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Sample records for japanese traditional herbal

  1. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjgren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness) and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation. (2) BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan (KSS), are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems. (3) Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce four possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito (HET), Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito (NYT) that are frequently used to improve both immunosuppression and deficiencies of Ki, Ketsu, and Sui in oral cancer patients. (4) Heat- and cold-dryness stages exist in dry mouth and SJS. Byakkokaninjinto is useful for heat-dryness, while NYT, Bakumondoto, and HET have moisturizing effects in the cold-dryness stage. Thus, Kampo therapy is useful for many oral diseases that cannot be cured by western medicine. PMID:26379550

  2. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness) and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation. (2) BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan (KSS), are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems. (3) Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce four possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito (HET), Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito (NYT) that are frequently used to improve both immunosuppression and deficiencies of Ki, Ketsu, and Sui in oral cancer patients. (4) Heat- and cold-dryness stages exist in dry mouth and SJS. Byakkokaninjinto is useful for heat-dryness, while NYT, Bakumondoto, and HET have moisturizing effects in the cold-dryness stage. Thus, Kampo therapy is useful for many oral diseases that cannot be cured by western medicine. PMID:26379550

  3. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Woerdenbag, H J

    1995-07-28

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal medicine in China. It also describes modern scientific research into and the quality control of Chinese herbal medicines in China. Some examples of how new drugs derived from Chinese herbs have been developed on the basis of traditional therapeutic experience are presented. Finally, the situation of Chinese herbal medicine in the West is discussed. PMID:7581215

  4. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  5. Immune adjuvant effect of Juzentaihoto, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, on tumor vaccine therapy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Nobuhiro; Inujima, Akiko; Shinohara, Kanna; Yamada, Miyuki; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo; Koizumi, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) have been used to improve the general physical condition after surgery and to mitigate the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy in tumor patients. Juzentaihoto (JTT) consists of ten medical herbs, and is also called Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese herbal medicine. Among Kampo medicines, JTT has especially gained attention as a biological response modifier. Currently, clinical trials of various tumor vaccine therapies are being performed world-wide. However, tumor antigens that are inoculated as vaccines do not have high immunogenicity; thus, it is difficult to obtain an effective therapeutic effect. Thus, it is necessary to develop a tumor vaccine adjuvant that is more potent and very safe. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of JTT as an oral adjuvant when given together with tumor vaccines. As a result, JTT enhanced the phagocytic ability of OVA antigen and the presentation ability of OVA antigen in dendritic cells in vitro. Furthermore, tumor growth was markedly decreased, and the survival period was significantly prolonged in mice inoculated with mouse lymphoma, which is expressed with tumor model antigen. In conclusion, these findings suggest that JTT can be used with tumor vaccines as an immune adjuvant. PMID:26496932

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  7. Effectiveness of Traditional Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, Daiobotanpito, in Combination with Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Diverticulitis: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Koji; Futagami, Fumio; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimura, Genichi

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, daiobotanpito (DBT) or Da Huang Mu Dan Tang in Chinese has been used in medical treatment of acute diverticulitis for many years based on the experience. Our aim was to investigate whether the treatment of acute diverticulitis can be treated with intravenous antibiotics plus orally administrated DBT than intravenous antibiotics alone. A retrospective nonrandomized open-label trial was established to compare patients with acute diverticulitis who received oral DBT associated with intravenous antibiotics with those who received intravenous antibiotic alone. We included 34 patients, eleven patients in group 1 with DBT and 23 patients in group 2 without DBT. Both groups were comparable in patient demographics and clinical characteristics. There was a significantly better outcome in the group treated with DBT than in the group without DBT when comparing duration of fever, abdominal pain, and antibiotics administration. A trend toward a day shorter mean hospital stay and fasting was seen in group 1, although this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, most patients with acute diverticulitis can be managed safely with oral DBT. Although randomized, double-blind study must be done, we could show the possibility to use daiobotanpito as an additional option in treating acute diverticulitis. PMID:24078823

  8. Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25565296

  9. Adulteration of South African traditional herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Tracy; Stewart, Michael J; Grove, Alida; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2005-02-01

    Traditional herbal remedies are used as alternative medicine by a large proportion of people worldwide. Herbals are generally perceived as safe, harmless, and free from side effects, but there have been reports of adulteration of Asian herbal remedies with Western pharmaceuticals, a practice that has not hitherto been observed in Africa. The authors present 2 cases from South Africa in which herbal remedies, consumed by patients admitted to hospital, were found to be adulterated with commercially available Western medicines. The adulterants were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The authors alert clinicians to the fact that adulteration of herbal remedies may become more common and should be considered, especially in cases where the symptoms are confusing in light of the history. PMID:15665751

  10. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  11. Effects of Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine containing furanocoumarin derivatives, on the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Junji; Takashima, Ayaka; Yoshida, Kousuke; Soraoka, Hiromi; Ding, Tong-Bin; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Motoki; Oniki, Kentaro; Miyata, Keishi; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2014-10-01

    Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional medicine used to treat acne in Asian countries, contains twelve herbal components, including Angelica dahurica root, a source of furanocoumarin derivatives. In this study, we investigated potential herb-drug interactions of seijo-bofu-to in healthy male volunteers. Thirty-two young, healthy, non-smoking males were assessed for the baseline activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase according to the urinary metabolic indices of 8-hr urine samples collected after the administration of a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan, and the ratio of urinary excretion of 6?-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. Thereafter, the volunteers received 3.75 g of seijo-bofu-to twice daily for 7 days and underwent the same tests on post-dose day 7. The geometric mean ratio of the CYP1A2 activity on day 7 to that observed at baseline was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.79, p = 0.001). The geometric mean phenotypic indices for CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase on day 7 did not differ from the baseline values. The findings of the present study suggest that seijo-bofu-to may inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, whereas it is unlikely to participate in herb-drug interactions involving medications predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 or xanthine oxidase. PMID:24612940

  12. The clinical use of Kampo medicines (traditional Japanese herbal treatments) for controlling cancer patients’ symptoms in Japan: a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kampo medicines are traditional Japanese medicines produced from medicinal plants and herbs. Even though the efficacy of Kampo medicines for controlling cancer-related symptoms is being reported, their actual nationwide clinical use has not been comprehensively investigated. We aimed to investigate physicians’ recognition of Kampo medicines and their clinical use for cancer patients in the field of palliative care. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 549 physicians working in palliative care teams at 388 core cancer treatment hospitals and 161 certified medical institutions that have palliative care units (PCUs). Results Valid responses were obtained from 311 physicians (response rate, 56.7%) who were evenly distributed throughout the country without significant geographical biases. Kampo medicines were prescribed for controlling cancer-related symptoms by 64.3% of the physicians. The symptoms treated with Kampo medicines were numbness/hypoesthesia (n = 99, 49.5%), constipation (n = 76, 38.0%), anorexia/weight loss (n = 72, 36%), muscle cramps (n = 71, 35.5%) and languor/fatigue (n = 64, 32.0%). Regarding open issues about prescription, 60.7% (n = 173) of the physicians raised the issue that the dosage forms need to be better devised. Conclusions To increase the clinical use of Kampo medicines, more evidence from clinical studies is necessary. In addition, their mechanisms of action should be clarified through laboratory studies. PMID:23167528

  13. “Ninjinto” (Ginseng Decoction), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Improves Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Immune Competence in Patients with Chronic Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treating functional gastrointestinal disorders is extremely difficult. We herein report the effect of the oral administration of Ninjinto (NJT, ginseng decoction), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, on chronic intestinal failure. Patients and Methods. Seven patients with chronic intestinal failure treated with NJT were evaluated in this study. The primary diseases included chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO: n = 4), short bowel syndrome (SBS: n = 2), and intestinal atresia (n = 1). All patients orally received NJT extract granules at a dose of 0.3 g/kg BW per day. The treatment outcomes were then assessed according to the patients' symptoms and consecutive abdominal X-ray findings. Results. The targeted symptoms were abdominal distension in four patients, diarrhea in three patients, and frequent hospitalization due to infections in two patients. An improvement in the symptoms was observed in six of the seven patients, whereas one patient with SBS did not show any improvement. An improvement in an abdominal roentgenogram was observed in the four patients with remarkably dilated bowel loops due to CIPO. Conclusions. NJT may be effective in controlling functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with chronic intestinal failure. The use of Kampo medicine in the field of pediatric surgery may help to improve the quality of life in children suffering from such conditions. PMID:26495014

  14. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of two Japanese traditional herbal medicines, Hachimi-jio-gan and Gosha-jinki-gan, for lower urinary tract symptoms with cold sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG; ????? b? wi d hung wn) and Gosha-jinki-gan (GJG; ????? j sh?ng shn q wn), two traditional Japanese medicines, in 60 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) having cold sensitivity unresponsive to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. All patients received a mixture of HJG or GJG for 12 weeks in addition to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs as add-on therapy. International Prostate Symptom Score, International Prostate Symptom ScoreQuality of Life, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index, and the number of nocturnal voids were statistically much improved. However, there was no change in maximal urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine was statistically greatly improved from baseline after treatment in the HJG group compared to the GJG group. Adverse reactions were observed in 8.3% of patients, but all reactions were mild. Both HJG and GJG mixtures can serve as safe and effective potential therapeutic alternatives in patients with LUTS and cold sensitivity unresponsive to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. Additionally, HJG mixture was found to have anti-oxidative activity, and therefore further long-term clinical investigations are needed to examine its anti-aging effects in addition to its effect on urinary symptoms. PMID:26587398

  15. Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Y; Kato, A; Nishiyama, Y; Kawanishi, K; Tobe, H; Juma, F D; Ogeto, J O; Mathenge, S G

    1993-08-01

    Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Potent mitogenic activities for human and mouse lymphocytes were found in the three plants: Croton macrostachyus, Croton megalocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), and Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae). All the gel chromatographic patterns of these protein fractions progressed toward the smaller molecule site with pronase treatment, while their mitogenic activities decreased significantly. Protein fractions from these three plants induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. By testing further fractionated protein fractions with gel filtration chromatography, it was found that all three plants contained several mitogens having different molecule sizes. PMID:8372153

  16. Evaluation of the safety and adverse effects of goreisan/wulingsan, a traditional Japanese-chinese herbal formulation (kampo), in a rat model: a toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, Arm Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

  17. Evaluation of the Safety and Adverse Effects of Goreisan/Wulingsan, a Traditional Japanese-Chinese Herbal Formulation (Kampo), in a Rat Model: a Toxicological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, ARM Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

  18. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  19. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  20. Intellectual property protection in the natural product drug discovery, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Murat

    2007-02-01

    Traditional medicine is an important part of human health care in many developing countries and also in developed countries, increasing their commercial value. Although the use of medicinal plants in therapy has been known for centuries in all parts of the world, the demand for herbal medicines has grown dramatically in recent years. The world market for such medicines has reached US $ 60 billion, with annual growth rates of between 5% and 15%. Researchers or companies may also claim intellectual property rights over biological resources and/or traditional knowledge, after slightly modifying them. The fast growth of patent applications related to herbal medicine shows this trend clearly. This review presents the patent applications in the field of natural products, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products. Medicinal plants and related plant products are important targets of patent claims since they have become of great interest to the international drug and cosmetic industry. PMID:17117452

  1. Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Emiel

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products. PMID:25043781

  2. Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in modern CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region. PMID:16322804

  3. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. PMID:26152912

  4. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

    2004-02-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

  5. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications. PMID:25780657

  6. Traditional Herbal Medicine for the Control of Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese (Cang Zhu), Japan (So-jutsu) and Thai (Khod-Kha-Mao) traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCAxenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

  7. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  8. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

  9. Survival Benefit of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (A Herbal Formula for Invigorating Spleen) in Gastric Cancer Patients with Peritoneal Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Ni-Da; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jin-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the efficiency of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (a compound herbal formula for invigorating spleen) as a complementary and alternative therapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods. Between 2001 and 2012, 93 gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled in this study. The effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on their long-term outcome was investigated. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the difference in survival time, and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. Result. First-line palliative chemotherapy plus traditional Chinese herbal medicine was performed in 47 patients and the other 46 patients received chemotherapy alone. The overall survival was different between patients with and without traditional Chinese herbal medicine (12.0 versus 10.5 months; P = 0.046). According to the Cox proportional hazard model, first-line chemotherapy cycle (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.527; 95% CI = 0.323~0.860) and TCHM (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.481~0.992) were selected as independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicine could improve the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. PMID:24723961

  10. Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ohn-Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. PMID:25574183

  11. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  12. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  13. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-?. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on cytokine related diseases/syndromes is necessary. PMID:19818374

  14. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

  15. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation. PMID:25086408

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  17. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  18. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  19. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  20. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  1. Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yuk Wo; Kim, Deog-gon; Lee, Jin-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Oriental herbal medicines (TOHM) for children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods. Randomized clinical trials published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2010, in English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean language which evaluated the use of TOHM on ADHD subjects of 18 years old or below, diagnosed based on DSM-IV, were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Cochrane Library, and 10 other databases. Results. Twelve studies involving 1189 subjects met the inclusion criteria. In general, the included studies claimed that TOHM has similar efficacy to methylphenidate and at the same time has fewer side effects compared to methylphenidate. Some studies also suggested that the effect of TOHM sustained better than methylphenidate. However, solid conclusions could not be drawn because the included studies were not of high quality. Risk of bias issues such as randomization, allocation, concealment and blinding were not addressed in most of the studies, and the risk of publication bias could not be ruled out. Conclusion. Currently, there is not strong evidence to say that TOHM is effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD. PMID:23346205

  2. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

  3. Traditional Japanese Management: Upside Down and Inside Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, William M.

    Traditional Japanese are bred with a strong sense of dependency and presumption on the benevolence of family, boss, work group, and nation. Ideally, one should blend selfessly into a system of "other directedness." One must give indiscriminate devotion to his colleagues, for it is immature and divisive to like certain group members more than

  4. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  5. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures. PMID:25914456

  6. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-04-21

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures. PMID:25914456

  7. Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28 a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

  8. Insights from molecular investigations of traditional Chinese herbal stroke medicines: implications for neuroprotective epilepsy therapy.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2006-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine is the most widely practiced form of herbalism worldwide. It is based on a sophisticated system of medical theory and practice that is distinctly different from orthodox Western scientific medicine. Most traditional therapeutic formulations consist of a combination of several drugs. The combination of multiple drugs is thought to maximize therapeutic efficacy by facilitating synergistic actions and ameliorating or preventing potential adverse effects while at the same time aiming at multiple targets. Orthodox drug therapy has been subject to critical analysis by the "evidence-based medicine" movement, and demands have been made that herbal medicine should be subject to the same kind of scrutiny. However, evaluation of the effectiveness of herbal medicines can be challenging, as their active components are often not known. Accordingly, it may be difficult to ensure that an herbal preparation used in clinical trials contains the components underlying its purported therapeutic effect. We reasoned that the identification of actions of herbal medicines at well-defined molecular targets and subsequent identification of chemical compounds underlying these molecular effects might serve as surrogate markers in the hypothesis-guided evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy. A research program was initiated to characterize in vitro molecular actions of a collection of 58 traditional Chinese drugs that are often used for the treatment of stroke. The results indicate that these drugs possess activity at disparate molecular targets in the signaling pathways involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neuronal injury and death. Each herbal drug contains diverse families of chemical compounds, where each family comprises structurally related members that act with low affinity at multiple molecular targets. The data appear to support the multicomponent, multitarget approach of traditional Chinese medicine. Glutamate release and excessive stimulation of NMDA receptors cause status epilepticus-induced neuronal death and are involved in epileptogenesis. Therefore, these results are also relevant to the development of antiepileptogenic and neuroprotective therapy for seizures. The combination of principles of modern molecular medicine with certain ideas of traditional empirical Chinese medicine may be beneficial in translational medicine in general. PMID:16455305

  9. A review of the potential forensic significance of traditional herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal substances may contain highly toxic chemicals and heavy metals, in addition to naturally occurring organic toxins. These substances may cause illness, exacerbate pre-existing ill health or result in death, particularly if taken in excess or in an unusual manner (e.g., injected rather than ingested). Lack of regulation of the content and quality of herbal medicines may result in contamination and adulteration with prescription medications. As there may be no history of the specific use of these products their contribution to death may not be fully appreciated during a standard autopsy. Even when their existence is known or suspected, it may be difficult to identify these substances on standard toxicologic screening. Herbal medicines may also be responsible for a range of symptoms and signs that may confuse the clinical presentation of cases. Given these issues the role of herbal medicines in forensic practice needs to be more clearly defined as deaths may be occurring where herbal medicines have made a significant, but as-yet unrecognized, contribution. PMID:20412155

  10. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention. PMID:21144003

  11. Traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.

    PubMed

    Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J

    2011-04-01

    Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177

  12. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 23 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of anti-asthma herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMIs effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and safety of FAHF-2 for treating food allergy in a murine model. A clinical study demonstrated that FAHF-2 is safe, well tolerated, and exhibited beneficial immunomodulatory effects. A clinical report showed that TCM treatment reduced eczema scores and improved quality of life. Herbal interventions, ASHMI and FAHF-2 may be further developed as botanical drugs for treating asthma and food allergy. TCM may also be of benefit for comorbid conditions such as anxiety and recalcitrant eczema. More controlled studies are warranted. In conclusion, novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions such as anxiety and eczema are urgently needed. This article discusses promising interventions for such conditions from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

  13. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  14. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  15. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Liang Q; Xie M

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation.

  16. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

  17. Rapid identification of traditional Chinese herbal medicine by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Chunmei; Huang, Liang; Liu, Li; Guo, Yunlong; Ma, Li; Liu, Shuying

    2014-10-01

    Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed as a novel fast method to identify traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In order to obtain high quality mass spectra, the ionization temperature was optimized for every kind of sample. With minimal or no sample pretreatment, major TCHM components, including alkaloids, flavonoids and some ginsenosides, were directly detected within several seconds, while thirteen ginsenosides need derivatization to get good mass spectra. Pseudoginsenoside F11, compound K, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), for the first time were detected without derivatization. Among five of eight tested Chinese herbal medicines, Rhizoma Corydalis, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Arecae Semen, Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis and Scutellariae Radix, were first time identified by DART-MS. In addition, the ionization mechanisms of major herbal components, alkaloids, flavonoids and ginsenosides, were discussed in detail. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS could provide a rapid, reliable and environmental friendly method for the rapid identification of TCHM, and may be applicable to other plants. PMID:25201274

  18. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  19. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Dong; Li, Chao-Yuan; Cui, Wen-Peng; Guo, Qiao-Yan; Dong, Chang-Qing; Zou, Hong-Bin; Liu, Shu-Jun; Dong, Wen-Peng; Miao, Li-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20-40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  20. Proliferative effect of Hachimijiogan, a Japanese herbal medicine, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Tadakawa, Mari; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hachimijiogan (HJG), Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Muscle atrophy plays an important role in aging-related disabilities such as sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of HJG on skeletal muscle. Methods Cells of murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 were used as an in vitro model of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of HJG on C2C12 cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed. We counted the number of myotubes morphologically to assess the degree of differentiation. Results HJG treatment (200 ?g/mL) for 3 days significantly increased C2C12 cell number by 1.23-fold compared with that of the control. HJG promoted the proliferation of C2C12 cells through activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the Akt signaling pathway. HJG did not affect the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Conclusion HJG had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation. These findings may provide a useful intervention for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:25709418

  1. Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiobara, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…

  2. Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiobara, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation

  3. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  4. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.2, 95% CI 1.33.5, p?=?0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 2.98.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR?=?3.4, 95% CI 1.29.2, p?=?0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.3, 95% CI 1.05.0, p?=?0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 1.714.7, p?=?0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda. PMID:23209545

  5. An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs. By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438

  6. The herbal market of Thessaloniki (N Greece) and its relation to the ethnobotanical tradition.

    PubMed

    Hanlidou, E; Karousou, R; Kleftoyanni, V; Kokkini, S

    2004-04-01

    The results of a survey of the medicinal plants found in the herbal market of Thessaloniki, which comprises traditional shops, modern shops and open-air market stalls, are presented. A total number of 172 taxa, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, were found in 18 selected market spots. Information is provided on the origin, the plant parts used, the ways of drug preparation and the medicinal uses of the herbs found. The majority of them (133 taxa) are of Greek origin and are gathered from the wild (99). A remarkable number of herbs (93) found in the market of Thessaloniki are mentioned by Dioscurides whereas the comparison to the recent ethnobotanical information shows that the utilization of Dioscurides' plants remains uninterrupted. Thus it is suggested that the herb trade is still based on the Greek ethnobotanical tradition, dating from antiquity. PMID:15120452

  7. Traditional Japanese medicine daikenchuto improves functional constipation in poststroke patients.

    PubMed

    Numata, Takehiro; Takayama, Shin; Tobita, Muneshige; Ishida, Shuichi; Katayose, Dai; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Oikawa, Takashi; Aonuma, Takanori; Kaneko, Soichiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Iwasaki, Koh; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15?g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393). PMID:25089144

  8. Systems biology in a commercial quality study of the Japanese Angelica radix: toward an understanding of traditional medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Akira; Fukuda, Shinzo; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hayasaki, Tomoyuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Komura, Hajime; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Shojo, Masayuki; Takeno, Kanokwan Jumtee

    2011-01-01

    The commercial quality of Japanese Angelica radices -- Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Yamato-toki) and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyama Hikino (Hokkai-toki) -- used in Kampo traditional herbal medicines, was studied by use of omics technologies. Complementary and alternative medical providers have observed in their clinical experience that differences in radix commercial quality reflect the differences in pharmacological responses; however, there has been little scientific examination of this phenomenon. The approach of omics, including metabolomics, transcriptomics, genomics, and informatics revealed a distinction between the radix-quality grades based on their metabolites, gene expression in human subjects, and plant genome sequences. Systems biology, constructing a network of omics data used to analyze this complex system, is expected to be a powerful tool for enhancing the study of radix quality and furthering a comprehensive understanding of all medicinal plants. PMID:21721155

  9. Bioactive Constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Licorice): Discovery of the Effective Components of a Traditional Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuai; Li, Ziwei; Song, Wei; Wang, Yongrui; Liang, Wenfei; Li, Kai; Tang, Shunan; Wang, Qi; Qiao, Xue; Zhou, Demin; Yu, Siwang; Ye, Min

    2016-02-26

    Traditional herbal medicines have been reported to possess significant bioactivities. In this investigation, a combined strategy using both phytochemical and biological approaches was conducted to discern the effective components of licorice, a widely used herbal medicine. Altogether, 122 compounds (1-122), including six new structures (1-6), were isolated and identified from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice). These compounds were then screened using 11 cell- and enzyme-based bioassay methods, including Nrf2 activation, NO inhibition, NF-κB inhibition, H1N1 virus inhibition, cytotoxicity for cancer cells (HepG2, SW480, A549, MCF7), PTP1B inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition, and AChE inhibition. A number of bioactive compounds, particularly isoprenylated phenolics, were found for the first time. Echinatin (7), a potent Nrf2 activator, was selected as an example for further biological work. It attenuated CCl4-induced liver damage in mice (5 or 10 mg/kg, ip) and thus is responsible, at least in part, for the hepatoprotective activity of licorice. PMID:26841168

  10. [Dyspeptic pain and phytotherapy--a review of traditional and modern herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Iten, F; Reichling, J

    2001-10-01

    Gastrointestinal complaints rank among the most frequently reasons why people asking for medical advice. About 15-30% of the adult patients suffer from different various functional dyspeptic conditions. The therapy of functional gastrointestinal disorders is one of the domains of phytotherapeutic treatments. From ancient times on, bitter herbal drugs played a very important role in the therapy of patients with dyspeptic symptoms. The mechanisms of action of the bitters are not completely understood. But there are indications that they sensorially stimulate at even very small concentrations sensorially the secretion of the stomach as well as the digestive glands and strengthen the smooth musculature of the digestive tract (via the gustatory system, N. vagus and the enteric nervous system). Across the enteral nervous system the strengthened digestive tract seems to stimulate the CNS, leading to a general tonification. At higher dosages bitters probably directly affect the mucous membranes of the stomach and the bowel. Bitters often are combined with essential oils (some volatile oils as aromatic bitters, drug combinations of a volatile oil with a bitter). Essential oils act primarily as spasmolytics, carminatives and local anesthetics. In the last years several controlled studies were carried out with phytotherapeutic combinations (e.g. with Iberis amara, caraway oil, peppermint oil, curcuma extract, ginger extract) in which the herbal drugs proved to be superior compared to placebo and were as effective as prokinetics (studies according to evidence-based medicine). The traditional phytotherapeutic approach is based upon the illness- as well as the patient-related investigations referring to the effectiveness of bitter, acrid- and essential-oil drugs. Such a treatment is supported by a rich amount of various of kinds of individual empirical experience (experience-based phytotherapy). Important traditional medical systems like the Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Ayurvedic Medicine as well as the European 'Humoral Medicine' consider different aspects of the sick human being, like the constitution of the patient (holistic approach), and take qualities of herbal drugs, vegetarian food, and spices into account for therapeutic purposes. PMID:11694755

  11. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  12. Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Bowen's Disease in a Patient with a History of Consumption of Traditional Chinese Herbal Balls

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Beom Joon; Shim, Joo Hyun; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic has been classified as a class I human carcinogen, meaning that there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to humans. Arsenic, however, remains a common contaminant in a number of traditional Chinese herbal balls. A 64-year-old man presented with an erythematous erosive patch on the left palm, multiple yellowish scaly patches on the right palm and an erythematous hyperkeratotic patch with bleeding on the left foot dorsum. He also had similar skin lesions on the back and buttock. He had a past medical history of chronic exposure to arsenic through consumption of traditional Chinese herbal balls. Skin biopsy revealed Bowen's disease on the left palm and squamous cell carcinoma on left foot dorsum. We report this case to emphasize that we should investigate patient's history thoroughly, including the use of Chinese herbal balls to find out arsenicism. PMID:26351422

  13. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  14. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

  15. Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 μM, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 μM) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM. PMID:21172056

  16. Analytical methods for the detection of undeclared synthetic drugs in traditional herbal medicines as adulterants.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Jamshed; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Husain, Asif; Rashid, Mohd; Mishra, Ravinesh; Siddique, Nadeem A; Pal, Manoj

    2013-08-01

    Traditional herbal medicines (THMs) are gaining popularity worldwide as an alternative approach to prescription drugs for many reasons including a general perception that they are safe. But recently there have been number of reported studies that reveal adulteration of THMs with undeclared synthetic drugs, which may potentially cause serious toxic adverse effects. This paper reviews the various classes of synthetic drugs that were found to be adulterated in THMs worldwide. The main focus is to highlight newer analytical tools used to detect adulteration. Due to the advancement in hyphenated techniques like liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and other conventional tools, it has become possible to detect synthetic drugs and their structural analogues as adulterants even if they are present in small quantities. This review also gives an overview of health-related risks after consuming such spurious products and challenges for future perspectives to control such type of malpractices. PMID:23653249

  17. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chusri, S.; Sompetch, K.; Mukdee, S.; Jansrisewangwong, S.; Srichai, T.; Maneenoon, K.; Limsuwan, S.; Voravuthikunchai, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.635??g/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500??g/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20??g/mL) for 24?h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm. PMID:22919409

  18. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-?), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  19. An integrated chinmedomics strategy for discovery of effective constituents from traditional herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Nan, Yang; Guan, Yu; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Traditional natural product discovery affords no information about compound structure or pharmacological activities until late in the discovery process, and leads to low probabilities of finding compounds with unique biological properties. By integrating serum pharmacochemistry-based screening with high-resolution metabolomics analysis, we have developed a new platform, termed chinmedomics which is capable of directly discovering the bioactive constituents. In this work, the focus is on ShenQiWan (SQW) treatment of ShenYangXu (SYX, kidney-yang deficiency syndrome) as a case study, as determined by chinmedomics. With serum pharmacochemistry, a total of 34 peaks were tentatively characterised in vivo, 24 of which were parent components and 10 metabolites were detected. The metabolic profiling and potential biomarkers of SYX were also investigated and 23 differential metabolites were found. 20 highly correlated components were screened by the plotting of correlation between marker metabolites and serum constituents and considered as the main active components of SQW. These compounds are imported into a database to predict the action targets: 14 importantly potential targets were found and related to aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption and adrenergic signaling pathways. Our study showed that integrated chinmedomics is a powerful strategy for discovery and screening of effective constituents from herbal medicines. PMID:26750403

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Bangpungtongsung-San, a Traditional Herbal Prescription

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; Kwak, Tae Won; Lee, Jong Rok; Jo, Mi Jeong; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Kim, Jong Myoung; An, Won G.

    2012-01-01

    Bangpungtongsung-san (BPTS), a traditional oriental herbal prescription, is widely used for expelling wind, draining heat, and providing general improvement to the immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPTS on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- ) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, and on paw edema in rats. At concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL, treatment with BPTS inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-?B and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) as well as production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by LPS. These results suggest that BPTS may exert anti-inflammatory effects via reduction of proinflammatory mediators, including NO, PGE2, TNF-?, and IL-6 through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, an antiedema effect of BPTS was observed in rats. These findings may provide scientific evidence validating the use of BPTS in treatment of patients with heat syndrome in Korean oriental medicine. PMID:22899961

  1. Chunggan extract, a traditional herbal formula, ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Park, Yeon-Hwa; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were orally administered 30% ethanol daily for 4 wk with or without CGX. The pharmaceutical properties were assessed through liver enzymes, histopathology, fibrogenic cytokines, and alcohol metabolism in hepatic tissues as well as by in vitro experiment using HSC-T6 cells. RESULTS: Four weeks of alcohol consumption notably increased liver enzymes and malondialdehyde levels in serum and hepatic tissue. CGX not only prevented the collagen deposition determined by histopathology and hydroxyproline content, but also normalized transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-beta and connective tissue growth factor at the gene expression and protein levels in liver tissue. Moreover, CGX treatment also significantly normalized the abnormal changes in gene expression profiles of extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinase and their inhibitors, alcohol metabolism, and inflammatory reactions. In the acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, CGX considerably inhibited collagen production and normalized fibrogenic cytokines in both gene expression and protein levels. CONCLUSION: The present study evidenced that CGX has hepatoprotective properties via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines and alcohol metabolism in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400454

  2. An integrated chinmedomics strategy for discovery of effective constituents from traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Nan, Yang; Guan, Yu; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Traditional natural product discovery affords no information about compound structure or pharmacological activities until late in the discovery process, and leads to low probabilities of finding compounds with unique biological properties. By integrating serum pharmacochemistry-based screening with high-resolution metabolomics analysis, we have developed a new platform, termed chinmedomics which is capable of directly discovering the bioactive constituents. In this work, the focus is on ShenQiWan (SQW) treatment of ShenYangXu (SYX, kidney-yang deficiency syndrome) as a case study, as determined by chinmedomics. With serum pharmacochemistry, a total of 34 peaks were tentatively characterised in vivo, 24 of which were parent components and 10 metabolites were detected. The metabolic profiling and potential biomarkers of SYX were also investigated and 23 differential metabolites were found. 20 highly correlated components were screened by the plotting of correlation between marker metabolites and serum constituents and considered as the main active components of SQW. These compounds are imported into a database to predict the action targets: 14 importantly potential targets were found and related to aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption and adrenergic signaling pathways. Our study showed that integrated chinmedomics is a powerful strategy for discovery and screening of effective constituents from herbal medicines. PMID:26750403

  3. Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

  4. Chylous ascites treated by traditional Chinese herbal medicine: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Lijuan; Yan, Bing; Qin, Zhifeng; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wei, Pinkang

    2015-02-01

    Chylous ascites, which can lead to peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, metabolic disorder, and even death from pyemia, is a rare complication of abdominal surgery. Currently, first-line treatment involves conservative management, which includes oral diet and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). However, the efficacy of these treatments cannot be guaranteed. For example, single diet control can result in consecutive drainage for up to 1 month, and salvage surgery is required for some invalid cases. Here, we report 6 cases of chylous ascites after abdominal surgery. In addition to diet control, we delivered traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) twice daily orally. The drainage volume of the chylous fistula showed an obvious decrease 1 day after the TCHM administration and all 6 patients completely recovered within 4 to 8 days (median: 5.5 days). Although relevant data are limited, our cases would suggest that TCHM could play an important role in the management of chylous ascites. However, randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm its efficacy in a larger population. PMID:25637154

  5. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.

    PubMed

    Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K

    2012-08-15

    Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits. PMID:24175417

  6. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  7. [Traditional and ayurvedic herbalism, homeopathy--the alternative therapeutic methods in dentistry. Review].

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Herbalism is the oldest therapeutic system useful also ayurvedic medicine. Homepathy uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Ayurveda is a holistic form of therapy. In this meaning herbalism selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. The some substances useful in dentistry were showed in this letter. PMID:23421114

  8. Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?

    PubMed

    Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

    2013-05-01

    As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802

  9. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Among Hypertensive Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liwa, Anthony C.; Smart, Luke R.; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Peck, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Results Four hundred eighty-one references were retrieved, and 4 articles from 2 countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7%-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). Conclusion More than a third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

  10. Traditional herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liwa, Anthony C; Smart, Luke R; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Four hundred and eighty-one references were retrieved, and four articles from two countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use, while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). More than one-third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

  11. Multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto to prevent bowel dysfunction after adult liver transplantation (DKB 14 Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Shirabe, Ken; Yamamoto, Michio; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial will aim to determine the ability of an extract (TJ-100) of Daikenchuto (traditional Japanese herbal medicine; Kampo) to prevent bowel dysfunction in at least 110 patients after liver transplantation (LT). Methods and analysis The following co-primary end points will be evaluated on postoperative day 7: total oral and enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension and abdominal pain. The secondary end points will comprise sequential changes of total oral and enteral caloric intake after LT, sequential changes in numeric rating scales for abdominal distension and pain, elapsed time to the first postoperative passage of stool, quality of life assessment using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale score (Japanese version), postoperative liver function, liver regeneration rate, incidence of bacteraemia and bacterial strain, trough level of immunosuppressants, occurrence of acute cellular rejection, discharge or not within 2?months after LT, sequential changes of portal venous flow to the graft and ascites discharge. The two arms of the study will comprise 55 patients per arm. Ethics and dissemination The study has been conducted according to the CONSORT statement. All participants signed a written consent form, and the study has been approved by the institutional review board of each participating institute and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1996. The findings will be disseminated through scientific and professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number The DKB 14 Study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN-CTR), Japan (registration number: UMIN000014326) during 2014. PMID:26419681

  12. Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

    2013-01-01

    Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC. PMID:23956767

  13. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  14. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? m g?; Agaricus blazei, yn zh?; Coriolus versicolor, lng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ni zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chng xi c?o), pomegranate ( sh li; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? ch; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( d sun; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng hung; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  15. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  16. A traditional Chinese herbal formula improves pressure ulcers in paraplegic patients: A randomized, parallel-group, retrospective trial

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIN; MENG, QINGXI; SONG, HUA; ZHAO, TINGBAO

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy of a novel Chinese herbal formula, cure rot and flat sore ointment (CRFSO), in the management of stage IV pressure ulcers, and the effect of simultaneous comprehensive rehabilitation in improving the outcome were evaluated. A total of 35 paraplegic patients with stage IV pressure ulcers who underwent reconstruction and inpatient rehabilitation from January 2004 to September 2010 were included in the study. Arnebia root oil (ARO) was used on 16 patients with 11 ulcers (stage IV). The remaining 19 patients with 20 ulcers (stage IV) received a traditional Chinese herbal formula (CRFSO). After 28 days of treatment, the wound healing results, in particular, the healing rate, effectiveness rate, improvement rate and no response rate were evaluated. Six patients from the ARO group sought other types of therapy due to their own consideration of poor efficacy. After 28 days of treatment, the wound healing result and no response rate demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P<0.005) between the two groups, suggesting that the novel Chinese herbal formula is an effective treatment for pressure sores in paraplegic patients. All outcome variables demonstrated significant improvement in the CRFSO group compared with the ARO group after 28 days of treatment, with a higher healing rate (85% in the CRFSO group and 45.45% in the ARO group) and lower no response rate (5% in the CRFSO group and 18.18% in the ARO group). The traditional Chinese herbal formula improved pressure sores in paraplegic patients effectively and inpatient rehabilitation was also significantly improved. PMID:23837056

  17. [Herbal medicines against respiratory diseases--traditional empiricism or pharmacological evidence?].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Sinusitis and bronchitis belong to the most frequent respiratory infections. The relevant guidelines mention the therapy with herbal substances and assign a good activity to cineole and Myrtol as well as to combination preparations with cowslip. There is no final statement of the guidelines' authors concerning the extract of Pelargonium sidoides. Further studies will be necessary to give reliable therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25632601

  18. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  19. The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053

  20. Japanese herbal medicine, Saiko-keishi-to, prevents gut ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats via nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Yoshinori; Kajihara, Mikio; Mori, Shuka; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Tamai, Hironao; Kato, Shinzo; Ishii, Hiromasa

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Saiko-keishi- to (TJ-10), a Japanese herbal medicine, could protect liver injury induced by gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and to investigate the role of NO. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to 30-min gut ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Intravital microscopy was used to monitor leukocyte recruitment. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were measured. TJ- 10 1 g/(kg·d) was intragastrically administered to rats for 7 d. A NO synthase inhibitor was administered. RESULTS: In control rats, gut I/R elicited increases in the number of stationary leukocytes, and plasma TNF levels and ALT activities were mitigated by pretreatment with TJ-10. Pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitor diminished the protective effects of TJ-10 on leukostasis in the liver, and the increase of plasma TNF levels and ALT activities. Pretreatment with TJ-10 increased plasma nitrite/nitrate levels. CONCLUSION: TJ-10 attenuates the gut I/R-induced hepatic microvascular dysfunction and sequential hepatocellular injury via enhancement of NO production. PMID:15259073

  1. Significance of Kampo, Japanese Traditional Medicine, in the Treatment of Obesity: Basic and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (?????) and boiogito (?????), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine. PMID:23662155

  2. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  3. Quality Assessment of Ojeok-San, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Ojeok-san (OJS) is a traditional herbal formula consisting of 17 herbal medicines that has been used to treat various disorders. In this study, quantitative analytical methods were developed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector to determine 19 marker compounds in OJS preparations, which was then combined with chemometric analysis. The method developed was validated in terms of its precision and accuracy. The intra- and interday precision of the marker compounds were <3.0% of the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the recovery of the marker compounds was 92.74%–104.16% with RSD values <3.0%. The results of our quantitative analysis show that the quantities of the 19 marker compounds varied between a laboratory water extract and commercial OJS granules. The chemometric analysis used, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), also showed that the OJS water extract produced using a laboratory method clearly differed from the commercial OJS granules; therefore, an equalized production process is required for quality control of OJS preparations. Our results suggest that the HPLC analytical methods developed are suitable for the quantification and quality assessment of OJS preparations when combined with chemometric analysis involving PCA and HCA. PMID:26539304

  4. Effect of Processing on the Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Flos Lonicerae: An NMR-based Chemometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Wang, Mei; Avula, Bharathi; Zhong, Lingyun; Song, Zhonghua; Xu, Qiongming; Li, Shunxiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-06-01

    The processing of medicinal materials, known as Pao Zhi in traditional Chinese medicine, is a unique part of traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used for the preparation of Chinese materia medica. It is believed that processing can alter the properties and functions of remedies, increase medical potency, and reduce toxicity and side effects. Both processed and unprocessed Flos Lonicerae (flowers of Lonicera japonica) are important drug ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine. To gain insights on the effect of processing factors (heating temperature and duration) on the change of chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the processing of F. Lonicerae. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data were analyzed by means of a heat map and principal components analysis. The results indicated that the composition changed significantly, particularly when processing at the higher temperature (210 °C). Five chemical components, viz. 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and myo-inositol, whose concentration changed significantly during the processing, were isolated and identified. The patterns for the concentration change observed from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis during the processing were confirmed and quantitatively determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The study demonstrated that a nuclear magnetic resonance-based chemometric approach could be a promising tool for investigation of the processing of herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26039268

  5. Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindstrm, Susanne Wiklund

    2013-03-01

    Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an RX_cum of 0.84 and RY_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

  6. Effect of Guibi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Proliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    Ocular pathologic angiogenesis is an important causative risk factor of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular macular degeneration. Guibi-tang (GBT) is a frequently used oriental herbal formula in East Asian countries, and is also called Qui-pi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-To in Japanese. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of GBT on retinal pathogenic neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% hyperoxia for five days on postnatal day 7 (P7). The mice were then exposed to room air from P12 to P17 to induce ischemic proliferative retinopathy. GBT (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days (from P12 to P16). On P17, Retinal neovascularization was measured on P17, and the expression levels of 55 angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed using protein arrays. GBT significantly decreased retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in OIR mice, and protein arrays revealed that GBT decreased PAI-1 protein expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GBT reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in OIR mice. GBT promotes potent inhibitory activity for retinal neovascularization by decreasing VEGF, FGF2, and PAI-1 levels. PMID:26694358

  7. Effect of Guibi-Tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Retinal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Proliferative Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    Ocular pathologic angiogenesis is an important causative risk factor of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular macular degeneration. Guibi-tang (GBT) is a frequently used oriental herbal formula in East Asian countries, and is also called Qui-pi-tang in Chinese and Kihi-To in Japanese. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effect of GBT on retinal pathogenic neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% hyperoxia for five days on postnatal day 7 (P7). The mice were then exposed to room air from P12 to P17 to induce ischemic proliferative retinopathy. GBT (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days (from P12 to P16). On P17, Retinal neovascularization was measured on P17, and the expression levels of 55 angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed using protein arrays. GBT significantly decreased retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in OIR mice, and protein arrays revealed that GBT decreased PAI-1 protein expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GBT reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA levels in OIR mice. GBT promotes potent inhibitory activity for retinal neovascularization by decreasing VEGF, FGF2, and PAI-1 levels. PMID:26694358

  8. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  9. Wound Healing Activity of a Traditionally Used Poly Herbal Product in a Burn Wound Model in Rats.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fahimi S; Abdollahi M; Mortazavi SA; Hajimehdipoor H; Abdolghaffari AH; Rezvanfar MA

    2015-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Burns are known as one of the most common and destructive forms of injury with a vast spectrum of consequences. Despite the discovery of various antibacterial and antiseptic agents, burn wound healing still has remained a challenge to modern medicine. Plants, with a valuable traditional support, have been considered as potential agents for prevention and treatment of disorders in recent years. However, modern scientific methods should be applied to validate the claims about the therapeutic effects of the herbal products.OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a poly herbal cream (PHC), retrieved from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), in a rat burn wound model in Iran.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, PHC containing aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals was used. Second-degree burn wounds were induced in four groups of five rats each. Group 1 received no treatment while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given cream base, silver sulfadiazine (SS) 1% and PHC, respectively to compare the efficacy of PHC with the negative and positive control groups. The percentage of wound healing on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 and histopathological parameters of healed wounds on the 14th day were assessed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PHC were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and micro-dilution methods, respectively.RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in healing percentage of PHC-treated rats in comparison to the other groups at the end of the treatment period (87.0% 2.1% for PHC in comparison to 32.2% 1.6%, 57.0% 5.3% and 70.8% 3.5% for the control, cream base and SS groups, respectively). Moreover, the healed wounds in PHC-treated animals contained less inflammatory cells and had desirable re-epithelialization with remarkable neovascularization. In addition to the antioxidant activity, PHC exhibited antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus.CONCLUSIONS: Poly herbal cream experimentally and histopathologically revealed a burn wound healing activity probably due to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of its phytochemical contents. Therefore, this study confirms the use of M. sylvestris, S. nigrum and R. damascena in burn prescriptions in ITM.

  10. Wound Healing Activity of a Traditionally Used Poly Herbal Product in a Burn Wound Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Shirin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burns are known as one of the most common and destructive forms of injury with a vast spectrum of consequences. Despite the discovery of various antibacterial and antiseptic agents, burn wound healing still has remained a challenge to modern medicine. Plants, with a valuable traditional support, have been considered as potential agents for prevention and treatment of disorders in recent years. However, modern scientific methods should be applied to validate the claims about the therapeutic effects of the herbal products. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a poly herbal cream (PHC), retrieved from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), in a rat burn wound model in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, PHC containing aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals was used. Second-degree burn wounds were induced in four groups of five rats each. Group 1 received no treatment while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given cream base, silver sulfadiazine (SS) 1% and PHC, respectively to compare the efficacy of PHC with the negative and positive control groups. The percentage of wound healing on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 and histopathological parameters of healed wounds on the 14th day were assessed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PHC were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and micro-dilution methods, respectively. Results: There was a significant improvement in healing percentage of PHC-treated rats in comparison to the other groups at the end of the treatment period (87.0% ± 2.1% for PHC in comparison to 32.2% ± 1.6%, 57.0% ± 5.3% and 70.8% ± 3.5% for the control, cream base and SS groups, respectively). Moreover, the healed wounds in PHC-treated animals contained less inflammatory cells and had desirable re-epithelialization with remarkable neovascularization. In addition to the antioxidant activity, PHC exhibited antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Poly herbal cream experimentally and histopathologically revealed a burn wound healing activity probably due to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of its phytochemical contents. Therefore, this study confirms the use of M. sylvestris, S. nigrum and R. damascena in burn prescriptions in ITM. PMID:26473072

  11. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, Jos G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  12. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported. This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  13. A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

  14. An effective antibiofilm agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm from traditional Thai herbal recipes used for wound treatments.

    PubMed

    Chusri, Sasitorn; Jittanon, Wittaya; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2013-10-01

    The presence of bacterial biofilm, particularly formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been considered an important factor responsible for wound chronicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of water and ethanol extracts obtained from three traditional herbal recipes (THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011) on biofilm formation and on mature biofilm of a reference strain of P. aeruginosa. The effects of the extracts on the biofilm mass were evaluated by using crystal violet (CV) assay. The respiratory activity of preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa after treatment with the extract was determined by MTT reduction assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to furnish images of biofilm reduction after the recipe treatment. Tested ethanol extracts displayed antibiofilm activity, but the water extracts exhibited low biofilm inhibition activity at the tested concentrations. Remarkable reduction in biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa was found after treatment with the THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E). Treatments with this extract resulted in prevention of biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa on both polystyrene and glass surfaces. Almost 50% reduction in the bacterial metabolic activity in the preformed biofilm was seen after exposure to the extract-supplemented buffer for 12?hr. After a 24-hr treatment with THR-SK010E at 62.5??g/ml, 97.3% of the preformed biofilms were destroyed. Promising antibiofilm activity was displayed by the THR-SK010 ethanol extract, suggesting further investigation to explore the possible utilization of the herbal recipe as an antibiofilm agent, especially for wound treatment. PMID:23600560

  15. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. PMID:24645695

  16. Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora,?S. glandiflora,?M. charantia,?S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

  17. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the standardization. Besides the available data, more evidence is required regarding its therapeutic efficacy and safety, so it can be considered a rich herbal source of new drug candidates. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. PMID:26978330

  18. Simultaneous determination of liquiritin, nodakenin and glycyrrhizinin Guibi-tang, a traditional herbal prescription by HPLC-PDA.

    PubMed

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jung Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-07-01

    A simple, convenient, rapid and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination about three ingredients of a traditional herbal prescription, Guibi-tang (GBT): liquiritin (1), nodakenin (2) and glycyrrhizin (3). Chromatographic analysis on the three components was separated within 35 min on a Gemini C18 column and maintained at 40C. The mobile phase consisted of water with 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid (solvent A) and acetonitrile with 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid (solvent B) in gradient mode at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. Chromatograms were acquired at 254, 280 and 330 nm in a photodiode array (PDA) detector. The calibration curves showed excellent linearity (R(2)=1.0000). The average recovery of three compounds was >93.5%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <2.0%. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD) of the three components were 0.04%-3.04% and 0.11%-2.48%, respectively. The contents of compounds 1-3 in GBT were 1.09-1.10, 2.35-2.37 and 0.81-0.82 mg/g, respectively. PMID:25015446

  19. Anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of the traditional Korean herbal formula Samchulgeonbi-tang: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Here we report in vitro anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects of Samchulgeonbi-tang (SCGBT), a traditional Korean herbal formula. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without SCGBT. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and leptin production. In addition, its effect on scavenging activities of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in in vitro systems. Results: In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, SCGBT significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and triglyceride production, and mediated inactivation of GPDH, a major enzyme in the process of adipogenesis. Consistent with this, SCGBT stimulation significantly decreased the amount of leptin in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Furthermore, SCGBT enhanced the scavenging activities on ABTS and DPPH radicals. The generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was significantly reduced by SCGBT treatment. Of interest, SCGBT extract inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that SCGBT has the potential for anti-adipogenic activity and antioxidant properties. PMID:26309521

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Formula Pyungwi-San on Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ji Young; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Jae Yup; Lee, Jong Rok; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Byun, Sung Hui; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G.

    2013-01-01

    Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF-?. Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23533508

  1. Biotransformation and in vitro metabolic profile of bioactive extracts from a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, Polygonum capitatum.

    PubMed

    He, Chi-Yu; Fu, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yi; Feng, Ru; Tan, Xiang-Shan; Huang, Min; Shou, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Chen, Yangchao; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth of four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, P. capitatum probably exhibits potential antitumor activity. However, there is very little information on the metabolism of substances present in P. capitatum extracts. In this study, gallic acid, quercetrin, ethanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of ethnolic extract (EtOAc fraction) of P. capitatum were cultured anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of fight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) technique was employed to identify and characterize the resulting metabolites. A total of 22 metabolites (M1-M22), including tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were detected and characterized. The overall results demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria played an important role in the metabolism of P. capitatum, and the main metabolic pathways were hydrolysis, reduction and oxidation reactions. Our results provided a basis for the estimation of the metabolic transformation of P. capitatum in vivo. PMID:25033057

  2. Traditional Japanese Formula Kigikenchuto Accelerates Healing of Pressure-Loading Skin Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Mari; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Jo, Michiko; Kaneko, Maria; Nogami, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Makoto; Goto, Hirozo; Shimada, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of kigikenchuto (KKT), a traditional Japanese formula, in a modified rat pressure-loading skin ulcer model. Rats were divided into three groups, KKT extract orally administered (250 or 500?mg/kg/day for 35 days) and control. KKT shortened the duration until healing. Immunohistochemically, KKT increased CD-31-positive vessels in early phase and increased ?-smooth muscle actin-(?-SMA-) positive fibroblastic cells in early phase and decreased them in late phase of wound healing. By Western blotting, KKT showed the potential to decrease inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-1?, and TNF-?) in early phase, decrease vascular endothelial growth factor in early phase and increase it in late phase, and modulate the expression of extracellular protein matrix (?-SMA, TGF-?1, bFGF, collagen III, and collagen I). These results suggested the possibility that KKT accelerates pressure ulcer healing through decreases of inflammatory cytokines, increase of angiogenesis, and induction of extracellular matrix remodeling. PMID:21660308

  3. Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

    2010-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

  4. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. PMID:26917101

  5. Simultaneous determination of six active components in traditional herbal medicine 'Oyaksungisan' by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Ma, Choong Je

    2012-07-01

    In this study, an effective high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for simultaneous determination of six marker compounds, ephedrine hydrochloride, 6-gingerol, glycyrrhizin, hesperidin, imperatorin and ferulic acid, in a Korean traditional prescription, Oyaksungisan, which is used for hemiplegia, arthralgia and paralysis. The six marker compounds of Oyaksungisan were separated on a LUNA C18 column (S-5 ?m, 4.6 mm I.D. 250 mm) at a column temperature of 35C. The gradient elution was composed of water with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol. The detection UV wavelengths were set at 207, 250, 280 and 320 nm. Calibration curves for the six compounds showed good linear regressions (R (2) > 0.9999). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.003-0.01 and 0.01-0.04 ?g/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of intra- and inter-day testing were within the ranges 0.10-1.82 and 0.04-1.59%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 95.05-104.27% with a RSD value of 0.11-1.85%. In conclusion, the simultaneous determination method developed was useful in the quality evaluation of Oyaksungisan. PMID:22359188

  6. From non-aligned medicines to market-based herbals: China's relationship to the shifting politics of traditional medicine in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Langwick, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The institutionalization of traditional medicine in Tanzania reveals how strategies for socialist liberation are morphing into strategies for neoliberalization. In the 1960s and 1970s, traditional medicine promised the raw material for the scientific development of an indigenous pharmaceutical industry. At the turn of the millennium, however, traditional medicine has re-emerged in Tanzania as a new path into the fast-growing global herbals market. Tanzania's relationship with China has been central to these dynamics. Development programs rooted in socialist friendship trained Tanzanian doctors in China throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s. These practitioners forged Tanzanian efforts to develop and modernize traditional medicine. In this article, I look with particular detail at one woman who was chosen to start the Office of Traditional Medicine in the Ministry of Health in Tanzania, in order to elaborate the continuities and discontinuities central to the emerging field of market-based traditional medicines. PMID:20391157

  7. In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, “Attarin” drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). Methods In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 μg/ml and 68 μg/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 μg/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 μg/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 μg/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 μg/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 μg/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 μg/ml). Conclusion Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

  8. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

  9. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked

  10. The Traditional Herbal Medicine, Dangkwisoo-San, Prevents Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Sun Haeng; Kim, Young Whan; Ha, Jung Min; Bae, Sun Sik; Lee, Guem San; Cho, Su In; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Dangkwisoo-San (DS) is an herbal extract that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine to treat traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effect of DS in cerebrovascular disease has not been examined experimentally. The protective effects of DS on focal ischemic brain were investigated in a mouse model. DS stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). DS (10300??g/mL) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in mouse aorta, which was significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting that DS causes vasodilation via a NO-dependent mechanism. DS increased resting cerebral blood flow (CBF), although it caused mild hypotension. To investigate the effect of DS on the acute cerebral injury, C57/BL6J mice received 90?min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22.5?h of reperfusion. DS administered 3 days before arterial occlusion significantly reduced cerebral infarct size by 53.7% compared with vehicle treatment. However, DS did not reduce brain infarction in mice treated with the relatively specific endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of DS is primarily endothelium-dependent. This correlated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS in the brains of DS-treated mice. DS acutely improves CBF in eNOS-dependent vasodilation and reduces infarct size in focal cerebral ischemia. These data provide causal evidence that DS is cerebroprotective via the eNOS-dependent production of NO, which ameliorates blood circulation. PMID:21423636

  11. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis by a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Modifying Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Matsubara, Yosuke; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Aiba, Setsuya; Yamasaki, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Macrophages serve as sweepers of microbes and inflammation-derived wastes and regulators of inflammation. Some traditional Japanese medicines are reported to have adjuvant effects by modifying macrophages. Our aim was to characterize the actions of jumihaidokuto (JHT) for treatment of skin inflammations including acne vulgaris, in which Propionibacterium acnes has pathogenic roles. Methods. Dermatitis was induced in rat ears by intradermal injection of P. acnes. JHT or prednisolone (PDN) was given orally, and ear thickness and histology were evaluated. The effects of constituents and metabolites of JHT on monocytes were tested by cell-based assays using the human monocytic THP-1 cell. Results. JHT and PDN suppressed the ear thickness induced by P. acnes injection. Histological examinations revealed that JHT, but not PDN, promoted macrophage accumulation at 24 h after the injection. PDN suppressed the macrophage chemokine MCP-1 in the inflamed ears, while JHT did not affect it. The JHT constituents liquiritigenin and isoliquiritin increased expression of CD86 (type-1 macrophage marker) and CD192 (MCP-1 receptor) and enhanced phagocytosis by THP-1. Conclusions. JHT suppressed dermatitis, probably by enhancing type-1 macrophage functions, with an action different from PDN. JHT may be a beneficial drug in treatment of skin inflammation induced by P. acnes. PMID:26495013

  12. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis by a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Modifying Macrophage Functions.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Matsubara, Yosuke; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Aiba, Setsuya; Yamasaki, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Macrophages serve as sweepers of microbes and inflammation-derived wastes and regulators of inflammation. Some traditional Japanese medicines are reported to have adjuvant effects by modifying macrophages. Our aim was to characterize the actions of jumihaidokuto (JHT) for treatment of skin inflammations including acne vulgaris, in which Propionibacterium acnes has pathogenic roles. Methods. Dermatitis was induced in rat ears by intradermal injection of P. acnes. JHT or prednisolone (PDN) was given orally, and ear thickness and histology were evaluated. The effects of constituents and metabolites of JHT on monocytes were tested by cell-based assays using the human monocytic THP-1 cell. Results. JHT and PDN suppressed the ear thickness induced by P. acnes injection. Histological examinations revealed that JHT, but not PDN, promoted macrophage accumulation at 24 h after the injection. PDN suppressed the macrophage chemokine MCP-1 in the inflamed ears, while JHT did not affect it. The JHT constituents liquiritigenin and isoliquiritin increased expression of CD86 (type-1 macrophage marker) and CD192 (MCP-1 receptor) and enhanced phagocytosis by THP-1. Conclusions. JHT suppressed dermatitis, probably by enhancing type-1 macrophage functions, with an action different from PDN. JHT may be a beneficial drug in treatment of skin inflammation induced by P. acnes. PMID:26495013

  13. A unique strong fibrinolytic enzyme (katsuwokinase) in skipjack "Shiokara," a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Nakajima, N; Yatagai, C

    1995-11-01

    Katsuwokinase (KK) is a unique fibrinolytic enzyme recently found in skipjack "Shiokara," a Japanese traditional salt-fermented food. A crude enzyme extracted from skipjack Shiokara (Katsuwonus pelamis) showed a very strong fibrinolytic activity above 45 CU/g (fibrin plate method) based on plasmin. KK not only hydrolyzed fibrin but also several synthetic amido substrates, particularly pyro-Glu-Gly-Arg-pNA. The fibrinolytic activity of KK was not affected in the presence of 10% NaCl, was stable in the pH range from 1 to 10 at 37 degrees C for 30 min, and was inhibited by DFP, SBTI, BPTI, and aprotinin but not by epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid and t-4-amino-methylcyclohexane carboxylic acid. The crude enzyme contained at least four kinds of KK, and the major form purified had a pI value of approximately 5.0 and a molecular weight of 35,000. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 21 residues, I-V-G-G-Y-E-Q-Z-A-H-S-Q-P-H-Q-V-S-L-N-S-G-, had 80% homology with that of trypsin. The fibrinolytic activity of the purified enzyme was approximately 2.6 times greater than that of plasmin by molar ratio, demonstrating its identity as a new and very potent fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:8529030

  14. Tracing microbiota changes in yamahai-moto, the traditional Japanese sake starter.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Nakagawa, Akira; Kiyohara, Masashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Atsushi; Barla, Florin; Take, Harumi; Katsuyama, Yoko; Tokuda, Koji; Nakamura, Shizuo; Minami, Hiromichi; Enomoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Takane; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2016-02-01

    Sake is made from steamed rice, malted rice, and water. Sake production begins with the preparation of a small-scale starter (moto); the quality of moto significantly influences the flavor and richness of sake. In the traditional starter, yamahai-moto, the growth of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria represses the putrefactive micro-organisms, whereas in the modern starter, sokujo-moto, this is achieved by adding lactic acid. In this study, the successive change in bacterial flora of yamahai-moto was analyzed by pyrosequencing 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Lactobacillus was dominant throughout the process (93-98%). Nitrate-reducing bacteria that have been generally assumed to be the first colonizers of yamahai-moto were scarcely found in the early stage, but Lactobacillus acidipiscis dominated. Lactobacillus sakei drastically increased in the middle stage. This is the first report, though one case study, to show how the early stage microbiota in Japanese yamahai-moto is varyingly controlled without nitrate-reducing bacteria using next-generation sequencing. PMID:26479869

  15. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Methods Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) −14.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −18.84 to −9.16 mm Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD −8.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −11.35 to −4.65 mm Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusions This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP and adverse effects, are warranted. PMID:26656978

  16. Banhabaekchulchunma-tang, a traditional herbal formula attenuates absolute ethanol-induced gastric injury by enhancing the antioxidant status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50mg/kg) or BCT (400mg/kg), respectively, 2h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake. PMID:23844748

  17. Molecular identification of the traditional herbal medicines, Arisaematis Rhizoma and Pinelliae Tuber, and common adulterants via universal DNA barcode sequences.

    PubMed

    Moon, B C; Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Lee, Y M; Kang, Y M; Choi, G

    2016-01-01

    Methods to identify Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma are required because of frequent reciprocal substitution between these two herbal medicines and the existence of several closely related plant materials. As a result of the morphological similarity of dried tubers, correct discrimination of authentic herbal medicines is difficult by conventional methods. Therefore, we analyzed DNA barcode sequences to identify each herbal medicine and the common adulterants at a species level. To verify the identity of these herbal medicines, we collected five authentic species (Pinellia ternata for Pinelliae Tuber, and Arisaema amurense, A. amurense var. serratum, A. erubescens, and A. heterophyllum for Arisaematis Rhizoma) and six common adulterant plant species. Maturase K (matK) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) genes were then amplified using universal primers. In comparative analyses of two DNA barcode sequences, we obtained 45 species-specific nucleotides sufficient to identify each species (except A. erubescens with matK) and 28 marker nucleotides for each species (except P. pedatisecta with rbcL). Sequence differences at corresponding positions of the two combined DNA barcodes provided genetic marker nucleotides that could be used to identify specimens of the correct species among the analyzed medicinal plants. Furthermore, we generated a phylogenetic tree showing nine distinct groups depending on the species. These results can be used to authenticate Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma from their adulterants and to identify each species. Thus, comparative analyses of plant DNA barcode sequences identified useful genetic markers for the authentication of Pinelliae Tuber and Arisaematis Rhizoma from several adulterant herbal materials. PMID:26909979

  18. The Design of the Automatic Control System of the Gripping-Belt Speed in Long-Rootstalk Traditional Chinese Herbal Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Junfa; Yu, Yonghong

    This article aims to design a kind of gripping-belt speed automatic tracking system of traditional Chinese herbal harvester by AT89C52 single-chip micro computer as a core combined with fuzzy PID control algorithm. The system can adjust the gripping-belt speed in accordance with the variation of the machine's operation, so there is a perfect matching between the machine operation speed and the gripping-belt speed. The harvesting performance of the machine can be improved greatly. System design includes hardware and software.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934

  20. Effect of Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Goreisan on Reoperation Rates after Burr-Hole Surgery for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Analysis of a National Inpatient Database.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Goreisan is a herbal Kampo medicine used for treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in Japan. Experimental studies have suggested that Goreisan exerts a hydrogogue effect, but clinical evidence for the effectiveness of Goreisan in CSDH is currently lacking. Using a national Japanese inpatient database, we examined the association between Goreisan use and reoperation rates after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. We identified 36,020 patients, including 3,889 Goreisan users and 32,131 nonusers. Propensity scores of receiving Goreisan were calculated based on hospital characteristics and patient backgrounds (age, sex, body mass index, activities of daily living, consciousness level, comorbidities, antithrombotic agent use, mannitol infusion, and corticosteroid infusion). One-to-one propensity-score matching created 3,879 pairs of Goreisan users and nonusers. Propensity-matched analysis revealed that Goreisan use was significantly associated with a lower reoperation rate (4.8%) compared with nonuse (6.2%) (risk difference, -1.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.4% to -0.38%). The number needed to prevent one reoperation was 72 (95% CI, 41-265). Instrumental-variable analysis showed similar results to the propensity-matched analysis. These results suggest that Goreisan use reduced the need for reoperation after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. PMID:26495025

  1. Effect of Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Goreisan on Reoperation Rates after Burr-Hole Surgery for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Analysis of a National Inpatient Database

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Goreisan is a herbal Kampo medicine used for treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in Japan. Experimental studies have suggested that Goreisan exerts a hydrogogue effect, but clinical evidence for the effectiveness of Goreisan in CSDH is currently lacking. Using a national Japanese inpatient database, we examined the association between Goreisan use and reoperation rates after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. We identified 36,020 patients, including 3,889 Goreisan users and 32,131 nonusers. Propensity scores of receiving Goreisan were calculated based on hospital characteristics and patient backgrounds (age, sex, body mass index, activities of daily living, consciousness level, comorbidities, antithrombotic agent use, mannitol infusion, and corticosteroid infusion). One-to-one propensity-score matching created 3,879 pairs of Goreisan users and nonusers. Propensity-matched analysis revealed that Goreisan use was significantly associated with a lower reoperation rate (4.8%) compared with nonuse (6.2%) (risk difference, ?1.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), ?2.4% to ?0.38%). The number needed to prevent one reoperation was 72 (95% CI, 41265). Instrumental-variable analysis showed similar results to the propensity-matched analysis. These results suggest that Goreisan use reduced the need for reoperation after burr-hole surgery for CSDH. PMID:26495025

  2. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

  3. Cytoprotective properties of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts in hydrogen peroxide challenged human U373 astroglia cells.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Truong, John; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Ooi, Lezanne; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Age is the leading risk factor for many of the most prevalent and devastating diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. A number of herbal medicines have been used for centuries to ameliorate the deleterious effects of ageing-related diseases and increase longevity. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in normal ageing as well as in neurodegenerative processes. Since many of the constituents of herbal extracts are known antioxidants, it is believed that restoring oxidative balance may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which medicinal herbs can protect against ageing and cognitive decline. Based on the premise that astrocytes are key modulators in the progression of oxidative stress associated neurodegenerative diseases, 13 herbal extracts purported to possess anti-ageing properties were tested for their ability to protect U373 human astrocytes from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. To determine the contribution of antioxidant activity to the cytoprotective ability of extracts, total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were examined. Polygonum multiflorum, amongst others, was identified as possessing potent antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Not surprisingly, total phenol content of extracts was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, when total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were compared to the cytoprotective properties of extracts, only moderately strong correlations were observed. This finding suggests the involvement of multiple protective mechanisms in the beneficial effects of these medicinal herbs. PMID:22982670

  4. A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lan Lan Liang; Liu, Jah-Yao; Lin, Kao-Si; Liu, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Liang, Kung-Yee; Tsai, Te-Feng; Wang, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Huang, Ching-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Background Most traditional Chinese herbal formulas consist of at least four herbs. Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) is a documented eight hundred year old formula containing four herbs and has been widely used to relieve menstrual discomfort in Taiwan. However, no specific effect had been systematically evaluated. We applied Western methodology to assess its effectiveness and safety for primary dysmenorrhoea and to evaluate the compliance and feasibility for a future trial. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial was conducted in an ad hoc clinic setting at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Seventy-eight primary dysmenorrheic young women were enrolled after 326 women with self-reported menstrual discomfort in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan were screened by a questionnaire and subsequently diagnosed by two gynaecologists concurrently with pelvic ultrasonography. A dosage of 15 odorless capsules daily for five days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain was administered. Participants were followed with two to four cycles for an initial washout interval, one to two baseline cycles, three to four treatment cycles, and three follow-up cycles. Study outcome was pain intensity measured by using unmarked horizontal visual analog pain scale in an online daily diary submitted directly by the participants for 5 days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain of each menstrual cycle. Overall-pain was the average pain intensity among days in pain and peak-pain was the maximal single-day pain intensity. At the end of treatment, both the overall-pain and peak-pain decreased in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group and increased in the placebo group; however, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The trends persisted to follow-up phase. Statistically significant differences in both peak-pain and overall-pain appeared in the first follow-up cycle, at which the reduced peak-pain in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group did not differ significantly by treatment length. However, the reduced peak-pain did differ profoundly among women treated for four menstrual cycles (2.69 (2.06) cm, mean (standard deviation), for the 20 women with Four-Agents-Decoction and 4.68 (3.16) for the 22 women with placebo, p?=?.020.) There was no difference in adverse symptoms between the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) and placebo groups. Conclusion/significance Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) therapy in this pilot post-market clinical trial, while meeting the standards of conventional medicine, showed no statistically significant difference in reducing menstrual pain intensity of primary dysmenorrhoea at the end of treatment. Its use, with our dosage regimen and treatment length, was not associated with adverse reactions. The finding of statistically significant pain-reducing effect in the first follow-up cycle was unexpected and warrants further study. A larger similar trial among primary dysmenorrheic young women with longer treatment phase and multiple batched study products can determine the definitive efficacy of this historically documented formula. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN23374750 PMID:17710126

  5. First Nationwide Attitude Survey of Japanese Physicians on the Use of Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ito, A.; Munakata, K.; Imazu, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide survey was to investigate the use of Kampo medicine by Japanese physicians who worked in the core cancer treatment hospitals which were designated by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 900 physicians surveyed, 92.4% reported having prescribed Kampo medications, of whom 73.5% reported having prescribed them for cancer patients. Despite this high percentage and the finding that only 9.7% of the physicians reported that they considered Kampo medications to be harmful, only 23.1% of the physicians expressed high expectations of the efficacy of Kampo medicine in tumor suppression and the exertion of immunostimulatory action. In contrast, many cancer patients have expressed the belief that Kampo medications can suppress tumor growth, and several studies have reported that they exert immunostimulatory action. To resolve this discrepancy in patient and physician expectations and to clarify the research findings, further research into the effectiveness and harmfulness of Kampo medicine in cancer treatment is warranted. PMID:23304230

  6. Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease with Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kum, Wan Fung; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Bian, Zhao Xiang; Man, Sui Cheung; Lam, Yuen Chi; Xie, Li Xia; Lu, Jia Hong; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xian Zhang; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study is to examine the effects of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (Jia Wei Liu Jun Zi Tang: JWLJZT) on motor and non-motor symptoms, and on complications of conventional therapy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), using an add-on design. Fifty-five patients with PD were randomly allocated to receive either Chinese herbal medicine or placebo for 24 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Secondary outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), home diaries, and a range of category rating scales. JWLJZT resulted in a significant improvement in the UPDRS IVC when compared with placebo at 12 weeks (P = .039) and 24 weeks (P = .034). In addition, patients in the Chinese herbal medicine group also showed significant improvement in PDQ-39 communication scores at 12 weeks (P = .024) and 24 weeks (P = .047) when compared with the placebo group. There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups for SF-36 variables, GDS score or the mean daily on-off time. One case of mild diarrhea was noted in the treatment group. The findings suggest that JWLJZT can relieve some non-motor complications of conventional therapy and improve the communication ability in patients with PD. The results of this pilot study warrant larger multi-center clinical studies to assess long-term efficacy and tolerability of JWLJZT, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which it affects PD function. PMID:19692449

  7. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of Gosha-jinki-gan, aJapanese traditional herbal medicine, for nocturia.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kojiro; Sato, Ryo; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Gosha-jinki-gan (GJG; j sh?ng shn q wn) in 30 cases of nocturia ( y nio) unresponsive to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. All patients received GJG extract powder (2.5 g) three times a day for 12 weeks as an add-on therapy to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. Subjective outcomes assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score-quality of life, and the benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index and objective outcomes assessed by urinary frequency and the urine production rate at night showed significant improvement after treatment. Moreover, other objective outcomes assessed by maximum flow rates, postvoid residual, serum human atrial natriuretic peptide levels, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels did not change. Adverse events were observed in 10% of cases; however, these events were mild. GJG appears to be a safe and effective potential therapeutic alternative for patients with nocturia unresponsive to ?1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. Further clinical investigations are required to elucidate the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms of GJG in nocturia. PMID:26870690

  8. Clinical efficacy and tolerability of Gosha-jinki-gan, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, for nocturia

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kojiro; Sato, Ryo; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Gosha-jinki-gan (GJG; 濟生腎氣丸 jì shēng shèn qì wán) in 30 cases of nocturia (夜尿 yè niào) unresponsive to α1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. All patients received GJG extract powder (2.5 g) three times a day for 12 weeks as an add-on therapy to α1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. Subjective outcomes assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score—quality of life, and the benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index and objective outcomes assessed by urinary frequency and the urine production rate at night showed significant improvement after treatment. Moreover, other objective outcomes assessed by maximum flow rates, postvoid residual, serum human atrial natriuretic peptide levels, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels did not change. Adverse events were observed in 10% of cases; however, these events were mild. GJG appears to be a safe and effective potential therapeutic alternative for patients with nocturia unresponsive to α1-blockers or antimuscarinic drugs. Further clinical investigations are required to elucidate the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms of GJG in nocturia. PMID:26870690

  9. Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

  10. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Kampo (Japanese Herbal) Medicine Shoseiryuto (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang) on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takayuki; Nakao, Marino; Shimizu, Yuliko; Kodera, Yoshio; Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine shoseiryuto (SST, xiao-qing-long-tang in Chinese), which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5?g?kg?1?day?1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils and the OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. SST also reduced the airway hyperreactivity at 6 days after the OVA inhalation. Proteomic analysis with the agarose two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the expression of spectrin ?2 was reduced in the lung tissue of OVA-sensitized mice and SST recovered the expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue also confirmed this result. When prednisolone was orally administered at 3?mg?kg?1?day?1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BAL fluids and airway hyperreactivity were reduced in the OVA-sensitized mice. However, prednisolone did not reduce the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in BAL fluids and did not recover the expression of spectrin ?2 in lung tissue. These results suggest that at least a part of action mechanism of SST against OVA-sensitized allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model is different from that of prednisolone. PMID:19861507

  12. Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine): A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-01-01

    Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system. PMID:22319543

  13. Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the

  14. Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

  15. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

  16. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies

    PubMed Central

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of the Jack-Bean Urease Inhibition by Randomly Selected Traditionally Used Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL). PMID:24250509

  18. Exploratory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Topical Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuhe; Liu, Wali; Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Chantalat, Laurent; Briantais, Philippe; Lin, Albert; Feng, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal ointment, Shi Du Ruan Gao, in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. Design. Single-center, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel group, placebo-controlled study. Participants. One hundred outpatients with mild to moderate chronic plaque-type psoriasis were enrolled. Intervention. The patients applied either Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment or vehicle ointment topically to for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. The outcomes were assessed using the following criteria: Total Severity Score (TSS, sum of erythema, scaling, and plaque elevation/induration, on a 0 to 4 scale), Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) evaluated on a 0 (Clear) to 4 (s to very severe) scale, and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment response on a 7-point scale from ?1 (worse) to 5 (Cleared). Results. Significant reductions in the Total Severity Score (P < 0.001) (mean score: 2.7 after Shi Du Ruan Gao treatment versus 5.1 in control subjects). Both Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) and Global Subjects' Assessment of treatment are better in the Shi Du Ruan Gao group than the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Shi Du Ruan Gao ointment was a safe, and effective therapy for plaque-type psoriasis. PMID:25834623

  19. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimares, Rafaela; Barreira, Joo C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  20. Profiling of the compounds absorbed in human plasma and urine after oral administration of a traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, daikenchuto.

    PubMed

    Iwabu, Jun; Watanabe, Junko; Hirakura, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Yoshinori; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a pharmaceutical-grade traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders including postoperative ileus and has been integrated into the modern medical care system in Japan as a prescription drug. DKT is a multiherbal medicine consisting of Japanese pepper (zanthoxylum fruit), processed ginger, and ginseng with maltose as an additive. Despite substantial research on the pharmacological activities of DKT and its ingredients, the lack of studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of DKT has made it difficult to obtain a consistent picture of its mechanism of action. In the present study, we constructed an analysis procedure consisting of seven conditions of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis, which enabled the identification of 44 ingredients of DKT component herbs. We investigated the plasma and urine profiles of these ingredients 0.5 to 8 h after oral administration of 15.0 g of DKT in four healthy volunteers. The results indicated that 1) hydroxy-?-sanshool and [6]-shogaol, the prominent peaks in plasma derived from Japanese pepper and ginger, respectively, were detected at 0.5 h and thereafter decreased throughout the sampling period; 2) ginsenoside Rb(1), a prominent peak derived from ginseng, increased gradually during the sampling period; 3) glucuronide conjugates of hydroxy-sanshools, shogaols, and gingerols were detected in plasma and urine; and 4) no obvious differences between samples from the two male and the two female individuals were observed. These results provide a strong basis for future studies on pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of DKT. PMID:20689019

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( sh?n yo; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( ju mng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( s?ng j sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:24716104

  2. CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2011-06-01

    A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 10(-8) , 2.78 10(-8) and 3.50 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

  3. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  4. Traditional Chinese Herbal Patch for Short-Term Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Cao, Yuelong; Pang, Jian; Du, Jiong; Guo, Chaoqing; Liu, Ting; Wei, Songpu; Zheng, Yuxin; Chen, Rongming; Zhan, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of two kinds of Traditional Chinese herbal patches, Fufang Nanxing Zhitong Gao (FNZG) and Shangshi Jietong Gao (SJG), for painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive FNZG (n = 60), SJG (n = 60), or placebo patch (n = 30) for 7 days. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Questionnaire (TCMSQ) subscale. Results. Although there was no significant difference among, three groups in short-term pain management, patients receiving FNZG got significant improvement in symptom of fear of coldness as compared with placebo patch (P = 0.029). The most common local adverse events of rash, itching, erythema, and slightly damaged skin were observed in 7% of participants. Conclusions. FNZG may be a useful treatment for symptom of knee OA and merits long-term study in broader populations. PMID:22454655

  5. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  6. Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (612h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly blocked SSE-induced increases in Beclin-1, LC3-II, and Bax expression and decreases in Bcl-2 expression, indicating that JNK activation plays critical role in cell death caused by SSE. Conclusions These findings suggest that SSE efficiently induces cancer cell death via apoptosis as well as autophagy through modification of the Akt/mTOR and JNK signaling pathways. SSE may be as a potent traditional herbal medicine for treating malignancies. PMID:24053190

  7. An Astronomical Problem in a Japanese Traditional Mathematical Text: The 49th Problem of the Kenki-sanpo of Takebe Katahiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ôhashi, Yukio

    During the Edo period (Tokugawa-shogunate period) (1603-1867), there was a mathematical tradition now called "Wasan" which was primarily based on Chinese mathematics, but Japanese mathematicians also created new devices. It was quite popular, and common people could enjoy solving mathematical problems through Wasan regardless of their social status. Some astronomical problems were also treated there.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of D-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle.

    PubMed

    Doi, Katsumi; Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040(T) was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

  9. Traditional Korean Herbal Formula Samsoeum Attenuates Adipogenesis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Adipogenesis is the cell differentiation process from preadipocytes into adipocytes and the critical action in the development of obesity. In the present study, we conducted in vitro analyses to investigate the inhibitory effects of Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal decoction. SSE had no significant cytotoxic effect against either the undifferentiated or differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining results showed that SSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in adipocytes. SSE treatment consistently reduced the intracellular triglyceride content in the cells. SSE significantly inactivated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a major link between carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and markedly inhibited the production of leptin, an important adipokine, in differentiated cells. SSE markedly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipogenesis-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). Importantly, SSE increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK and JNK, in adipose cells. Overall, our results indicate that SSE exerts antiadipogenic activity and modulates expressions of adipogenesis-related genes and ERK1/2 activation in adipocytes. PMID:26483846

  10. Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeji; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin- (IL-) 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-?/interferon-? TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25838833

  11. Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

  12. A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

  13. Effect of a traditional herbal medicine, hangekobokuto, on the sensation of a lump in the throat in patients with respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    KAGOHASHI, KATSUNORI; TAMURA, TOMOHIRO; OHARA, GEN; SATOH, HIROAKI

    2016-01-01

    The sensation of a lump in the throat (SLT) is not a rarely encountered symptom. The etiology of SLT appears to be multifactorial, and the psychological characteristics, stress and pressure of a psychiatric disorder may be significant factors in SLT. Hangekobokuto, one of the traditional herbal medicines, is a known drug that has an effect on SLT. The efficacy of a short-term hangekobokuto treatment on SLT was evaluated. To assess whether a 2-week prescription of hangekobokuto improves SLT mainly in patients with respiratory diseases, a retrospective study was performed between April 2013 and August 2015. During the study period, a total of 43 patients were treated with hangekobokuto. Twelve (27.9%) of the 43 patients were reported to experience completely effective treatment (SLT completely disappeared), and 14 (32.6%) experienced moderately effective treatment (25–99% SLT disappeared). Patients with bronchial asthma and those without a medical history of respiratory disease exhibited a good response to hangekobokuto. No specific predictive factor of the response to hangekobokuto on SLT was identified in the multivariate regression analysis. Therefore, the present results suggested that hangekobokuto could be one of the treatment choices for uncontrolled SLT.

  14. Effect of a Traditional Herbal Prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko, on Male Mouse Spermatogenic Ability after Heat-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Sodam; Hong, Nam Doo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a well-known traditional Korean medicinal formula, has long been used to invigorate the essential qi. This use of KOK may be associated with reproductive ability as a more modern concept. The protective effect of KOK was evaluated against deterioration of testicular function induced by heat exposure in male mice. Male fertility was disrupted by scrotal heat stress at 43C for 5 weeks. KOK (0.25, 0.50, and 2.00?g/kg/day) was administered orally at 3?h after the stress. To evaluate the protective effect of KOK, body weight, testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and histopathological changes in the testes were evaluated. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered their general health, as evidenced by body weight. KOK-treated mice also showed significantly higher testes weights, sperm counts, and sperm motility than did the heat stress group. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered the morphological appearance of the seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, KOK-treated mice significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the protein expressions of apoptosis in the testes. KOK significantly protects against heat-induced damage to testicular function in male mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis, indicating that KOK may be an effective agent for treatment of heat-induced male infertility. PMID:26539239

  15. Structural determination of glucosylceramides in the distillation remnants of shochu, the Japanese traditional liquor, and its production by Aspergillus kawachii.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Miyo; Tsuge, Keisuke; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Urano, Yoshitaka; Sawada, Kazutaka; Inaba, Shigeki; Nagao, Koji; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-21

    Shochu is traditional Japanese liquor produced from various crops and fungi Aspergillus kawachi or A. awamorii . The amount of unutilized shochu distillation remnants is increasing because of the recent prohibition of ocean dumping of these remnants. In this Article, we first describe the structures of glucosylceramides contained in shochu distillation remnants by fragment ion analysis using ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Shochu distillation remnant produced from barley contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C16:0h, d18:2/C20:0h, d19:2/C18:1h, and d18:2/C18:0h. Koji (barley fermented with A. kawachii) contained the same glucosylceramides. Shochu distillation remnants produced from rice contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C18:0h and d19:2/C18:1h. The culture broth of A. kawachii contained glucosylceramides d19:2/C18:1h and d19:2/C18:0h. These results indicate that the glucosylceramides contained in crops and those produced by A. kawachii transfer through the processes of fermentation with yeast and distillation to the shochu distillation remnant. This information will enable utilization of shochu distillation remnants and koji as novel sources of sphingolipids. PMID:23145483

  16. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto. PMID:22453301

  17. Analysis of the antioxidative function of the radioprotective Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, hangeshashinto, in an aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nyui, Minako; Ueno, Megumi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Omiya, Yuji; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese traditional medicine, is known to alleviate radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM; however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to clarify the details of the antioxidative functions of HST against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. The hydroxyl radical (OH)-scavenging ability and the reduction ability was simultaneously measured using a modified electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping method. The superoxide (O(2) (-))-scavenging ability was estimated by an EPR redox probing method. Water suspensions of powdered HST and of its seven constitutive crude drugs were tested. In addition, some of the main water-soluble ingredients of the crude drugs were also tested. HST was found to scavenge both OH and O(2) (-). Furthermore, HST was observed to reduce relatively stable nitroxyl radicals. Glycyrrhizae Radix (kanzo), Ginseng Radix (ninjin), Zizyphi Fructus (taiso) and glycyrrhizin (an ingredient of kanzo) were all found to be relatively good OH scavengers. Scutellariae Radix (ogon) and Coptidis Rhizoma (oren) demonstrated reducing ability. In addition, acteoside and berberine chloride, which are water-soluble ingredients of ogon and oren, respectively, also demonstrated reducing ability. Oren exhibited oxidative ability at higher concentrations, which may have a function in maintaining catalytic redox action. The antioxidative function of HST probably worked via a balance of scavenging ROS, reducing stable free radicals, and some minor oxidizing activities. PMID:25883171

  18. Analysis of the antioxidative function of the radioprotective Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, hangeshashinto, in an aqueous phase

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nyui, Minako; Ueno, Megumi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Omiya, Yuji; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese traditional medicine, is known to alleviate radiotherapy- and/or chemotherapy-induced OM; however, the detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to clarify the details of the antioxidative functions of HST against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. The hydroxyl radical (OH)scavenging ability and the reduction ability was simultaneously measured using a modified electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping method. The superoxide (O2?)scavenging ability was estimated by an EPR redox probing method. Water suspensions of powdered HST and of its seven constitutive crude drugs were tested. In addition, some of the main water-soluble ingredients of the crude drugs were also tested. HST was found to scavenge both OH and O2?. Furthermore, HST was observed to reduce relatively stable nitroxyl radicals. Glycyrrhizae Radix (kanzo), Ginseng Radix (ninjin), Zizyphi Fructus (taiso) and glycyrrhizin (an ingredient of kanzo) were all found to be relatively good OH scavengers. Scutellariae Radix (ogon) and Coptidis Rhizoma (oren) demonstrated reducing ability. In addition, acteoside and berberine chloride, which are water-soluble ingredients of ogon and oren, respectively, also demonstrated reducing ability. Oren exhibited oxidative ability at higher concentrations, which may have a function in maintaining catalytic redox action. The antioxidative function of HST probably worked via a balance of scavenging ROS, reducing stable free radicals, and some minor oxidizing activities. PMID:25883171

  19. Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Polyphenols in a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Which Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsubara, Yousuke; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Maemura, Kazuya; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Most orally administered polyphenols are metabolized, with very little absorbed as aglycones and/or unchanged forms. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies are therefore necessary to understand the pharmacological mechanisms of polyphenols. Jumihaidokuto (JHT), a traditional Japanese medicine, has been used for treatment of skin diseases including inflammatory acne. Because JHT contains various types of bioactive polyphenols, our aim was to clarify the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the polyphenols in JHT and identify active metabolites contributing to its antidermatitis effects. Orally administered JHT inhibited the increase in ear thickness in rats induced by intradermal injection of Propionibacterium acnes. Quantification by LC-MS/MS indicated that JHT contains various types of flavonoids and is also rich in hydrolysable tannins, such as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl glucose. Pharmacokinetic and antioxidant analyses showed that some flavonoid conjugates, such as genistein 7-O-glucuronide and liquiritigenin 7-O-glucuronide, appeared in rat plasma and had an activity to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation. Furthermore, 4-O-methylgallic acid, a metabolite of Gallic acid, appeared in rat plasma and inhibited the nitric oxide reaction. JHT has numerous polyphenols; it inhibited dermatitis probably via the antioxidant effect of its metabolites. Our study is beneficial for understanding in vivo actions of orally administered polyphenol drugs. PMID:26437394

  20. Effects of traditional herbal medicine, Hwaotang, on atherosclerosis using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits and the venous thrombosis rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Hong, Mun-Yeob; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-10-01

    Hwaotang (HOT), a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of seven herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Ciniamomi Cortex, Cnidii Rhizoma, Persicae Semen and Carthami Flos. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and anti thrombic properties of HOT on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions were studied using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits and rats. Changes in blood chemistry, pathology and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were measured in a control and HOT group. In the control group, the area of atheromatous plaques of the aorta progressed between week 12 (36.65%) and week 14 (46.22%). This progression of atherosclerotic lesions did not occur in the HOT-treated group after 12 (24.24%) and 14 (23.34%) weeks. Antioxidative effects on LDL were seen in the HOT in weeks 12 and 14. HOT improved the hypercholesterolemia in the KHC rabbits. On the other hand, HOT and five of the seven herbs, except Cnidii Rhizoma and Carthami Flos, inhibited the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis in high cholesterol diet-treated rats. However, Ciniamomi Cortex showed a very weak inhibitory effect on the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis. The extract also inhibited the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood platelets and fibrinogen, and endotoxin-induced increase in fibrin degradation products (FDP) on disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that HOT has inhibitory effects on the development of atheromatous plaque formation in spontaneous FH rabbits. It is also suggested that the antioxidative effects of HOT on LDL led to the beneficial effects observed in this study. The protection by HOT and its herbs on the artificially induced ischemic infarction might be related to their inhibitory effects on disseminated intravascular coagulation, platelet coagulation and thrombotic action. PMID:16261513

  1. The antiviral effect of keishi-ni-eppi-ichi-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on influenza A2(H2N2) virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ball, M A; Utsunomiya, T; Ikemoto, K; Kobayashi, M; Pollard, R B; Suzuki, F

    1994-08-15

    The antiviral effect of Keishi-ni-eppi-ichi-to (TJS-064), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was investigated in mice infected with influenza A2(H2N2) virus. When mice exposed to a 5 LD50 dose of the virus were treated orally with a 70 mg/kg dose of TJS-064 1 day before and 1 day and 4 days after the infection, 100% survived over a 25-day experimental period. At the end of this period all the control mice, treated with saline alone, had died; their mean survival time in days (MSD) was 11.2 days. When mice infected with a 10 LD50 dose of the virus were treated with TJS-064, the MSD was > 17.4 days and there was a 50% survival rate, while the control group had a MSD of 8.7 days and a 0% survival rate. No significant antiviral effect of TJS-064 was observed when the agent was administered orally to mice infected with a 100 LD50 or larger dose of influenza virus. Pulmonary consolidations, virus titers in lung tissues and HAI titers in sera of infected mice treated with TJS-064 were all significantly lower than those of infected mice treated with saline. Interferon activities were detected in sera of mice treated with the agent at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally. Since viricidal and viristatic activities of the agent against influenza virus were not demonstrated, the antiviral effects of TJS-064 may be expressed through the host's antiviral functions including interferon production. PMID:7520870

  2. A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-guang; Du, Ying-feng; Yang, Kai; Chang, Lu; Cao, Liang; Ren, Yan-ping; Sun, Qian; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lan-tong; Lv, Pin-tian

    2013-01-01

    The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23624157

  3. Constituents and tissue affinities in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained researchers and clinicians can better understand herbal medicine if they master at least a basic set of essential concepts used by herbal practitioners to describe how herbs work. Constituents, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, can all be used to develop a basis for imputed herb actions. Tissue affinity is also an important concept shared by all herb traditions, which can enhance clinical results and illuminate traditional herbal use. PMID:22432461

  4. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of d-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040T was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132 bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

  6. Ameliorative effect of traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan on age-related impairments of working memory and reversal learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, K; Shoji, H; Tanaka, Y; Tabira, T

    2011-03-17

    Aging is thought to impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure-sensitive cognitive functions and flexibility, such as working memory and reversal learning. A traditional Japanese medicine, yokukansan (YKS), is frequently used to treat age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease in Japan, but its pharmacological properties have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine whether YKS improves age-related cognitive deficits using aged rats. YKS was administered to 21-month-old rats for 3 months. The ability to learn initially a reward rule for a T-maze discrimination task (initial learning) was examined in young control (4-month-old), aged control (24-month-old) and YKS-treated aged (24-month-old) rats. Subsequently, working memory and reversal learning were examined in delayed alternation and reversal discrimination T-maze tasks, respectively. Locomotor activity was also measured in new environments. Although performance accuracy in the initial learning procedure did not differ among any experimental groups, accuracy in the delayed alternation task was significantly decreased in aged rats compared to young rats. Aged rats also showed significant decreases in accuracy in the reversal discrimination task. YKS treatment significantly ameliorated the age-related decreases in accuracy in the delayed alternation and reversal discrimination tasks. The ameliorative effects of YKS on impaired delayed alternation performance were reduced by intracranial infusions of a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, into the prelimbic cortical region of the PFC, and the YKS effects on impaired reversal learning were done by the infusions into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Locomotor activity did not change in any experimental group. Thus, YKS ameliorated age-related impairments of working memory and reversal learning, which might be mediated by a dopaminergic mechanism in the PFC structure. These investigations provide information important for the treatment of brain dysfunctions in the elderly people. PMID:21195139

  7. Chinese Herbalism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

  8. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in documentation due to concerns of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) have been highlighted. PMID:22816312

  9. Potent immunomodulating effects of bran extracts of traditional Japanese millets on nitric oxide and cytokine production of macrophages (RAW264.7) induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Akemi; Okai, Yasuji; Kasahara, Emiko; Inoue, Masayasu; Snhimizu, Masatomi; Usui, Yukio; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Higashi-Okai, Kiyoka

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the potent immunomodulating effects of different types of traditional Japanese millet, we analyzed the effect of bran extracts of foxtail millet (Awa in Japanese), barnyard millet (Hie) and proso millet (Mochi-kibi) on nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). All methanol extracts of these millet brans showed suppressive activities against the production of NO and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages, which were not responsible for their cytotoxic activities. These immunosuppressive activities were roughly proportional to the contents of the phenolic compounds in their extracts. Especially, the extract of proso millet exhibited the strongest immunosuppressing effect, which was associated with the highest content of phenolic compound. However, the extracts did not exhibit significant suppressive effects on the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in the same macrophage culture system. These results suggest that traditional Japanese millets have potent immunomodulating activities against the production of NO and cytokine production in activated macrophages. PMID:23270252

  10. Global harmonization of herbal health claims.

    PubMed

    Mahady, G B

    2001-03-01

    Over the past decade, herbal medicine has become a topic of increasing global importance, with both medical and economic implications. In developing countries, as much as 80% of the indigenous populations depends on traditional systems of medicine and medicinal plants as their primary source of healthcare. Within the European Community, herbal medicines represent an important share of the pharmaceutical market, with annual sales in the range of US$7 billion. In the United States, the sale of herbal products has skyrocketed from $200 million in 1988 to >$3.3 billion in 1997. Such widespread use of botanicals throughout the world has raised serious questions concerning the quality, safety and efficacy of these products. Thus, accurate scientific assessment of herbal medicine is a prerequisite for global harmonization of herbal health claims. In 1995, as part of its overall global strategy of "Health for All" and due to numerous requests from the member states, the Traditional Medicine Program of the WHO began the extensive task of reviewing the world's scientific literature of commonly used herbal medicines and publishing this information in monographs. The WHO monographs are technical reviews of the quality, safety and efficacy of commonly used herbal medicines and are intended primarily to harmonize the proper use of herbal medicines throughout the world. PMID:11238830

  11. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-10-01

    The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension.Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone.In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported.This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  12. Evaluation of traditional Chinese herbal medicine: Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix) by both high-performance liquid chromatographic and high-performance thin-layer chromatographic fingerprint and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Run-tao; Xie, Pei-shan; Liu, He-ping

    2009-03-13

    Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix), roots of Bupleurum chinense and B. scorzonerifolium, is an authentic Chinese Materia Medica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Some other species such as the roots of B. falcatum, B.bicaule and B. marginatum var. stenophyllum similar to Chaihu can also be occasionally found in local raw herb markets. The quality of 33 lots of authenticated Chaihu samples vs. 31 lots of commercial samples was evaluated by both high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analyses of its principal bioactive components (saikosaponins). The pre-treated data acquired from both HPLC fingerprints and HPTLC fluorescent images were processed by chemometrics for similarity and pattern recognition, including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and an expert's panel. It was apparent that k-NN classifier exhibited good performance with sufficient flexibility for processing HPTLC fingerprint images which were otherwise not easily dealt with by other algorithms due to the shift of R(f) values and varying hue/saturation of the band colours between different TLC plates. These two chromatographic fingerprint methods can be considered complementary measure of quality control. The roots of Chaihu from different species of the genus Bupleurum could readily be distinguished from each other so that commercial samples can easily be classified. Chaihu collected from several major herbal distribution centers was found to belong to B. chinense with great variation in the content of its major saikosaponins. PMID:19084233

  13. Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits. PMID:20452484

  14. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  15. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  16. Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japans original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-sans efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

  17. Maintaining a physiological blood glucose level with 'glucolevel', a combination of four anti-diabetes plants used in the traditional arab herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Said, Omar; Fulder, Stephen; Khalil, Khaled; Azaizeh, Hassan; Kassis, Eli; Saad, Bashar

    2008-12-01

    Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25 g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption ( approximately 49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 2-3 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400 +/- 50 mg/dl to 210 +/- 22 mg/dl (P < 0.001)] and significantly improved sugar uptake during the glucose tolerance test, compared with positive control. In addition, glucose levels were tested in sixteen human volunteers, with the recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received Glucolevel tablets 1 x 3 daily for a period of 4 weeks. Within the first week of Glucolevel consumption, baseline glucose levels were significantly reduced from 290 +/- 40 to 210 +/- 20 mg/dl. At baseline, a subgroup of eleven of these subjects had glucose levels below 300 mg% and the other subgroup had levels >/= 300 mg%. Clinically acceptable glucose levels were achieved during the 2-3 weeks of therapy in the former subgroup and during the 4th week of therapy in the latter subgroup. No side effect was reported. In addition, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1C values (8.2 +/- 1.03 to 6.9 +/- 0.94) was found in six patients treated with Glucolevel. Results demonstrate safety, tolerability and efficacy of herbal combinations of four plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis. PMID:18955212

  18. Maintaining A Physiological Blood Glucose Level with Glucolevel, A Combination of Four Anti-Diabetes Plants Used in the Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fulder, Stephen; Khalil, Khaled; Azaizeh, Hassan; Kassis, Eli; Saad, Bashar

    2008-01-01

    Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25?g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption (?49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 23 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400??50?mg/dl to 210??22?mg/dl (P herbal combinations of four plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis. PMID:18955212

  19. Complementary medicine: a review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Borchers, A T; Hackman, R M; Keen, C L; Stern, J S; Gershwin, M E

    1997-12-01

    Popular demand for and scientific interest in complementary or alternative medicine, particularly medicinal botanicals, has increased considerably in recent years. The medicinal botanicals with the longest tradition, and for which extensive data are available, are Chinese herbal medicines and their Japanese counterparts--Kampo medicines. This review focuses on some representative examples of studies examining the effects of some traditional Chinese medicines on various aspects of the immune response. In vitro as well as in vivo studies are cited, the latter including not only animal experiments but also clinical trials. Although by no means exhaustive, this review attempts to show that much research has focused on the specific beneficial effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Studies examining the mechanisms by which they exert their immunomodulatory actions, however, are found much less frequently. Nonetheless, even the limited number of mechanistic experiments presented here reveal that numerous mechanisms are likely involved in the various actions of even a single medicine. It will be the elucidation of such mechanisms that will provide the scientific basis for establishing the efficacy and safety of not only Chinese herbal medicines but all forms of medicinal botanicals. PMID:9394679

  20. A traditional Japanese-style salt field is a niche for haloarchaeal strains that can survive in 0.5% salt solution

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Tadamasa; Usami, Ron; Kamekura, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Most of the haloarchaeal strains have been isolated from hypersaline environments such as solar evaporation ponds, salt lakes, or salt deposits, and they, with some exceptions, lyse or lose viability in very low-salt concentrations. There are no salty environments suitable for the growth of haloarchaea in Japan. Although Natrialba asiatica and Haloarcula japonica were isolated many years ago, the question, "Are haloarchaea really thriving in natural environments of Japan?" has remained unanswered. Results Ten strains were isolated from a traditional Japanese-style salt field at Nie, Noto Peninsula, Japan by plating out the soil samples directly on agar plates containing 30% (w/v) salts and 0.5% yeast extract. They were most closely related to strains of three genera, Haladaptatus, Halococcus, and Halogeometricum. Survival rates in 3% and 0.5% SW (Salt Water, solutions containing salts in approximately the same proportions as found in seawater) solutions at 37C differed considerably depending on the strains. Two strains belonging to Halogeometricum as well as the type strain Hgm. borinquense died and lysed immediately after suspension. Five strains that belonged to Halococcus and a strain that may be a member of Halogeometricum survived for 12 days in 0.5% SW solution. Two strains most closely related to Haladaptatus possessed extraordinary strong tolerance to low salt conditions. About 20 to 34% of the cells remained viable in 0.5% SW after 9 days incubation. Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated that haloarchaea are really thriving in the soil of Japanese-style salt field. The haloarchaeal cells, particularly the fragile strains are suggested to survive in the micropores of smaller size silt fraction, one of the components of soil. The inside of the silt particles is filled with concentrated salt solution and kept intact even upon suspension in rainwater. Possible origins of the haloarchaea isolated in this study are discussed. PMID:17346353

  1. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  2. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  3. Herbal remedies: integration into conventional medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nuala

    There is evidence of increasing use of complementary therapies. The benefits and possible side-effects of herbal and dietary supplements in respiratory disorders are discussed. Questions have been raised about the safety of herbal products, yet their legal status is uncertain. Promotion of the integration of conventional and traditional medicine is suggested as the way forward, together with standardisation of practice and manufacturing procedures of these products. PMID:14515565

  4. In vitro identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of Geissoschizine methyl ether, an active component of the traditional Japanese medicine Yokukansan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kushida, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    1. Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese medicine also called kampo, which has been used to treat neurosis, insomnia, and night crying and peevishness in children. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), a major indole alkaloid found in Uncaria hook, has been identified as a major active component of YKS with psychotropic effects. Recently, GM was reported to have a partial agonistic effect on serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. However, there is little published information on GM metabolism in humans, although several studies reported the blood kinetics of GM in rats and humans. In this study, we investigated the GM metabolic pathways and metabolizing enzymes in humans. 2. Using recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and polyclonal antibodies to CYP isoforms, we found that GM was metabolized into hydroxylated, dehydrogenated, hydroxylated+dehydrogenated, demethylated and water adduct forms by some CYP isoforms. 3. The relative activity factors in human liver microsomes were calculated to determine the relative contributions of individual CYP isoforms to GM metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). We identified CYP3A4 as the CYP isoform primarily responsible for GM metabolism in human liver microsomes. 4. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GM and YKS. PMID:26337900

  5. The Traditional Japanese Medicine Rikkunshito Promotes Gastric Emptying via the Antagonistic Action of the 5-HT3 Receptor Pathway in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, K.; Kido, T.; Ochi, M.; Sadakane, C.; Mase, A.; Okazaki, H.; Yamagami, H.; Tanigawa, T.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Oshitani, N.; Arakawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine using the phenol red method in male Wistar rats. 5-HT (0.011.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.) dose dependently delayed gastric emptying, similar to the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide (0.011.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.). Dopamine also dose dependently delayed gastric emptying. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.044.0?mg?kg?1) and rikkunshito (125500?mg?kg?1) significantly suppressed the delay in gastric emptying caused by 5-HT or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide. Hesperidin (the most active ingredient in rikkunshito) suppressed the 5-HT-induced delayed gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner, the maximum effect of which was similar to that of ondansetron (0.4?mg?kg?1). The improvement obtained by rikkunshito or ondansetron in delaying gastric emptying was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. Rikkunshito appears to improve delay in gastric emptying via the antagonistic action of the 5-HT3 receptor pathway. PMID:19861508

  6. Identification of a Predictive Biomarker for the Beneficial Effect of Keishibukuryogan, a Kampo (Japanese Traditional) Medicine, on Patients with Climacteric Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Takao; Sato, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Yukari; Kakikura, Haruka; Ueno, Koichi; Chino, Atsushi; Hisanaga, Akito; Kaneko, Akiyo; Kita, Toshiaki; Kihara, Maki; Shozu, Makio; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan in Chinese) is one of the Kampo (Japanese traditional) medicines used to treat patients with climacteric syndrome. KBG can be used by patients who cannot undergo hormone replacement therapy due to a history of breast cancer. We evaluated whether cytosine-adenine (CA) repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor ? gene can be a predictor of the beneficial effect of KBG on climacteric syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between CA repeat polymorphism, the patients' profiles, and the therapeutic effect. We found that CA was an SS, SL, or LL genotype according to the number of repeats. We studied 39 consecutive patients with climacteric disorders who took KBG for 12?weeks. The diagnosis of climacteric disorders was made on the basis of the Kupperman index. KBG significantly improved the patients' climacteric symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms in the patients with the LL genotype and melancholia in the patients with the SL genotype). No relationship between the patients' profiles and CA repeat polymorphism was recognized. CA repeat polymorphism could thus be a potential biomarker to predict the efficacy of KBG in climacteric syndrome, and its use will help to reduce the cost of treating this syndrome by focusing the administration of KBG on those most likely to benefit from it. PMID:24639885

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G?/G? phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel, and 3D Gelfoam culture visualized with FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-03-10

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G?/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G?/G? (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 ?m), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G?/M. In 2.5D Matrigel culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G?/M. LQ arrested the cells in G?/G? after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G?/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G?/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G?/G? phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G?/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time. PMID:25779660

  8. Comprehensive multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of 74 pesticides and metabolites in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by accelerated solvent extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhengwei; Mao, Xiuhong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multiresidue method for the simultaneous target analysis of 74 pesticides and metabolites in traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) was developed using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with HPLC/MS/MS. Pesticide residues were extracted from the different samples using ASE, then purified by gel permeation chromatography and graphitized carbon black/primary, secondary amine SPE. Gradient elution was used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization MS/MS to detect 74 pesticides and metabolites from Cortex Cinnamomi, Flos Carthami, Folium Ginkgo, Herba Pogostemonis, Radix Ginseng, and Semen Ginkgo using a single chromatographic run. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of extracts spiked at three concentration levels ranging from 0.005 to 0.125 mg/kg for each pesticide and metabolite. In general, recoveries ranging from 70 to 110%, with RSDs better than 15%, were obtained. The recovery and repeatability data were in good accordance with European Union guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The LOD for most of the targeted pesticides and metabolites tested was below 0.01 mg/kg. PMID:21140670

  9. Mother/offspring co-administration of the traditional herbal remedy yokukansan during the nursing period influences grooming and cerebellar serotonin levels in a rat model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions. PMID:25315739

  10. Comparative study of double blind clinical trial in side-effects among Areca catechu l., Thai traditional herbal formula and mebendazole

    PubMed Central

    Samappito, Supachai; Srichaikul, Buavaroon; Viroj, Jaruwan; Bakker, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Center, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was randomized control trial clinical study in order to examine the side effects of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole in the treatment of anti-helmintic activity of mixed worms infection in human. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and 5 patients for control group with inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were screened by parasitologist with the selection of mixed worm infection patient samples. The investigation of side effects was recorded after the treatment of each group of patient with different kinds of 4 group of medicine. Results: The percentage of side effects was collected by nurses and confirmed by the physician at Mahasarakham Health Center, which were diarrhea and nausea side effects. The percentage of side effects by the treatments of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole were investigated by the physician and the pharmacist, which the result showed 20% of diarrhea in Areca catechu Linn., 20% of nausea in Areca catechu Linn, 20% in side effect of diarrhea in mebendazole treatment, and no side effects were found by the treatment of TTFM. The result showed that Areca catechu Linn. had higher side effects among the 3 anti-helmintic drugs. Conclusion: The findings indicate to increase the numbers of samples of worm-infected patients, which the samples can be identified with the specification of helminthes genus and species in order to obtain the efficacy by the treatment using Areca catechu Linn and also indicates to increase various forms of dosage preparations and various demographic locations in Thailand. PMID:23767018

  11. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

  12. Simultaneous quantification of nine major active components in traditional Chinese prescription Mahuang decoction and the influence of herbal compatibility on their contents

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ruping; Ge, Lijun; Wan, Haitong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mahuang decoction (MHD), a famous classic traditional Chinese formula, has been extensively applied for treating cold, influenza, asthma, acute bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. However, the interaction among four drugs of MHD has not been clearly deciphered from the aspect of molecular composition. Objective: To assess the quality of MHD and explore the interplay among different prescription drugs. Materials and Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine bioactive components was developed. A somatomedin A (SMA)-phenyl column (4.6 mm 250 mm, 5 ?m) was eluted by a gradient mobile phase contained acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid-0.05% triethylamine aqueous solution. Four detection wavelengths (210, 252, 278, and 291 nm) were utilized for the quantitative analysis due to the different ultraviolet (UV) spectra of these compounds. Results: Satisfactory separation was obtained for all the components, and the assay was fully validated in respects of linearity, precision, stability, and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2? 0.9991) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday repeatability were not more than 1.70 and 2.66%, respectively. The spike recoveries of nine components varied from 97.50 1.69 to 99.27 1.37%. Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to analyze nine active compounds in decoction samples of various drug compatibilities of MHD. The variations of contents were obvious for different combinations, which hinted the mutual promotion or inhibition of componential dissolution among four herbs of MHD. PMID:24914312

  13. Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation Qurs Tabasheer in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation Qurs Tabasheer in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up till now no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of Qurs Tabasheer in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from five various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). Methods Effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and trim down the HDL level. We have weighed up the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Results In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified. Conclusion Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride. PMID:23305114

  14. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic isles in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating erysipelas in pigs; the aerial parts of pellitory ( Parietaria judaica) in decoctions for treating haemorrhoids. Conclusions The fact that half of the most salient species documented in our case study widely available both in Molise and in Dalmatia and Herzegovina retain a Slavic name could indicate that they may have also been used in Dalmatia and Herzegovina before the migration took place. However, given the occurrence of several South-Italian plant names and uses, also a remarkable acculturation process affected the Slavic community of Montemitro during these last centuries. Future directions of research should try to simultaneously compare current ethnobotanical knowledge of both migrated communities and their counterparts in the areas of origin. PMID:22672636

  15. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST. PMID:24410935

  16. Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Enhances the L-DOPA-Induced Rotational Response in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats: Possible Inhibition of COMT.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasushi; Ebihara, Kosuke; Tabuchi, Masahiro; Imamura, Sachiko; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Kase, Yoshio; Koganemaru, Go; Abe, Hiroshi; Ikarashi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan (YKS) on the function of dopamine (DA) in the rat nigrostriatal system. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were produced in the rat nigrostriatal system. Despite a marked loss in the striatal immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase on the lesion side, striatal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity was not affected. Treatment using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in conjunction with benserazide for 15?d induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) such as locomotive (rotational response), axial, forelimb, and orolingual movements in the lesioned rats. The L-DOPA-induced locomotive and axial, but not forelimb and orolingual, AIMs were significantly increased and prolonged by the pre-administration of YKS. We next investigated the effects of YKS on the production of DA from L-DOPA in 5-HT synthetic RIN 14B cells. RIN 14B cells produced DA and its metabolite, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), following L-DOPA treatment. YKS significantly augmented DA production and inhibited its metabolism to 3-MT in a manner similar to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor entacapone. YKS and some alkaloids (corynoxeine: CX, geissoschizine methyl ether: GM) in Uncaria hook, a constituent herb of YKS, also inhibited COMT activity, indicating that the augmenting effect of YKS on L-DOPA-induced DA production in 5-HT synthetic cells was due to the inhibition of COMT by CX and GM. Our results suggest that YKS facilitates the DA supplemental effect of L-DOPA, and that COMT inhibition by CX and GM contributes, at least in part, to the effects of YKS. PMID:26725433

  17. Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of ?-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain. PMID:24701973

  18. Preparation and evaluation of herbal shampoo powder.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S

    2004-07-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  20. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  1. Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development.

    PubMed

    Wu, K M; Farrelly, J G; Upton, R; Chen, J

    2007-04-01

    Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from the same species serve as different herbs): three herbs, madouling, qingmuxiang and tianxianteng, derived respectively from the fruit, root and stem of Aristolochia debilis; and (3) one-to-multiple (one herb refers to multiple species): the herb fangji refers to the root of either Aristolochia fangchi, Stephania tetrandra or Cocculus trilobus; in this case, the first belongs to a different family (Aristolochiaceae) than the latter two (Menispermaceae), and only the first contains aristolochic acid (AA), as demonstrated by independent analytical data provided in this article. Further, mutong (Akebia quinata) is allowed in TCM herbal medicine practice to be substituted with either guan mutong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) or chuan mutong (Clematis armandii); and mu fangji (Cocculus trilobus) by guang fanchi (Aristolochia fangchi) or hanzhong fangji (Aristolochia heterophylla), thereby increasing the risk of exposing renotoxic AA-containing Aristolochia species to patients. To avoid these and other confusions, we wish to emphasize the importance of a pharmaceutical name, which defines the species name, the plant part, and sometimes the special process performed on the herb, including cultivating conditions. The pharmaceutical name as referred to in this article is defined, and is limited to those botanicals that are intended to be used as drug. It is hoped that by following the pharmaceutical name, toxic herbs can be effectively identified and substitution or adulteration avoided. PMID:16863692

  2. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach for quantifying multi-components in traditional complex herbal medicines, Qiong-Yu-Gao as an example.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-08-10

    An improved high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed to quantitatively evaluate the holistic quality of traditional complex herbal medicines (CHMs). Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), a classical CHM consisting of Rehmanniae Radix, Poriae and Ginseng Radix, was used as an example. Thirty-eight major components (including six pairs of epimers/isomers) belonging to five chemical types, i.e., iridoid glycosides, phenethylacohol glycosides, furfural derivatives, ginsenosides and triterpenoid acids, were selected as marker compounds. Programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning were designed to improve the sensitivity of the MS detection concerning the diverse chemical features of the analytes. The reference compounds of the analytes were individually injected directly into MS to optimize the ionization cone voltage and to select monitoring ion of each analyte. Nine channels with eight time segments were determined for monitoring the thirty-eight analytes, among which six were detected in positive and thirty-two in negative ion modes respectively. Higher signal-to-noise ratios of the analytes were achieved when compared with full time scanning. In addition, the linearity, precision, accuracy and stability of the method were also validated. The established method was applied for the quantitative evaluation of QYG samples prepared with three different methods. Obvious difference in the contents of thirty-eight components, in particular the original ginsenosides, degraded ginsenosides and furfural derivatives, was found among these QYG samples. All these results demonstrated that the established HPLC-ESI-MS with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach is very suitable for the standardization investigation of CHMs. PMID:25982197

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G0/G1 phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel, and 3D Gelfoam culture visualized with FUCCI imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G2/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G0/G1 (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 ?m), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G2/M. In 2.5D Matrigel culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G2/M. LQ arrested the cells in G0/G1 after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G2/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G2/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G0/G1 phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G2/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time. PMID:25779660

  4. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  5. Japanese; Japanese Proverbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The proverbs and expressions listed in this supplementary Japanese language text are grouped as follows: (1) 161 general proverbs and expressions; (2) 42 slang expressions; and (3) 73 expressions concerning the body. Each entry appears in transliteration as well as in Japanese orthography, with its English gloss. (AMM)

  6. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  7. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePLUS

    Using Herbal Products Safely The dietary and herbal supplement industry is unregulated. Safety and effectiveness are largely unstudied. To use an herbal product as safely as possible: • C onsult your doctor first. • ...

  8. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:26613625

  9. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) −0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.13 to −0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

  10. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

  11. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  12. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

  13. [Mathematical exploration of essence of herbal properties based on "Three-Elements" theory].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties. PMID:25751963

  14. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug has to be tested for batch-to-batch uniformity of the active constituents. It is very difficult to have active and control groups with identical color, smell and taste of the herbal drug, which cannot be imitated while manufacturing a placebo. These challenges can be reduced or overcome by applying most recent methodologies and guidelines for clinical trials. Since the quality control of herbal medicines is complicated and difficult, relevant and appropriate requirements should be established for the assessment of safety and efficacy for different categorized herbal medicines to reduce cost and expenditure. And, efforts should be made for the integration of traditional medicine into national healthcare systems. Different challenges and regulatory guidelines discussed for the clinical trial of herbal drugs will be useful for various industries for considering it before going ahead for clinical trial of their product. PMID:26681895

  15. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug has to be tested for batch-to-batch uniformity of the active constituents. It is very difficult to have active and control groups with identical color, smell and taste of the herbal drug, which cannot be imitated while manufacturing a placebo. These challenges can be reduced or overcome by applying most recent methodologies and guidelines for clinical trials. Since the quality control of herbal medicines is complicated and difficult, relevant and appropriate requirements should be established for the assessment of safety and efficacy for different categorized herbal medicines to reduce cost and expenditure. And, efforts should be made for the integration of traditional medicine into national healthcare systems. Different challenges and regulatory guidelines discussed for the clinical trial of herbal drugs will be useful for various industries for considering it before going ahead for clinical trial of their product. PMID:26681895

  16. Antiallodynic effect of herbal medicine yokukansan on peripheral neuropathy in rats with chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mitsuhata, Hiromasa; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Yokukansan, one of the traditional Japanese herbal medicines, ameliorated neuropathic pain symptoms in patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of yokukansan on neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Oral administration of yokukansan significantly inhibited mechanical and cold allodynia in the von Frey hair or acetone test, respectively. In comparison, amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, demonstrated moderate, but not significant, antiallodynic effects in the mechanical and cold tests. Yokukansan significantly inhibited the cerebrospinal fluid dialysate level of glutamate that had increased by the stimulation of brush or acetone. Glutamate transporter inhibitors, DL-threo-beta-hydroxy aspartate and dihydrokainate, decreased the yokukansan-induced antiallodynic actions in CCI rats. Our results suggest that yokukansan was confirmed to have antiallodynic effects in CCI rats, which are related to a blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission via activation of glutamate transporters in the spinal cord. PMID:22454692

  17. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  18. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  19. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

  20. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

  1. Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues.

    PubMed

    Mortel, Mylove; Mehta, Supriya D

    2013-05-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to many positive health outcomes, yet its widespread adoption as the primary mode of providing nutrition to infants remains challenging. The most common reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is perception of inadequate milk production. To augment breast milk production, a substantial number of women turn to herbal galactogogues despite the limited scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to evaluate the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. PubMed was searched from inception to October 2012 using an iterative search process that proceeded from broad categories to specific herbs. Manuscript references were also reviewed. Only experimental studies with objective outcome measures were included. Six trials met our search criteria. Using an adapted version of the CONSORT checklist, each trial was evaluated for potential sources of bias in design and reporting. Shatavari, torbangun, fenugreek, milk thistle, and a Japanese herbal medication were the 5 herbal preparations studied. Five trials found an increase in breast milk production. Several limitations exist that affect the validity of the trial results, including small sample size, insufficient randomization methods, poorly defined eligibility criteria, use of poly-herbal interventions, and variable breastfeeding practices among enrolled subjects. Given the insufficiency of evidence from these trials, no recommendation is made for the use of herbs as galactogogues. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical trials that address the above limitations are necessary to generate a body of evidence as a basis for recommendations regarding herbal galactogogues. PMID:23468043

  2. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  3. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254

  4. Herbal remedies for the treatment of periodontal disease--a patent review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2009-11-01

    Periodontal diseases, if left unchecked, can lead to major health problems. There are a number of traditional herbal remedies for the treatment and management of diseases related to teeth, gum and oral hygiene. Use of clove oil is an age old remedy still practiced for periodontal problems. Our aim is to present an overall view of the current strategies adopted for the formulation and application of traditional herbal remedies. The article provides a review of the patents obtained on herbal remedies for the treatment of periodontal diseases. In addition, it also provides an overall view of potent herbal remedies widely used for periodontal diseases. PMID:19925444

  5. Quantitative studies and taste reconstitution experiments of the sour and lingering mouthful orosensation in a debittered extract of traditional Japanese dried and fermented skipjack tuna (hongarebushi).

    PubMed

    Haseleu, Gesa; Lubian, Elisabetta; Mueller, Stefan; Shi, Feng; Koenig, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    Hongarebushi, Japanese dried skipjack tuna and a high quality ingredient of Japanese dashi, was investigated for its taste active composition. The recent investigation focused on a debittered fish fraction, which revealed a strong umami and salt impact accompanied with a pleasant and pronounced sourness. Whereas the umami and salt tastes could be correlated to monosodium glutamate (MSG), ribonucleotides, and mineral salts, the pleasant sourness was not exclusively induced by organic acids. The essential compound imparting the sour orosensation, persistence, and mouthfulness of the debittered skipjack tuna extract was investigated, and omission experiments emphasized the impact of N-acetylglutamic acid (NAG) on the overall taste sensation of the debittered fish extract. This metabolite, which is known to be present as a minor constituent in animal- and plant-derived foods, was quantified in this study for the first time in seafood, soybean products, dried shiitake mushrooms, and dried fish in notable amounts. Furthermore, it was described for the first time as an essential taste contributor to the nonvolatile profile of a foodstuff, in this case of a debittered extract of hongarebushi. PMID:23472642

  6. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  7. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and quality of their products. DO NOT give herbal supplements to children or use them if you are ... sites can help you learn more about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www. ...

  8. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  9. Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  10. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Oceanobacillus picturae Heshi-B3, Isolated from Fermented Rice Bran in a Traditional Japanese Seafood Dish

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Junko; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Kanesaki, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Oceanobacillus picturae strain Heshi-B3 was isolated from rice bran in a traditional fermented seafood dish named Heshiko, which was produced in Fukui Prefecture in Japan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of O.picturae strain Heshi B-3. PMID:26847884

  12. Safety Surveillance of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717

  13. Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Amirghofran, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

  14. Herbal Product Education in United States Pharmacy Schools: Core or Elective Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackowiak, Elaine D.; Parikh, Ami; Freely, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent of use and knowledge of herbal drugs by pharmacy students through a print survey completed by a convenience sample of culturally diverse students. Found a low knowledge level about popular herbal products; individual scores were affected by ethnicity, work experience, family tradition, and sources of information. Concluded that

  15. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products. PMID:26891292

  16. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products. PMID:26891292

  17. Uranium concentrations in South African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Vanessa; Stewart, Michael J; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    South Africa contains some of the world's largest mineral deposits, which include uranium. Uranium is mined as a by-product of gold production. The uranium content of the surface soil and groundwater in South Africa has been measured and shows marked variation, depending on location. Herbal remedies are collected by traditional healers from many sites, some of which may be contaminated. Thirty herbal remedies were analyzed using a sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry method. Eight samples had levels below the limit of detection, but in five the levels were greatly elevated, showing concentrations above 40,000 ppb. The mean uranium concentration of the remainder of the specimens was of the order of 15,000 ppb. We have attempted to put these data into context by comparison with other studies of absorption of uranium by the oral route. PMID:16282800

  18. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  19. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the activity of human CYP. However, with little confirming evidence from clinical studies, precaution should be exercised when patients are taking Chinese herbal medicines concomitantly with drugs that are CYP substrates. Currently there is sufficient evidence to indicate that herbal drug interactions can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequence. Further clinical trial research should be conducted to verify these herbal drug interactions. Education on herbal drug interactions and communication with patients on their use of herbal products is also important. PMID:26417310

  20. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the activity of human CYP. However, with little confirming evidence from clinical studies, precaution should be exercised when patients are taking Chinese herbal medicines concomitantly with drugs that are CYP substrates. Currently there is sufficient evidence to indicate that herbal drug interactions can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequence. Further clinical trial research should be conducted to verify these herbal drug interactions. Education on herbal drug interactions and communication with patients on their use of herbal products is also important. PMID:26417310

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional Korean herbal formulation, Silsosangami, consisting of seven medicinal herbs: effect on hemolysis, neutrophil function, and gene expressions of iNOS and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-08-01

    Silsosangami is a dried decoctum of a mixture of seven Korean herbal medicine, which is consisted of seven herbs (indicated as concentrations) of Typhae Pollen, Pteropi Faeces, Paeoniae Radicis rubra, Cnidii Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Carthami Flos and Curcumae Tuber. In the present study, the effects of Silsosangami water extract (SSG) on hemolysis in human blood were studied. Using an in vitro system, only Curcumae Tuber, Persicae Semen and Paeoniae Radicis rubra had the strongest effects on hemolysis; Typhae Pollen and Pteropi Faeces had the slight effects; and Cnidii Rhizoma and Carthami Flos had no effect. On the other hand, the SSG inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation, and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. This SSG reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglanin E2 (PGE2) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, without the influence on the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase COX-2 and COX-1 being observed. SSG significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. Western blot analysis showed that SSG reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2. These results suggested that SSG might be used as a novel antithrombotic therapeutic agents in post-myocardial infarction and also, indicated that SSG exerts anti-inflammatory effects related to the inhibition of neutrophil functions and of NO and PGE2 production, which could be due to a decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2. PMID:15664882

  2. Perioperative considerations for the patient taking herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sabar, R; Kaye, A D; Frost, E A

    2001-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the proliferation and use of dietary supplements known as neutraceuticals. Since 1994, herbal products have been regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which does not require burden of proof to demonstrate premarketing safety and efficacy studies. Scientific literature and government policies have not adequately addressed this fast-emerging group of more than 20,000 health supplements. Lack of purity and standardization of these agents, combined with minimal education in traditional homeopathic medical education, has led to serious health-related problems including arrhythmias, cardiovascular compromise, strokes, and deaths. Even though 30% of our traditional medicines are derived from botanicals, most physicians are either unfamiliar or unwilling to develop any level of expertise with neutraceuticals. A review emphasizing perioperative considerations is provided of the history of herbal medicines, governmental policies, and specific herbal agent-drug interactions. PMID:11975777

  3. Herbalism, home gardens, and hybridization: Wthh medicine and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Heckler, S L

    2007-03-01

    Using the example of the Wthh of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wthh ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wthh shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wthh have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wthh to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wthh, each with its own herbal tradition. PMID:17405697

  4. Herbal remedies and clinical biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Corns, Cathryn M

    2003-09-01

    The use of herbal products in the UK is increasing, and over-the-counter herbal supplements are perceived by the public as 'safe' and 'harmless'. Although the majority of them are safe, some herbal medicines carry risks. Heavy metal contamination, adulteration with Western pharmaceuticals and inclusion of prohibited animal and plant ingredients are regularly reported in ethnic medicines. Other herbs are hepato- or nephrotoxic and some interact with prescription medicines. Doctors should be made aware of the need to take a herbal as well as a drug history, and the clinical laboratory has a role in helping understanding of how herbal products may affect laboratory tests and in suggesting relevant lines of investigation in patients whose symptoms may be linked to the use of herbal products. PMID:14503986

  5. A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

  6. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chvez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), ua de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint). PMID:12141849

  7. [Herbals and herbal nutritional products hepatotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzbal-Garca, Maribel; Hernndez-Rincn, Ileana; Barboza-Nobrega, Mara De Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and other botanicals have been used in different cultures with medicinal and dietary purposes for centuries. Contrary to the belief of being natural and safe products, their hepatotoxic potential is recognized in several studies worldwide, and represent a health problem that deserves greater attention. The reported prevalence of hepatotoxicity associated with botanicals is variable and depends on various factors such as population, period and design of the study. There have been reports of a total of 60 products with herbal medicinal and dietary purposes, which may cause liver damage; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Their clinical and histological features, not unlike liver injury associated with drugs in most patients, have a pattern of hepatocellular injury. Diagnosis is by exclusion, and represents a clinical challenge. It is essential the clinical suspicion and the differential diagnosis with other acute and chronic conditions. Hence, future researches are aimed at improving existing diagnostic methods and introducing new toxicological, genetic and immunological technologies. Treatment is complex and presents a challenge for the specialist, as there are no antidotes. Management based on the discontinued use of the product and in the symptomatic treatment, decreases the progression to an acute fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:26710547

  8. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used. PMID:24934061

  9. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Venkatesh Atul; Graefe, Ulrike; Kohlert, Claudia; Veit, Markus; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The use of herbs for treating various ailments dates back several centuries. Usually, herbal medicine has relied on tradition that may or may not be supported by empirical data. The belief that natural medicines are much safer than synthetic drugs has gained popularity in recent years and led to tremendous growth of phytopharmaceutical usage. Market driven information on natural products is widespread and has further fostered their use in daily life. In most countries there is no universal regulatory system that insures the safety and activity of phytopharmaceuticals. Evidence-based verification of the efficacy of HMPs (herbal medicinal products, botanicals) is still frequently lacking. However, in recent years, data on evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic activity of herbal medicinal products became available. The advances in analytical technology have led to discovery of many new active constituents and an ever-increasing list of putatively active constituents. Establishing the pharmacological basis for efficacy of HMPs is a constant challenge. Of particular interest is the question of bioavailability to assess to what degree and how fast compounds are absorbed after administration of HMPs. Of further interest is the elucidation of metabolic pathways (yielding potentially new active compounds), and the assessment of elimination routes and their kinetics. These data become an important issue to link data from pharmacological assays and clinical effects. Of interest are currently also interactions of herbal medicinal products with synthetically derived drug products. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of phytopharmaceuticals can also help in designing rational dosage regimens. In this review, pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies that have been conducted for some of the more important or widely used phytopharmaceuticals are critically evaluated. Furthermore, various drug interactions are discussed which show that caution should be exercised when combining phytopharmaceuticals with chemically derived active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:12222652

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed

    Licata, Anna; Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Crax, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including herbal products, have become increasingly popular in the general population and among patients and physicians. Regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal drugs are still incomplete and need to be improved. In fact, herbals are commonly marketed on the Internet, and in many countries they are sold as food supplements, which are beyond the control of drug regulatory agencies. In Europe and the U.S., reports of hepatotoxicity from these products, including those advertised for liver diseases, are accumulating. Many herbal drugs are also commonly used in children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, because they are believed to be "natural" and, therefore, "harmless." One emerging problem is people preferring herbal-based slimming aids to conventional dietary and physical activity. In Italy, the use of non-conventional therapies has been reported for 13.6% of the population, and 3.7% freely use herbal drugs, unaware of the risks associated with a potential interaction with prescription drugs. In our review, we discuss the problem of the lack of standardization of herbal drugs, the lack of randomized clinical trials regarding the majority of these products, the unawareness of risks by the patients who buy and use them, and, further, the problem of underreporting. For the most commonly used herbal products and slimming aids, we describe their potential hepatotoxicity mechanisms, the causality assessment necessary for a correct diagnosis, and the clinical patterns for which these products seem to be responsible. PMID:22477279

  11. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  12. A New Social Portrait of the Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Nathaniel B.

    1977-01-01

    A series of surveys taken from 1953-73 assessed postwar attitudes of the Japanese toward religion, tradition, culture, politics, and aesthetics. Findings indicate that Japanese attitudes have become more oriented to the individual than to society. Available from: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC…

  13. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602

  14. Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S H; Islam, Farha; Sameem, Mohd

    2012-07-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines. Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others. PMID:23057000

  15. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this element in the

  16. The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

  17. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  18. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women

  19. Pharmacogenomics Implications of Using Herbal Medicinal Plants on African Populations in Health Transition

    PubMed Central

    Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689

  20. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  1. Herbal remedies, mood, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Acee, Anna M; Sharoff, Leighsa

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines were the "sole" source of medicine for thousands of years, in every culture since the advent of human civilization. Today, patients are increasing the use of these botanicals for numerous conditions, such as mood and cognition. This article will explore commonly used herbal remedies for mood and cognition functioning. It is imperative that nurses and nurse practitioners obtain expertise with these botanicals with regard to efficacy, adverse effects and contraindications, possible drug interactions, and safety considerations. PMID:22157508

  2. Clinical trials of herbal treatments.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ronald B

    2009-12-01

    The deregulation of the marketing of dietary supplements with health claims has increased interest in evaluating the clinical effectiveness of these products. Clinical trials of herbal treatments pose challenges of limited preclinical data, lack of product standardization and characterization, and difficulties of blinding, which are substantially different from those in studies of conventional medications. These issues must be recognized and addressed if studies of herbal remedies are to provide useful information. PMID:19815601

  3. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

  4. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  5. Shikonin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Phosphorylated β-Catenin and Phosphorylated PI3K/Akt: A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Glioma Efficacy of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Hu, Yi; Que, Zhong-You; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin is an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the root of lithospermum. Shikonin is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Shikonin also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumors. However, the effect of shikonin on gliomas has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of shikonin on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μmol/L and cell viability, migration and invasiveness were assessed with CCK8, scratch wound healing, in vitro Transwell migration, and invasion assays. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin) and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt were also checked. Results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The expression of p-β-catenin showed contrary trends in two cell lines. It was significantly inhibited in U87 cells and promoted in U251 cells. Results in this work indicated that shikonin displayed an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells by inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. In addition, shikonin also inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt to attenuate cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both cell lines, which could be reversed by the PI3K/Akt pathway agonist, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). PMID:26473829

  6. Shikonin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Phosphorylated β-Catenin and Phosphorylated PI3K/Akt: A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Glioma Efficacy of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Hu, Yi; Que, Zhong-You; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin is an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the root of lithospermum. Shikonin is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Shikonin also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumors. However, the effect of shikonin on gliomas has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of shikonin on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μmol/L and cell viability, migration and invasiveness were assessed with CCK8, scratch wound healing, in vitro Transwell migration, and invasion assays. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin) and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt were also checked. Results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The expression of p-β-catenin showed contrary trends in two cell lines. It was significantly inhibited in U87 cells and promoted in U251 cells. Results in this work indicated that shikonin displayed an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells by inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. In addition, shikonin also inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt to attenuate cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both cell lines, which could be reversed by the PI3K/Akt pathway agonist, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). PMID:26473829

  7. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  8. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this

  9. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

  10. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  11. Hair Growth: Focus on Herbal Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. It also highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies from 1926 till-date and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect. PMID:26058803

  12. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines: the potential contributions of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Barnes, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Typically, ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological (EB/EP) surveys are used to describe uses, doses/dosages, sources and methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines; their application to date in examining the adverse effects, contraindications and other safety aspects of these preparations is limited. From a pharmacovigilance perspective, numerous challenges exist in applying its existing methods to studying the safety profile of herbal medicines, particularly where used by indigenous cultures. This paper aims to contribute to the methodological aspects of EB/EP field work, and to extend the reach of pharmacovigilance, by proposing a tool comprising a list of questions that could be applied during interview and observational studies. The questions focus on the collection of information on the safety profile of traditional herbal medicines as it is embedded in traditional knowledge, as well as on identifying personal experiences (spontaneous reports) of adverse or undesirable effects associated with the use of traditional herbal medicines. Questions on the precise composition of traditional prescriptions or 'recipes', their preparation, storage, administration and dosing are also included. Strengths and limitations of the tool are discussed. From this interweaving of EB/EP and pharmacovigilance arises a concept of ethnopharmacovigilance for traditional herbal medicines: the scope of EB/EP is extended to include exploration of the potential harmful effects of medicinal plants, and the incorporation of pharmacovigilance questions into EB/EP studies provides a new opportunity for collection of 'general' traditional knowledge on the safety of traditional herbal medicines and, importantly, a conduit for collection of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse effects. Whether the proposed tool can yield data sufficiently rich and of an appropriate quality for application of EB/EP (e.g. data verification and quantitative analysis tools) and pharmacovigilance techniques (e.g. causality assessment and data mining) requires field testing. PMID:23315291

  13. Comparison of "herbal highs" composition.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna

    2011-04-01

    Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition. PMID:21318244

  14. Use of herbals as galactagogues.

    PubMed

    Zapantis, Antonia; Steinberg, Jennifer G; Schilit, Lea

    2012-04-01

    With a substantial number of women using herbal products to augment their milk production, this article will review available literature illustrating efficacy and adverse effects of using these products. Embase, PubMed, and EBSCO (all databases) were searched from inception to June 2011 using terms such as galactagogue, galactogogue, herbal, and botanical and the search was subsequently narrowed to specific herbals by name. Additional articles were obtained from article reference lists. Supplemental information was obtained with Natural Standard. All abstracts retrieved were evaluated for relevance and germane articles were included. Numerous lactation-stimulating herbals have been identified in the literature with varying degrees of evidence,mostly anecdotal. Use of torbangun, milk thistle, and fenugreek may correlate with increased milk supply. Evidence regarding adverse effects, pharmacodynamic properties, and pharmacokinetic effects remains scarce. Despite the fact that postpartum women may turn to herbal galactagogues, scant clinical evidence exists to justify their effectiveness. Further clinical trials are needed in order to substantiate these findings. PMID:22392841

  15. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts. PMID:22305255

  16. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 3035% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes holy water green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for body cleansing and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  17. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  18. Capacity for clinical research on herbal medicines in Africa.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Merlin; Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-06-01

    An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  19. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  20. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  1. Evaluation of commercial herbal shampoos.

    PubMed

    Mainkar, A R; Jolly, C I

    2000-10-01

    Selecting the evaluation parameters of a shampoo is a challenging task, simply because of the multitude of both subjective and instrumental test methodologies available for this purpose. The present paper focuses on the evaluation of herbal shampoos using some of these parameters. Commonly used test protocols for foam test, detergency, etc. are discussed. The commercial herbal shampoos are evaluated on the basis of these tests. The results of these tests also give an idea about what standards should be met by a shampoo formulated in the laboratory to be comparable with the commercial shampoos. PMID:18503425

  2. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  3. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  4. [Lichenoid sarcoidosis on skin tattoos produced by traditional herbal treatments].

    PubMed

    Soyinka, F; Badejo, O; Laja, A O

    1981-01-01

    An unusual case of generalised sarcoidosis of the skin on tattoo marks done two years for "medicinal" purposes on a 56 year old woman is presented. The lesions were lichenoid and scaly in appearance with closely grouped papules. The old tattoo marks on the skin were not involved and areas of skin between the new tattoo marks were also spared. In addition, the sarcoidosis lesion were pruritic and burning. The circumstantial evidence indicated the medical agent applied on the tattoo wounds as the provocative factor for the development of sarcoidosis of the skin. PMID:7026927

  5. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  6. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  7. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  8. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  9. Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: a co-ordinated approach.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Olaf; Steinhoff, Barbara; Kraft, Karin

    2012-03-15

    The submission of data on genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorisation respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) with well established or traditional use in some countries. In European regulatory guidelines prepared by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) of the European drug regulatory agency EMA, a test strategy is defined giving a pragmatic framework adapted to the assessment of the potential genotoxicity of HMPs. It describes a stepwise approach, including the possibility to reduce the number of extracts of a herbal drug to be tested by the use of a bracketing and matrixing approach. According to this strategy, Kooperation Phytopharmaka, a scientific society in the field of HMPs, has so far coordinated the conduction of genotoxicity tests for 30 herbal drugs within the frame of a joint project of several manufacturers of HMPs. Results are delivered to the cooperation partners for use in regulatory applications. PMID:22301069

  10. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  11. Interactions between herbal remedies and antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Holden, Wendy; Joseph, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    Many patients with rheumatological conditions use herbal remedies as an adjunct to their conventional antirheumatic medication, often without seeking advice. Herbal remedies are exempt from the usual drug safety requirements and may be a cause of both adverse effects and drug interactions. Data on interactions between herbal remedies and conventional antirheumatic medication is scarce. Reasons include a perception that herbal remedies are safe, a lack of reporting by patients and healthcare professionals and a lack of knowledge about the pharmacology and composition of herbal remedies, as well as adulteration. Interactions are likely between herbal remedies with antiplatelet or nephrotoxic effects and NSAIDs, hepatotoxic herbal remedies and disease-modifying antirheumatic medication, and between St. John's Wort and cyclosporin. PMID:16255656

  12. Herbal medicines: balancing benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2007-01-01

    Herbal medicines are preparations containing exclusively plant material. Their efficacy can be tested in clinical trials much like synthetic drugs but numerous methodological and logistical problems exist. For several herbal medicines, efficacy has been established; for many others, this is not the case mostly because the research has not been done. Many consumers believe that herbal medicines are natural and therefore safe. This is a dangerous simplification. Some herbal medicines are associated with toxicity others interact with synthetic drugs. The often under-regulated quality of herbal medicines amounts to another safety issue. Contamination or adulteration of herbal medicines are possible and can cause harm. In order to conduct a risk-benefit analysis of a specific herbal medicine for a specific indication, we require definitive efficacy and safety data. This is currently the case for only very few such preparations. It follows that, in order to advise consumers responsibly, the gaps in our present knowledge require filling. PMID:17913230

  13. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  14. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis. PMID:15266498

  15. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  16. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in herbal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph C; Jiang, Xiuping

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in various herbal products. Twenty-nine herbal supplements (18 traditional and 11 organic products) were purchased from stores and analyzed microbiologically. Total bacterial counts were determined by pour plate and surface spreading on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were enumerated on TSA supplemented with ceftriaxone (64 microg/ml) or tetracycline (16 microg/ml). Total bacterial counts ranged from <5 to 2.9 x 10(5) CFU/g. Ceftriaxone- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected in ground garlic samples at 1.1 x 10(2) CFU/g and 3.0 x 102 CFU/g, respectively. Traditional and organic onion powder samples contained tetracycline-resistant bacteria at 17 and 28 CFU/g and ceftriaxone-resistant bacteria at 35 and 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Other products such as ginger, rosemary, mustard, and goldenseal contained low levels of resistant bacteria. Fifty-two isolates were further evaluated against nine antibiotics, and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was in the following order: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, and streptomycin. Resistant bacteria were identified as Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., and Ewingella americana. Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia also were isolated. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and pathogens in these herbal products suggests that production and use of these products may need further evaluation. PMID:18680952

  17. Medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sahranavard, Shamim; Ghafari, Saeedeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. PMID:24525263

  18. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  19. Herbal medicine (Danggui Shaoyao San) for treating primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Jun, Ji Hee; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byong-Seob; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS), a traditional herbal prescription, has long been used to treat menopause-related symptoms, including dysmenorrhea. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of DSS for dysmenorrhea. We searched the following electronic databases through October 2015: PubMed; EMBASE; the Cochrane Library; AMED; five Korean databases (KoreaMed, DBPIA, OASIS, RISS, and KISS); three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wan Fang Database, and VIP), and one Japanese database (CiNii). The Cochrane criteria were used to assess the risk of bias for the individual studies. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of DSS or modified DSS were included. Data from all articles were extracted by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was used to pool the data. A total of 746 potentially relevant studies were identified, and four RCTs met our inclusion criteria. All of the included RCTs had a high risk of bias across their domains. Three RCTs showed favourable effects of DSS on response rate compared with conventional medicine, and a meta-analysis showed that DSS had superior effects compared to analgesics (RR: 1.31, 95%CI, 1.06-1.63, I(2)=73%). One RCT showed a beneficial effect of DSS on pain compared with placebo control. Our systematic review and meta-analysis provided suggestive evidence of the superiority of DSS over analgesics or placebo for dysmenorrhea. The quality of evidence for this finding was low to moderate because of a high risk of bias. PMID:26857875

  20. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnection of herbal medicines and its potential solutions with cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Lu, Meng; Ji, Wei; Niu, Fang; Zha, Weibin; Wu, Xiaolan; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji

    2012-06-01

    Recently, there is a global trend of using herbal medicines to treat various chronic diseases and promote health. But the controversy over the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines is a focus of attention, primarily because of the many unknown and unrevealed natures of herbal medicines, which strongly restricts their application and development. Pharmacokinetics is a bridge linking the herbal medicines and their pharmacological responses. It is assumed in traditional pharmacokinetics that an excellent drug should have appropriate pharmacokinetic behaviours and its pharmacological effect is related with plasma drug concentrations. However, most herbal medicines exhibit excellent pharmacological responses despite poor pharmacokinetic behaviours. As most drugs are intracellulartargeted, we put forward cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy, which is focused on the intracellular fate of drugs. This strategy could partially explain the marked pharmacological activities of herbal medicines from their intracellular pharmacokinetic behaviours, rather than their plasma concentrations. It is a helpful complementarity to traditional pharmacokinetics, and takes a potential role in the research and development of new herb-origined drugs. In this review, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnections of herbal medicines (such as ginseng, berberine and danshen) are retrospected. Then our proposed cellular pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic strategy, its characteristics, as well as its research procedures are described, followed by the subcellular distributions of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes which are the determinants of cellular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics. Finally, our successful applications of cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy in elucidating ginsenoside Rh2 as an adjuvant agent and tanshinone IIA as an anticancer agent are illustrated. PMID:22475335

  1. Drug safety aspects of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, T; Deitelhoff, B; Silber-Mankowsky, A

    2015-06-01

    There are numerous statements in the literature suggesting that the safety of herbal products or herbal medicinal products is inadequately considered. Despite the presence of risk, the potential is commonly underestimated as herbals are considered to be natural substances. It is necessary to consider the different categories of herbal products in the market. On one hand there are authorised herbal medicinal products (HMPs) which have adhered to the requirements to present data on quality, efficacy and safety. On the other hand there are products falling outside the use of marketing authorisations as for remedies. In the European Union (EU), HMPs are subject to an ambitious and comprehensive risk management system as for chemically defined drugs, which react effectively to risk concerns with scientific methods, as has been shown in the past. The established methods of pharmacovigilance and risk management favour the authorisation of herbal preparations for medicinal purposes as proprietary medicinal drugs. PMID:26183727

  2. Mortality among Japanese Zen priests.

    PubMed

    Ogata, M; Ikeda, M; Kuratsune, M

    1984-06-01

    A cohort study was done on 1396 deaths seen among 4352 Japanese male Zen priests during a follow up period from 1 January 1955 to 31 December 1978. Standardised mortality ratios were computed for major causes of death by comparing with the counterparts of the general Japanese male population. The SMR for all causes of death was 0.82 (p less than 0.001) and the SMR values for cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia and bronchitis, peptic ulcer, liver cirrhosis, cancer of the respiratory organs, and cancer of the lung were all significantly smaller than unity. Taking regional mortality differences into account, a similar computation was made dividing the cohort into two subcohorts--that is, the priests living in eastern Japan and those in western Japan. Both subcohorts showed a highly significantly smaller SMR than unity for all causes of death. With the exception of only a few causes of death for which the observed number of deaths was small, they also showed such reduced SMRs for nearly all of the causes of death tested. A questionnaire survey on the current life style of active priests showed that they smoke less, eat less, meat and fish as they follow the more traditional Japanese dietary habits, and live in less polluted areas, but their drinking habits do not differ much from that of the average Japanese adult man. Possible reasons for their reduced mortality are discussed. PMID:6747517

  3. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  4. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future. PMID:26826833

  5. Socioeconomic Mobility Among Three Generations of Japanese Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Gene N.; Montero, Darrel M.

    1973-01-01

    Data from a three generational survey of Japanese Americans indicate that the occupational and educational attainments of the first generation are reflected in the achievements of later generations, and suggest that both relatively traditional and more assimilationist currents flow in the Japanese American community. (Author/JM)

  6. Normalizing Social Networking in a Beginners' Japanese Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morofushi, Mari; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah Ellen

    2014-01-01

    With the spread of the Internet, students now have greater opportunities to use Japanese outside of the classroom. For example, they can interact with other Japanese speakers through instant messaging or social networking, or utilize online dictionaries and translation tools to decipher websites in ways that would be impossible with traditional

  7. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional…

  8. Herbal medicine (Shaofu Zhuyu decoction) for treating primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyoung; Choi, Tae-Young; Myung, Chang-Seon; Lee, Ju Ah; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-04-01

    Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZY) or Sobokchugeo-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. We searched four English, seven Korean, three Chinese, and one Japanese database from inception through January 2016 without a language restriction. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SFZY or modified SFZY (MSFZY) were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 51 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 9 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Seven RCTs tested the effects of SFZY or modified SFZY in treating dysmenorrhea. Three RCTs showed superior effects of (M)SFZY on the response rate, while the other three RCTs failed to do so (n=531, RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.26, P<0.0001, I(2)=0%). Three RCTs showed favorable effects of MSFZY for pain reduction compared with conventional drugs (n=340, SMD: -1.39, 95% CI: -2.23 to -0.55, P=0.01). Two RCTs examined the effects of modified SFZY plus conventional drugs and conventional drugs alone. The meta-analysis showed favorable effects of MSFZY (n=206; RR, 1.12; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.36; P=0.0009, I(2)=0%). Our systemic review and meta-analysis provide suggestive evidence of the superiority of SFZY over conventional drugs for treating primary dysmenorrhea. However, the level of evidence is low because of a high risk of bias. PMID:26921931

  9. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  10. Nudity in Japanese visual media: a cross-cultural observation.

    PubMed

    Downs, J F

    1990-12-01

    The depiction of nude human beings in Japanese print, film, and electronic media is reported. Modern practices are then related to traditional Japanese culture. The various contexts in which nudes are regularly presented are described and various types of nude presentations are classified. It is suggested that the nude body evokes different responses in Japanese culture and is not always intended to convey sexual or erotic meanings. Sentiment, particularly that evoked by the family and motherhood, and nonsexual humor, are other responses that nudity is intended to elicit. The Japanese situation is compared to presentation of nudity in the United States. PMID:2082862

  11. [Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata. PMID:21506404

  12. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples

  13. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  14. Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

  15. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively. PMID:12087774

  16. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most

  17. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  18. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  19. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  20. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  1. THE FOREMAN PROBLEM IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURLEY, KEITH

    BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE

  2. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire. PMID:26903775

  3. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire. PMID:26903775

  4. Safety of herbal supplements: a guide for cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Ernst, E

    2010-08-01

    Many patients use herbal supplements to treat chronic cardiovascular conditions and often combine herbal ingredients with cardiovascular medications. However, physicians do not reliably elicit a history of herbal use from their patients and may overlook herbal supplements' adverse effects. Although often considered harmless by patients, herbal supplements may cause adverse cardiovascular effects from an herbal ingredient, a contaminant, or an herb-drug interaction. Herbal stimulants, including bitter orange, ephedra, caffeine, guarana, mat, kola, areca, lobelia, khat, and others are the most common category of herbal therapies to cause cardiovascular effects. However, dozens of other herbal ingredients have also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In addition to listed ingredients, herbal supplements may become contaminated at a number of stages during production. Pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and pharmaceutical agents have been detected in herbal supplements. Supposedly "herbal" products that are adulterated with prescription anorectics, antidepressants, diuretics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors along with other medications have been identified throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. All of these adulterants have potential cardiovascular effects. Herbal interactions with a variety of cardiovascular medications may also lead to adverse events. Herbal ingredients may cause pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions. We review clinically relevant patterns of adverse cardiovascular reactions to herbal supplements, and we provide resources and recommendations for practicing cardiologists evaluating patients with suspected herbal adverse effects. PMID:20633025

  5. DNA barcoding: an efficient tool to overcome authentication challenges in the herbal market.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priyanka; Kumar, Amit; Nagireddy, Akshitha; Mani, Daya N; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Tiwari, Rakesh; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades have witnessed global resurgence of herbal-based health care. As a result, the trade of raw drugs has surged globally. Accurate and fast scientific identification of the plant(s) is the key to success for the herbal drug industry. The conventional approach is to engage an expert taxonomist, who uses a mix of traditional and modern techniques for precise plant identification. However, for bulk identification at industrial scale, the process is protracted and time-consuming. DNA barcoding, on the other hand, offers an alternative and feasible taxonomic tool box for rapid and robust species identification. For the success of DNA barcode, the barcode loci must have sufficient information to differentiate unambiguously between closely related plant species and discover new cryptic species. For herbal plant identification, matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS, trnL-F, 5S-rRNA and 18S-rRNA have been used as successful DNA barcodes. Emerging advances in DNA barcoding coupled with next-generation sequencing and high-resolution melting curve analysis have paved the way for successful species-level resolution recovered from finished herbal products. Further, development of multilocus strategy and its application has provided new vistas to the DNA barcode-based plant identification for herbal drug industry. For successful and acceptable identification of herbal ingredients and a holistic quality control of the drug, DNA barcoding needs to work harmoniously with other components of the systems biology approach. We suggest that for effectively resolving authentication challenges associated with the herbal market, DNA barcoding must be used in conjunction with metabolomics along with need-based transcriptomics and proteomics. PMID:26079154

  6. Herbal Extracts Induce Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation of Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Hosein; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Barikbin, Behrooz; Ehsani, Amirohushang

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of people suffering from balding or hair thinning is increasing, despite the advances in various medical therapies. Therefore, it is highly important to develop new therapies to inhibit balding and increase hair proliferation. Objective We investigated the effects of herbal extracts commonly used for improving balding in traditional medicine to identify potential agents for hair proliferation. Methods The expression levels of 5α-reductase isoforms (type I and II) were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylteterazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine tests were used to evaluate the cell proliferation effect of herbal extracts in DPCs. The expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured using western blot analysis. Results The 5α-reductase isoform mRNAs and proteins were detected in the cultured DPCs, and the expression level of 5α-R2 in DPCs in the presence of the herbal extracts was gradually decreased. Herbal extracts were found to significantly increase the proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. These results show that the herbal extracts tested affected the protein expressions of ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, Cdk4, Bcl-2, and Bax in DPCs. Conclusion These results suggest that herbal extracts exert positive effects on hair proliferation via ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, and Cdk4 signaling in DPCs; they also suggest that herbal extracts could be a great alternative therapy for increasing hair proliferation. PMID:26719634

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of cancer and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YE, LIN; JIA, YONGNING; JI, KE; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; XUE, KAN; JI, JIAFU; MASON, MALCOLM D.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a major part of healthcare in China, and has extensively affected medicine and healthcare in surrounding countries over a long period of time. In the fight against cancer, certain anticancer remedies using herbs or herbal formulas derived from TCM have been developed for the management of malignancies. Furthermore, there are clinical trials registered for the use of herbal remedies in cancer management. Herbal medicine has been used as part of combined therapies to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting. Herbal remedies have also been used as chemopreventive therapies to treat precancerous conditions in order to reduce the incidence of cancer in high-risk populations. Emerging evidence has revealed that herbal remedies can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of cancer cells. In addition to this direct effect upon cancer cells, a number of herbal remedies have been identified to suppress angiogenesis and therefore reduce tumour growth. The inhibition of tumour growth may also be due to modifications of the host immune system by the herbal treatment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of herbal remedies remain poorly understood and are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to summarize the current literature and clinical trial results of herbal remedies for cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the recent findings and development of the Yangzheng Xiaoji capsule. PMID:26622657

  8. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  9. Communication Characteristics of Asians in American Urban Settings: The Case of Honolulu Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Dennis M.

    Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group

  10. Protestant Work Ethics: A Comparison of American and Japanese Working Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    While concerns grow regarding the possible "decline" of America's traditional work ethics, there is a growing interest in Japanese economic successes and work ethics. This study compares the work ethics of American and Japanese men. A questionnaire was designed to measure values related to America's "Protestant work ethics" and to traditional

  11. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets. PMID:16322803

  12. Sociocultural dilemma of Japanese steeplejacks.

    PubMed

    Iwata, H

    1997-12-01

    Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive. PMID:11116667

  13. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal renaissance is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  14. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

  15. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Shimura, Kyoko; Makino, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (mao-zai) are among the most important medicinal prescriptions in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to treat cold symptoms, bronchial asthma, arthralgia, and rheumatism. Shokan-zatsubyo-ron (Shanghan zabing lun in Chinese), a classical textbook of kampo medicine published in 220 A.D., describes that when herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and kakkonto (gegen-tang) are prepared, ephedra herb is first boiled alone, the scum is removed, and then other crude drugs are added and decocted. In the present study, we evaluated evidence for the benefit of boiling ephedra herb prior to other crude drugs by analyzing the contents of the extract and four ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norephedrine), which are considered the main active ingredients in ephedra herb. We prepared two different decoctions of maoto and kakkonto: one decoction was prepared by boiling all the crude drugs at the same time and the other decoction was prepared according to the classical textbook. In both decoctions of maoto and kakkonto, neither alkaloid contents in the extract nor extracting ratio of four ephedrine alkaloids exhibited significant difference. As far as the ephedrine alkaloid content goes, there is no evidence for the benefit of the boiling method for ephedra herb described in the classical textbook of kampo medicine. PMID:20091242

  16. Evaluation of mercury contamination in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng

    2007-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented phase 3 registration of traditional medicines in January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety of all dosage forms of these medicines. For this reason, a total of 100 herbal products containing Smilax myosotiflora were purchased in the Malaysian market and analyzed for mercury content, as mercury is a recognized reproductive toxicant. The products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that 89% of the above products do not exceed 0.5 ppm of mercury. Heavy metal poisoning such as mercury has been associated with traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important that doctors and health care practitioners are aware of these risks and finding ways to minimize them, including questions pertaining to the use of these remedies during the routine taking of a patient's history. PMID:17963130

  17. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  18. Japanese Heraldry: Who Am I?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeni, Claire M.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Japanese family crests to motivate students to construct a family history. Includes background information on Japanese history and culture. Provides an outline for the student research project. Supplies a list of Japanese emblems and their symbolism. (NL)

  19. Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

  20. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

  1. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  2. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

  3. Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

  4. TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinskis rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

  5. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.

  6. Modular Curriculum: English/Social Studies, Japanese Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Richard L.

    This independent study course for college credit is a study of Japanese civilization. The nine lessons that comprise the course are: 1. The Origins of the Civilization: From Primitive to Early Classical Times; 2. The Classical Tradition I: The Religion and Aesthetics of Classical Times; 3. The Classical Tradition II: A View of Court Life through

  7. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical

  8. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  9. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  10. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  11. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  12. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  15. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  16. A novel herbal formulation in the management of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhujbal, Santosh S; Hadawale, Sunita S; Kulkarni, Parag A; Bidkar, Jayant S; Thatte, Vidya A; Providencia, Clarine A; Yeola, Rupesh R

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: Momordica charantia Linn. is traditionally used as a medicine for diabetes. The present investigation was aimed to formulate and evaluate transdermal patchesof Momordica charantia Linn. Materials and Methods: The transdermal films containing the herbal drug component fractionated fromethanolicextract of M. charantia fruits were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. The films were evaluated for folding endurance, thickness, weight variation, drug contents and in vitro diffusion studies and in vivo parameterslike acute and sub-acute antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats, biochemicalstudies, skin irritation in rats and stability studies. Result and discussion: The weightof transdermal patches of M. charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) and was found to be 0.03 gm.Thickness of patches of M. charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) was found to be satisfactory. The percentage release of active constituents from transdermal patches of M.charantia (2 cm2; 10 mg/patch) was found to be 47.59% in 10% hydroalcoholic phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at the end of 6 h.The transdermal route exhibited negligible skin irritation and in vivo results revealed that the patches successfully decrease the blood glucose level. Conclusion: From the results, we concluded that the well-known herbal drug M. charantia Linn. have been found to be effective for diabetes through modern pharmaceutical formulation techniques. PMID:23071947

  17. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  18. A REVIEW OF THE BIOACTIVITY OF SOUTH AFRICAN HERBAL TEAS: ROOIBOS (ASPALATHUS LINEARIS) AND HONEYBUSH (CYCLOPIA INTERMEDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcon...

  19. Systematic review on safety and drug interaction of herbal therapy in hyperlipidemia: a guide for internist.

    PubMed

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Saeed; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Because of reporting high side effects related to biosynthetic drugs, recent attention has been paid to the use of herbs instead of chemical drugs to balance serum lipids. The present systematic review aimed to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines and also to assess drug interaction in herbal therapy in treating hyperlipidemia. The international research databases including MEDLINE; Google scholar, Web of Science SciVerse Scopus (SCOPUS); EBSCO Academic Search; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched from their respective inceptions up to September 2014 with the search terms of "hyperlipidemia", "herbal medicine", "medicine traditional", "extract plant", "Traditional Medicine" and "Chinese Herbal Medicine" without narrowing or limiting search elements. A total of 85 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) studies were finally assessed on human subjects. A notable number of herbal drugs that are commonly used as an anti-hyperlipidemia agent may be interacted with a variety of biosynthetic drugs. In this regard, the most common reported herb-drug reactions were related to anticoagulants, antidepressants, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, and/or even antihypertension and anti-lipidemic drugs. Also, a considerable number of anti-lipidemic drugs of plants origin may be accompanied with metabolic disturbances and serious complications within pregnancy and breast feeding. The main fundamental principles for administration of these drugs include physicians' complete awareness of the effects and interactions of these drugs, educating people not taking these drugs arbitrarily, and closely monitoring the verification and distribution of the drugs in the society. PMID:26422426

  20. Hepatotoxic slimming aids and other herbal hepatotoxins.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Shivakumar; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2008-03-01

    Perceptions of safety and/or cultural mores prompt individuals to seek herbal slimming aids in preference to conventional dietary, physical activity and medication-based protocols. In recent years, terpenoid-containing dietary supplements have been implicated in causing severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity. Teucrium polium (germander) was the first of these herbal products to be clearly linked to cases of acute liver failure. Subsequently, similar hepatotoxicity has been observed with other members of the Teucrium genus. While diterpenoid-derived reactive metabolites are central to germander hepatotoxicity, it may also be that the hepatic effects of compounds such as Sho-saiko-to, Centella asiatica and Black cohosh are linked to their triterpenoid content. Other non-terpenoid-containing herbal remedies marketed for weight reduction have been causally associated with significant liver injury. Important among these are preparations containing N-nitrosofenfluramine, usnic acid and ephedra alkaloids. Finally, we review recent data on known and emerging hepatotoxins such as Boh-Gol-Zhee, Kava, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and Shou-Wu-Pian. Better public and physician awareness through health education, early recognition and management of herbal toxicity and tighter regulation of complementary/alternative medicine systems are required to minimize the dangers of herbal product use. PMID:18318821

  1. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Bykbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

    2008-03-01

    In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves > sage > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > roselle. In particular, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities may be useful for meal planning in type 2 diabetes. They could contribute to sustain plasma antioxidant level because antioxidants present in plants and herbs prevent the development of vascular diseases seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:18183488

  2. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  3. Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

    2013-01-01

    Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

  4. Risks associated with herbal slimming remedies.

    PubMed

    Corns, C; Metcalfe, K

    2002-12-01

    The market for non-conventional, natural herbal medicines is growing. This marketing opportunity has been seized upon by some unscrupulous practitioners to sell potentially unsafe 'herbal' products. Several people attended a Chinese herbalist for weight loss advice and were sold 'herbal' preparations that contained fenfluramine, a drug which was withdrawn from sale in the West in 1997 after its use was linked to primary pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. Adulteration of Chinese medicines with Western drugs is becoming an increasing problem, and deaths have been reported from Japan and other Far Eastern countries linked to Chinese slimming aids containing N-nitroso-fenfluramine. There is a need for increased public awareness of such risks associated with the use of unlicensed medicines; a system of registration for medical herbalists is also required to protect both the reputable practitioners and the general public. PMID:12557729

  5. Treatment of rosacea with herbal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Since rosacea is a chronic disease and many patients find prescription therapies unsatisfactory, they frequently turn to herbal ingredients for relief of their persistent facial redness. The most useful and frequently used herbal compounds include licorice, feverfew, green tea, oatmeal, lavender, chamomile, tea tree oil, and camphor oil. The utility of most of these herbs is based on their purported anti-inflammatory properties. Some of these herbs have proven effects, many have potential benefits, and some may aggravate rosacea. Due to the fact that many patients fail to inform their physicians about their use of herbal ingredients, dermatologists should be aware of what patients may be using and be able to advise them about the efficacy of these ingredients or the potential for adverse effects. PMID:16468289

  6. Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  7. Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ≥ 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  8. Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  9. Use of Herbal Supplements for Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ? 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the worlds population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  10. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G". PMID:25850288

  11. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom

    2000-06-01

    World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination. PMID:12531167

  12. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schrder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  13. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  14. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-11-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  15. Translational research in immunology: Japanese perspectives.

    PubMed

    Triendl, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Japan has a formidable tradition in immunological research, starting with Shibasaburo Kitasato (1852-1931), who, after returning to Japan from his studies with Robert Koch, went on to build almost single-handedly a research tradition in investigative medical research, while engaging himself in the fight against infectious diseases. Over the past few decades, Japanese immunologists have been involved in many important discoveries at the forefront of immunological research, yet, when it comes to the translation of new discoveries into clinical innovations and new therapies, Japan's track record seems more modest. PMID:14704770

  16. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

  17. Botanicals and herbs: a traditional approach to treating epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Steven C

    2009-04-01

    Botanicals and herbs have a centuries-old tradition of use by persons with epilepsy, in many cultures around the world. At present, herbal therapies are tried by patients in developing as well as developed countries for control of seizures or adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or for general health maintenance, usually without the knowledge of physicians who prescribe their AEDs. Well-designed clinical trials of herbal therapies in patients with epilepsy are scarce, and methodological issues prevent any conclusions of their efficacy or safety in this population. Furthermore, some botanicals and herbs may be proconvulsant or may alter AED metabolism. In spite of these limitations, further preclinical evaluation of botanicals and herbs and their constituent compounds using validated scientific methods is warranted based on numerous anecdotal observations of clinical benefit in patients with epilepsy and published reports showing mechanisms of action relevant to epilepsy or anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy. This review highlights the use of herbal therapies for epilepsy, outlines the role of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in regulating herbal products, and presents the author's approach to the scientific assessment of herbal therapies as potential therapies for patients with epilepsy. PMID:19332338

  18. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  19. The MBA and Japanese Language: Toward Proficiency-Oriented Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Yoshiko

    It is proposed that Master's in Business Administration (MBA) degree programs integrate Japanese language instruction in order to train business people to be sensitive to cultural differences and capable of operating effectively and comfortably in Japanese environments. The discussion begins by presenting some issues concerning traditional MBA

  20. The Development of Perceptual Grouping Biases in Infancy: A Japanese-English Cross-Linguistic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Iversen, John R.; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and

  1. Physical Settings and Materials Recommended for Play Therapy with Japanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room style), reading

  2. Podophyllotoxin intoxication: toxic effect of Bajiaolian in herbal therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kao, W F; Hung, D Z; Tsai, W J; Lin, K P; Deng, J F

    1992-11-01

    Bajiaolian (Dysosma pleianthum), one species in the Mayapple family, has been widely used as a general remedy and for the treatment of snake bite, weakness, condyloma accuminata, lymphadenopathy and tumours in China for thousands of years. However, the textbooks of traditional Chinese medicine mention little about the toxicity of Bajiaolian. Within 1 year, the authors saw five people who manifested nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, abnormal liver function tests, sensory ataxia, altered consciousness and persistant peripheral tingling or numbness after drinking infusions made with Bajiaolian. The herb was recommended by either traditional Chinese medical doctors or herbal pharmacies for postpartum recovery and treatment of a neck mass, hepatoma, lumbago and dysmenorrhoea. Podophyllotoxin is one of the main ingredients of the Bajiaolian root. The clinical manifestations observed in our patients were consistent with podophyllum intoxication. Podophyllotoxin intoxication usually results from the accidental ingestion or topical application of podophyllum resin. However, these cases of Bajiaolian intoxication were iatrogenic and results from 'therapeutic doses' of Bajiaolian cited in the textbooks of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:1361136

  3. Herbal products in Canada. How safe are they?

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrskyj, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a PMID:9111986

  4. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  5. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  6. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  7. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  8. X-ray powder diffractometry and liquid chromatography studies of sibutramine and its analogues content in herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stypu?kowska, K; B?a?ewicz, A; Maurin, J; Sarna, K; Fija?ek, Z

    2011-12-15

    The contemporary societies of the developed countries are prone to use traditional far-east medicines as remedies for all diseases. Some of them, such as obesity, might be classified as civilization diseases. Combating the problem, people try not only several miraculous diets but also herbal infusions (teas) and variety of "herbal" preparations. All these believing that such treatment is healthy and harmless as far as it is "natural". Leaving out of the way the question if herbal medicines can be taken safely without doctors' control the query arises if the common preparations are strictly natural and herbal. Here we report examples of quality studies of such medicines using both X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and liquid chromatography (LC) with various types of detection: ultraviolet (UV), coulometric electrode array (CEAD) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Especially the XRPD assisted with an optical microscopy seems to be useful as a fast screening method of general sample composition of such preparations. First of all it can discriminate between capsules containing pure herbal materials and those with some chemical. PMID:21899974

  9. An Integrative Platform of TCM Network Pharmacology and Its Application on a Herbal Formula, Qing-Luo-Yin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao

    2013-01-01

    The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable. PMID:23653662

  10. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  11. Technological Diversification of Japanese Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Fumio

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach for measuring industrial technological diversification behavior. Identifies sectoral patterns of Japanese industry as related to diversification behaviors. Delineates the mechanisms and effectiveness of Japanese corporate and government policies relevant to diversification. (ML)

  12. Revealing the secrets of composite helmets of ancient Japanese tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Fedrigo, A.; Williams, A.; Civita, F.; Scherillo, A.; Vontobel, P.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Zoppi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We present novel results from a non-invasive examination of two kabuto (helmets), made in Japan in the 17th century. Neutron-imaging experiments (radiography and tomography), carried out at the ICON and NEUTRA beamlines, operating at the neutron source SINQ (CH), have allowed to determine the inner metal structure and manufacturing techniques of these beautiful examples of past technology, revealing some otherwise invisible details.

  13. A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

  14. A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and

  15. Brain oxidative stress as basic target of antioxidant traditional oriental medicines.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tetsuya

    2009-04-01

    Prevention and amelioration of Mibyou (sub-healthy condition) is the critical target for disease prevention including age-related diseases and cancer although the Mibyou condition is not yet pathologically defined. Since the oxidative stress is an underlying basic etiology associated with many diseases and aging, the psychologically induced oxidative stress, especially in the brain was supposed as one of the pathology of Mibyou. Several traditional herbal prescriptions applied for the brain disorder were found effective to prevent cerebral oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion and also under psychological distress produced by whiskers cut in mice. Shengmai San comprising three herbs, Panax ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicus and Schisandra chinensis is a traditional herbal medicine formula having a long history of using as a remedy and clinical prescription to treat coronal heart diseases. Multifunctional aspect of traditional herbal prescription was discussed in terms of preventing oxidative injury in the brain using Shengmai San as a typical prescription. PMID:18987970

  16. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order

  17. Herbal medicines for the treatment of COPD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Pittler, M H; Ernst, E

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to systematically assess the effectiveness of herbal medicines in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) testing herbal medicines against any type of control intervention in patients with COPD and assessing clinically relevant outcomes were included. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by at least two reviewers. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Jadad score. Effect sizes and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Fourteen eligible RCTs, testing 14 different herbal medicines, were located. Herbal medicines were compared against placebo or no treatment in six trials. Significant intergroup differences for one or more outcome were reported for several herbal medicines including Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza. In seven RCTs, which compared herbal medicines with other herbal medicines, the results were mixed. A single trial compared a herbal medicine (Hedera helix leaf extract) with a conventional treatment (ambroxol tablet) and reported no significant difference between groups. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, statistical pooling was not performed. The median methodological quality score was 2 out of a possible maximum 5. The effectiveness of herbal medicines for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not established beyond reasonable doubt. Currently, the evidence from randomised clinical trials is scarce and often methodologically weak. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, rigorously designed studies seem warranted. PMID:16880367

  18. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette A was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette T. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette A did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette A were higher than those in the general cigarette T. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette A were higher than those in the general cigarette T, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette A were lower than those in the general cigarette T. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette A was higher than that in the general cigarette T; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette A were lower than those in the general cigarette T. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette A exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette T at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  19. Ophiopogonin D: A new herbal agent against osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Wang, Long; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Jun; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Kang; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, is a potent anti-oxidative agent. We hypothesized that OP-D demonstrates anti-osteoporosis effects via decreasing ROS generation in mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and a macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. We investigated OP-D on osteogenic and osteoclastic differentiation under oxidative status. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to establish an oxidative damage model. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Then, we searched the molecular mechanism of OP-D against osteoporosis. Our results revealed that OP-D significantly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and improved some osteogenic markers. Moreover, OP-D reduced TRAP activity and the mRNA expressions of osteoclastic genes in RAW264.7 cells. OP-D suppressed ROS generation in both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells. OP-D treatment reduced the activity of serum bone degradation markers, including CTX-1 and TRAP. Further research showed that OP-D displayed anti-osteoporosis effects via reducing ROS through the FoxO3a-?-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, our results indicated that the protective effects of OP-D against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in oxidative stress via the FoxO3a-?-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting that OP-D may be a beneficial herbal agent in bone-related disorders, such as osteoporosis. PMID:25582622

  20. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  1. African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

    2005-01-01

    In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053

  2. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  3. Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This annotated list of picture books and stories for young children is a catalogue of Japanese children's books exhibited at the New York Public Library in 1972. Part I consists of fifty distinguished books selected from those published before 1969. Part II is a selection of more recent titles and is less selective than Part I. The title of each

  4. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as

  5. Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This annotated list of picture books and stories for young children is a catalogue of Japanese children's books exhibited at the New York Public Library in 1972. Part I consists of fifty distinguished books selected from those published before 1969. Part II is a selection of more recent titles and is less selective than Part I. The title of each…

  6. Read Japanese Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Len

    This short handbook is written to teach the recognition of about 300 common Japanese characters to speakers of English. The characters are presented in a mnemonic approach which emphasizes the pictorial origin of the character and shows how the picture gradually becomes simplifed and modified to form the modern written form. The stories about the

  7. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  8. Teacher's Resistance: A Case of a Japanese Middle School Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the life history of a Japanese teacher who was actively involved in social and educational movements in the 1960s. There are traditions of teacher resistance against social oppression worldwide, and this study brings forth one such example in Japan. This study highlights how one teacher, collaborating with his colleagues,…

  9. Teacher's Resistance: A Case of a Japanese Middle School Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the life history of a Japanese teacher who was actively involved in social and educational movements in the 1960s. There are traditions of teacher resistance against social oppression worldwide, and this study brings forth one such example in Japan. This study highlights how one teacher, collaborating with his colleagues,

  10. Student Preconceptions of Japanese Language Learning in 1989 and 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    This study compares student preconceptions and expectations of Japanese language learning from studies conducted in 1989 and 2004. Over the years, student interests and pedagogical approaches have changed. However, the changes do not reflect on the student preconceptions and expectations. They still believe in traditional approaches to language…

  11. Verbs and Adjectives in Literary Japanese According to Suzuki Akira.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, George

    This paper presents two views on the categorization of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives into form classes: the traditional view and a view set forth in the writing of Suzuki Akira. The fundamental issue here is the criterion for categorization. Is it the meaning of words, or is it their grammatical behavior that determines the system of…

  12. Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yuki Io

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to

  13. Social Studies Now! Stretch Kids' Multiple Intelligences the Japanese Way!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Tarry

    1998-01-01

    This K-3 social studies activity combines art and language arts with social studies skills and attitudes. Teachers use the old Japanese tradition of story cards to check students' comprehension, give them practice in oral communication, and develop their visual/spatial intelligence, all while teaching them about another culture. (SM)

  14. Japanese Negotiation through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and

  15. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support. PMID:8241931

  16. Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies. PMID:23293189

  17. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2008-06-01

    To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. PMID:18236159

  18. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories. PMID:11317060

  19. Combination Effects of Herbs in a Multi-herbal Formula: Expression of Juzen-taiho-to's Immuno-modulatory Activity on the Intestinal Immune System

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Herbal formulas of traditional Japanese (Kampo), Chinese and Korean medicines usually comprise multiple herbs in a single formula. These medicines are expected to show their clinical effects by chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical combination effects of multi-herbs. However, little effort has been made so far to scientifically clarify the nature of such combination effects. Interestingly, for example, though a Kampo medicine Juzen-taiho-to (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese) stimulates the immune functions of Peyer's patch cells, none of its single component herbs shows such activity. We thus examined the combination effect of herbs in the Juzen-taiho-to formula for the expression of its immuno-stimulating activity. Juzen-taiho-to, a composite formula of 10 herbs, has been generally considered to comprise two kinds of basic formula, each of which consists of four different herbs in addition to two others. The combinations of herbs based on these two basic formulas were evaluated for their stimulating activities on cytokine production from murine Peyer's patch cells both in vitro and ex vivo. Combined decoction of six among 10 herbs in Juzen-taiho-to is crucial for the expression of its stimulating activity on Peyer's patch cells. 3D-HPLC analysis of the ingredients in the fractions from the combined decoctions indicated that, in addition to quantitative changes of ingredients, alterations occur in their chemical composition by decoction of different herbs. The stimulating activity of Juzen-taiho-to on Peyer's patch cells results from the combination effect of its six essential component herbs. This combination effect is based on physicochemical interactions among the ingredients of the component herbs. PMID:15257329

  20. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Lim, Lee Yong; Chowbay, Balram

    2004-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a 170 kDa phosphorylated glycoprotein encoded by human MDR1 gene. It is responsible for the systemic disposition of numerous structurally and pharmacologically unrelated lipophilic and amphipathic drugs, carcinogens, toxins, and other xenobiotics in many organs, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and brain. Like cytochrome P450s (CYP3A4), Pgp is vulnerable to inhibition, activation, or induction by herbal constituents. This was demonstrated by using an ATPase assay, purified Pgp protein or intact Pgp-expressing cells, and proper probe substrates and inhibitors. Curcumin, ginsenosides, piperine, some catechins from green tea, and silymarin from milk thistle were found to be inhibitors of Pgp, while some catechins from green tea increased Pgp-mediated drug transport by heterotropic allosteric mechanism, and St. John's wort induced the intestinal expression of Pgp in vitro and in vivo. Some components (e.g., bergamottin and quercetin) from grapefruit juice were reported to modulate Pgp activity. Many of these herbal constituents, in particular flavonoids, were reported to modulate Pgp by directly interacting with the vicinal ATP-binding site, the steroid-binding site, or the substrate-binding site. Some herbal constituents (e.g., hyperforin and kava) were shown to activate pregnane X receptor, an orphan nuclear receptor acting as a key regulator of MDR1 and many other genes. The inhibition of Pgp by herbal constituents may provide a novel approach for reversing multidrug resistance in tumor cells, whereas the stimulation of Pgp expression or activity has implication for chemoprotective enhancement by herbal medicines. Certain natural flavonols (e.g., kaempferol, quercetin, and galangin) are potent stimulators of the Pgp-mediated efflux of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (a carcinogen). The modulation of Pgp activity and expression by these herb constituents may result in altered absorption and bioavailability of drugs that are Pgp substrates. This is exemplified by increased oral bioavailability of phenytoin and rifampin by piperine and decreased bioavailability of indinavir, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, digoxin, and fexofenadine by coadministered St. John's wort. However, many of these drugs are also substrates of CYP3A4. Thus, the modulation of intestinal Pgp and CYP3A4 represents an important mechanism for many clinically important herb-drug interactions. Further studies are needed to explore the relative role of Pgp and CYP3A4 modulation by herbs and the mechanism for the interplay of these two important proteins in herb-drug interactions. PMID:15072439

  1. Hovenia dulcis--an Asian traditional herb.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Eom, Seung Hee; Yu, Chang Yeon; Roitsch, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb., known as Japanese raisin tree, is commonly found in East Asia. It has a long history as a food supplement and traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea, but is little known and used in Western countries so far. This minireview summarizes traditional uses and current knowledge on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of H. duclcis and covers, in particular, literature from specialized Asian journals that are not readily accessible. Extracts from H. dulcis accelerate detoxification of ethanol, and possess hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antidiabetic properties. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, free radical scavenging and enhancement of ethanol catabolism have been reported. PMID:20379955

  2. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American

  3. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  4. Beneficial Effects of Rikkunshito, a Japanese Kampo Medicine, on Gastrointestinal Dysfunction and Anorexia in Combination with Western Drug: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kampo medicines are traditional herbal medicines which have been approved for medicinal use by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare and are currently being used more and more, often in combination with Western drugs. Thus, the need for investigation of interactions between Kampo medicines and Western drugs is now widely recognized. Aim. To summarize the effects and drug interactions of rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine often prescribed for upper gastrointestinal disorders and anorexia. Methods. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data on rikkunshito. Results describing its effects were abstracted, with an emphasis on drug interactions. Results and Discussion. Rikkunshito ameliorates anorexia induced by anticancer drugs, improves quality of life scores, and can even prolong survival compared with monotherapy. Rikkunshito combined with proton pump inhibitor therapy is shown to be useful in the treatment of PPI-refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease patients and patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Rikkunshito reduces antidepressant-induced adverse events and improves quality of life without influencing antidepressant effects. Conclusions. Rikkunshito shows ameliorative effects on adverse reactions induced by various Western drugs and can achieve better results (e.g., anticancer drugs and proton pump inhibitor) without influencing the efficacy and bioavailability of Western drugs. PMID:24778703

  5. Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Albert T.

    1989-03-01

    Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

  6. Japanese refrigerators field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, A.T.

    1989-03-01

    Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

  7. Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

  8. Modern HPTLC--a perfect tool for quality control of herbals and their preparations.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Spriano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Herbals and herbal preparations are complex mixtures with numerous natural compounds in an uncharacterized matrix--truly multicomponent systems. This is in contrast to most of the samples of the pharmaceutical and, in part, the food industry, where primarily single compounds have to be analyzed. Recently, models for the characterization of multicomponent systems with near-IR, NMR, and MS combined with chemometric tools have been developed. However, the complexity and sophistication of such methods still prevent their general applicability to the QC of herbals. On the other hand, modern TLC is a well-established method with a long tradition. The typical chromatograms visualize even complex multicomponent systems in a special manner. The technique is rapid, comparatively simple, robust, and extremely versatile. HPTLC can not only confirm but also establish identity. It is also an ideal screening tool for adulterations and is highly suitable for evaluation and monitoring of cultivation, harvesting, and extraction processes and testing of stability. To substantiate these claims, several examples taken from daily work are provided and discussed in this paper. PMID:21140649

  9. [Clinical implication of urinary protein markers in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Miao; Meng, Xian-Jie; Wan, Yi-Gang; Shen, Shan-Mei; Luo, Xun-Yang; Gu, Liu-Bao; Yao, Jian

    2014-07-01

    In clinic, some urinary protein makers can dynamically and noninvasively reflect the degree of renal tubular injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). These urinary biomarkers of tubular damage are broadly divided into two categories. One is newfound, including kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), neutrophil getatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and cystatin C (CysC); the other one is classical, including beta2 microglobulin (beta2-MG), retinal binding protein (RBP) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). It is reported that, the increases in urinary protein markers are not only closely related to the damage of tubular epithelial cells in DN patients, but also can be ameliorated by the treatment with Chinese herbal compound preparations or Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, although urinary proteomics are used in the protein separation and identification, the traditional associated detection of urinary protein markers is more practical in clinic. At present, it is possible that the associated detection of urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular damages may be a feasible measure to reveal the clinical significance of urinary protein markers in DN patients and the interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:25272479

  10. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  11. Alternative approach for mitigation of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity using herbal agents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Ahmad, Wasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective and frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various malignancies. However, its clinical use is hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Investigations have proved that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity occurs through mechanisms other than those mediating its antitumor effect. This theory sheds light on the development of strategies for cardioprotection without altering therapeutic effectiveness of DOX. Bioactive plant constituents of dietary supplements, traditional herbs and foods with potential health benefits can play an important role in therapeutics. This manuscript is an exhaustive review and prospect of herbal and botanical agents against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with their proposed mechanisms. The activity of herbs evaluated against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has shown number of mechanisms including apoptosis, antioxidant potential, effect on mitochondria and calcium ion regulation etc. The manuscript reveals that most of the herbal drugs studied are effective through antioxidant mechanism and only few through other major pathways such as apoptosis and iron mediated pathways in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Only limited reports are available for the prevention of DOX-induced drug resistance using botanicals. Manuscript reports a number of constituents with evident potential in prevention of DOX cardiotoxicity e.g. proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, S-allylcysteine, reseveratrol, rutoside etc. In the present communication, several herbal drugs have also been discussed, which can act through mechanisms other than antioxidant and may be evaluated as a combination therapy for prevention of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in future. PMID:23342982

  12. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results. PMID:25839871

  13. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

  14. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially increase the treatment options available in areas where few medical products have been registered due to Malta's small market size. PMID:25837278

  15. [Inheritance of academic idea and experience about using traditional Chinese medicine from JIN Shi-yuan].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Luo, Rong; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-08-01

    Professor Jin Shi-yuan has been worked in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) over 70 years. He made prominent contributions in identification, processing, dispensing of TCM and reasonable use proprietary Chinese medicine. In over 70 years, he has mastered herbal medicine and traditional Chinese Medicine. It is also professor JIN's academic characteristic. Professor JIN's practical experiences were summarized according to the current situation about clinical medication, change of species of Juhong and Chenpi has been different from species of medical history. The quality is lower than before. Medicinal parts of Danggui, Gancao, Huangqin and Wuyao has been changed. So the actions of these herbal medicines have been changed also. Fresh herbal Qianchangpu has disappeared but it should be used clinically. Medical history, change of species, change of medicinal part, and change of preparing process in professor JIN's academic idea were be summarized periodically. The result is hoped to be referred by administration, manufacture, medical treatment of TCM. PMID:25509316

  16. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows. PMID:24467962

  17. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases

  18. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 3543 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with MannWhitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  19. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  20. [Efficacy analysis and theoretical study on Chinese herbal properties of Aa (Euterpe oleracea)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Chen, Shao-hong; Zhu, Ying-li; Wang, Chun; Wang, Jing-xia; Wang, Lin-yuan; Gao, Xue-min

    2015-06-01

    Aa (Euterpe oleracea) emerged as a source of herb has a long history in South America, which was approved by the Ministry of Health used in China and it has been introduced planting in Guangdong and Taiwan. This article summarized applied history of Aa and its present status in China. Did theoretical study on the Chinese herbal properties of Aa based on the Chinese traditional philosophical culture to analysis the function and symptom preliminary, combining with used for medical recordation, chemical component, biological activity. It is aiming at establishing the theoretical foundation for the application under the guidance of TCM theory. PMID:26552192

  1. Adrenal suppression following herbal remedy for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Balasekar; Murthy, Muppavarapu Srinivasa; Rajagopal, Karuppasamy; Nagaprabu, Vadivelmurugan Nagasubramani; Ponugupati, Sree Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    A patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis who had extreme adrenal suppression as a result of chronic use of herbal medicines presented with complications of adrenal suppression such as muscle weakness. He also had psychiatric disturbances such as confusion and suicidal tendency. Steroids in the herbal medication were found and hence there exists a need for investigation into their safety and efficacy. PMID:25969663

  2. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506

  3. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  4. Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

  5. Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the

  6. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult. PMID:25778835

  7. Homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in general practice in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sarah; Simpson, Colin R; McLay, James S

    2006-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Homoeopathy and herbalism are increasingly popular among the public and prescribed by general practitioners in the NHS. Doctors and regulatory authorities have expressed concerns about their efficacy and safety. Studies from the 1990s suggest that between 5.9 and 7.5% of English NHS general practitioners have prescribed homoeopathy, while less than 1% have prescribed herbal remedies. Current levels of prescribing are unknown but are thought to have increased. What this study adds Sixty percent of Scottish general practices now prescribe homoeopathic or herbal remedies. The prevalence of homoeopathic prescribing in those under 16 years has doubled since 2000 and is maximal in children < 1 year old, of whom 1% are prescribed a homoeopathic remedy. Recognized drugherb interactions were identified in 4% of patients prescribed oral herbal remedies. Aims To investigate the current levels of homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in Scottish general practice. Methods Prescribing of homoeopathic and herbal remedies in primary care was assessed in 1891 669 patients for the year 20032004, using computerized prescribing data retrieved from 323 general practices in Scotland. Results Forty-nine percent of practices prescribed homoeopathic and 32% herbal remedies. A total of 193 homoeopathic and 17 herbal remedies were prescribed, with 5% of practices accounting for 46% of patients and 50% of remedies. Four thousand one hundred and sixty patients (2.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one homoeopathic remedy during the study period, with the highest prevalence to children under 12 months of age (9.5/1000 children of that age). Children under the age of 16 made up 16% of the population prescribed homoeopathic remedies (2.2/1000 registered patients of that age). Three hundred and sixty-one patients (0.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one herbal remedy during the study period, 44 of whom were children < 16 years old. Patients prescribed a homoeopathic or herbal remedy were also prescribed a median of four and five conventional medicines, respectively. Of patients prescribed an oral herbal remedy, 4% were also concomitantly prescribed a conventional medicine with which a drugherb interaction has been documented. Conclusions Our study reports that a substantial number of Scottish general practitioners prescribe homoeopathic and herbal remedies, with an approximate doubling in the number of children prescribed homoeopathic remedies. The level of homoeopathic and herbal prescribing raises questions about homoeopathic/herbal provision in the National Health Service and should prompt critical review. PMID:16796701

  8. An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

  9. Preparation of Herbal Tea as Infusion or by Maceration at Room Temperature Using Mistletoe Tea as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Jger, Sebastian; Beffert, Markus; Hoppe, Katharina; Nadberezny, Dominik; Frank, Bruno; Scheffler, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea. PMID:21617779

  10. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  11. Evaluation of herbal coccidiostat 'Coxynil' in broiler.

    PubMed

    Kurkure, N V; Kolte, S W; Bhandarkar, A G; Kalorey, D R

    2006-09-01

    Anticoccidial efficacy of "Coxynil" a polyherbal preparation was tested against Eimeria tenella in broilers. Body weight of birds challenged with E. tenella in Coxynil treated groups was higher as compared to Coxynil untreated. Oocyst out put, lesion score, HI titres against New Castle disease virus were significantly higher in Coxynil supplemented groups in comparison to Coxynil un-supplemented groups. Examination of ceaca of the birds, revealed that the Coxynil interfered with life cycle of coccidia. The typical second generation schizonts were absent in ceacal section of Coxynil treated groups. The results indicate that Coxynil is effective herbal coccidiostat. PMID:16999029

  12. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  13. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  14. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  15. Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, Ananda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

  16. [Multimorbidity and multi-target-therapy with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Rostock, M

    2012-12-12

    The active components of herbal drugs and substances are pleiotropic multi-ingredient compounds with multitarget properties including antiinflammatory effects. A pleiotropic inhibition of inflammation could play an important role in mutlimorbide patients as an attempt of prevention or retardation of metastasis. A large number of experimental data for European and non-European herbal drugs as well as various herbal drug combinations suggest such a possibility. Despite the so far small number of clinical studies, such an experimental herbal treatment could appear to be reasonable and acceptable, provided that there are data available on quality and safety of these herbal drugs by treatments of patients with various diseases. Besides, herbal drugs and substances play a growing role the treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Many of these herbal drugs have antiinflammatory effects beside their proved symptomatic efficacy in a lot of other diseases. The specific selection of herbal drugs that are efficacious in specific indications and additionally showed antiinflammatory effects offers the possibility of simultaneous antiinflammatory and specific efficacy. St. John's Wort and milk thistle belong to the oldest and to the best experimentally and clinically examined herbal remedies. The spectrum of internal and external uses of Hypercum perforatum as a multicompound herbal drug includes functional gastro-intestinal complaint and illness, skin disease, mucosal lesion, superficial injury, depressive upset and depression, somatoform disorders, restlessness, nervosity, convalescence, exhaustion and sleep disturbances respectively. The plurivalent character of the multicompound even enables a broad spectrum of activity. This might justify to prefer St. John's Wort to other drugs in a wide range of treatments: In multimorbide patients with depression or in depressive patients with coronary heart disease the anti-inflammatory effects could mean an additional advantage. However, at present there is still a great need and demand for therapy-oriented clinical research. PMID:23233103

  17. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. Results: A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. Conclusions: In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines. PMID:26401410

  18. Placebos used in clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K

    2008-06-01

    One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study. PMID:19076001

  19. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male

  20. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

  1. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  2. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  3. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on

  4. Some Issues in Japanese Accent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Kenneth L.

    This paper argues that due to the facts of accent shift, Japanese accent should itself be interpreted as pitch rather than as a diacritic on the basis of which pitch patterns are imposed by rule. The solution offered is tentative and concerns only Tokyo Japanese. It is suggested that consideration of accent in non-Tokyo dialects will strengthen…

  5. Japanese National Standards: Learning Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Indiana Teachers of Japanese.

    This small manual presents 12 learning scenarios designed to teach the Japanese national learning standards to American learners of Japanese. It is written by teachers for teachers. These scenarios are designed to teach interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational communication; practices and products of culture; cultural comparisons; language

  6. The Japanese University in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amano, Ikuo; Poole, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Japanese education has been a focus of comparative studies for the past 20 years. Many scholars have attributed the economic success of this industrialized society to a highly literate and well-educated population. Recent studies, however, have tended to be more critical of, in particular, Japanese higher education (HE). Indeed, most universities

  7. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  8. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8

  9. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the

  10. The Japanese Language: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhouse, A. E.

    This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…

  11. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to

  12. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    PubMed

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821

  13. Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions. PMID:25191281

  14. Social Networks and the Maintenance of Conformity: Japanese sojourner women

    PubMed Central

    Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other “company wives.” Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families. PMID:23162609

  15. Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Romero-Jimnez, Magdalena; Campos-Snchez, Juan; Analla, Mohamed; Muoz-Serrano, Andrs; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles

    2005-08-01

    Six herbal infusions used worldwide (Matricaria chamomilla, Tilia cordata, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Uncaria tomentosa and Valeriana officinalis) were assayed for anti-genotoxicity using the Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. All these infusions are traditionally used for various medical purposes, including anti-inflammatory processes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidative genotoxicant to test the anti-genotoxic potency of the medicinal infusions. None of these infusions showed a significant genotoxicity, quite the reverse they were able to behave as desmutagens, detoxifying the mutagen hydrogen peroxide. The phenolic content of such herbal infusions is argued to be the possible scavenger of reactive oxygen radicals produced by the hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16005256

  16. Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Stickel, F; Schuppan, D

    2007-04-01

    Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is widespread. Licensing regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal products are still incomplete and clearcut proof of their efficacy in liver diseases is sparse. Nevertheless, a number of herbals show promising activity including silymarin for antifibrotic treatment, phyllantus amarus in chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis, and a number of herbal combinations from China and Japan that deserve testing in appropriate studies. Apart from therapeutic properties, reports are accumulating about liver injury after the intake of herbals, including those advertised for liver diseases. Acute and/or chronic liver damage occurred after ingestion of some Chinese herbs, herbals that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, germander, greater celandine, kava, atractylis gummifera, callilepsis laureola, senna alkaloids, chaparral and many others. Since the evidence supporting the use of botanicals to treat chronic liver diseases is insufficient and only few of them are well standardised and free of potential serious side effects, most of these medications are not recommended outside clinical trials. Particularly with regard to the latter, adequately powered randomised-controlled clinical trials with well-selected end points are needed to assess the role of herbal therapy for liver diseases. PMID:17331820

  17. [Exploration on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoqing

    2010-03-01

    For exploration on the academic thought on processing of Chinese herbal medicine the basic theory and methods, textual research of the scientific of Zhang Zhongiing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was summarized, and the historical significance on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was analyzed. Regarded Zhang Zhongjing is the ancestor of processing of Chinese herbal medicine to lay the theoretical foundation on processing of Chinese herbal medicine for later. PMID:20545213

  18. History and Experience: A Survey of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM. PMID:24624220

  19. Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens

    PubMed Central

    Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, D. Srinivas; Prasadini, P. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (1–42 days). Group 2–10 chicks were fed with basal diet containing cadmium at 100 ppm from day 1 to day 28 (4 weeks). From 29th to 42nd day (2 weeks), basal diet alone was fed to group 2 chicks which acted as toxic control and group 3–10 birds were fed with feed containing 0.1% powder of W. somnifera, O. sanctum, Aspe. recemosus, An. paniculata, Asph. panjabinum (Shilajith), G. sylvestre, S. platensis, and P. ginseng, respectively. Body weight gain, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), liver functional markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), kidney functional markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and concentration of cadmium in liver and kidney were investigated. Results: Body weight gains were significantly decreased in birds of groups 2–10 compared to group 1 at the end of 4th week. Supplementation of various medicinal herbs in feed after 4th week significantly improved the body weight gain compared to that in group 2 chicks. The increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in cadmium intoxicated birds were significantly reversed by the above-said herbs. The liver and kidney functional markers were also restored to normal levels. Highest concentration of cadmium was found accumulated in kidney, followed by liver in birds of group 2. Herbal supplementation in groups 3–10 prevented Cd bioaccumulation which was most evident in liver, followed by kidney. Conclusions: Administration of herbal adaptogens at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of Cd and reversed the Cd-induced oxidative tissue damage. PMID:21455421

  20. A case-marking cue for filler-gap dependencies in children's relative clauses in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2011-11-01

    Object relative clauses have traditionally been thought to be more difficult than subject relative clauses in child English. However, recent studies as well as Japanese data show contradictory results. This study disclosed preschool children's superior performance on object relative clauses in Japanese; however, this dominance disappeared for the children who could use both the nominative and accusative case markers as cues for the comprehension of single-argument sentences. Assuming a filler-gap dependency for the relative clause formation, we suggest that there is no difference in the difficulty between subject and object relative clauses in the grammar of Japanese-speaking children. PMID:21306657