced locomotive and axial, but not forelimb and orolingual, AIMs were significantly increased and prolonged by the pre-administration of YKS. We next investigated the effects of YKS on the production of DA from L-DOPA in 5-HT synthetic RIN 14B cells. RIN 14B cells produced DA and its metabolite, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), following L-DOPA treatment. YKS significantly augmented DA production and inhibited its metabolism to 3-MT in a manner similar to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor entacapone. YKS and some alkaloids (corynoxeine: CX, geissoschizine methyl ether: GM) in Uncaria hook, a constituent herb of YKS, also inhibited COMT activity, indicating that the augmenting effect of YKS on L-DOPA-induced DA production in 5-HT synthetic cells was due to the inhibition of COMT by CX and GM. Our results suggest that YKS facilitates the DA supplemental effect of L-DOPA, and that COMT inhibition by CX and GM contributes, at least in part, to the effects of YKS. PMID:26725433

  15. Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of ?-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain. PMID:24701973

  16. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

  17. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

  18. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  19. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  20. Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues.

    PubMed

    Mortel, Mylove; Mehta, Supriya D

    2013-05-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to many positive health outcomes, yet its widespread adoption as the primary mode of providing nutrition to infants remains challenging. The most common reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is perception of inadequate milk production. To augment breast milk production, a substantial number of women turn to herbal galactogogues despite the limited scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to evaluate the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. PubMed was searched from inception to October 2012 using an iterative search process that proceeded from broad categories to specific herbs. Manuscript references were also reviewed. Only experimental studies with objective outcome measures were included. Six trials met our search criteria. Using an adapted version of the CONSORT checklist, each trial was evaluated for potential sources of bias in design and reporting. Shatavari, torbangun, fenugreek, milk thistle, and a Japanese herbal medication were the 5 herbal preparations studied. Five trials found an increase in breast milk production. Several limitations exist that affect the validity of the trial results, including small sample size, insufficient randomization methods, poorly defined eligibility criteria, use of poly-herbal interventions, and variable breastfeeding practices among enrolled subjects. Given the insufficiency of evidence from these trials, no recommendation is made for the use of herbs as galactogogues. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical trials that address the above limitations are necessary to generate a body of evidence as a basis for recommendations regarding herbal galactogogues. PMID:23468043

  1. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  2. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254

  3. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and quality of their products. DO NOT give herbal supplements to children or use them if you are ... sites can help you learn more about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www. ...

  4. Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  5. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  6. Tea not Tincture: Hepatotoxicity Associated with Rooibos Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Engels, Michael; Wang, Charles; Matoso, Andres; Maidan, Eyal; Wands, Jack

    2013-10-01

    A 52-year-old male presented with signs of acute hepatitis and liver failure. Laboratory investigations for common etiologies were unrevealing, but history suggested liver injury secondary to ingestion of a traditional South African herbal tea made with rooibos and buchu. Livery biopsy confirmed a toxin-mediated liver injury. The patient recovered liver function after stopping the herbal tea. Although hepatotoxicity associated with rooibos and buchu has rarely been reported, anecdotal correspondence with South African physicians confirmed suspected cases. Hepatotoxicity may be due to the heterogeneous composition of herbal teas due to small-batch manufacturing. Our case clearly outlines the need to suspect herbal causes of idiopathic liver injury. PMID:26157822

  7. Tea not Tincture: Hepatotoxicity Associated with Rooibos Herbal Tea

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Michael; Matoso, Andres; Maidan, Eyal; Wands, Jack

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old male presented with signs of acute hepatitis and liver failure. Laboratory investigations for common etiologies were unrevealing, but history suggested liver injury secondary to ingestion of a traditional South African herbal tea made with rooibos and buchu. Livery biopsy confirmed a toxin-mediated liver injury. The patient recovered liver function after stopping the herbal tea. Although hepatotoxicity associated with rooibos and buchu has rarely been reported, anecdotal correspondence with South African physicians confirmed suspected cases. Hepatotoxicity may be due to the heterogeneous composition of herbal teas due to small-batch manufacturing. Our case clearly outlines the need to suspect herbal causes of idiopathic liver injury. PMID:26157822

  8. Quantitative studies and taste reconstitution experiments of the sour and lingering mouthful orosensation in a debittered extract of traditional Japanese dried and fermented skipjack tuna (hongarebushi).

    PubMed

    Haseleu, Gesa; Lubian, Elisabetta; Mueller, Stefan; Shi, Feng; Koenig, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    Hongarebushi, Japanese dried skipjack tuna and a high quality ingredient of Japanese dashi, was investigated for its taste active composition. The recent investigation focused on a debittered fish fraction, which revealed a strong umami and salt impact accompanied with a pleasant and pronounced sourness. Whereas the umami and salt tastes could be correlated to monosodium glutamate (MSG), ribonucleotides, and mineral salts, the pleasant sourness was not exclusively induced by organic acids. The essential compound imparting the sour orosensation, persistence, and mouthfulness of the debittered skipjack tuna extract was investigated, and omission experiments emphasized the impact of N-acetylglutamic acid (NAG) on the overall taste sensation of the debittered fish extract. This metabolite, which is known to be present as a minor constituent in animal- and plant-derived foods, was quantified in this study for the first time in seafood, soybean products, dried shiitake mushrooms, and dried fish in notable amounts. Furthermore, it was described for the first time as an essential taste contributor to the nonvolatile profile of a foodstuff, in this case of a debittered extract of hongarebushi. PMID:23472642

  9. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  10. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  11. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the activity of human CYP. However, with little confirming evidence from clinical studies, precaution should be exercised when patients are taking Chinese herbal medicines concomitantly with drugs that are CYP substrates. Currently there is sufficient evidence to indicate that herbal drug interactions can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequence. Further clinical trial research should be conducted to verify these herbal drug interactions. Education on herbal drug interactions and communication with patients on their use of herbal products is also important. PMID:26417310

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional Korean herbal formulation, Silsosangami, consisting of seven medicinal herbs: effect on hemolysis, neutrophil function, and gene expressions of iNOS and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-08-01

    Silsosangami is a dried decoctum of a mixture of seven Korean herbal medicine, which is consisted of seven herbs (indicated as concentrations) of Typhae Pollen, Pteropi Faeces, Paeoniae Radicis rubra, Cnidii Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Carthami Flos and Curcumae Tuber. In the present study, the effects of Silsosangami water extract (SSG) on hemolysis in human blood were studied. Using an in vitro system, only Curcumae Tuber, Persicae Semen and Paeoniae Radicis rubra had the strongest effects on hemolysis; Typhae Pollen and Pteropi Faeces had the slight effects; and Cnidii Rhizoma and Carthami Flos had no effect. On the other hand, the SSG inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation, and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. This SSG reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglanin E2 (PGE2) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, without the influence on the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase COX-2 and COX-1 being observed. SSG significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. Western blot analysis showed that SSG reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2. These results suggested that SSG might be used as a novel antithrombotic therapeutic agents in post-myocardial infarction and also, indicated that SSG exerts anti-inflammatory effects related to the inhibition of neutrophil functions and of NO and PGE2 production, which could be due to a decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2. PMID:15664882

  13. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  14. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602

  15. Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S. H.; Islam, Farha; Sameem, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines. Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others. PMID:23057000

  16. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

  17. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  18. Pharmacogenomics Implications of Using Herbal Medicinal Plants on African Populations in Health Transition

    PubMed Central

    Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689

  19. Pharmacogenomics Implications of Using Herbal Medicinal Plants on African Populations in Health Transition.

    PubMed

    Thomford, Nicholas E; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689

  20. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this element in the…

  1. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Wo?niak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  2. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  3. Portuguese Ships on Japanese Namban Screens 

    E-print Network

    Yamafune, Kotaro

    2012-10-19

    scenes of the first European activities in Japan. Among the subjects depicted on Namban screens, some of the most intriguing are ships: the European ships of the Age of Discovery. Namban screens were created by skillful Japanese traditional painters who...

  4. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  5. Shikonin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Phosphorylated ?-Catenin and Phosphorylated PI3K/Akt: A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Glioma Efficacy of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Hu, Yi; Que, Zhong-You; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin is an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the root of lithospermum. Shikonin is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Shikonin also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumors. However, the effect of shikonin on gliomas has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of shikonin on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 ?mol/L and cell viability, migration and invasiveness were assessed with CCK8, scratch wound healing, in vitro Transwell migration, and invasion assays. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of phosphorylated ?-catenin (p-?-catenin) and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt were also checked. Results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The expression of p-?-catenin showed contrary trends in two cell lines. It was significantly inhibited in U87 cells and promoted in U251 cells. Results in this work indicated that shikonin displayed an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells by inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. In addition, shikonin also inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt to attenuate cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both cell lines, which could be reversed by the PI3K/Akt pathway agonist, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). PMID:26473829

  6. Shikonin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Phosphorylated ?-Catenin and Phosphorylated PI3K/Akt: A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Glioma Efficacy of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Hu, Yi; Que, Zhong-You; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin is an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the root of lithospermum. Shikonin is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Shikonin also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumors. However, the effect of shikonin on gliomas has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of shikonin on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 ?mol/L and cell viability, migration and invasiveness were assessed with CCK8, scratch wound healing, in vitro Transwell migration, and invasion assays. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of phosphorylated ?-catenin (p-?-catenin) and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt were also checked. Results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The expression of p-?-catenin showed contrary trends in two cell lines. It was significantly inhibited in U87 cells and promoted in U251 cells. Results in this work indicated that shikonin displayed an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells by inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. In addition, shikonin also inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt to attenuate cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both cell lines, which could be reversed by the PI3K/Akt pathway agonist, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). PMID:26473829

  7. Gerard's Herbal The OED defines the word `herbal' (n) as: `a book containing the names and

    E-print Network

    Flynn, E. Victor

    .' Charles Singer, historian of medicine and science, describes herbals as `a collection of descriptionsGerard's Herbal The OED defines the word `herbal' (n) as: `a book containing the names and sixteenth century.'1 Although the origin of the herbal dates back to `remote antiquity'2 the advent

  8. Japanese Alphabets

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2012-02-22

    Broadcast Transcript: The Japanese are adept at hiragana. Also katakana. No. They're not Samurai methods of ritual suicide. They're alphabets. And very specific alphabets at that. Hiragana is a set of 48 phonetic symbols, known as a syllabary...

  9. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  10. Skills and Life Strategies of Japanese Business Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwao, Sumiko

    In this paper, case studies of two successful Japanese businesswomen illustrate how traditional Japanese cultural values and female sex roles have enabled women to succeed in business. These two cases were chosen as representative from a sample of 56. The businesses discussed are in very different sectors of the economy. One is a traditional and…

  11. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

  12. Use of herbals as galactagogues.

    PubMed

    Zapantis, Antonia; Steinberg, Jennifer G; Schilit, Lea

    2012-04-01

    With a substantial number of women using herbal products to augment their milk production, this article will review available literature illustrating efficacy and adverse effects of using these products. Embase, PubMed, and EBSCO (all databases) were searched from inception to June 2011 using terms such as ‘‘galactagogue,’’ ‘‘galactogogue,’’ ‘‘herbal,’’ and ‘‘botanical’’ and the search was subsequently narrowed to specific herbals by name. Additional articles were obtained from article reference lists. Supplemental information was obtained with Natural Standard. All abstracts retrieved were evaluated for relevance and germane articles were included. Numerous lactation-stimulating herbals have been identified in the literature with varying degrees of evidence,mostly anecdotal. Use of torbangun, milk thistle, and fenugreek may correlate with increased milk supply. Evidence regarding adverse effects, pharmacodynamic properties, and pharmacokinetic effects remains scarce. Despite the fact that postpartum women may turn to herbal galactagogues, scant clinical evidence exists to justify their effectiveness. Further clinical trials are needed in order to substantiate these findings. PMID:22392841

  13. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  14. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  15. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  16. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  17. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  18. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  19. REBEL WITH A CAUSE: ISHIHARA SHINTAR?, A CASE STUDY OF A JAPANESE NATIONALIST

    E-print Network

    Akaike-Toste, Eriko Maria

    2013-08-31

    of nationalism in general and Japanese nationalism in particular, the reader will come to see how Ishihara actively reinterprets and reaffirms Japanese traditions and myths and will gain a fuller appreciation of the reactive nature of national identity formation....

  20. Herbal medicines for the treatment of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    In many parts of the world, there continues to be a long-standing tradition of prescribing herbal products for a range of gastrointestinal conditions. Scientific evidence supporting the use of all herbal preparations is imperfect, however, and available studies are plagued by methodological limitations. For functional gastrointestinal disorders, there is limited evidence supporting the use of some well-characterized preparations. A number of herbals have immunomodulatory activity, and in inflammatory bowel disease there are limited positive placebo-controlled trials; other studies used active controls with suboptimal doses of the comparators. Like all drugs, herbals can lead to serious adverse events (eg, hepatic failure). Quality control is a serious issue to consider when prescribing herbal medicines. Many herbal preparations are marketed without evidence for stringent adherence to good manufacturing practice guidelines. Unpredictable environmental conditions may affect the composition and the concentration of the active ingredients of plant extracts. Further, commercial herbal products usually combine a variable plethora of chemical families with possible medicinal utility. While some of these ingredients might be of benefit, the concentration and dose of these constituents needs to be closely monitored. Physicians and regulators need to remain very cautious about the use of herbal remedies. Appropriate scientific evidence for the claimed clinical benefits should become mandatory worldwide, and the standards for production and safety monitoring should comply with established standards for chemically defined products. If these principles were adopted, the full value of herbal remedies may come to light, particularly as the individually bioactive compounds present in these preparations become recognized. PMID:24674944

  1. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  2. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  3. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  4. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  5. The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?

    PubMed

    Routledge, Philip A

    2008-01-01

    Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382

  6. REVIEW Open Access Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    - tional herbal medicine to meet their primary health care needs [7,8]. Globally, millions of people rely [8]. Annual sales of herbal-based medicines range between 7.5 billion US$ and 108 billion USREVIEW Open Access Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review

  7. The use of herbal medicine in cancer-related anorexia/ cachexia treatment around the world.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia. PMID:22632862

  8. Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25104437

  9. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  10. Drug safety aspects of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, T; Deitelhoff, B; Silber-Mankowsky, A

    2015-06-01

    There are numerous statements in the literature suggesting that the safety of herbal products or herbal medicinal products is inadequately considered. Despite the presence of risk, the potential is commonly underestimated as herbals are considered to be natural substances. It is necessary to consider the different categories of herbal products in the market. On one hand there are authorised herbal medicinal products (HMPs) which have adhered to the requirements to present data on quality, efficacy and safety. On the other hand there are products falling outside the use of marketing authorisations as for remedies. In the European Union (EU), HMPs are subject to an ambitious and comprehensive risk management system as for chemically defined drugs, which react effectively to risk concerns with scientific methods, as has been shown in the past. The established methods of pharmacovigilance and risk management favour the authorisation of herbal preparations for medicinal purposes as proprietary medicinal drugs. PMID:26183727

  11. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Zaid, Abdelhamid; Soulaymani, Rachida

    2007-12-01

    The use of herbal medicines (HM) is on the rise among the global population. Although the safety profile of many herbal medicines is promising, accumulated data show evidence of significant interactions with medications, which can place individual patients at great risk. A range of electronic databases have been reviewed for articles published in this field: Medline, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, HealthSTAR, AMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, as well as Internet documents and manually searched references in medical journals. In this review, we examined the literature from 1966 to 2006 and focused on the importance of the risk of drug interactions and potential side effects when HM are involved. We discuss these in light of the documented findings. A review of the problematic issues is given and recommendations are made in order to encourage the setting up of clinical trials on HM and herb-drug interactions. PMID:18043467

  12. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  13. Normalizing Social Networking in a Beginners' Japanese Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morofushi, Mari; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah Ellen

    2014-01-01

    With the spread of the Internet, students now have greater opportunities to use Japanese outside of the classroom. For example, they can interact with other Japanese speakers through instant messaging or social networking, or utilize online dictionaries and translation tools to decipher websites in ways that would be impossible with traditional

  14. Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

    1997-01-01

    China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

  15. Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

  16. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  17. Comments on serious anaphylaxis caused by nine Chinese herbal injections used to treat common colds and upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kunmei; Chen, Jiajie; Li, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wang, Chunbo; Zhan, Zhengke; Wu, Xuli

    2009-11-01

    Reports describing severe allergic shock and fatality following treatment of a common cold or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with a Chinese herbal injection were collected. Our analysis of the risks associated with this treatment suggested that the potential risk of serious, or even lethal, anaphylaxis should preclude its use in treating common colds and URTIs. In light of our findings herein, we propose the following five suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections as medical treatments. First, Chinese herbal injections should not be delivered in the clinic to treat patients in accordance with Bian zheng lun zhi (broad-spectrum application based on holistic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and methodology), but rather they should be administered to target specific indicated disease processes. Second, Chinese herbal injection indications should be based on the results of double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. Third, Chinese herbal injections should be used only in cases involving severe disease or to rescue patients in critical condition; they should not be used to treat mild, relatively innocuous diseases, such as common colds and upper respiratory tract infections, given the risk of doing harm. Fourth, Chinese herbal injection formulas should include materials from only a single or a small number of plant sources in known quantities. Fifth, more studies examining the toxicology and allergenic potential of Chinese herbal injections are needed. PMID:19559066

  18. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  19. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  20. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3-07. Risk for Japanese encephalitis (JE), by country 1 COUNTRY AFFECTED AREAS TRANSMISSION SEASON COMMENTS Australia Outer Torres ... M. Japanese encephalitis in travelers from non-endemic countries, 1973–2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 ...

  1. Herbal Extracts Induce Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation of Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Hosein; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Barikbin, Behrooz; Ehsani, Amirohushang

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of people suffering from balding or hair thinning is increasing, despite the advances in various medical therapies. Therefore, it is highly important to develop new therapies to inhibit balding and increase hair proliferation. Objective We investigated the effects of herbal extracts commonly used for improving balding in traditional medicine to identify potential agents for hair proliferation. Methods The expression levels of 5?-reductase isoforms (type I and II) were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylteterazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine tests were used to evaluate the cell proliferation effect of herbal extracts in DPCs. The expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured using western blot analysis. Results The 5?-reductase isoform mRNAs and proteins were detected in the cultured DPCs, and the expression level of 5?-R2 in DPCs in the presence of the herbal extracts was gradually decreased. Herbal extracts were found to significantly increase the proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. These results show that the herbal extracts tested affected the protein expressions of ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, Cdk4, Bcl-2, and Bax in DPCs. Conclusion These results suggest that herbal extracts exert positive effects on hair proliferation via ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, and Cdk4 signaling in DPCs; they also suggest that herbal extracts could be a great alternative therapy for increasing hair proliferation. PMID:26719634

  2. Safety of herbal supplements: a guide for cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Ernst, E

    2010-08-01

    Many patients use herbal supplements to treat chronic cardiovascular conditions and often combine herbal ingredients with cardiovascular medications. However, physicians do not reliably elicit a history of herbal use from their patients and may overlook herbal supplements' adverse effects. Although often considered harmless by patients, herbal supplements may cause adverse cardiovascular effects from an herbal ingredient, a contaminant, or an herb-drug interaction. Herbal stimulants, including bitter orange, ephedra, caffeine, guarana, maté, kola, areca, lobelia, khat, and others are the most common category of herbal therapies to cause cardiovascular effects. However, dozens of other herbal ingredients have also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In addition to listed ingredients, herbal supplements may become contaminated at a number of stages during production. Pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and pharmaceutical agents have been detected in herbal supplements. Supposedly "herbal" products that are adulterated with prescription anorectics, antidepressants, diuretics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors along with other medications have been identified throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. All of these adulterants have potential cardiovascular effects. Herbal interactions with a variety of cardiovascular medications may also lead to adverse events. Herbal ingredients may cause pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions. We review clinically relevant patterns of adverse cardiovascular reactions to herbal supplements, and we provide resources and recommendations for practicing cardiologists evaluating patients with suspected herbal adverse effects. PMID:20633025

  3. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  4. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  5. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  6. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of cancer and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YE, LIN; JIA, YONGNING; JI, KE; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; XUE, KAN; JI, JIAFU; MASON, MALCOLM D.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a major part of healthcare in China, and has extensively affected medicine and healthcare in surrounding countries over a long period of time. In the fight against cancer, certain anticancer remedies using herbs or herbal formulas derived from TCM have been developed for the management of malignancies. Furthermore, there are clinical trials registered for the use of herbal remedies in cancer management. Herbal medicine has been used as part of combined therapies to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting. Herbal remedies have also been used as chemopreventive therapies to treat precancerous conditions in order to reduce the incidence of cancer in high-risk populations. Emerging evidence has revealed that herbal remedies can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of cancer cells. In addition to this direct effect upon cancer cells, a number of herbal remedies have been identified to suppress angiogenesis and therefore reduce tumour growth. The inhibition of tumour growth may also be due to modifications of the host immune system by the herbal treatment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of herbal remedies remain poorly understood and are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to summarize the current literature and clinical trial results of herbal remedies for cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the recent findings and development of the Yangzheng Xiaoji capsule. PMID:26622657

  8. HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

  9. Quality fluctuation detection of an herbal injection based on biological fingerprint combined with chemical fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lele; Ma, Lina; Feng, Wuwen; Zhang, Congen; Sheng, Feiya; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Chen; Dong, Gang; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yan, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Herbal injection is one of the most important preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. More than 130 types of herbal injections are used clinically for 400 million patients annually with total sales of over four billion US dollars per year. However, the current quality control (QC) methods relying mainly on chemical fingerprints (CF) can hardly ensure quality and safety of the herbal injections with complex chemical composition and have resulted in an increase in serious adverse drug reactions. In this study, a comprehensive approach for the QC of a controversial herbal injection Shuang-Huang-Lian lyophilized powder (SHL) was established based on the quality fluctuation detection by a combination of CF and biological fingerprint (BF). High-performance liquid chromatography and the impedance-based xCELLigence system were applied to establish the CF and BF, respectively. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminant ability of the two methods. The results showed that being subjected to environmental influence like oxygen/air, high temperature, and extreme illumination could lead to quality fluctuation of SHL. The combination of chemical and biological fingerprint method is a more powerful tool for the QC of SHL because it can clearly discriminate different groups of abnormal samples. This method can be used for the detection of quality fluctuation of SHL and can provide reference for the quality control of other herbal injections. PMID:24908410

  10. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  11. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

  12. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets. PMID:16322803

  13. Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Power Outages ?? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ... ??????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Nuclear Scans Bone Scan ????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...

  14. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

  15. Protestant Work Ethics: A Comparison of American and Japanese Working Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    While concerns grow regarding the possible "decline" of America's traditional work ethics, there is a growing interest in Japanese economic successes and work ethics. This study compares the work ethics of American and Japanese men. A questionnaire was designed to measure values related to America's "Protestant work ethics" and to traditional

  16. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  17. Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

  18. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

  19. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  20. Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

  1. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  2. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  3. A REVIEW OF THE BIOACTIVITY OF SOUTH AFRICAN HERBAL TEAS: ROOIBOS (ASPALATHUS LINEARIS) AND HONEYBUSH (CYCLOPIA INTERMEDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcon...

  4. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  5. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  7. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Chinese Herbal Decoction for the Treatment of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. Objectives In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Results Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: ?0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: ?0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Conclusions Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions. PMID:24465466

  8. How Intangible is Japan's Traditional Dietary Culture?

    E-print Network

    Rath, Eric C.

    2012-11-01

    , buckwheat, or even horse chestnuts and acorns were served instead . With almost all of the calories from carbohydrates, side dishes of fish or vegetables—for which Japanese cuisine is famous today—played only a small role in the “traditional” diet...

  9. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  10. Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

    2013-01-01

    Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

  11. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  12. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G". PMID:25850288

  13. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  14. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

  15. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  16. Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism—which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

  17. Herbal products in Canada. How safe are they?

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrskyj, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a PMID:9111986

  18. Translational research in immunology: Japanese perspectives.

    PubMed

    Triendl, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Japan has a formidable tradition in immunological research, starting with Shibasaburo Kitasato (1852-1931), who, after returning to Japan from his studies with Robert Koch, went on to build almost single-handedly a research tradition in investigative medical research, while engaging himself in the fight against infectious diseases. Over the past few decades, Japanese immunologists have been involved in many important discoveries at the forefront of immunological research, yet, when it comes to the translation of new discoveries into clinical innovations and new therapies, Japan's track record seems more modest. PMID:14704770

  19. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  20. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  1. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  2. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  3. Japanese Foreign Minister Nobutaka

    E-print Network

    for a plentiful future supply of clean power as the world moves away from coal, oil and natural gas. Top Japanese | | | | | | | | | | | | Press Review The Business Connection Front Page Defense and Foreign Policy Politics and Society Style

  4. Physical Settings and Materials Recommended for Play Therapy with Japanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room style), reading…

  5. The MBA and Japanese Language: Toward Proficiency-Oriented Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Yoshiko

    It is proposed that Master's in Business Administration (MBA) degree programs integrate Japanese language instruction in order to train business people to be sensitive to cultural differences and capable of operating effectively and comfortably in Japanese environments. The discussion begins by presenting some issues concerning traditional MBA…

  6. The Development of Perceptual Grouping Biases in Infancy: A Japanese-English Cross-Linguistic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Iversen, John R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and…

  7. East Meets West in Japanese Doctoral Education: Form, Dependence, and the Strange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Luise Prior; Hirata, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of current reforms in higher education, we analyze the traditional education of Japanese doctoral students in philosophy of education from Western and Japanese perspectives by focusing on learning as self-education, on being and learning with others, on the socialization into the profession, and on the study of the foreign…

  8. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  9. Herbal tea identification using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kokalj, Meta; Štih, Karmen; Kreft, Samo

    2014-08-01

    Herbal teas and other herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular, and it is essential to ensure their quality. Quality control methods that are simple, fast, and of low cost are needed by the producers and by inspections. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate mathematical methods has been shown to be useful for the identification and characterization of plant samples. In this work, we developed a method for the identification of herbal drugs in different herbal teas. 100 one-component herbal teas were first used to build an identification algorithm, which showed 100?% correct classification. In the next validation step, 13 samples from 7 herbal mixtures were analyzed, confirming high accurate results for classification. The influence of using different number of components in the principal component analysis is also explored. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and discriminant analysis was shown to be highly applicable for quality control procedures. PMID:25098931

  10. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support. PMID:8241931

  11. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2008-06-01

    To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. PMID:18236159

  12. Revealing the secrets of composite helmets of ancient Japanese tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Fedrigo, A.; Williams, A.; Civita, F.; Scherillo, A.; Vontobel, P.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Zoppi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We present novel results from a non-invasive examination of two kabuto (helmets), made in Japan in the 17th century. Neutron-imaging experiments (radiography and tomography), carried out at the ICON and NEUTRA beamlines, operating at the neutron source SINQ (CH), have allowed to determine the inner metal structure and manufacturing techniques of these beautiful examples of past technology, revealing some otherwise invisible details.

  13. A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

  14. Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yuki Io

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…

  15. Teacher's Resistance: A Case of a Japanese Middle School Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the life history of a Japanese teacher who was actively involved in social and educational movements in the 1960s. There are traditions of teacher resistance against social oppression worldwide, and this study brings forth one such example in Japan. This study highlights how one teacher, collaborating with his colleagues,…

  16. Japanese Negotiation through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and…

  17. [Clinical implication of urinary protein markers in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Miao; Meng, Xian-Jie; Wan, Yi-Gang; Shen, Shan-Mei; Luo, Xun-Yang; Gu, Liu-Bao; Yao, Jian

    2014-07-01

    In clinic, some urinary protein makers can dynamically and noninvasively reflect the degree of renal tubular injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). These urinary biomarkers of tubular damage are broadly divided into two categories. One is newfound, including kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), neutrophil getatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and cystatin C (CysC); the other one is classical, including beta2 microglobulin (beta2-MG), retinal binding protein (RBP) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). It is reported that, the increases in urinary protein markers are not only closely related to the damage of tubular epithelial cells in DN patients, but also can be ameliorated by the treatment with Chinese herbal compound preparations or Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, although urinary proteomics are used in the protein separation and identification, the traditional associated detection of urinary protein markers is more practical in clinic. At present, it is possible that the associated detection of urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular damages may be a feasible measure to reveal the clinical significance of urinary protein markers in DN patients and the interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:25272479

  18. Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

  19. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

  20. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially increase the treatment options available in areas where few medical products have been registered due to Malta's small market size. PMID:25837278

  1. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows. PMID:24467962

  2. A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals.

    PubMed

    Qinna, N; Taha, H; Matalka, K Z; Badwan, A A

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of action of each of the above, a combination is introduced to overcome several physiological or induced factors of ED. This study was conducted to show an enhancement of erectile function in male rats. The animals were observed for 3 h after each administration for penile erection, genital grooming and copulation mounting, and the penile erection index (PEI) was calculated. The maximum response was observed at the concentration of 7.5 mg kg(-1) of Etana. At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats. Clinical studies are warranted for evaluating Etana's significance in ED. PMID:19494825

  3. Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

  4. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  5. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  6. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  7. Japanese American Intermarriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell; Hirokawa, Dale

    Data for this study of Japanese American intermarriage in Denver (Colorado) from 1910-11 to 1980-81 were collected from marriage records in the Office of the Clerk and Recorder for the City and County of Denver. In order to compare intermarriage trends with available census figures (mostly on population size and sex composition), records were…

  8. [Inheritance of academic idea and experience about using traditional Chinese medicine from JIN Shi-yuan].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Luo, Rong; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-08-01

    Professor Jin Shi-yuan has been worked in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) over 70 years. He made prominent contributions in identification, processing, dispensing of TCM and reasonable use proprietary Chinese medicine. In over 70 years, he has mastered herbal medicine and traditional Chinese Medicine. It is also professor JIN's academic characteristic. Professor JIN's practical experiences were summarized according to the current situation about clinical medication, change of species of Juhong and Chenpi has been different from species of medical history. The quality is lower than before. Medicinal parts of Danggui, Gancao, Huangqin and Wuyao has been changed. So the actions of these herbal medicines have been changed also. Fresh herbal Qianchangpu has disappeared but it should be used clinically. Medical history, change of species, change of medicinal part, and change of preparing process in professor JIN's academic idea were be summarized periodically. The result is hoped to be referred by administration, manufacture, medical treatment of TCM. PMID:25509316

  9. Beneficial Effects of Rikkunshito, a Japanese Kampo Medicine, on Gastrointestinal Dysfunction and Anorexia in Combination with Western Drug: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kampo medicines are traditional herbal medicines which have been approved for medicinal use by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare and are currently being used more and more, often in combination with Western drugs. Thus, the need for investigation of interactions between Kampo medicines and Western drugs is now widely recognized. Aim. To summarize the effects and drug interactions of rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine often prescribed for upper gastrointestinal disorders and anorexia. Methods. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data on rikkunshito. Results describing its effects were abstracted, with an emphasis on drug interactions. Results and Discussion. Rikkunshito ameliorates anorexia induced by anticancer drugs, improves quality of life scores, and can even prolong survival compared with monotherapy. Rikkunshito combined with proton pump inhibitor therapy is shown to be useful in the treatment of PPI-refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease patients and patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Rikkunshito reduces antidepressant-induced adverse events and improves quality of life without influencing antidepressant effects. Conclusions. Rikkunshito shows ameliorative effects on adverse reactions induced by various Western drugs and can achieve better results (e.g., anticancer drugs and proton pump inhibitor) without influencing the efficacy and bioavailability of Western drugs. PMID:24778703

  10. Hovenia dulcis--an Asian traditional herb.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Eom, Seung Hee; Yu, Chang Yeon; Roitsch, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb., known as Japanese raisin tree, is commonly found in East Asia. It has a long history as a food supplement and traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea, but is little known and used in Western countries so far. This minireview summarizes traditional uses and current knowledge on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of H. duclcis and covers, in particular, literature from specialized Asian journals that are not readily accessible. Extracts from H. dulcis accelerate detoxification of ethanol, and possess hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antidiabetic properties. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, free radical scavenging and enhancement of ethanol catabolism have been reported. PMID:20379955

  11. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  12. An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

  13. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  14. A Novel Approach for Developing Whole System Herbal Therapies

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Susan A.

    A possible Whole System Herbal Therapy involves: ­ Dietary Change ­ Exercise ­ Multi-herb medicine OutcomeA Novel Approach for Developing Whole System Herbal Therapies Bibhas Chakraborty1 Susan Murphy@umich.edu Complementary Medicine Research Congress Munich, Germany May 11, 2007 Chakraborty et al. Developing Whole System

  15. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  16. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  17. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  18. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  19. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  20. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of D??kap? Y?ld?r?m Beyaz?t Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. Results: A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. Conclusions: In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines. PMID:26401410

  1. Placebos used in clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K

    2008-06-01

    One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study. PMID:19076001

  2. Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, Ananda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

  3. Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

  4. Japanese refrigerators field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, A.T.

    1989-03-01

    Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

  5. Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Albert T.

    1989-03-01

    Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

  6. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783

  7. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

  8. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good knowledge of the mechanisms of herbal drug interactions is necessary for assessing and minimizing clinical risks. These processes help prediction of interactions between herbal supplements and prescription drugs. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal supplements/medicines and prescription drugs, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:26417265

  9. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  10. Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Campos-Sánchez, Juan; Analla, Mohamed; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles

    2005-08-01

    Six herbal infusions used worldwide (Matricaria chamomilla, Tilia cordata, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Uncaria tomentosa and Valeriana officinalis) were assayed for anti-genotoxicity using the Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. All these infusions are traditionally used for various medical purposes, including anti-inflammatory processes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidative genotoxicant to test the anti-genotoxic potency of the medicinal infusions. None of these infusions showed a significant genotoxicity, quite the reverse they were able to behave as desmutagens, detoxifying the mutagen hydrogen peroxide. The phenolic content of such herbal infusions is argued to be the possible scavenger of reactive oxygen radicals produced by the hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16005256

  11. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

  12. Herbal pharmacology and medical therapy in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1975-12-01

    A scientific delegation visited the People's Republic of China for the purpose of assessing the current status of herbal pharmacology and medicine there. China is attempting to wed traditional and Western medicine so as to take advantage of the potential contributions of both. This wedding seems possible at the empiric level despite theoretical contradictions. Traditional remedies are widely prescribed, but the actual impact of such medication on disease is difficult to assess, because of the failure of the Chinese up until now to evaluate such remedies by modern clinical trial methodology. All Western drugs are readily available in China, and indeed are manufactured for export as well as for use within the country. The current chinese approach to the patient-doctor relation, and some novel ideas with regard to both medical and surgical therapy pose provocative questions for Western physicians. PMID:1200537

  13. Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions. PMID:25191281

  14. Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Boon, H S

    1999-10-01

    More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador) commonly used by cancer patients are reviewed here and a list of recommended reference texts is provided. In addition, health care providers are encouraged to initiate discussions about complementary/alternative products and therapies with their patients so that they may help them make safe and informed decisions about these products. Not knowing what patients are taking is definitely a less desirable option. PMID:14528703

  15. Herbal medicine, Chaplin, and "The Kid".

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Zilletti, Lucilla

    2012-06-01

    At variance with other largely safe complementary alternative medicines like homeopathy and acupuncture, which only carry the risk of inducing patients to shun effective treatment, herbal remedies are real, albeit impure, drugs and therefore fully capable of producing undesirable consequences if misused. The advantages they offer are uncertain since genuine evidence of efficacy and effectiveness is present in only a few cases. A result of this imbalance is that studies in this field are considerably more meaningful when they deal with untoward effects than with therapeutic uses. This disproportion has suggested to us the curious similarity with the situation portrayed in the film "The Kid" where the essential task of the protagonist (Chaplin) is to repair the windows his stone-throwing child has just broken. PMID:22560379

  16. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

  17. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  18. The Japanese University in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amano, Ikuo; Poole, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Japanese education has been a focus of comparative studies for the past 20 years. Many scholars have attributed the economic success of this industrialized society to a highly literate and well-educated population. Recent studies, however, have tended to be more critical of, in particular, Japanese higher education (HE). Indeed, most universities…

  19. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  20. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  1. Fox smell abrogates the effect of herbal odor to prolong mouse cardiac allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines have unique odors, and the act of smelling may have modulatory effects on the immune system. We investigated the effect of olfactory exposure to Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese herbal medicine, on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Methods Naïve or olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 heart and were exposed to the odor of TJ-23 until rejection. Some naïve CBA recipients of an allograft were given olfactory exposure to Sairei-to (TJ-114), trimethylthiazoline (TMT), individual components of TJ-23, or a TJ-23 preparation lacking one component. Adoptive transfer studies were performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Results Untreated CBA mice rejected their C57BL/6 allografts acutely, as did olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice exposed to the odor of TJ-23. CBA recipients of a C57BL/6 heart given olfactory exposure to TJ-23 had significantly prolonged allograft survival, whereas those exposed to the odor of TJ-114, TMT, one component of TJ-23, or TJ-23 lacking a component did not. Secondary allograft recipients that were given, at 30 days after transplantation, either whole splenocytes, CD4+ cells, or CD4+CD25+ cells from primary recipients exposed to the odor of TJ-23 had indefinitely prolonged allograft survival. Conclusions Prolonged survival of cardiac allografts and generation of regulatory cells was associated with exposure to the odor of TJ-23 in our model. The olfactory area of the brain may have a role in the modulation of immune responses. PMID:24886081

  2. A case-marking cue for filler-gap dependencies in children's relative clauses in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2011-11-01

    Object relative clauses have traditionally been thought to be more difficult than subject relative clauses in child English. However, recent studies as well as Japanese data show contradictory results. This study disclosed preschool children's superior performance on object relative clauses in Japanese; however, this dominance disappeared for the children who could use both the nominative and accusative case markers as cues for the comprehension of single-argument sentences. Assuming a filler-gap dependency for the relative clause formation, we suggest that there is no difference in the difficulty between subject and object relative clauses in the grammar of Japanese-speaking children. PMID:21306657

  3. Clinical Study on Constitutional Herbal Tea for Treating Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720

  4. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  5. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  6. Basic English Writers' Japanese-English Wordbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, F. J.

    The author of this Japanese-English wordbook suggests that it may be used by Japanese writers of English, by those translating from Japanese into English, and by learners of Japanese, in addition to its main intended uses as an aid to the preparation of teaching material and as a work of reference for teachers. A translator will need to supplement…

  7. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Rados?aw; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Gra?yna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  8. Antibacterial screening of traditional herbal plants and standard antibiotics against some human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Andleeb, Saiqa; Kiyani, Ayesha; Zafar, Atiya; Shafique, Irsa; Riaz, Nazia; Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Uddin, Hafeez

    2013-11-01

    Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent. PMID:24191314

  9. Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna

    PubMed Central

    Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after it has created blisters, cold drugs are suitable for the first goal and dry drugs with moderate in cold and hot qualities are better for second goal, this study reviewed remedies for burn wounds in Canon.

  10. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  11. Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

  12. Photostimulation of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L

    2015-02-01

    To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. PMID:25589080

  13. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  14. Applications of digital holographic microscopy in therapeutic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lai, Xin-Ji; Cheng, Chau-Jern; Yu, Yu-Chen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-09-20

    Therapeutic use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is a new approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The detection of soma volume and neurite outgrowth of living neurons is a highly relevant biomarker related to various application fields, including therapy efficacy and drug safety evaluation. Through the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM), we may evaluate the therapeutic effect of CHMs in curing neurodegeneration. Panax ginseng has been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for centuries. In this study, DHM is applied to monitor the three-dimensional morphology change of retinoic acid-induced human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during Panax ginseng treatment. We demonstrate the capability of DHM to detect noninvasively SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis and rescue through the measurement of neuronal volume and neurite outgrowth regulation without any labeling reagent. Through DHM, we observed the phase images of the rapidly shrinking cells with decreasing soma volume and shortening neurite outgrowth during glutamate treatments. Then shrinkage in glutamate-induced cells is significantly alleviated during Panax ginseng treatment. The results through DHM are consistent with the result from MTT assay for assessing cell viability during Panax ginseng treatment. Thus, we suggest that application of DHM for measuring soma volume and neurite outgrowth of living neurons may be one appropriate therapeutic evaluation for CHMs. PMID:25322130

  15. Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele, Rivers State.

    PubMed

    Tatfeng, Y M; Olama, E H; Ojo, T O

    2010-01-01

    Herbal antimalarials still remain an alternative to our traditional communities who can not afford orthodox antimalarials. This study was aimed at investigating the microbial quality of six herbal antimalarials using standard microbiological methods. Of the six preparations analyzed, "schnapps", palm wine and water were the media of preparation; the water base preparations recorded higher microbial load. The mean microbial load was 159.5 × 10(5) cfu/ml and 217.4 × 10(2)cfu/ml in water and alcohol base preparations respectively. The microbial profile of the preparations showed that the schnapps base preparations were predominantly contaminated with Bacillus sp (Aerobic spore bearers) and Mucor spp. The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor spp. Conclusively, this study underlines the public health importance of these preparations given the high burden of such human pathogen as Ecoli O157H7, Ps aeruginosa, Stahp aureus, etc. in the preparations. PMID:21304626

  16. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864

  17. Structural characterization of chromone C-glucosides in a toxic herbal remedy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wu; Cuyckens, Filip; Van den Heuvel, Hilde; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Steenkamp, Vanessa; Stewart, Michael J; Luyckx, Valerie A; Claeys, Magda

    2003-01-01

    Two novel compounds, 8-C-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone-2-carboxylic acid and a 2-O'-p-coumaroyl derivative thereof, were identified in a herbal tea that caused severe vomiting in a South African patient who had taken the traditional remedy to clean his stomach. For structural characterization, electrospray (ES) ionization in combination with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were used, as well as UV and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Specific ions or neutral losses generated under conditions of ES-MS/CID/MS permitted the establishment of structural features such as the free carboxyl group, the C-hexosidic part and the p-coumaroyl group. NMR spectroscopy was necessary to support the structure of the chromone-type aglycone and the glucosidic parts. Since the compounds are structurally related to aloesin and aloeresin A, which are chemotaxonomic markers of Aloe species, and have not been previously reported, we propose that they were formed by oxidative degradation during preparation of the herbal tea from an Aloe species or during its storage. PMID:12478554

  18. Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M.; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known about the mechanisms of IMOD to modulate immunity. Here we have investigated whether IMOD modulates the immunological function of human dendritic cells (DCs). IMOD alone did not induce DC maturation nor production of cytokines. Notably, IMOD decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF? by LPS-activated DCs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, treatment with IMOD did not affect LPS induced-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, IMOD inhibited T cell activation/proliferation by LPS-treated DCs and skewed T-cells responses toward the T helper type 2 polarization. These data strongly indicate that IMOD has a potent immunomodulatory ability that affects TLR signaling and thereby modulates DC function. Insight into the immunomodulatory effect of herbal medicine IMOD may provide innovative strategies to affect the immune system and to help combat various diseases. PMID:25870561

  19. Antiviral Effects of Novel Herbal Medicine KIOM-C, on Diverse Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Eun; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify new potential antiviral agents, recent studies have advocated thorough testing of herbal medicines or natural substances that are traditionally used to prevent viral infections. Antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of the total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C, a novel herbal medicine, against diverse types of viruses were investigated. In vitro antiviral activity against A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) through the induction of type-I interferon related protein phosphorylation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were determined. In vivo, KIOM-C-treated BALB/c mice showed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W81/2005 (H5N2), A/PR/8/34(H1N1), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W44/2005(H7N3) or A/Chicken/Korea/116 /2004(H9N2) influenza subtypes in contrast with the non-treated group. The present study revealed that total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C stimulates an antiviral state in murine macrophage cells and in mice leading to inhibition of viral infection and protection against lethal challenges. PMID:25942440

  20. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  1. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program. PMID:22648349

  2. Herbal extract targets in Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Bassim I; Al Shammary, Maani N; Abdul Mageed, Roaa H; Yousif, Nasser Ghaly

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of some herbal extract such as phenolic compounds on the viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. Four tested chemical agents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA)) were used in this study. The viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes was investigated under five different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml) of each agent after (72 h). CA was the most active agent on the promastigotes viability after 72 h exposure to 30 mg/ml concentration so that the parasiticidal effect reach (53 × 10(4)) promastigote/ml. FA is the second agent in parasiticidal effect that parasiticidal effect reach to (50 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), 4-HBA is the third agent in parasiticidal effect that reach to (48 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), SA is the weakest agent in parasiticidal activity that reach to (44 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml). It can be concluded that (CA, FA, SA and 4-HBA) possess acidal effect on the Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. PMID:26688631

  3. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For persons ... file SAS file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: August 5, 2015 Page last updated: August ...

  4. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  5. In Vivo Screening for Anti-Osteoporotic Fraction from Extract of Herbal Formula Xianlinggubao in Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinluan; He, Yixin; Guo, Baosheng; Tsang, Man-Ching; Tu, Fengjuan; Dai, Yi; Yao, Zhihong; Zheng, Lizhen; Xie, Xinhui; Wang, Nan; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Fufang or formula Xianlinggubao (XLGB) is a prescribed TCM drug in China registered for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Fufang in TCM is comprised of a group of herbal compounds contributing in group to the treatment efficacy. The present study aims to identify the bioactive fraction(s) in XLGB extract that account(s) dominantly for its osteogenic effects. Methods The extract of XLGB formula was separated into three fractions using chromatography, i.e., XLGB-A, XLGB-B and XLGB-C. They were administrated to 4-month old ovariectomized (OVX) mice for 6 weeks to determine which bioactive fraction(s) were more effective for preventing OVX-induced bone loss evaluated by microCT, biomechanical testing and biochemical markers. The main peaks of the key fraction were identified using reference compounds isolated from the fraction. In addition, the effects of the composite compounds in XLGB-B on osteoblasts’ proliferation and mineralization were evaluated in UMR 106 cells. Results XLGB-B with a yield of 13.0% from herbal Fufang XLGB was identified as the most potential one among the three fractions for prevention of OVX-induced bone loss confirmed with bone mass, bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone turnover markers. Nine compounds in HPLC fingerprint were identified in the XLGB-B fraction, including phenylpropanoids from Herba Epimedii, terpenes from Radix Dipsaci and coumarins from Fructus Psoraleae. In addition, the identified compounds effectively promoted proliferation and/or mineralization of osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells in vitro. Conclusion XLGB-B with defined phytochemical structures was screened as the key fraction that demonstrated preventive effects on OVX-induced bone loss in mice. The present study laid down a foundation towards a new generation of herbal Fufang characterized with “less herbal materials for achieving equal treatment efficacy” in development strategy of TCM for prevention of OVX-induced osteoporosis. PMID:25695519

  6. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  7. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  8. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  9. [The risks of combining medicine and herbal remedies].

    PubMed

    Goldstein, L H; Elias, M; Berkovitch, M; Golik, A

    2006-09-01

    The risks of using herbal remedies, considered 'natural', should not be disregarded, as some have serious side effects and some interact with and influence conventional medical therapeutics. The effect may be pharmacokinetic by altering absorption or metabolism, and may be pharmacodynamic, by changing the final effect of the drug. St. John's wort, for example, an antidepressant herbal remedy, may pharmacodynamically interact with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), causing a serotonin syndrome. St. Johns wort also causes serious pharmacokinetic interactions by activating the cytochrome CYP3A4, dangerously decreasing blood levels of cyclosporin, warfarin, and theophylline, and reducing the efficacy of contraceptive pills and AIDS therapy. The article presents a review of a number of herbal remedies, commonly used in Israel, that have documented drug interactions, providing details of common indications, adverse reactions and drug interactions of each herbal remedy. Physicians should recognize the fact that patients use herbal remedies, purchased directly at pharmacies or health stores, and be aware of the potential interactions of these remedies with conventional drugs. PMID:17078430

  10. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials. PMID:26457019

  11. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ?-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  12. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  13. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  14. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (????? Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (????? Huáng Lián Ji? Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  15. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100 mg of enriched Boswellia serrata extract improved symptoms compared to placebo. Mean pain was 40 points on a 0 to 100 point VAS scale (0 is no pain) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata reduced pain by a mean of 17 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 8 to 26); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 2; the 95% CIs did not exclude a clinically significant reduction of 15 points in pain. Physical function was 33 points on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 0 to 100 point subscale (0 is no loss of function) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata improved function by 8 points (95% CI 2 to 14); NNTB 4. Assuming a minimal clinically important difference of 10 points, we cannot exclude a clinically important benefit in some people. Moderate-quality evidence (one study, 96 participants) indicated that adverse events were probably reduced with enriched Boswellia serrata (18/48 events versus 30/48 events with placebo; relative risk (RR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92). Possible benefits of other Boswellia serrata extracts over placebo were confirmed in moderate-quality evidence from two studies (97 participants) of Boswellia serrata (enriched) 100 mg plus non-volatile oil, and low-quality evidence from small single studies of a 999 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata extract and 250 mg daily dose of enriched Boswellia serrata. It was uncertain if a 99 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata offered benefits over valdecoxib due to the very low-quality evidence from a small single study. It was uncertain if there was an increased risk of adverse events or withdrawals with Boswellia serrata extract due to variable reporting of results across studies. The studies reported no serious adverse events. Quality of life and radiographic joint changes were not measured. Six studies examined the ASU product Piasclidine®.Moderate-quality evidence from four studies (651 participants) indicated that ASU 300 mg produced a small and clinically questionable improvement in symptoms, and probably no increased adverse events

  16. Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Saiki, Shinji; Tashiro, Etsu; Yamada, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imoto, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future. PMID:24960051

  17. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

  18. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H.

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

  19. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  20. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  1. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  2. Traditional systems of medicine.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Kamala; Liao, Lucy P

    2004-11-01

    Traditional ways of healing illnesses originating in ancient societies are called complementary medicine today. Many of the traditional medical systems are based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices by healers. This article reviews some of the most commonly practiced traditional medical systems. A common factor noted in several traditional systems is a holistic approach to the well-being of a person's body, mind, and spirit. PMID:15458749

  3. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027

  4. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  5. Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

  6. [Three case reports of the use of herbal combinations resulted in stent thrombosis: herbal combinations; friend or foe?].

    PubMed

    Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Erdo?an, Ercan; Göktekin, Ömer

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, herbal combinations are commonly used in Turkey and around the world. In particular, an herbal combination including Tribulus terrestris (TT), Avena sativa (AS), and Panax Ginseng (PG), which may be effective in treatment of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, is used by patients with coronary artery disease. In this paper, we will report three cases with coronary stents who were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome while using this herbal combination of TT, AS and PG together with anti-aggregant medications. A 45-year-old man presented with chest pain and coronary angiography confirmed a total occluded stent in left anterior descending artery which was implanted a year ago. Balloon dialation was performed to dilate the stent, resulting in full opening of the vessel. The second case, a 53-year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital with chest pain. Coronary angiography confirmed a total occluded stent, which had been implanted three months ago. A balloon was performed to dilate the stent and it was fully opened. The third case, a 62-year-old man, presented with chest pain. Coronary angiography was performed and there was a 98% stenosis of the circumflex stent, which was implanted three months ago. A balloon was performed to dilate the stent and it was fully opened. It was learnt that all three patients had used the same herbal combination (TT, AS and PG) with dual anti-aggregant therapy for three months ago to presentation in the clinic. Patients were discharged with the suggestion not to use this herbal combination with dual anti-aggregant therapy. There were no problems during the four month follow-up period. Stent thrombosis may be caused by interactions between herbal combination (TT, AS and PG) and clopidogrel in these patients under dual antiaggregant therapy. PMID:22864325

  7. Immunosuppressive activity of an aqueous Viola tricolor herbal extract

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Barbara; Huber, Roman; Gruber, Christian W.; Gründemann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.), a member of the Violaceae family, has a long history as a medicinal plant and has been documented in the Pharmacopoeia of Europe. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties it is regarded as a traditional remedy against skin diseases, for example for the treatment of scabs, itching, ulcers, eczema or psoriasis, and it is also used in the treatment of inflammation of the lungs and chest such as bronchitis or asthma. Because T-cells play an important role in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases we investigated the effect of an aqueous Viola extract on lymphocyte functions and explored the ‘active’ principle of the extract using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Material and Methods An aqueous Viola extract was prepared by C18 solid-phase extraction. Effects on proliferation of activated lymphocytes (using the cell membrane permeable fluorescein dye CFSE), apoptosis and necrosis (using annexin V and propidium iodide staining), interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression (using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies) and IL-2 cytokine secretion (using an ELISA-based bead array system) were measured by flow cytometry. Influence on lymphocyte polyfunctionality was characterized by Viola extract-induced production of IFN-? and TNF-?, as well as its influence on lymphocyte degranulation activity. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract were performed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. Results The aqueous Viola extract inhibited proliferation of activated lymphocytes by reducing IL-2 cytokine secretion without affecting IL-2 receptor expression. Similarly, effector functions were affected as indicated by the reduction of IFN-? and TNF-? production; degranulation capacity of activated lymphocytes remained unaffected. Bioassay-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract led to identification of circular plant peptides, so called cyclotides, as bioactive components. Conclusion An aqueous Viola extract contains bioactive cyclotides, which inhibit proliferation of activated lymphocytes in an IL-2 dependent manner. The findings provide a rationale for use of herbal Viola preparations in the therapy of disorders related to an overactive immune system. However, further studies to evaluate its clinical potency and potential risks have to be performed. PMID:24216163

  8. Modern Japanese medical history and the European influence.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Y; Isozumi, K

    2001-06-01

    Before the first European visited Japan in 1549, traditional Chinese medicine was mainly employed in Japan. Francisco de Xavier, a missionary of the Society of Jesus, tried to promote the introduction of Christianity by providing a medical service for Japanese citizens. However, Japan implemented a national isolation policy in 1639 and cut off diplomatic relations with the rest of the world, except Holland and China. For over 200 years, until the American admiral Matthew Perry forced Japan to open its doors in 1853, Japan learned about western medicine only from doctors of the Dutch merchants' office or from Dutch medical books. After 1853, Western medicine was rapidly introduced into Japan, and great achievements by Japanese medical doctors soon followed, such as the serum therapy for tetanus, the discovery of the plague and dysentery bacilli, the invention of Salvarsan for the treatment of syphilis, and the demonstration of the neurosyphilis spirochete. PMID:11450598

  9. Authentication of Botanical Origin in Herbal Teas by Plastid Noncoding DNA Length Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a DNA barcode assay to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal teas. To reach this aim, we tested the efficiency of a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on commercial herbal tea samples using two noncoding plastid barcodes, the trnL intron and the intergenic spacer between trnL and trnF. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms proved successful in authenticating the species origin of herbal teas. We verified the validity of our approach by sequencing species-specific barcode amplicons from herbal tea samples. Moreover, we displayed the utility of PCR-CE assays coupled with sequencing to identify the origin of undeclared plant material in herbal tea samples. The PCR-CE assays proposed in this work can be applied as routine tests for the verification of botanical origin in herbal teas and can be extended to authenticate all types of herbal foodstuffs. PMID:26054647

  10. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  11. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  12. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…

  13. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  14. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  15. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  16. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  17. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  18. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  19. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  20. Safety of Popular Herbal Supplements in Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Amer, Marwa R; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-08-01

    The increasing popularity and use of dietary supplements has required health care professionals to become more knowledgeable of their properties, interactions, and adverse effects. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety of popular dietary supplements in breastfeeding mothers and the effects on the infants. Nine of the most popular herbal dietary supplements were identified based on the 2011 US market report of the top 10 selling botanicals and the most frequently received inquiries by the Ruth A. Lawrence Lactation Study Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Relevant publications were identified through June 2014 using PubMed and EMBASE; tertiary references, including the Drugs and Lactation Database and Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, were also reviewed. These herbals include black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, evening primrose, garlic, ginseng, melatonin, milk thistle, and St John's wort. Studies varied greatly with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Findings suggested that dietary/herbal supplements have not been evaluated in high-quality clinical trials, and there is limited evidence supporting safety of use, particularly among lactating women. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to provide counseling for nursing mothers seeking information on dietary supplements, highlighting reliable safety profiles, inquiring about the potential benefits the patient is seeking, and assessing the patient's perception of this supplement during breastfeeding. More research and clinical trials are required in this area to guide the recommendations and expand our current knowledge of these products. PMID:25881578

  1. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  2. Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

  3. Development of the Japanese Sword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Hiromu

    1980-02-01

    Both the beauty and the utility of the Japanese sword as a weapon depend on the characteristic metallic component structure of the sword blade steel. After briefly describing the characteristics of the sword blade and the history of the Japanese sword, this paper describes the forging process for making the composite structure of the sword blade steel, according to the author's experiences. Finally, andent ironmaking and steelmaking processes are briefly explained. The author concludes that the high purity of the iron and steel obtained to the beauty and artistry of the finished sword blade.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these species is endangered, one species is critically endangered, eight species are vulnerable, one is listed in CITES II, three are listed in Regional Red Data Book and the remaining 224 species are in the least concerned conservation category. Conclusions The liáng chá industry of southern China reflects the plant species richness and cultural diversity of the region. Future research on safety and efficacy of herbal drinks as well as ecological and cultural conservation efforts are needed for the sustainable growth of China’s botanical industry. PMID:24354903

  5. Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; Serag, Erini S; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-07-15

    There have been increasing reports on the adverse reactions associated with herbal consumption. For many of these adverse reactions, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown, but bioactivation of herbal compounds to generate reactive intermediates have been implicated. This minireview updates our knowledge on metabolic activation of herbal compounds, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance. A number of studies have documented that some herbal compounds can be converted to toxic or even carcinogenic metabolites by Phase I [e.g. cytochrome P450s (CYPs)] and less frequently by Phase II enzymes. For example, aristolochic acids (AAs) in Aristolochia spp, which undergo reduction of the nitro group by hepatic CYP1A1/2 or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to generate highly reactive cyclic nitrenium ions. The latter can react with macromolecules (DNA and protein), resulting in activation of H-ras and myc oncogenes and gene mutation in renal cells and finally carcinogenesis of the kidneys. Teucrin A and teuchamaedryn A, two diterpenoids found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming herbal supplements that caused severe hepatotoxicity, are converted by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase and inactivate them. Some naturally occurring alkenylbenzenes (e.g. safrole, methyleugenol and estragole) and flavonoids (e.g. quercetin) can undergo bioactivation by sequential 1-hydroxylation and sulfation, resulting in reactive intermediates capable of forming DNA adducts. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that is a glutathione depletory. The hepatotoxicity of kava is possibly due to intracellular glutathione depletion and/or quinone formation. Moreover, several herbal compounds including capsaicin from chili peppers, dially sulfone in garlic, methysticin and dihydromethysticin in kava, oleuropein in olive oil, and resveratrol found in grape seeds are mechanism-based (suicide) inhibitors of various CYPs. Together with advances of proteomics, metabolomics and toxicogenomics, an integrated systems toxicological approach may provide deep insights into mechanistic aspects of herb-induced toxicities, and contribute to bridging the relationships between herbal bioactivation, protein/DNA adduct formation and the toxicological consequences. PMID:21459083

  6. A FAQ-Based e-Learning Environment to Support Japanese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuqin; Yin, Chengjiu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Qiao, Guojun; Yano, Yoneo

    2011-01-01

    In traditional classes, having many questions from learners is important because these questions indicate difficult points for learners and for teachers. This paper proposes a FAQ-based e-Learning environment to support Japanese language learning that focuses on learner questions. This knowledge sharing system enables learners to interact and…

  7. Acute Toxicity of Essential Oils to Japanese Beetle Larvae and their Corresponding Mass Spectral Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root-feeding larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman have traditionally been viewed as contaminant pests of field-grown nursery crops. However, increasing attention is being paid to the deleterious effects of root herbivory by white grubs, which can cause girdling of roots and ev...

  8. Learning Japanese by Reading "Manga": The Rise of "Soft Power Pedagogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal examples of Japanese language input (such as "manga" and anime) have now become the default choice for curriculum designers, material developers, and classroom teachers to make learning "fun". More traditional written only text-based materials are now in direct competition with such materials. While there has been a comfortable…

  9. Japanese English Education and Learning: A History of Adapting Foreign Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    This essay is a history that relates the Japanese tradition of accepting and adapting aspects of foreign culture, especially as it applies to the learning of foreign languages. In particular, the essay describes the history of English education in Japan by investigating its developments after the Meiji era. The author addresses the issues from the…

  10. Japanese Communication Research: The Emphasis on Macro Theories of Media in an "Information-Based" Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and function of…

  11. "Soaking" Model for Learning: Analyzing Japanese Learning/Teaching Process from a Socio-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing how Japanese people learned in the Edo Period (1603-1867), one realizes that Japan had one of the highest literacy rates in the world in the 17th century. By studying this period, I will introduce traditional non-directive teaching and learning theories which still influence educational practices in today's Japan. I will further propose…

  12. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  13. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  14. Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katter, Eldon, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "The articles in this issue were selected because, in one way or another, they all touched on the notion of tradition and innovation." Storytelling and tribal dances are examples of past, traditional methods of passing cultural knowledge from elders to youth. Contemporary youth have replaced tradtional rites of passage with their own inventions…

  15. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  16. Traditional Construction in Burma

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

  17. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  18. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  19. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, K; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M; Neel, J V; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-01-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions differ, and none has been reported in non-Japanese populations. No instances of proalbumin variants or of albumin B (the most frequent alloalbumins in Caucasians) were detected in the children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, one instance of a variant proalbumin and two examples of albumin B occurred in Japanese from the vicinity of Tokyo. In addition a previously unreported point substitution was found in albumin Tochigi, which is present in two unrelated persons from Tochigi prefecture. Four of the point mutations in the Japanese alloalbumins are in close proximity in a short segment of the polypeptide chain (residues 354-382) in which three additional point substitutions have been reported in diverse populations. These results, combined with earlier data, suggest that point substitutions are grouped in certain segments of the albumin molecule. Images PMID:2762316

  20. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  1. Japanese American Sightless Institute Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomor, Karen; And Others

    In developing a project to increase the effectiveness of service delivery systems to ethnic minority groups, the cultural orientation and needs of the minority community must be addressed. Cultural and historical barriers to service delivery exist in the Japanese American community which result in under-utilization of services. To meet this…

  2. The Effects of Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    In this paper, selected evidence on the effects of Japanese schools is presented. The author believes that Japan is one modern society where the schools have fostered individual and social development. The primary focus is on the effects for individuals in the area of cognitive skills, motivation, educational and occupational attainments, and…

  3. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  4. Overview of Japanese aerospace plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuo

    1992-12-01

    The Japanese NAL, NASDA, and ISAS agencies have undertaken development of a Highly Maneuverable Experimental Spaceplane ('HIMES') which will integrate hypersonic technologies currently under development. A development status evaluation of these activities is presented. Attention is given to the configurational features of HIMES, its aerodynamic developmental tests to date, structures and materials considerations, flight control/guidance systems, airbreathing propulsion options, and CFD modeling.

  5. Teaching Japanese for Busy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Setsuko

    A course designed to teach survival Japanese language and culture to businessmen and professionals with little time for language study is described. The goals were to teach survival vocabulary and a few basic sentence structures and to develop the learners' pragmatic competence in using them. Portions of a commercial textbook were used for…

  6. Reviewing Japanese Concepts of Amae and Ie to Deeper Understand the Relevance of Secure-Base Behavior in the Context of Japanese Caregiver-Child Interactions.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Tomo; Traphagan, John W

    2015-12-01

    Attachment theorists believe that children rely on their caregivers for protection and exploration. Due to this emphasis on independent exploration, however, the extent to which this notion of secure-base behavior is valid in societies emphasizing belongingness, such as Japan, has been questioned. By conducting an in-depth exploration of two Japanese collectivistic concepts, amae and ie, the present paper reexamines the relevance of secure-base behavior in Japan. Current discussions of amae have relied on psychoanalytic concepts that were developed in Western culture, and thus may not accurately represent Japanese parent-child relations. By examining another traditional concept of the family system, ie, this paper proposes that attachment theory is relevant in Japanese culture because children's individual competence is important to their families. PMID:26123903

  7. Contemporary Japanese view of life and death as depicted in the film Departures (Okuribito).

    PubMed

    Asai, Atsushi; Fukuyama, Miki; Kobayashi, Yasunori

    2010-06-01

    Through films, we can see many aspects of a country and its times: culture, morality and religion, and views on life and death. The best films can both entertain audiences and provide viewers with opportunities to think about fundamental human problems. In this article, we use Departures (Okuribito) to examine the contemporary Japanese view of life and death. All sorts of deaths are depicted and each scene provides an insight into the contemporary Japanese view of death. We use the medium of film to consider the issue of death: what death is, the relationship that exists between life and death, and how the impurity and dignity of the dead are recognised by contemporary Japanese people. The ritual of 'encoffinment' will also be discussed, and what it suggests and reveals about Japanese views on what happens to a person when they die, and what requirements exist for someone to be able to depart from this world to the afterlife. The view of death depicted in Departures is thought to accept and even hope for a worldview that postulates continuity between life and death, wherein not only the soul but also personal individuality continues on as it existed in life. The rite of encoffinment is required to relieve the family's grief as well as to wipe away the impurity of the dead. The Japanese traditional view that the 'dead are impure' seems to die hard. It is also suggested that complicated and ambivalent attitudes towards the dead exist among contemporary Japanese people. PMID:21393271

  8. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  9. Anti Cariogenic Efficacy of Herbal and Conventional Tooth Pastes - A Comparative In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    K P, Mohankumar; N K, Priya; G S, Madhushankari

    2013-01-01

    Background: An upsurge of herbal products in various catalogues of fast moving consumer goods is evident. Dental creams or pastes which have numerous brands since years, have addition of many more herbal tooth pastes. Main claim of these herbal tooth pastes being effective reduction in cavities and plaque control. Proven fact is that proper brushing with a tooth brush and tooth paste brings down the caries incidence, and there is a substantial amount of contribution made by indispensable ingredient i.e, tooth pastes and their antibacterial component. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of various herbal tooth pastes available in the market and compare it with a conventional tooth paste with known antibacterial effect. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial efficacy of five herbal tooth pastes and two conventional tooth pastes with different ingredients was evaluated by the zone of inhibition created around the disc on the culture plates against streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus acidophilus. Results: The herbal tooth pastes showed similar efficacy as that of the conventional tooth pastes. One herbal tooth paste with multiple herbal ingredients had greater zone of inhibition compared to the conventional tooth pastes and other herbal tooth pastes. Conclusion: Herbal tooth pastes have similar antibacterial effect as conventional tooth pastes. Tooth paste with multiple herbal ingredients is more efficient than the tooth pastes with fewer herbal ingredients in an anticariogenic property. How to cite this article: Mohan Kumar K P, Priya N K, Madhushankari G S. Anti Cariogenic Efficacy of Herbal and Conventional Tooth Pastes - A Comparative In-Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):8-13. PMID:24155585

  10. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD. PMID:25279787

  11. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16?134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29?801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female?:?male = 1.94?:?1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

  12. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  13. Use of traditional complementary and alternative medicine for HIV patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Preez, Natalie Friend-du; Ramlagan, Shandir; Fomundam, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine use has been reported is common among individuals with moderate and advanced HIV disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the use of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) for HIV patients prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy in three public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Using systematic sampling, 618 HIV-positive patients were selected from outpatient departments from three hospitals and interviewed with a questionnaire. Results TCAM was commonly used for HIV in the past six months by study participants (317, 51.3%) and herbal therapies alone (183, 29.6%). The use of micronutrients (42.9%) was excluded from TCAM since mostly vitamins were provided by the health facility. Herbal therapies were the most expensive, costing on average 128 Rand (US$16) per patient per month. Most participants (90%) indicated that their health care provider was not aware that they were taking herbal therapies for HIV (90%). Herbal therapies were mainly used for pain relief (87.1%) and spiritual practices or prayer for stress relief (77.6%). Multivariate logistic regression with use of herbs for HIV as the dependent variable identified being on a disability grant and fewer clinic visits to be associated with use of herbs, and TCAM use for HIV identified being on a disability grant, number of HIV symptoms and family members not contributing to main source of household income to be associated with TCAM use. Conclusion Traditional herbal therapies and TCAM are commonly used by HIV treatment naïve outpatients of public health facilities in South Africa. Health care providers should routinely screen patients on TCAM use when initiating ART and also during follow-up and monitoring keeping in mind that these patients may not fully disclose other therapies. PMID:18652666

  14. Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Washio, Masakazu; Mori, Mitsuru; Mikami, Kazuya; Miki, Tsuneharu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakao, Masahiro; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Suzuki, Koji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is high in Western and Northern Europe and North America, and low in Asia. Although the incidence of RCC in Japan is lower than the rates in the other industrialized countries, there is no doubt that it is increasing. In this paper, we would like to introduce the summary of findings of JACC study, which evaluate the risk factors for RCC in a Japanese population. JACC study suggests nine risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, low physical activity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, beef, fondness for fatty food and black tea) and one preventive factor (i.e., starchy roots such as taro, sweet potato and potato) in a Japanese population. In Japan, however, drinking black tea may be a surrogate for westernized dietary habits while eating starchy roots may be a surrogate for traditional Japanese dietary habits. Further studies may be needed to evaluate risk factors for RCC because the number of cases is small in our studies. PMID:25422180

  15. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  16. Herbal Therapies and Social-Health Policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito Women's Dilemma and Reproductive Healthcare Transitions in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Homervergel G.; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The high maternal mortality in the Philippines in the past decades prompted intervention strategies to curb unwanted deaths of mothers and improve health and social conditions of women. Such introductions however have begun to challenge traditional reproductive health practices creating confusion among practitioners and incipient transitions in healthcare. Our aim in this study was to document the herbal therapies practiced by indigenous Ati Negrito women and discuss the implications of social and conventional healthcare intervention programs on reproductive healthcare traditions by conducting semistructured interviews. Fidelity Level index was used to determine culturally important plants (i.e., the most preferred). Review of related studies on most preferred plants and therapies was further carried out to provide information regarding their safety/efficacy (or otherwise). Determination of informants' traditional medicinal knowledge was done using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 49 medicinal plants used in treating female reproductive health-related syndromes across four categories were recorded. Significant differences in traditional medicinal knowledge were recorded when informants were grouped according to age, education, and number of children. Issues discussed in this research could hopefully raise awareness on changes in healthcare practices in indigenous cultures and on medical safety especially when traditional and conventional medications interact. PMID:26345471

  17. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 : causes leading to its formation

    E-print Network

    Walker, Robert Scott

    1921-01-01

    . Opposition to Russia 3b. Hostility toward France 4b. Attempted isolation 5b. necessity for change 2a. General principles of Japanese foreign policy lb. policy of isolation 2b. Economic and polit ical interests in China and Korea VI-. 3b. Policy... of expansion 4b. Pear of Russia in China and Korea 5b. Japan's need of allies Summary of respective Anglo-Japanese foreign policies leading up to the Treaty. la. The foreign policy of G-reat Britain lb. Anglo-French relations lc. Traditional hostili...

  18. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Dara; Marx, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) can present with coexistent subfertility caused by diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Recent texts suggest that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) may improve pregnancy outcomes for women with RPL. Objective This article reports the outcome of the treatment of a female of advanced maternal age. She had diagnoses of DOR and RPL. Design, Setting, and Patient This 42-year-old patient with DOR and RPL presented in a private acupuncture practice, located in Bellevue, WA. Intervention The patient received TCM treatment that involved weekly acupuncture and Chinese herbal therapy from June 2006 to May 2007. Main Outcome Measures The outcome sought was a live birth after 24 weeks of gestation. Results After another miscarriage in September 2006, this patient conceived a viable pregnancy in December 2006, after 6 months of treatment. She continued treatment through 20 weeks and delivered a healthy son at 39.5 weeks of gestation. Conclusions Subfertile women with RPL may benefit from TCM treatment. More research is needed to examine the safety and effectiveness of TCM as a treatment for RPL. PMID:24761174

  19. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418

  20. Women's attitude and sociodemographic characteristics influencing usage of herbal medicines during pregnancy in Tumpat District, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Azriani Ab; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Salleh, Halim; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Hamid, Abdul Manaf

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is associated with women's attitudes towards herbal medicines and their sociodemographic features, such as age, education level, and income. Two-hundred ten women (110 "users," 100 "non-users") were studied. The probability of using herbal medicines among women who had negative attitudes towards the use of herbal medicines was 50.0% less compared to those who had positive attitudes (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.92). Women who had a positive attitude towards the safety of herbal medicines were less likely to use herbal medicines during pregnancy. There were no significant associations between usage and sociodemographic features, such as age, income, race, and education. PMID:19323019

  1. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia. PMID:26715081

  2. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançl?, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  3. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  4. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  5. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  6. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Africa: Questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2015-08-01

    In order to describe and evaluate Herbal Medicine (HM) pharmacovigilance in African countries who are members of the WHO International Programme for Drug Monitoring a survey questionnaire was sent to the national centres and national drug regulatory agencies of these countries. Data collection was carried out from October 1st to 31st December, 2014. Among the total of 39 African countries, 34 (87.2%) answered the questionnaire and 25 (64.1%) accepted to share their data in this publication. Spontaneous adverse reaction reporting for HM is voluntary in 7 (43.7%) countries. HM pharmacovigilance programmes covered suspected adverse HM reactions in 14 (87.5%) countries; HM information in 7 (43.7%) countries; HM dependence or abuse in 6 (37.5%) countries; medication errors in 5 (31.2%) countries; falsification and adulteration in 2 (each 12.5%) countries and HM-drug interactions in 1 (6.3%) country. Groups in countries encouraged to submit herbal reports were pharmacists and physicians (both n=15); nurses (n=13); herbal therapists (n=12); patients (n=11) and local manufacturers (n=8). The number of herbal reports received by most countries was very low or even insignificant. VigiFlow is used by 10 countries. Information from pharmacovigilance activities is disseminated using many means. Only five countries have regulatory status and quality control of their HM products. The participants identified a need for HM regulation, technical and training assistance, and funding as being major challenges to HM pharmacovigilance in countries. Particular attention to the development of pharmacovigilance of HM is required in Africa. PMID:26027756

  7. A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley “Over-use” as an Herbal Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal products in patients with allergic diseases is a special problem and still controversial. But, many people often use herbs to maintain good health. The patients use self-prescribed remedies as medications but do not inform their physicians about herbal use. Unfortunately, some herbal self-medications may have unexpected effects and interactions which may lead to fatal complications. In this report, we describe a female patient who suffered near-fatal anaphylaxis to parsley. PMID:25648063

  8. A comprehensive review on pharmacotherapeutics of herbal bioenhancers.

    PubMed

    Dudhatra, Ghanshyam B; Mody, Shailesh K; Awale, Madhavi M; Patel, Hitesh B; Modi, Chirag M; Kumar, Avinash; Kamani, Divyesh R; Chauhan, Bhavesh N

    2012-01-01

    In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancerous drugs at low doses. They have also improved oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds. Their mechanism of action is mainly through absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. This paper clearly indicates that scientific researchers and pharmaceutical industries have to give emphasis on experimental studies to find out novel active principles from such a vast array of unexploited plants having a role as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer. Also, the mechanisms of action by which bioenhancer compounds exert bioenhancing effects remain to be explored. PMID:23028251

  9. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O(2) (•-)) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O(2) (•-) was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O(2) (•-). They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H(2)O(2) induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge (•)OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O(2) (•-) and (•)OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant.The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  10. Chinese Herbal Therapy for Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tong, YanQing; Yu, LiXiang; Sun, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05) shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache. PMID:26175793

  11. Preserving neural retina through re-emerging herbal interventions.

    PubMed

    Anand, Akshay; Modgil, Shweta; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Shri, Richa; Kaushik, Sushmita

    2014-10-01

    Eye related diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, conjunctivitis are very common worldwide. With the current scenario India will be among the top five countries in the number of glaucoma cases. Limited discovery of successful drugs for the treatment of such diseases led scientists to look towards the use of conventional sources for treatment. Herbal extracts from Ayurveda have remained an important part of treatment regime in many parts of world even today. For this reason, local herbs possessing curative properties are still being used by local inhabitants due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Because retinal damage involves alterations in oxidative enzymes, blood flow changes and increase in apoptotic signals, herbal extracts are being tested for their ability to moderate antioxidant machinery and trigger neuroprotective pathways. The present review summarizes some of such herbal extracts which have been tested for their neuroprotective role in eye related diseases. The active components that exert neuroprotective effects have also been discussed along with possible mechanisms of action. PMID:24819477

  12. Effects of a herbal drink on cycling endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Kiew, Ooi Foong; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Sirisinghe, Roland G; Suen, Ang Boon; Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin Sahil

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of a herbal drink (H) or a coloured water placebo (P) on physiological responses and performance during cycling exercise. Eight healthy and trained male young cyclists (age: 16.0±0.5years) exercised on a cycle ergometer at 72.0±0.8% of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) until exhaustion in a room maintained at 23.9±0.2 °C and 64.2±1.6% relative humidity on two occasions, 1-week apart. During each exercise bout, subjects received 3ml.kg(-1) body weight of H or P every 20 minutes in a double-blind randomised study design. There was no significant difference between H and P trials in the total work time to exhaustion (84.5±5.1 and 82.3±5.6 min respectively). Changes in heart rate, oxygen consumption, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, rectal temperature, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were similar with both type of drinks. Loss of plasma volume was also similar with both drinks. Herbal drink elicited similar physiological responses, thermoregularity responses and exercise performances during endurance cycling when compared to the placebo ingestion. Thus, it can be concluded that the ingredient in the herbal drink did not provide any added advantage to cycling endurance performance. PMID:23365505

  13. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3. PMID:22546797

  14. A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacotherapeutics of Herbal Bioenhancers

    PubMed Central

    Dudhatra, Ghanshyam B.; Mody, Shailesh K.; Awale, Madhavi M.; Patel, Hitesh B.; Modi, Chirag M.; Kumar, Avinash; Kamani, Divyesh R.; Chauhan, Bhavesh N.

    2012-01-01

    In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancerous drugs at low doses. They have also improved oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds. Their mechanism of action is mainly through absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. This paper clearly indicates that scientific researchers and pharmaceutical industries have to give emphasis on experimental studies to find out novel active principles from such a vast array of unexploited plants having a role as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer. Also, the mechanisms of action by which bioenhancer compounds exert bioenhancing effects remain to be explored. PMID:23028251

  15. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  16. Herbal weight loss pill overdose: sibutramine hidden in pepper pill.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu Gunaydin, Gul; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Levent, Sevcan; Kurtoglu Celik, Gulhan

    2015-01-01

    Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5?mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times. PMID:25861489

  17. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•?) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•? was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•?. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•? and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  18. Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  19. Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

    2014-02-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1 ? 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ? 50% inhibition at a 1 ? 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  20. How Japanese is Wii? The Reception and Localization of Japanese Video Games in America

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xiangyi

    2009-06-12

    With control over both store shelves and consumers' consciousness, Japanese video games have dominated the U.S. and global game markets over the past two decades and continue to prosper today. This thesis positions Japanese video games' popularity...

  1. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graš?enkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author sketches the history of Japanese encephalitis in the USSR, where it has been thoroughly studied since it first occurred in 1938. After a brief outline of its epidemiology, he describes the pathogenesis, the signs and symptoms, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that make this form of encephalitis so dangerous. He also discusses the diagnosis and the methods of treatment and prevention practised in the USSR. PMID:14153405

  2. Attitude of HIV patients to herbal remedy for HIV infection in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onifade, A A; Ajeigbe, K O; Omotosho, I O; Rahamon, S K; Oladeinde, B H

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organisation estimated that about 80% of Africans use herbal remedies for illness. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which was believed to have no cure led many HIV patients to source for alternative or complementary therapy. A structured questionnaire was administered to 640 HIV patients in selected Nigerian HIV/AIDS clinics from 2009 to 2011 to assess their attitudes to the use of herbal remedy. Six hundred and ten (610) of the respondents were diagnosed by medical doctor and 6.3% (40) had lived with HIV for 4 years and above. Twenty (20) respondents had sought for medical therapy after diagnosis, 310 applied herbal remedy and 180 of the respondents opted for spiritual solutions. Although, majority (73.4%) would denied the use of herbal remedy when asked by a medical practitioner, 100 respondents combines herbal remedy with HAART and 67.2% of the entire respondents are of the opinion that herbal therapy is effective in HIV infection management. 64.1% of the respondents wanted herbal remedy as complementary therapy and 54.7% concluded that non availability of herbs could stop them from using herbal remedy. This study concluded that the use of herbal remedy for HIV infection is high despite advice by medical doctors thus there is a need for caution when prescribing orthodox medicines that could interfere with hepatic metabolism. PMID:23955417

  3. Do Herbal Formulas Influence the International Normalized Ratio of Patients Taking Warfarin? A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsu-Yuan; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Park, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Warfarin is a common anticoagulant agent for cardiovascular diseases, and it is known to interact with several foods and drugs. Several studies report an interaction between warfarin and herbal medicines; however, the influence of herbal medicines on the international normalized ratio (INR) is still controversial. We investigated the influence of herbal formulas on INR of patients taking warfarin. We searched electronic medical records of inpatients for INR results. Then, we compared the changes in INR and any adverse events between the group taking herbal formulas and warfarin (herbal group) and another group taking warfarin only (nonherbal group). Eighty-six patients were included; 45 patients were assigned to the herbal group and 41 patients to the nonherbal group. The herbal group had taken the same dose of warfarin for a longer period. The nonherbal group had a slightly higher mean INR value than the herbal group. The ratio of INR less than 2 and greater than 3, the ratio of INR that increased or decreased by one or more compared to the initial INR, and the ratio of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. It is suggested that use of herbal formulas may not influence INR value. PMID:25861354

  4. Herbal materials used in dietary supplements: Comparison of luminescence methods for detection of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolin, E.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    In EU the treatment with ionising radiation is allowed for dried aromatic herbs, spices and seasonings, but not for herbal supplements and their ingredients. Nevertheless, controls carried out in EU at the product marketing stage, showed a large number of irradiated herbal supplements and herbal ingredients. Due to low sensitivity to radiation of this kind of products, the aim of this work was to test the efficacy of the luminescence-based methods in identifying irradiated herbal supplements. To this end, photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermo-luminescence (TL) measurements were performed on 24 products, including 8 herbal raw materials (plants or parts of plants) and 16 herbal extracts. The PSL technique, provided intermediate results, with a low number of total counts near to the upper negative limit, for all irradiated herbal extracts, showing possible limits in the detection of these products, specially in view of their use in mixtures with non-irradiated components. The TL method, was successfully applied to all herbal materials; in the case of herbal extracts, however, particular attention at the mineral separation step was necessary.

  5. Nutrition for the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Nagai, H; Haga, H; Yasumura, S; Suzuki, T; Suyama, Y

    1992-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship of nutritional status to further life expectancy and health status in the Japanese elderly based on 3 epidemiological studies. 1. Nutrient intakes in 94 Japanese centenarians investigated between 1972 and 1973 showed a higher proportion of animal protein to total proteins than in contemporary average Japanese. 2. High intakes of milk and fats and oils had favorable effects on 10-year (1976-1986) survivorship in 422 urban residents aged 69-71. The survivors revealed a longitudinal increase in intakes of animal foods such as eggs, milk, fish and meat over the 10 years. 3. Nutrient intakes were compared, based on 24-hour dietary records, between a sample from Okinawa Prefecture where life expectancies at birth and 65 were the longest in Japan, and a sample from Akita Prefecture where the life expectancies were much shorter. Intakes of Ca, Fe, vitamins A, B1, B2, C, and the proportion of energy from proteins and fats were significantly higher in the former than in the latter. Intakes of carbohydrates and NaCl were lower. PMID:1407826

  6. Formants of Japanese function particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Setsuko

    2001-05-01

    There is much debate about whether vowel centralization results from reduction of undershoot. The results of research conducted by Keating and Huffman (1984) indicated that Japanese vowels in prose were formed closer to the center of vowel chart than in words. However, they did not provide any statistical information and the information about the preceding consonants in the prose. Thus, there was a possibility that the preceding consonants led to the vowel centralization through undershoot. To address this question, I conducted research, in which Japanese function vowels [a, e, o] were compared with content vowels. The results showed that F1 of function /a/ following /g/ (average 609.8 Hz) was statistically lower than content /a/ (average 696.3 Hz) [F(1,65)=73.40, p<0.001]. However, there were no significant differences of F2 of /e/ following /d/ and F2 of /o/ following /t/ between function and content. At first, it appeared centralization played a role. However, close examination of the results indicated that vowel undershoot was the source of the /a/ centralization. Japanese function /a/ was statistically shorter than content /a/ and there was a significant correlation between duration and normalized vowel displacements for /a/ [Pearson's r=0.466, p<0.001]. This short duration caused the difference of F1 between content /a/ and function /a/.

  7. Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

  8. Efficacy of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Treatment of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi Fard, Mehri; Shojaii, Asie

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki), Bryonia alba (Fashra), Ferula persica (Sakbinaj), Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar), and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan) there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed. PMID:23936834

  9. 1 JAPAN SPOTLIGHT January / February 2009 Japan has traditionally followed an omnidirectional diplomacy. Even

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    1 JAPAN SPOTLIGHT · January / February 2009 Special Article 2 Japan has traditionally followed such as energy and food secu- rity, environmental improvement, finance, nuclear nonproliferation, a ban on land. The Japanese climate for incoming foreign direct investment has improved, a trend which is welcomed by American

  10. Recent Advance in Applications of Proteomics Technologies on Traditional Chinese Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Qing; Zhu, Fangshi; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics technology, a major component of system biology, has gained comprehensive attention in the area of medical diagnosis, drug development, and mechanism research. On the holistic and systemic theory, proteomics has a convergence with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, we discussed the applications of proteomic technologies in diseases-TCM syndrome combination researches. We also introduced the proteomic studies on the in vivo and in vitro effects and underlying mechanisms of TCM treatments using Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), Chinese herbal formula (CHF), and acupuncture. Furthermore, the combined studies of proteomics with other “-omics” technologies in TCM were also discussed. In summary, this report presents an overview of the recent advances in the application of proteomic technologies in TCM studies and sheds a light on the future global and further research on TCM. PMID:26557869

  11. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  12. Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Chung, Mei; Lin, Xun; Zhang, Min; Pang, Jian; Wang, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Chinese herbal bath therapy (CHBT) has traditionally been considered to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted the first meta-analysis evaluating its benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. We searched three English and four Chinese databases through October, 2014. Randomized trials evaluating at least 2 weeks of CHBT for knee OA were selected. The effects of CHBT on clinical symptoms included both pain level (via the visual analog scale) and total effectiveness rate, which assessed pain, physical performance, and wellness. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using mean difference. Results. Fifteen studies totaling 1618 subjects met eligibility criteria. Bath prescription included, on average, 13 Chinese herbs with directions to steam and wash around the knee for 20–40 minutes once or twice daily. Mean treatment duration was 3 weeks. Results from meta-analysis showed superior pain improvement (mean difference = ?0.59 points; 95% confidence intervals [CI], ?0.83 to ?0.36; p < 0.00001) and higher total effectiveness rate (risk ratio = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.28; p < 0.00001) when compared with standard western treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Chinese herbal bath therapy may be a safe, effective, and simple alternative treatment modality for knee OA. Further rigorously designed, randomized trials are warranted. PMID:26483847

  13. Estimation of salivary and tongue coating pH on chewing household herbal leaves: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Madhusudan, A. S.; Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Batra, Mehak; Sharma, Ashish; Patel, Srikant Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH and also to assess the degree of tongue coating in healthy subjects before and after chewing herbal leaves (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf). Materials and Methods: A double-blind, randomized, concurrent, parallel-group study was conducted among 60 volunteer subjects, who were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf) and were asked to chew five to six fresh leaves of the respective plants twice daily for 7 days. Salivary and tongue coating pH were measured by a digital pH meter and color pH indicators. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measure analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Mean salivary pH values showed an increase immediately and 30 min after chewing the herbal leaves. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed between mint and curry leaf groups immediately after chewing and between tulsi and curry leaf groups (P < 0.05) 30 min after chewing the leaves. Tongue coating pH showed an increase toward alkalinity in all the groups. The assessment of tongue coating showed an increase in scores among tulsi and curry leaf groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Chewing traditional medicinal plant leaves can be considered as safe, effective, and economical alternate options for maintaining good oral health. PMID:24167330

  14. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  15. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods. PMID:22312286

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopi?ski, P.; Ba?an, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopi?ska-Ró?ewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiutao; Li, Jun; Cheung, Jerry Ka Hei; Duan, Jinao; Ding, Anwei; Cheung, Anna Wing Han; Zhao, Kuijun; Li, Winnie Zhuoming; Dong, Tina Tingxia; Tsim, Karl Wah Keung

    2007-01-01

    This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae. PMID:18045504

  19. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  20. Non-Traditional Wraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  1. Traditional Islamic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Susan

    An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…

  2. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  3. Traditional healers formalised?

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jp

    2012-03-01

    Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

  4. Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Neil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

  5. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  6. Traditional healers in Nigeria: perception of cause, treatment and referral practices for severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, T A; Okafor, H U; Uzochukwu, B S C

    2006-07-01

    Malaria remains one of the main causes of mortality among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria traditional healers play an important role in health care delivery and the majority of the population depend on them for most of their ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of traditional healers regarding causes, symptoms, treatment of uncomplicated malaria and referral practices for severe malaria with a view to developing appropriate intervention strategies aimed at improving referral practices for severe malaria. A qualitative study was carried out in Ugwogo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, which included in-depth interviews with 23 traditional healers. The traditional healers believed that the treatment of severe malaria, especially convulsions, with herbal remedies was very effective. Some traditional healers were familiar with the signs and symptoms of malaria, but malaria was perceived as an environmentally related disease caused by heat from the scorching sun. The majority of traditional healers believed that convulsions are inherited from parents, while a minority attributed them to evil spirits. Most (16/23) will not refer cases to a health facility because they believe in the efficacy of their herbal remedies. The few that did refer did so after several stages of traditional treatment, which resulted in long delays of about two weeks before appropriate treatment was received. The fact that traditional healers are important providers of treatment for severe malaria, especially convulsions, underlines the need to enlist their support in efforts to improve referral practices for severe malaria. PMID:16762086

  7. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  8. A review of hepatoprotective plants used in saudi traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  9. Lifestyle constraints, not inadequate nutrition education, cause gap between breakfast ideals and realities among Japanese in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Melby, Melissa K; Takeda, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    Japanese public health nutrition often promotes 'traditional' cuisine. In-depth interviews with 107 Japanese adults were conducted in Tokyo from 2009 to 2011, using free-listing methods to examine dietary ideals and realities to assess the extent to which realities reflect inadequate nutrition education or lifestyle constraints. Ideal-reality gaps were widest for breakfast. Most people reported Japanese ideals: rice and miso soup were prototypical foods. However, breakfast realities were predominantly western (bread-based). While those aged 40-59 were more likely to hold Japanese ideals (P=0.063), they were less likely to achieve them (P=0.007). All those reporting western ideals achieved them on weekdays, while only 64% of those with Japanese ideals achieved them (P<0.001). Partial correlations controlling for age and gender showed achievement of Japanese ideals were positively correlated with proportion of cooking-related housework, and negatively correlated with living standard and income. Ideal menu content was in line with current Japanese nutrition advice, suggesting that more nutrition education may not change dietary ideals or behavior. Participant-reported reasons for ideal-reality discordance demonstrate that work-life balance issues, especially lack of time and family structure/life rhythm, are the largest obstacles to the attainment of dietary ideals. People reporting 'no time' as a primary reason for ideal-reality gaps were less likely to achieve their Japanese ideals (odds ratio=0.212). Time realities of people's lives may undermine educational efforts promoting Japanese breakfasts. When dietary reality/behavior departs from guidelines, it is often assumed that people lack knowledge. If ideals are in line with dietary guidelines, then lack of knowledge is not the likely cause and nutrition education is not the optimal solution. By asking people about the reasons for gaps between their ideals and realities, we can identify barriers and design more effective policies and programs to achieve dietary ideals. PMID:24080190

  10. Adverse Events Associated with Metal Contamination of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Korea: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunah; Hawes, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473

  11. Administration of Herbal Complexes, Dangguijakyak-san (TJ-23) and Coix Seeds, for Treating Verruca Planae: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Byun, A Ri; Kwon, Seungwon; Kim, Sewha

    2016-01-01

    Verruca planae (VP) are warts caused by the human papillomavirus. Many patients develop resistance to the conventional therapy for these lesions. Therefore, alternative therapies are needed. We encountered a patient with VP who showed resistance to conventional therapy and was subsequently treated with Dangguijakyak-san (TJ-23; Tsumura, Japan; and Tokishakuyakusan in Japanese) and coix seed tablets with favorable outcomes. A 29-year-old woman had typical VP on her left upper extremity for >11 years. She had been receiving conventional therapies such as immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone, and tretinoin and imiquimod ointments. However, her VP symptoms persisted. Therefore, she was given herbal medication therapy consisting of Dangguijakyak-san (TJ-23) and coix seeds (500mg coix seed extract; Kracie, Japan). At the four-month follow-up, the papules were found to have disappeared. Therefore, we stopped the TJ-23 + coix seed therapy. Until September 2014, the patient has had no recurrence. We believe that Dangguijakyak-san with coix seeds remedy can have an effect on the immune system and consequently treat VP. PMID:26701790

  12. A Manual of Cherokee Herbal Remedies: History, Information, Identification, Medicinal Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Patricia D.

    This thesis reports on the research of 25 plants, used as herbal remedies since the 1800s by the author's Native American ancestors (the Day family) and the Cherokee tribe. The plants were identified in four state parks in southwestern Indiana. Information sources included the research literature, articles on Cherokee herbal remedies, and…

  13. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Quality control of herbal medicines assessed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    E-print Network

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Quality control of herbal medicines assessed by Nuclear. With the tremendous expansion in their use, their safety and efficacy as well as the control of their quality have) will be employed for controlling the quality of plant extracts or commercial herbal medicines. The combination of 1

  14. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Authentication and quality control of herbal medicines assessed by Nuclear Magnetic

    E-print Network

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Authentication and quality control of herbal medicines as the control of their quality have become important concerns. For the quality control of an herbal drug Spectrometry experiments. During the PhD, several NMR methods will be employed for controlling the quality

  15. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Now playing: E-mail ... safe for you and your baby. Are prescription drugs safe to take during pregnancy? Some prescription drugs ...

  16. Sex Differences in Japanese Work Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Work values influence economic productivity of individuals and families worldwide. Since Japan's recent technological and economic productivity and growth have been phenomenal, a study was conducted to compare contemporary Japanese men's and women's work related values and beliefs. Work values questionnaires were distributed to over 900 Japanese

  17. Social Studies in the Japanese Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1985-01-01

    The most striking feature of the Japanese social studies curriculum at the elementary level is its role as the instructor of Japanese national values and attitudes. The social studies curriculum has gone through four major revisions since World War II. In the most recent revision, in the early 1980's, the focus has been on instituting new teaching…

  18. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  19. Japanese American Studies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutsu, Jim

    This paper reviews the results of a survey of institutions of higher education which offer coursework focusing on Japanese Americans and emphasizes the program in Japanese American Studies at San Francisco State University. The results showed a distribution of twenty-eight courses offered at fifteen institutions in California, Washington and…

  20. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  1. Japanese Childrearing: Two Generations of Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.

    The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization, placing…

  2. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  3. Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569

  4. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  5. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  6. Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Harry

    Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance of Japanese

  7. The Art of Japanese Masks and Kimonos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nancy Johnston

    2009-01-01

    Japanese masks have been worn for a number of reasons. In the past they were often used in plays and celebrations. Today in Japan, social masks are essential in many party gatherings as a form of expressing one's personality. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students created Japanese masks and kimonos.

  8. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  9. Cognitive Tempo in Japanese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, Neil J.; Kojima, Hideo

    The purpose of this study was to compare performances by Japanese and American children on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the primary measure of cognitive tempo. Data on more than 3400 Japanese and American children (approximately half male, half female) were used. Factorial analyses of variance revealed significant age x nationality…

  10. Center for Japanese Study Abroad. Fastback 386.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassey, William

    The Center for Japanese Study Abroad (CJSA) is a Japanese immersion and study abroad program implemented as a magnet program at inner-city Brien MacMahon High School in Norwalk, Connecticut. The program is supported by a grant from the state department of education. Attended by 60-70 students from high schools in southern Fairfield County…

  11. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  12. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  13. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwosa; Oladeinde, Oladapo Babatunde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence. Methods Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL. Results The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016) higher among primigravidae (92.1%). Pregnant women (38.5%) with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002). Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05). Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants. Conclusion The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes. PMID:22811774

  14. Cancer cachexia pathophysiology and translational aspect of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Nakamura, Norifumi; Inui, Akio

    2013-07-01

    About half of all cancer patients show a syndrome of cachexia, characterized by anorexia and loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Numerous cytokines have been postulated to play a role in the etiology of cancer cachexia. Cytokines can elicit effects that mimic leptin signaling and suppress orexigenic ghrelin and neuropeptide Y signaling, inducing sustained anorexia and cachexia not accompanied by the usual compensatory response. Furthermore, cytokines have been implicated in the induction of cancer-related muscle wasting. In particular, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma have been implicated in the induction of cancer-related muscle wasting. Cytokine-induced skeletal muscle wasting is probably a multifactorial process, which involves a depression in protein synthesis, an increase in protein degradation or a combination of both. Cancer patients suffer from the reduction in physical function, tolerance to anti-cancer therapy and survival, while many effective chemotherapeutic agents for cancer are burdened by toxicities that can reduce patient's quality of life or hinder their effective use. Herbal medicines have been widely used to help improve such conditions. Recent studies have shown that herbal medicines such as rikkunshito enhance ghrelin signaling and consequently improve nausea, appetite loss and cachexia associated with cancer or cancer chemotherapy, which worsens the quality of life and life expectancy of the patients. The multicomponent herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple sites could be useful for future drug discovery. Mechanistic studies and identification of active compounds could lead to new discoveries in biological and biomedical sciences. PMID:23737606

  15. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Detection and Quantification of Herbal Medicines Adulterated with Sibutramine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples. PMID:26260573

  16. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products.

    PubMed

    Bersani, F Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  17. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  18. [Children and traditional practices].

    PubMed

    Aholi, P

    1990-07-01

    African traditional practices can be both beneficial and harmful to the newly born. This article describes these practices from 4 perspectives: 1) the period following childbirth or "maternage;" 2) nutrition; 3) curative care; and 4) social customs. The beneficial practices include: 1) giving the baby water as soon as he is washed to prevent neonatal hypoglycemia; 2) breast feeding; 3) carrying the baby on the mother's back and 4) the traditional massage. The harmful practices during maternage include: 1) the baby is rolled in the dirt to protect him and "give birth to his race;" 2) after birth the baby is given lemon juice or gin to prevent the obstruction of the respiratory cords; 3) mother and baby are "put in the dark" or a separate room for the rest of the family and community for 6 days to protect them against evil influences. The harmful nutritional practices are based on superstitions that relate to all animal products because they might produce diseases. 1) Eggs are known to cause diarrhea and throughout Africa eggs are forbidden because of their effect on children's physical development. 2) Chicken and pigeon and "everything that flies" causes convulsions. 3) Palm oil, oranges and bananas cause coughing. 4) Sugar cane, manioc leaves and everything with natural sugar cause intestinal ailments. Traditional health cures are used during an illness and are aimed at reestablishing the balance between man and his environment. Examples described include treatment for measles and chicken pox; fevers; diarrhea, and vomiting and convulsions. The positive traditional African practices need to be combined with those of modern medicine while discouraging the harmful practices. PMID:12342828

  19. Identifiability and Accessibility in Learning Definite Article Usages: A Quasi-Experimental Study with Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinenoya, Kimiko; Lyster, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of instruction on the use of the definite article "the" by Japanese learners of English by implementing two instructional treatments that varied in the extent to which they emphasized identifiability and accessibility. One instructional treatment, referred to as the traditional (TR) treatment,…

  20. The tyranny of tradition.

    PubMed

    Gulati, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper narrates the cruelty enforced by tradition on the lives of women in India. It begins with the life of the author's great-grandmother Ponnamma wherein the family was rigidly patriarchal, and Brahmin values were applied. Here, women had very little say in the decisions men made, were forced in an arranged marriage before puberty, were not sent to school, and were considered unimportant. This tradition lived on in the author's grandmother Seetha and in the life of her mother Saras. However, in the story of Saras, following the death of her husband, they departed from rigid Brahmin tradition and orthodoxy. Her mother, unperturbed by the challenges she faced, consistently devised ways to cope and succeeded in changing environment. Meaningless Brahmatic rituals and prayers found no place in her life, which she approached with a cosmopolitan and humanitarian outlook. In essence, she shaped the lives of three daughters and a son, and all her grandchildren, making a success of not only her own but of all whose lives she touched. PMID:12322347

  1. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

  2. Prophylactic effect of herbal-marine compound (HESA-A) on influenza A virus infectivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Influenza virus is still a severe respiratory disease affecting human and other species. As conventional drugs are not recommended for long time because of side effects and drug resistance occurrence, traditional medication has been focused as alternative remedy. HESA-A is a natural compound from herbal-marine origin. Previous studies have reported the therapeutic properties of HESA-A on psoriasis vulgaris and different types of cancers and we also showed its anti-inflammatory effects against influenza A infection. Methods This study was designed to investigate the potential properties of HESA-A as prophylaxis or treatment. To investigate the prophylaxis or treatment activities of HESA-A, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were exposed to HESA-A and influenza A virus in different manners of exposure and different time intervals. The results were evaluated by MTT and HA assays. Results It was found that HESA-A is much more effective against influenza cytopathic effects when it is applied for prophylaxis and also in concurrent treatment (p???0.05) but not in post-infection treatment (p???0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, HESA-A is significantly effective against influenza replication in prophylaxis application affecting the virus penetration/adsorption to the cell without any toxic effect on the cell viability. PMID:24708698

  3. An authenticity survey of herbal medicines from markets in China using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianping; Pang, Xiaohui; Liao, Baosheng; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Adulterant herbal materials are a threat to consumer safety. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to investigate the proportions and varieties of adulterant species in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) markets. We used a DNA barcode database of TCM (TCMD) that was established by our group to investigate 1436 samples representing 295 medicinal species from 7 primary TCM markets in China. The results indicate that ITS2 barcodes could be generated for most of the samples (87.7%) using a standard protocol. Of the 1260 samples, approximately 4.2% were identified as adulterants. The adulterant focused on medicinal species such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen), Radix Rubi Parvifolii (Maomeigen), Dalbergiae odoriferae Lignum (Jiangxiang), Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (Shichangpu), Inulae Flos (Xuanfuhua), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), Acanthopanacis Cortex (Wujiapi) and Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu). The survey revealed that adulterant species are present in the Chinese market, and these adulterants pose a risk to consumer health. Thus, regulatory measures should be adopted immediately. We suggest that a traceable platform based on DNA barcode sequences be established for TCM market supervision. PMID:26740340

  4. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    PubMed

    Llurba Montesino, Núria; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites ("protozoans"). The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs) as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS) against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 < 10 µg/mL). Six extracts from preparations of Salvia, Valeriana, Hypericum, Silybum, Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL). They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress. PMID:26248069

  5. A herbal medicine for Alzheimer's disease and its active constituents promote neural progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jianxin; Huang, Shichao; Liu, Shangfeng; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Miao; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Yi Eve; Chen, Guoliang; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Aberrant neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and self-renewal have been linked to age-related neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rhizoma Acori tatarinowii is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine against cognitive decline. In this study, we found that the extract of Rhizoma Acori tatarinowii (AT) and its active constituents, asarones, promote NPC proliferation. Oral administration of AT enhanced NPC proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampi of adult and aged mice as well as that of transgenic AD model mice. AT and its fractions also enhanced the proliferation of NPCs cultured in vitro. Further analysis identified ?-asarone and ?-asarone as the two active constituents of AT in promoting neurogenesis. Our mechanistic study revealed that AT and asarones activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not Akt, two critical kinase cascades for neurogenesis. Consistently, the inhibition of ERK activities effectively blocked the enhancement of NPC proliferation by AT or asarones. Our findings suggest that AT and asarones, which can be orally administrated, could serve as preventive and regenerative therapeutic agents to promote neurogenesis against age-related neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26010330

  6. Characterizing Herbal Medicine Use for Noncommunicable Diseases in Urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Gail D.; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M.; Beauclair, Roxanne; Mbamalu, Oluchi N.; Puoane, Thandi R.

    2015-01-01

    Economic challenges associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and the sociocultural outlook of many patients especially in Africa have increased dependence on traditional herbal medicines (THMs) for these diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study designed to determine the prevalence of and reasons for THM use in the management of NCDs among South African adults was conducted in an urban, economically disadvantaged area of Cape Town, South Africa. In a cohort of 1030 participants recruited as part of the existing Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, 456 individuals were identified. The overall prevalence of THM use was 27%, of which 61% was for NCDs. Participants used THM because of a family history (49%) and sociocultural beliefs (33%). Hypertensive medication was most commonly used concurrently with THM. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the potential dualistic use of THM and conventional drugs by patients, as this could significantly influence health outcomes. Efforts should be made to educate patients on the potential for drug/herb interactions. PMID:26557865

  7. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  8. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  9. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    PubMed

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses. PMID:21366051

  10. "Mints", smells and traditional uses in Thessaloniki (Greece) and other Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Karousou, Regina; Balta, Maria; Hanlidou, Effie; Kokkini, Stella

    2007-01-19

    The herbs of the "mint" group traded in the herbal market of Thessaloniki include eight taxa, members of two genera, Acinos (two species) and Mentha (four species and two hybrids). The essential oil content of 72 samples examined ranged from traces up to 1.69ml/100g of dry weight. Besides three almost scentless samples, the different "mints" are distinguished according to their prominent smell differences, i.e. samples with a pungent, musty and sweet type of smell. As a result, the commercial names attributed to them correspond to a particular type of smell and not to a particular taxon. A number of 29 medicinal uses were recorded in total. In most cases uses were not associated with particular taxa but were rather determined by plant smells. A literature survey has shown that the "mints" traded in Thessaloniki are also used as herbal medicines all over the Mediterranean area, with 67 different therapeutic uses. Among them the 22 uses, already mentioned by Dioscurides, show that the utilization of "mints" as herbal medicines in the Mediterranean countries has a long tradition. PMID:16962274

  11. Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few ethnoveterinary surveys have been conducted in central Europe. However, traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants might be an option for future concepts in treatment of livestock diseases. Therefore the aim of this study was to document and analyse the traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in four Swiss cantons. Methods Research was conducted in 2012. Fifty farmers on 38 farms were interviewed with the aid of semistructured interviews. Detailed information about the plants used and their mode of preparation were documented as well as dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with the treatment. Results In total, 490 homemade remedies were collected. Out of these, 315 homemade remedies contained only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedies, HSHR), which are presented in this paper. Seventy six species from 44 botanical families were mentioned. The most HSHR were quoted for the families of Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Urticaceae. The plant species with the highest number of HSHRs were Matricaria recutita L., Calendula officinalis L., Rumex obtusifolius L. and Urtica dioica L. For each HSHR, one to eight different applications were enumerated. A total of 428 applications were documented, the majority of which were used to treat cattle. The main applications were in treatment of skin afflictions and sores, followed by gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic dysfunctions. Topical administration was most frequently used, followed by oral administration. In nearly half of the cases the knowledge on preparing and using herbal remedies was from forefathers and relatives. More than one third of the applications were used more than ten times during the last five years, and in about sixty percent of the cases, the last application was during the last year preceding the interviews. Conclusions Traditional knowledge of farmers about the use of medicinal plants to treat livestock exists in north-eastern Switzerland. Homemade herbal remedies based on this knowledge are being used. The interviewed farmers were satisfied with the outcome of the applications. PMID:24685062

  12. Antioxidant capacity of teas and herbal infusions: polarographic assessment.

    PubMed

    Gorjanovi?, Stanislava; Komes, Draženka; Pastor, Ferenc T; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Pezo, Lato; He?imovi?, Ivana; Sužnjevi?, Desanka

    2012-09-26

    Hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS) activity of unfermented (green, yellow, and white), partially fermented (oolong), and completely fermented (black) tea ( Camellia sinensis ), maté ( Ilex paraguariensis ), and various herbal infusions, as well as individual compounds (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, cinnamic and benzoic acids, and methylxanthines), was assessed by recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic assay. Correlations of tea and herbal infusion HPS activity with total phenolic content determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC-GAE) (0.81 and 0.93), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) (0.97 and 0.92), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (0.77 and 0.80), and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging (0.86 and 0.86) were statistically significant. Correlations between relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI), calculated by assigning all applied assays equal weight, and HPS (0.98), FRAP (0.97), ABTS (0.89), and DPPH (0.89) confirmed DC polarographic assay reliability when applied individually. Correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Levene and Tukey's HSD tests unequivocally confirmed this reliable, rapid, and low-cost assay validity, clearly demonstrating its advantages over spectrophotometric assays applied. PMID:22950743

  13. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer. PMID:25364657

  14. Inflammation, Macrophage in Cancer Progression and Chinese Herbal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shan; Hu, Bing; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with cancer development, and has been recognized as the seventh hallmarks of the cancer. Cancer-related inflammation can be activated by genetic or epigenetic changes in cancer cells (intrinsic pathway) or mediated by tumor-infiltrating immune cells (extrinsic pathway). Immune cells involved in cancer-related inflammation mainly including tumor-associated macrophages or M2 macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, and lymphocytes. As major players of the cancer-related inflammation, M2 macrophages, secreting various of growth factors, immunomodulatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, participate in remodeling of extracellular matrix, contribute to cancer invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and inhibit anti-cancer immunity. Inflammation has been considered as an important target for cancer therapy. Some Chinese herbal ingredients have been confirmed to be effective in inhibit inflammation related gene expression in cancer cells, such as COX-2 and NF-B. However, there is a shortage of study on Chinese herb or herbal ingredient against extrinsic cancer inflammation, especially in tumor-associated macrophages. Related studies may provide new insight into cancer treatment. PMID:24826036

  15. Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) use as an herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rameshwar; Gangrade, Tushar; Punasiya, Rakesh; Ghulaxe, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity. PMID:25125882

  16. Spices, herbal xenobiotics and the stomach: Friends or foes?

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim Abdulkarim Al

    2010-01-01

    Spices and herbal remedies have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of disorders. It has been experimentally demonstrated that spices, herbs, and their extracts possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antimutagenic and anticancer activities, besides their gastroprotective and anti-ulcer activities. Despite a number of reports on the toxicity of herbs and spices, they are generally accepted as safer alternatives to conventional therapy against gastric ulcers. To this end, it is also believed, that excessive consumption of spices may favor the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcer and some studies have substantiated this common perception. Based on various in vivo experiments and clinical studies, on the effects of spices and herbs on gastric ulcers, it has indeed been shown that certain spices do possess remarkable anti-ulcer properties mediated by antisecretory, cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-Helicobacter pylori effects and mechanisms regulated by nitric oxide, prostaglandins, non-protein sulfhydryl molecules and epidermal growth factor expression. Accordingly, their consumption may attenuate and help prevent peptic ulcer disease. In the present review, the beneficial effects of spices and herbal nutritive components on the gastric mucosa are discussed against the paradigm of their deleterious potential. PMID:20533590

  17. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (?? zh?ng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (?? d?n sh?n), Notoginseng Radix (?? s?n q?), Lycii Fructus (??? g?u q? z?), Cnidii Fructus (??? shé chuáng z?), Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n), Puerariae Radix (?? gé g?n), Puerariae Flos (?? gé hu?), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (?? hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (?? jié g?ng), and Trigonellae Semen (??? hú lú b?). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  18. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA) and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC) and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK), and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups), ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg), HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg), or HNK (1,590 mg/kg) for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP) reduction upon administration of ATC, HNK+ATC, HNK or AA-I. Conclusions These results suggest that ATC, HNK+ATC or HNK, at the animal dose equivalent to that used in human, do not cause the acute nephrotoxicity in rats and do not aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries even further. PMID:23031193

  19. Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a scientific investigations to establish their safety and effectiveness. Equally, there is a need to educate traditional practitioners’ regarding the significance of various conservation legislations in their traditional healing. By addressing these, the national and provincial legislators, medical fraternity as well as environmental agencies will be able to better integrate them in primary health care systems and environmental management. PMID:24410790

  20. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-12-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487