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1

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions.

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

2

JAPANESE HERBAL MEDICINE IN FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its “natural” approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Aim To summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. Results JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while Dai-Kenchu-to improves symptoms of post-operative ileus and constipation in children. Conclusions This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional disorders.

Suzuki, Hidekazu; Inadomi, John M.; Hibi, Toshifumi

2009-01-01

3

The inhibitory effect of ergosterol, a bioactive constituent of a traditional Japanese herbal medicine saireito on the activity of mucosal-type mast cells.  

PubMed

Mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) is presumed to be regulated primarily by type 2 T helper cell immune responses and mucosal mast cells in the colon are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mucosal inflammation. Saireito, a Japanese herbal medicine of standardized quality, originating from traditional Chinese medicine (Kampo medicine), is composed of two different Kampo medicines (shosaikoto and goreisan) and is often used for UC in Japan. In this study, we examined the direct effects of these Kampo medicines and their constituents on the antigen-induced degranulation of mucosal-type mast cells. Mucosal-type murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs) were pretreated by these drugs for 24 h, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-triggered degranulation of mBMMCs was assessed by beta-hexosaminidase release. Goreisan showed inhibitory effects on degranulation of mBMMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Among the five constituent medicinal herbs of goreisan, Poria and Polyporus had the inhibitory effects on mBMMCs. Ergosterol, a principal and common component of Poria and Polyporus, also suppressed the degranulation of mBMMCs. Our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of saireito on UC. PMID:20045953

Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kadowaki, Makoto

2010-01-01

4

Effectiveness of Traditional Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, Daiobotanpito, in Combination with Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Diverticulitis: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, daiobotanpito (DBT) or Da Huang Mu Dan Tang in Chinese has been used in medical treatment of acute diverticulitis for many years based on the experience. Our aim was to investigate whether the treatment of acute diverticulitis can be treated with intravenous antibiotics plus orally administrated DBT than intravenous antibiotics alone. A retrospective nonrandomized open-label trial was established to compare patients with acute diverticulitis who received oral DBT associated with intravenous antibiotics with those who received intravenous antibiotic alone. We included 34 patients, eleven patients in group 1 with DBT and 23 patients in group 2 without DBT. Both groups were comparable in patient demographics and clinical characteristics. There was a significantly better outcome in the group treated with DBT than in the group without DBT when comparing duration of fever, abdominal pain, and antibiotics administration. A trend toward a day shorter mean hospital stay and fasting was seen in group 1, although this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, most patients with acute diverticulitis can be managed safely with oral DBT. Although randomized, double-blind study must be done, we could show the possibility to use daiobotanpito as an additional option in treating acute diverticulitis.

Nishijima, Koji; Futagami, Fumio; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimura, Genichi

2013-01-01

5

Hochuekkito, a Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) Medicine, Enhances Mucosal IgA Antibody Response in Mice Immunized with Antigen-entrapped Biodegradable Microparticles  

PubMed Central

The effect of oral administration of Hochuekkito (HET; Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, on mucosal IgA immune response was investigated. To induce the antigen-specific antibodies in mucosal site, ovalbumin (OVA)-entrapped biodegradable microparticles (OVA-microparticles) were used as an antigen. Mice were orally immunized with OVA-microparticles for 3 successive days with intragastric gavage. From 7 days after the onset of immunization, the mice were boosted twice a week with the same antigen for 2 weeks. HET or water alone was orally administered to the mice via the intragastric route from 7 days before to 27 days after the onset of immunization. Although no significant change in total secretory IgA antibody level was observed in intestinal and nasal washes, OVA-specific IgA titers in intestinal washes were significantly enhanced by oral administration of HET. When lymphocytes from spleen, peripheral blood and Payer's patches were investigated for cytokines production, it was found that the IFN-? secretion from the lymphocytes was increased by the administration of HET. Microarray analysis of Peyer's patch cells revealed enhanced expression of L-selectin gene. The increase of L-selectin positive cells in B lymphocytes fraction was observed in Peyer's patch cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry. These results suggest that the enhanced IFN-? secretion and increased population of L-selectin positive B lymphocytes by orally administered HET may partly contribute to enhancement of IgA immune response against intestinal antigens, and orally administered HET may strengthen defensive systems against various pathogens and food antigens in intestine.

Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Noguchi, Masaaki; Hayashi, Osamu; Makino, Kimiko

2010-01-01

6

Effects of Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on growth and virulence properties of Porphyromonas gingivalis and viability of oral epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Kampos, commonly used in Japanese traditional medicine, are standardized herbal mixtures that have been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. We hypothesized that Kampos may have unidentified properties that may be beneficial in periodontitis, an inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues. Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate various Kampos and their natural ingredients for their effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis growth, adherence to epithelial cells and proteinase activity. In addition, their effects on oral epithelial cell viability were evaluated. Materials and methods: Growth inhibition of P. gingivalis by various Kampos and their natural ingredients was evaluated by a microdilution broth assay method. Their effects on P. gingivalis proteinase activity and adherence to oral epithelial cells were determined by fluorometric assays. The cytotoxicity of test compounds towards oral epithelial cells was evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] test. Results: Of the 27 Kampos tested, 7 were found to inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (250?µg/ml) was obtained with TJ-113. Analysis of the composition of the seven active Kampos showed that they contain Chinese rhubarb as a common ingredient. Therefore, additional growth inhibitory assays on P. gingivalis were carried out with purified anthraquinones known to be present in rhubarb. Aloe-emodin and rhein possessed the strongest antibacterial effects towards P. gingivalis with an MIC of 0.78?µg/ml. The seven Kampos containing rhubarb and purified anthraquinones also exhibited the capacity to decrease the adherence of P. gingivalis to oral epithelial cells and to reduce its proteinase activity. The most important anti-adherence effect of Kampo was obtained with TJ-126; at 250?µg/ml it reduced adherence of P. gingivalis to epithelial cells by 83%. Purified anthraquinones were found to be less active than Kampos. Kampo TJ-113 was found to be the most effective for inhibition of gelatin degradation (49% inhibition at 62.5?µg/ml). Again, purified anthraquinones inhibited gelatin degradation to a lesser extent. Lastly, none of the tested compounds showed cytotoxicity towards oral epithelial cells at the effective concentrations. Conclusion: Kampos containing rhubarb and its anthraquinone derivatives may represent promising molecules for controlling periodontal diseases through their capacity to inhibit P. gingivalis growth and virulence properties. PMID:23987742

Liao, James; Zhao, Lei; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

2013-08-29

7

Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. Objective: The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Materials and methods: Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusions: Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use. PMID:23746335

Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

2013-06-07

8

The clinical use of Kampo medicines (traditional Japanese herbal treatments) for controlling cancer patients' symptoms in Japan: a national cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Kampo medicines are traditional Japanese medicines produced from medicinal plants and herbs. Even though the efficacy of Kampo medicines for controlling cancer-related symptoms is being reported, their actual nationwide clinical use has not been comprehensively investigated. We aimed to investigate physicians’ recognition of Kampo medicines and their clinical use for cancer patients in the field of palliative care. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 549 physicians working in palliative care teams at 388 core cancer treatment hospitals and 161 certified medical institutions that have palliative care units (PCUs). Results Valid responses were obtained from 311 physicians (response rate, 56.7%) who were evenly distributed throughout the country without significant geographical biases. Kampo medicines were prescribed for controlling cancer-related symptoms by 64.3% of the physicians. The symptoms treated with Kampo medicines were numbness/hypoesthesia (n?=?99, 49.5%), constipation (n?=?76, 38.0%), anorexia/weight loss (n?=?72, 36%), muscle cramps (n?=?71, 35.5%) and languor/fatigue (n?=?64, 32.0%). Regarding open issues about prescription, 60.7% (n?=?173) of the physicians raised the issue that the dosage forms need to be better devised. Conclusions To increase the clinical use of Kampo medicines, more evidence from clinical studies is necessary. In addition, their mechanisms of action should be clarified through laboratory studies.

2012-01-01

9

Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

Torres, Eliseo

10

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

2004-02-01

11

Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review  

PubMed Central

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region.

2005-01-01

12

The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.  

PubMed

Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims. PMID:22955367

Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

2012-10-01

13

Japanese Herbal Medicine Toki-shakuyaku-san (TJ-23) Enhances Cardiac Contractile Function in Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toki-shakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, has a long history in Asia for the treatment of neurodegenerative, immune, and airway diseases. However, the effect of TJ-23 on heart function has not been elucidated. This study was designed to examine the effect of TJ-23 on ventricular contractile function at the single cardiomyocyte level. Ventri- cular cardiomyocytes from adult rat hearts

Nicholas S. Aberle II; Midori Hiramatsu; Jun Ren

2003-01-01

14

Herbal and NonTraditional Therapies for Viral Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Key Principles\\u000a \\u000a Complementary alternative therapy is a growing market, estimated at $180 billion annually, with at least one-third of liver\\u000a patients acknowledging their use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients infected with hepatitis B and C account for the wide use of herbal and non-traditional therapies for viral hepatitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Silymarin is most commonly used for patients with liver disease. In hepatitis C patients, two small

Veronika Gagovic; Paul Kwo

15

Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition

2010-01-01

16

IT revolution in the Japanese traditional company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese companies are conducting extensive restructuring of their operations following examples of US companies that transformed their organizations successfully to complement economic conditions. Accordingly, there is a growing fear that a 'corporate Alzheimer's phenomenon' may result; thus, an important concern has become the study of knowledge management. The assured success of revolutionizing Japanese industry depends entirely upon the fusion of

Hiroyulu Yamasaki; Ikuo Yamada

2000-01-01

17

Basic Consideration of 3D Digital Traditional Japanese Crafting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the modernization of the industrial structure the traditional Japanese crafting industries have not always introduced advanced technology. So, in order to activate those industries as local industries, it is required to promote their activities, train up their successors and improve their productivity. We propose a user-friendly three-dimensional CG presentation system for typical Japanese crafting industries. Using our

Kaoru Sugita; Akihiro Miyakawa; Koji Hashimoto; Tomoe Fukamachi; Yoshitaka Shibata

2001-01-01

18

Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

19

Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori.

Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

2010-01-01

20

Traditional Use of Herbal Remedies in Livestock by Farmers in 3 Swiss Cantons (Aargau, Zurich, Schaffhausen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: This study investigated the extent of traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in 3 Swiss cantons (Aargau, Zurich, Schaffhausen). The study focused on organic farms. Methods: At 21 farms, 24 farmers aged 36–83 years were interviewed with a semi-structured, detailed questionnaire. For each homemade herbal remedy, the plant species, mode of preparation, source

Kathrin Schmid; Silvia Ivemeyer; Christian Vogl; Franziska Klarer; Beat Meier; Matthias Hamburger; Michael Walkenhorst

2012-01-01

21

Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort.

Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

2012-01-01

22

Traditional herbal management of sickle cell anemia: lessons from Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

Ameh, Sunday J; Tarfa, Florence D; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

2012-11-08

23

Bio-politics and the promotion of traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that, in the past 50 years, Vietnam has experienced a traditional medicine 'revival' that can be traced back to late President Ho Chi Minh's 1955 appeal 'to study means of uniting the effects of oriental remedies with those of Europe'. In this article, I demonstrate how traditional herbal medicine came to be recruited as an important component of national efforts to promote the public health of urban and rural populations in Vietnam. Importantly, this has entailed a rejection of a colonial biopolitics that sought to marginalize 'quackery' in favour of a postcolonial bio-politics that aims to promote the 'appropriate' use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy that encourages rural populations to become self-sufficient in the herbal treatment of their most common illnesses. PMID:16513657

Wahlberg, Ayo

2006-04-01

24

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

25

Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used for HIV/ AIDS and other health conditions in Uganda and sub-Saharan Africa, often in parallel with programs that provide antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the 1990's an estimated 80% of Ugandans living in rura...

B. J. Auerbach C. Kukunda-Byobona C. Merry M. Lamorde S. J. Reynolds

2012-01-01

26

Traditional herbal cosmetics used by local women communities in district Attock of Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times woman have turned to the beautifies of nature to help or increase their own beauty. Even today, people especially in rural areas depend upon plants for traditional cosmetics. The research work is confined to herbal cosmetics with special reference of local communities of district Northern Pakistan. Through questionnaires, study was conducted in 20 villages of district Attock

Mushtaq Ahmad; Mir Ajab Khan; Muhammad Zafar

27

Traditional Japanese medicine, Kampo: Its history and current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Japanese medicine, Kampo, is used by over 80% of medical doctors in Japan. Owing to its high quality and safety,\\u000a Kampo has been integrated into modern medicine, and there are 345 randomized controlled trials using Kampo in Japan as of\\u000a 2010. Although there are a number of articles in top journals about basic science research, we can find only

Yoshiharu Motoo; Takashi Seki; Kiichiro Tsutani

2011-01-01

28

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal  

PubMed Central

Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.

2010-01-01

29

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

30

Therapeutic effects of traditional herbal medicine on cerebral ischemia: A perspective of vascular protection.  

PubMed

Although many agents for acute ischemic stroke treatment have been developed from extensive preclinical studies, most have failed in clinical trials. As a result, researchers are seeking other methods or agents based on previous studies. Among the various prospective approaches, vascular protection might be the key for development of therapeutic agents for stroke and for improvements in the efficacy and safety of conventional therapies. Traditional medicines in Asian countries are based on clinical experiences and literature accumulated over thousands of years. To date, many studies have used traditional herbal medicines to prove or develop new agents based on stroke treatments mentioned in traditional medicinal theory or other clinical data. In the current review, we describe the vascular factors related to ischemic brain damage and the herbal medicines that impact these factors, including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, Notoginseng Radix, and Curcumae Rhizoma, based on scientific reports and traditional medical theory. Further, we point out the problems associated with herbal medicines in stroke research and propose better methodologies to address these problems. PMID:24170629

Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Kyungjin; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan

2013-10-30

31

Feasibility of replacing antibiotic feed promoters with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Bazhen in weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the feasibility of replacing antibiotic as growth promoter for weaned piglets with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Bazhen. Thirty-six weaned piglets (average initial body weight 8.92±1.18 kg) were used in this study. Pigs were blocked according to weight, sex and litter origin, and then randomly assigned to control (basal diet), antibiotics (100 ppm chlortetracycline and 100 ppm oxytetracycline) and Bazhen

T. F. Lien; Y. M. Horng; C. P. Wu

2007-01-01

32

Traditional Japanese medicine, Kampo: its history and current status.  

PubMed

Traditional Japanese medicine, Kampo, is used by over 80% of medical doctors in Japan. Owing to its high quality and safety, Kampo has been integrated into modern medicine, and there are 345 randomized controlled trials using Kampo in Japan as of 2010. Although there are a number of articles in top journals about basic science research, we can find only small numbers of high-quality clinical evidence. Since undergraduate education on Kampo has been established, integrative approach with the balanced combination of modern medicine and Kampo is expected to generate good clinical evidence in the near future. PMID:21390572

Motoo, Yoshiharu; Seki, Takashi; Tsutani, Kiichiro

2011-02-10

33

The Association between Traditional Chinese Dietary and Herbal Therapies and Uterine Involution in Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese postpartum care is believed to help in the recovery of women after delivery. Objective. This study investigated the association of elements in dietary and herbal therapy with uterine involution. Methods. Indices of uterine involution were measured ultrasonographically in 127 postpartum women between 4-6 weeks after delivery. A self-reported retrospective questionnaire was used to query women about their frequencies of taking herbal medicines and consuming special diets during the first month after delivery. Correlation coefficients were calculated to identify the associations, then the regression models were used to identify the predictors. Result. Among the herbal medicines and diet, consumption of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) negatively correlated with the AP diameter of the uterus and the cavity. E. ulmoides was also the only predictor of maximum AP diameter of the uterus, AP diameter of the uterus 5 cm from the fundus, and the maximum AP diameter of the cavity. Moreover, consumption of Sheng-hau-tang was significantly correlated with anteverted uterus and was a predictor of anteverted uterus. Conclusion. E. ulmoides and Sheng-hau-tang positively correlated with the degree of uterine involution after delivery, implying that both therapies might possess the pharmacological efficacy of uterine contraction in postpartum women.

Ho, Ming; Li, Tsai-Chung; Su, Shan-Yu

2011-01-01

34

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.

2004-01-01

35

GABA(A) receptor modulators from Chinese herbal medicines traditionally applied against insomnia and anxiety.  

PubMed

Several Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are used in the treatment of insomnia, restlessness, or anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying this effect and scientific proof for their traditional use is scarce. In the present study CHMs were screened for their ability to modulate GABA-induced chloride currents (I(GABA)), and active principles were isolated thus providing scientific evidence for their use as sedative and/or anxiolytic agents in CM. Herbal drugs were extracted successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and further fractionated according to their bioactivity. The obtained extracts, fractions and finally pure compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate I(GABA) using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique on recombinant ?????(2S) GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. From all tested extracts the petroleum ether extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. rhizomes showed the strongest I(GABA) potentiation and was studied in more detail. This led to the isolation of the main components atractylenolide II and III, which seem to be responsible for the observed positive modulation of I(GABA) (166±12%, n=3 and 155±12%, n=3, respectively) in vitro. They were more active than the analogous compound atractylenolide I (96±3%, n=3) which differs in an additional double binding in position 9, 9a. Furthermore it could be shown that this effect is mediated independently of the benzodiazepine (BZ) binding site. In conclusion, A. macrocephala exerts its in vitro activity on recombinant GABA(A) receptors mainly through the two sesquiterpene lactones atractylenolide II and III (Fig. 1). This positive allosteric modulation of I(GABA) may partially be responsible for the traditional ethnopharmacological use of this herbal drug as a sedative. PMID:22118921

Singhuber, Judith; Baburin, Igor; Kählig, Hanspeter; Urban, Ernst; Kopp, Brigitte; Hering, Steffen

2011-11-25

36

Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…

Shiobara, Mari

2011-01-01

37

[Dyspeptic pain and phytotherapy--a review of traditional and modern herbal drugs].  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal complaints rank among the most frequently reasons why people asking for medical advice. About 15-30% of the adult patients suffer from different various functional dyspeptic conditions. The therapy of functional gastrointestinal disorders is one of the domains of phytotherapeutic treatments. From ancient times on, bitter herbal drugs played a very important role in the therapy of patients with dyspeptic symptoms. The mechanisms of action of the bitters are not completely understood. But there are indications that they sensorially stimulate at even very small concentrations sensorially the secretion of the stomach as well as the digestive glands and strengthen the smooth musculature of the digestive tract (via the gustatory system, N. vagus and the enteric nervous system). Across the enteral nervous system the strengthened digestive tract seems to stimulate the CNS, leading to a general tonification. At higher dosages bitters probably directly affect the mucous membranes of the stomach and the bowel. Bitters often are combined with essential oils (some volatile oils as aromatic bitters, drug combinations of a volatile oil with a bitter). Essential oils act primarily as spasmolytics, carminatives and local anesthetics. In the last years several controlled studies were carried out with phytotherapeutic combinations (e.g. with Iberis amara, caraway oil, peppermint oil, curcuma extract, ginger extract) in which the herbal drugs proved to be superior compared to placebo and were as effective as prokinetics (studies according to evidence-based medicine). The traditional phytotherapeutic approach is based upon the illness- as well as the patient-related investigations referring to the effectiveness of bitter, acrid- and essential-oil drugs. Such a treatment is supported by a rich amount of various of kinds of individual empirical experience (experience-based phytotherapy). Important traditional medical systems like the Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Ayurvedic Medicine as well as the European 'Humoral Medicine' consider different aspects of the sick human being, like the constitution of the patient (holistic approach), and take qualities of herbal drugs, vegetarian food, and spices into account for therapeutic purposes. PMID:11694755

Saller, R; Iten, F; Reichling, J

2001-10-01

38

New TNF-alpha releasing inhibitors as cancer preventive agents from traditional herbal medicine and combination cancer prevention study with EGCG and sulindac or tamoxifen.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines are now attracting attention as potential sources of cancer preventive agents. Using inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release assay, we studied Acer nikoense, Megusurino-ki in Japanese. Inhibitory potential was found in the leaf extract, and the main active principles were identified as geraniin and corilagin. The IC(50) values for TNF-alpha release inhibition were 43 microM for geraniin and 76 microM for corilagin, whereas that for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the green tea polyphenol, as control was 26 microM. Furthermore, treatment with geraniin inhibited okadaic acid tumor promotion in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment on mouse skin. Geraniin and corilagin are present in another well-known Japanese traditional herb, Geranium thunbergii, Genno-shoko in Japanese. Considering seasonal variations of the agents and sites of cultivation of herbs, this paper reviews the significance of geraniin as a new cancer preventive agent. In addition, based on accumulated results of green tea as a cancer preventive, we review two important results with EGCG: the synergistic effects of EGCG with sulindac or tamoxifen on cancer preventive activity in PC-9 cells, and cancer prevention of intestinal tumor development in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice by cotreatment using EGCG with sulindac. We report here new findings on additional gene expression resulting from cotreatment with EGCG and sulindac in PC-9 cells compared with gene expression by EGCG alone or sulindac alone. Overall, our results indicate that, with the continuing spread of cancer chemoprevention as a fundamental medical strategy, both clinicians and researchers should take a closer look at herbal medicine. PMID:12628509

Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami; Kurusu, Miki; Okabe, Sachiko; Imayoshi, Yoko; Taniguchi, Shoko; Yoshida, Takashi

39

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-01-23

40

Stimulation of tetanus toxoid-specific immune responses by a traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory properties of botanical medicinals are well-documented. In this study, the capacity for the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia Six Formula (R6F), to stimulate anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity following oral administration to mice was examined. A significant rise in serum anti-TT antibody levels were observed in R6F-treated mice immunized with a minimum immunogenic dose of 10 microg TT suggesting an oral adjuvant effect. No such enhancement was found for unimmunized mice treated with R6F. This anti-TT response was preferentially IgG and antigen-specific in relation to antibody reactivity to a panel of unrelated antigens. The R6F used was safe with no adverse effects on mouse weight or survival, providing evidence for the use of R6F as an oral adjuvant. PMID:19781825

Underwood, John R; Chivers, Mark; Dang, Thi Thuong; Licciardi, Paul V

2009-04-08

41

Antioxidant activity and phenylpropanoids of Phlomis lychnitis L.: a traditional herbal tea.  

PubMed

Phlomis lychnitis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in Spain. The antioxidant-protective effects as well as its phytoconstituents have never been established. The ability of the methanolic extract to protect cells from oxidative stress was evaluated in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using hydrogen peroxide as toxic agent. The viability of PC12 cells pre-treated with the methanolic extract of Phlomis lychnitis, determined by the MTT and LDH assays, was significantly improved at the highest dose (p < 0.01). The antioxidant activity was confirmed evaluating the capacity of the plant to scavenge ABTS, DPPH, O(2) . (-) radicals and to inhibit XO. Bioassay guided fractionation led to antioxidant compounds. Qualitative HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis reported phenylpropanoids, verbascoside being the major antioxidant constituent. PMID:20422294

López, Víctor; Jäger, Anna K; Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, Maria Isabel

2010-06-01

42

Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential. PMID:17486320

Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

2007-05-08

43

Impact of Japanese Traditional Cultures on Global IS Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to re-establish a prominent position in Global Trade Competition, Japanese enterprises need to undergo some cultural changes. The real question is whether and how much cultural change can be brought about. The Japanese Banking Industry benefited from protectionism following World War II but this has led to weakness in the internal structures and inefficient practices. Whilst investment banks

Hideyuki Matsumoto

44

Are herb-pairs of traditional Chinese medicine distinguishable from others? Pattern analysis and artificial intelligence classification study of traditionally defined herbal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit

Choong Yong Ung; Hu Li; Zhi Wei Cao; Yi Xue Li; Yu Zong Chen

2007-01-01

45

Fungal medicine, Fuscoporia obliqua, as a traditional herbal medicine: its bioactivities, in vivo testing and medicinal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuscoporia obliqua is a kind of mushroom growing on silver birch. In northern terrains of Asia, Fuscoporia has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for a long period. However, its therapeutic actions were little studied until recently. Scientific research has now begun on the biological function and mechanism of action of Fuscoporia extracts. This study reveals Fuscoporia active compounds,

Tomiyasu Koyama; Yeunhwa Gu; Akira Taka

46

Dietary nitrate in Japanese traditional foods lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundJapanese longevity is the highest in the world. This is partly explained by low occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, which in turn is attributed to the Japanese traditional diet (JTD). Recent research demonstrates that nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of vascular integrity, can be generated from nitrate (NO3?), abundantly found in vegetables. It can reduce blood pressure (BP) via its

Tanja Sobko; Claude Marcus; Mirco Govoni; Shigeru Kamiya

2010-01-01

47

Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc) was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE) and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD) inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking HIV-1 interaction with target cells, i.e., the interaction between gp120 and CD4/CCR5 or gp120 and CD4/CXCR4 and point to the potential of developing these two extracts to be HIV-1 entry inhibitors.

Park, In-Woo; Han, Changri; Song, Xiaoping; Green, Linden A; Wang, Ting; Liu, Ying; Cen, Changchun; Song, Xinming; Yang, Biao; Chen, Guangying; He, Johnny J

2009-01-01

48

Isihlambezo: utilization patterns and potential health effects of pregnancy-related traditional herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many Zulu women in South Africa as a preventative health tonic during pregnancy. Though the practice is cited by ethnographers and medical practitioners, few studies have focused on specific elements of isihlambezo use and preparation. Moreover, though some evidence exists suggesting negative effects of its ingestion, the maternal-fetal health impact and toxicity of isihlambezo have not been adequately studied. We examined two aspects of this traditional antenatal health practice: (1) the potential impact of urbanization and access to Western clinic-based care on popularity and utilization patterns of isihlambezo, and (2) the potential maternal-fetal health effects of its use. Interviews were conducted among rural and urban women in clinic and non-clinic settings regarding socio-behavioral aspects of isihlambezo use. The pharmacology of certain plant ingredients of isihlambezo was investigated through laboratory assays, literature review, and interviews with traditional healers. There were significant differences by area of interview in nearly all aspects of isihlambezo use examined. Though isihlambezo was most popular among urbanites and clinic non-attenders, it was considered an important antenatal health care alternative by the majority of women surveyed. Mixing traditional and clinic-based antenatal care was also strongly advocated. Pharmacological analysis suggested the possibility of both therapeutic and harmful consequences of isihlambezo. It was suggested that the following factors might contribute the popularity of isihlambezo among urban women: high cost and inferior quality of clinic care, use of isihlambezo as a means of adapting to urbanization-related stress, and socio-cultural transition. PMID:9089914

Varga, C A; Veale, D J

1997-04-01

49

Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM.

2010-01-01

50

[Stimulatory effect of a traditional herbal medicine, Unkeito on LH-RH release].  

PubMed

In order to study the effect of Unkeito (Chinese name, Wen-Jan-Tang), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its components on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) and LH release, the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) alone or the pituitary alone or the pituitary in sequence with the MBH from normal female rats in diestrus was perifused in a sequential double-chamber perifusion system. LH-RH release from MBH increased significantly (p less than 0.05) by 50-100% of the basal level 30-90 min after the beginning of Unkeito administration. Unkeito at 5 micrograms/ml induced significant LH release (60-95% increase) from the pituitary in series with the MBH, but had no effect on LH release from the pituitary perifused alone. One of Unkeito's components Botanpi induced significant LH release, although other five components had no effect on LH release. These data suggest that Unkeito induces LH release from the pituitary through hypothalamic LH-RH, and can be used for the treatment of patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea. PMID:3910742

Tasaka, K; Miyake, A; Ohtsuka, S; Yoshimoto, Y; Aono, T; Tanizawa, O

1985-12-01

51

Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq  

PubMed Central

Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500?mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5?L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients.

Kizaibek, Murat; Popescu, Ruxandra; Prinz, Sonja; Upur, Halmurat; Singhuber, Judith; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

2012-01-01

52

Analytical methods for the detection of undeclared synthetic drugs in traditional herbal medicines as adulterants.  

PubMed

Traditional herbal medicines (THMs) are gaining popularity worldwide as an alternative approach to prescription drugs for many reasons including a general perception that they are safe. But recently there have been number of reported studies that reveal adulteration of THMs with undeclared synthetic drugs, which may potentially cause serious toxic adverse effects. This paper reviews the various classes of synthetic drugs that were found to be adulterated in THMs worldwide. The main focus is to highlight newer analytical tools used to detect adulteration. Due to the advancement in hyphenated techniques like liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and other conventional tools, it has become possible to detect synthetic drugs and their structural analogues as adulterants even if they are present in small quantities. This review also gives an overview of health-related risks after consuming such spurious products and challenges for future perspectives to control such type of malpractices. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23653249

Haneef, Jamshed; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Husain, Asif; Rashid, Mohd; Mishra, Ravinesh; Siddique, Nadeem A; Pal, Manoj

2013-05-07

53

An antidepressant effect of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine, assessed by learned helplessness model in mice.  

PubMed

The antidepressant effect of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine composed of extracts of three herbs; kumazasa leaf (Sasa Kurinensis Makino et Sibata), Japanese red pine leaf (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc) and ginseng radix (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), was assessed using a learned helplessness model in mice. The learned helplessness was produced by presenting 120 unavoidable/inescapable shocks for 3 days to the mouse in a shuttle box, and the avoidance training was carried out on day 4. Compared with the control group given tap water, free consumption of Sho-ju-sen (1%, 3% and 10%) for 21 days resulted in a significant amelioration of the response rate at 1% and 3%, and both the response rate and % avoidance at 10%. Although Sho-ju-sen (10%) caused no significant effect following the 7-day intake, it ameliorated the response rate following the 14-day intake. The extract of Japanese red pine leaf, but not kumazasa leaf or ginseng radix, mildly improved the response rate. Learned helplessness was significantly and dose-dependently reduced by imipramine (10 and 30 mg/kg i.p.), while only mildly by diazepam (1 mg/kg p.o.). These results suggest that a long-term consumption of Sho-ju-sen is effective for the amelioration of depression, and the effectiveness is derived mainly from the extract of Japanese red pine leaf. PMID:15022173

Kuribara, Hisashi; Tomioka, Hideo; Takahashi, Reiko; Onozato, Kazumi; Murohashi, Naomi; Numajiri, Tomomi; Iwata, Hisato; Koya, Sakuji

2004-02-01

54

Herbal remedies and their adverse effects in Tem tribe traditional medicine in Togo.  

PubMed

In Africa, up to 80% of the population relies on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care. In Togo, western Africa, Tem tribe is a population with old knowledge of medicinal plants, however, still very little is known about their medical practices. The present study was conducted to access for the apprehension of adverse effects of traditional remedies by Tem traditional healers (TH). Enquiry was performed by interviews with healers from August to October 2007 in Tchaoudjo prefecture (Togo). The study allowed us to interview 54 TH including 41(75.93%) males and 13(24.07%) females, who cited 102 recipes assumed to have adverse effects. The recipes were used alone to cure several diseases including haemorrhoids (22.55%), female sexual disorders and infertility (21.57%), gastrointestinal disorders (18.63%), and malaria (6.86%). A total of 34 plants belonging to 21 families were cited to be components of the recipes. Euphorbiaceae and Mimosaceae families were the most represented, however, Nauclea latifolia, Khaya senegalensis, Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Xeroderris stuhlmannii were the main components of recipes linked to adverse effects. A total of 20 adverse effects were linked to the administration of theses drugs, and among them; diarrhoea, abdominal pains, polyuria, general weakness and vomiting were the most frequently encountered. These findings were in accordance with several reports of the literature concerning medicinal plants, although they were based on empirical observations. Laboratory screenings are needed to access for the effectiveness as well as the possible toxic effects of the recipes. PMID:22238483

Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice D; Batawila, Komlan; Agban, Amegninou; Ouro-Bang'na, Kawiwou; Anani, Kokou T; Gbeassor, Mensavi; de Souza, Comlan

2010-10-02

55

The prevalence of traditional herbal medicine use among hypertensives living in South African communities  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa, over 6 million people are hypertensive and the burden of disease shows that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adults. Although treatments exist, few people comply or adhere to recommended treatment due to side effects or costs of the drugs, hence the reliance on alternative forms of treatment. Traditional herbal medicines (THM) are used for the management of hypertension but the prevalence of its use among hypertensive patients living in South African communities is not sufficiently known. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the prevalence of THM use for hypertension, among 135 purposefully selected South African participants of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, who are THM users. Data on THM use were collected by way of face to face interviews using structured questionnaires administered by trained field workers. Standard descriptive measures were used to characterize the study sample and responses to the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used when making comparisons between groups. Results There were 135 THM users, 21% of whom used THM to treat hypertension. Majority (82.1%) of the hypertensive THM users were females, only 29% were married or co-habitating, virtually all (96%) were unemployed and 86% were Christians. More than half (56%) of the respondents were aged between 55 and 64 years. THM was occasionally used (51.9%) as a combination of tea and other mixtures (63%) and prescribed by family/ friends/self-administered. There was a significant difference in the age, marital and employment status, as well as the form and frequency of THM use of hypertensive THM users compared to other THM users. Conclusions The study gives an insight into the prevalence of THM use by hypertensive patients in selected South African communities. The practice of self-medication was also observed which raises concern regarding the safety of medications taken by the participants. Health care providers should however be more aware of THM use and counsel patients regarding the combination of prescribed treatment regimen and herbal medicines and the potential of herb-drug interactions.

2013-01-01

56

Complications of traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicines (TCM)—a guide for perplexed oncologists and other cancer caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cancer patients often seek complementary or alternative medicines to supplement or replace treatments prescribed by licensed\\u000a medical practitioners. Traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicine (TCM) is a popular complementary intervention among cancer patients\\u000a of Asian ethnicity, many of whom take it during their conventional treatment. Few of these patients inform their doctors,\\u000a however, creating a risk of unexpected sequelae arising from either pharmacologic

Joanne Chiu; Thomas Yau; Richard J. Epstein

2009-01-01

57

Faith & Form: Selected Calligraphy and Painting from Japanese Religious Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive exhibit, collectors Sylvan Barnet and William Burto take users by the virtual hand and guide them through Faith & Form, an exhibition at the Freer Gallery of the Smithsonian Museum. The exhibition is based on Japanese art collected by Barnet and Burto, who "have assembled one of the finest collections of Japanese religious art in the West." Once they have launched the interactive, visitors should be sure to listen to Barnet and Burto discuss the figures in the "Womb World mandala". This mandala is a hanging scroll from the 13th century, and the image automatically adjusts to zoom in on selected figures, such as horses, goats, and humans, all arranged around the central Buddha. The collectors' commentary for another piece in the show, a section of the Lotus Sutra, a beautiful piece of calligraphy adorned with gold leaf, advises viewers to admire the piece as if it were a single page of a first folio Shakespeare.

58

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.  

PubMed

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-08-12

59

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

60

Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?  

PubMed

As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802

Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

2013-05-01

61

A further food-washing tradition in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of food-washing tradition is reported in a captive group of Japanese macaques. Two techniques are employed, with one\\u000a or both hands being used to wash food under water flowing from watering spouts. Processes of diffusion of the behaviour in\\u000a the group follow the patterns previously described by Japanese scientists observing this species. It is suggested that development\\u000a of

J. Scheurer; B. Thierry

1985-01-01

62

[Traditional and ayurvedic herbalism, homeopathy--the alternative therapeutic methods in dentistry. Review].  

PubMed

Herbalism is the oldest therapeutic system useful also ayurvedic medicine. Homepathy uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Ayurveda is a holistic form of therapy. In this meaning herbalism selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. The some substances useful in dentistry were showed in this letter. PMID:23421114

Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna

2012-01-01

63

Determination of Methanol Concentrations in Traditional Herbal Waters of Different Brands in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time.

Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali

2011-01-01

64

Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC.

Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

2013-01-01

65

Developing Seating Designs that Support Traditional Japanese Sitting Postures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zen sitting is an Eastern way of sitting. Buddha first introduced this lotus position circa 500 BC. The lotus sitting style differs from traditional Yoga sitting postures and is characterized by symmetrical positioning of the left foot over the\\u000a right thigh, and the right foot over the left thigh.

Kageyu Noro

66

Integration of religious traditions in Japanese children's view of death and afterlife.  

PubMed

Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked to draw and describe pictures of what "to live" and "to die" meant to them. Transcribed interviews were interpreted based on thematic analysis, incorporating paradigm cases and exemplars within the hermeneutical tradition. The children perceived life as an evolving process that leads to death, and regarded death as a transitional point to an afterlife. Some children perceived this process, or flow, as linear; others as circular. Their notions of death and the afterlife incorporated three main religious traditions in Japan (Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism) as well as Christianity, as illustrated by 3 case examples and children's drawings. PMID:17330361

Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

2007-03-01

67

The Traditional Chinese Herbal Remedy Tian Xian Activates Pregnane X Receptor and Induces CYP3A Gene Expression in Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of clinically used compounds and natural products. Activation of PXR in liver regulates the expression genes encoding proteins that are intimately involved in the hepatic uptake, metabolism, and elimination of toxic compounds from our bodies. PXR-mediated herb-drug interactions can have undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy. This can be especially important in cancer patients that self-administer over-the-counter herbal remedies together with conventional anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Tian xian is a traditional Chinese herbal anti-cancer remedy that activates human PXR in cell-based reporter gene assays. Moreover, tian xian alters the strength of interaction between the human PXR protein and transcriptional cofactor proteins. A novel line of humanized PXR mice are described and used here to show that tian xian increases expression of Cyp3a11 in primary cultures of rodent hepatocytes. Tian xian also induces expression of CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that co-administration of tian xian is likely contraindicated in patients undergoing anti-cancer therapy with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These data are of particular importance due to the fact that this herbal remedy is currently marketed as an adjunct therapy that reduces the side-effects of conventional chemotherapy and is available without a prescription. Future studies should be conducted to determine the extent to which co-administration of this Chinese herbal remedy alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamic properties of conventional anti-cancer therapy.

Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Staudinger, Jeff L.

2008-01-01

68

An overview on safety issues of interactions between traditional herbal medicines and pharmaceutical medicines (Una apreciación global sobre la seguridad de las interacciones entre las medicinas herbarias tradicionales y los fármacos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity world-wide of using herbal medicinal materials (HMM) from ethnic traditional medicine such as the widely used Chinese materia medica (CMM) or other ethnic herbal medicines and related proprietary health products (PHP), functional food and prescription herbal medicines has raised concerns over their concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines (PHARMED) and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the

Kelvin CHAN

2008-01-01

69

Mapping the dementia research area at the micro-level using co-terms analysis and positioning for traditional herbal medicine.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To identify the position of traditional herbal medicine in dementia research field using mapping technology. METHODS: Keywords for dementia and traditional herbal medicine for treating dementia were used to extract scientific articles from the Web of Science database from January 2000 to July 2010. A co-occurrence matrix was created based on the concurrent set of author's keywords occurring in each scientific article, and technology network maps were created from similarity index matrices. RESULTS: Twenty specialized research areas were identified in the dementia field, and the relationship strength was 0.2-0.6. Many research fields were associated with diagnosis and risk factors for dementia. Additionally, the mechanism or cause of dementia is an actively studied field. Traditional herbal medicine for treating dementia was located on a map near the cortical dementia diagnosis and therapy, and frontotemporal dementia research field with a relationship strength of 0.53 and 0.31-0.33 respectively, which demonstrates that traditional herbal medicine for dementia occupies an independent research area with a relationship to existing scientific research fields. CONCLUSION: Traditional herbal medicine can provide an alternative and complementary approach for treating dementia as evidenced by a scientific mapping analysis. PMID:23263996

Kim, Bu-Yeo; Kang, Jong Seok; Han, Jung-Soo; Jeon, Won Kyung

2012-12-21

70

The Nitrate–Nitrite–Nitric Oxide Pathway in Traditional Herbal Medicine for Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The inorganic anions nitrate and nitrite are important intermediates in the nitrogen cycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The nitrate–nitrite–nitric oxide pathway has been shown to exist in many alternative herbal medicines or dietary supplements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Many herbal medicines contain high levels of nitrate and to a less extent nitrite.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There is an effective system in certain herbal medicines for reducing nitrite

Yong-Jian Geng

71

Effect of Hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41), a Japanese herbal medicine, on the survival of mice infected with influenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral effect of Hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41), a Japanese herbal medicine, was investigated using mice infected with influenza virus. TJ-41 was found to increase the survival rate, prolong the mean survival days, suppress viral growth in bronchoalveolar labage fluid (BALF) and inhibit the lung index (lung consolidation) on day 4 after infection in mice infected with influenza, after the agent had

Kazuya Mori; Toshitaka Kido; Haruyuki Daikuhara; Iwao Sakakibara; Toshiya Sakata; Keiko Shimizu; Sakae Amagaya; Hiroshi Sasaki; Yasuhiro Komatsu

1999-01-01

72

Neuroprotective effects of yokukansan, a traditional japanese medicine, on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in cultured cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the mechanism of yokukansan (TJ-54), a traditional Japanese medicine, against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, the effects of TJ-54 on glutamate uptake function were first examined using cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Under thiamine-deficient conditions, the uptake of glutamate into astrocytes, and the levels of proteins and mRNA expressions of glutamate aspartate transporter of astrocytes significantly decreased. These decreases were ameliorated in

Z. Kawakami; H. Kanno; T. Ueki; K. Terawaki; M. Tabuchi; Y. Ikarashi; Y. Kase

2009-01-01

73

Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. PMID:23730837

Chen, Y; Zhu, J

2013-07-01

74

Rape Perception Differences Between Japanese and American College Students: On the Mediating Influence of Gender Role Traditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the differences in rape perceptions between Japanese and American college students. It was found that the Japanese minimized the seriousness of rapes, blamed the victims, and excused the rapists more than did the Americans. Cross-cultural differences in the gender role traditionality (GRT) were found to mediate these differences. GRT-mediated tendencies for increases in the

Niwako Yamawaki; Brian T. Tschanz

2005-01-01

75

Significance of Kampo, Japanese Traditional Medicine, in the Treatment of Obesity: Basic and Clinical Evidence  

PubMed Central

The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (?????) and boiogito (?????), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine.

Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

2013-01-01

76

Nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption caused by a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang ( Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a case of nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption appearing on the right thigh of a 31-year-old woman in Japan. The causative drug was determined by closed patch test on postlesional skin as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang (Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:628-30.)

Kazuhiko Matsumoto; Hajime Mikoshiba; Toshiaki Saida

2003-01-01

77

Prevalence and factors associated with traditional herbal medicine use among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related problems. Concurrent use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among HIV infected patients. However, the extent of THM use is not known in most settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with THM use among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) attending The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda. TASO is a non-governmental organization devoted to offering HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in the population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two TASO treatment centres in Uganda among 401 randomly selected eligible participants. We included participants who were 18 years and above, were enrolled on HAART, and consented to participate in the study. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. THM use referred to someone who had ever used or was currently using herbal medicine while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the time of the study. Data was captured in Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 9.0 for analysis. Results The prevalence of THM use was 33.7%. Patients on HAART for < 4 years were more likely to use THM (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.13 - 31.73) as well as those who experienced HAART side effects (OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.15 - 11.68). Older patients (?39 years) were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.26 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.83). Participants with HAART adherence levels > 95% were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.65). Conclusion The prevalence of THM use among participants on HAART was high. This raises clinical and pharmacological concerns that need attention by the health care service providers.

2011-01-01

78

Modes of occlusion in humans: A comparison of traditional aborigines and modern Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the modes of occlusion of permanent teeth among Australian Aborigines was conducted at the University of Adelaide\\u000a Faculty of Dentistry. From 1951 to 1971, 1,708 intra-oral plaster molds were taken at longitudinal changes from 444 Aborigines\\u000a leading a traditional lifestyle in Northern Australia. Comparisons and analyses then were made with molds of modern Japanese.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1) \\u000a In contrast

Sen Nakahara; Masashi Takahashi; Grant C. Townsend

1997-01-01

79

Subacute toxicity and stability of Soshiho-tang, a traditional herbal formula, in Sprague-Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Soshiho-tang (SST, Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese), an oriental herbal formula, is used for treatment of chronic liver diseases. Although many researchers have studied the pharmacological properties of SST, information about its safety and toxicity is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the potential safety of SST in Sprague–Dawley rats over a period of 4-weeks. Methods The SST was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. We measured the body weight, mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology. In addition, we analyzed the component of SST and measured the stability of its component in SST according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology, except for salivation and reduction in body weight in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group. These findings in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group are considered toxicologically insignificant because they are not accompanied by other pathological findings, including in hematology, serum biochemistry and histopatholgy, and they do not exhibit a dose–response relationship. SST is detected three components including liquiritin, baicalin, and glycyrrhizin. In addition, there were not observed the significant differences among the contents of three components in SST according to storage periods. Conclusion These results indicate that SST may be a safe material. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was more than 2000 mg/kg for both genders.

2012-01-01

80

Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.  

PubMed

Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system. PMID:23277152

Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

2012-12-07

81

Synergistic in vitro antimalarial activity of plant extracts used as traditional herbal remedies in Mali.  

PubMed

In Mali, where malaria is endemic, plants are extensively used for treating periodic fevers and malaria. According to the advice of traditional medicine, plants are often mixed during the preparation of febrifugal decoctions. In previous studies, we demonstrated the potent in vitro antimalarial activity of extracts isolated from four plants commonly used in traditional remedies: Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze, Rubiaceae, Nauclea latifolia (Sm.), Rubiaceae, Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.), Combretaceae, and Feretia apodanthera (Del.), Rubiaceae. In the present work, we evaluate the potent in vitro synergistic antimalarial interaction between these extracts, using standard isobologram analysis. Then, we evaluate their cytotoxicity on human monocytes and their mutagenic activity on an in vitro system of two beta-carboline alkaloids isolated from Guiera senegalensis (harman and tetrahydroharman). Three combinations demonstrate a strong, synergistic, inhibitory effect on in vitro plasmodial development and are devoid of cytotoxicity towards human cells. These results justify their use in association in traditional medicine. Moreover, tetrahydroharman, isolated from G. senegalensis, presents interesting antimalarial activity, no cytotoxicity and is not genotoxic in the Salmonella Ames test with and without metabolic activation. PMID:11936507

Azas, N; Laurencin, N; Delmas, F; Di, Giorgio C; Gasquet, M; Laget, M; Timon-David, P

2002-02-01

82

Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.  

PubMed

Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3906906

Kliks, M M

1985-01-01

83

A randomized, controlled trial comparing traditional herbal medicine and neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of seasonal influenza.  

PubMed

The herbal medicine, maoto, has been traditionally prescribed to patients with influenza in Japan. To better understand the efficacy of maoto for the treatment of influenza, a randomized trial was conducted for comparison with oseltamivir or zanamivir. Adult patients with influenza symptoms, including fever, positive for quick diagnostic kit for influenza within 48 h of fever onset were assessed for enrollment. The data of 28 patients randomly assigned to maoto (n = 10), oseltamivir (n = 8), or zanamivir (n = 10) were analyzed for the duration of fever (>37.5°C) and total symptom score from symptom cards recorded by the patient. Viral isolation and serum cytokine measurements were also done on days 1, 3, and 5. Maoto granules, a commercial medical dosage form, are made from four plants: Ephedra Herb, Apricot Kernel, Cinnamon Bark, and Glycyrrhiza Root. Median durations of fever of patients assigned maoto, oseltamivir, or zanamivir were 29, 46, or 27 h, respectively, significantly different for maoto and oseltamivir. No significant between-group differences were found in total symptom score among three groups. Viral persistent rates and serum cytokine levels (IFN-?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?) during the study period showed no differences among three groups. The administration of oral maoto granules to healthy adults with seasonal influenza was well tolerated and associated with equivalent clinical and virological efficacy to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:22350323

Nabeshima, Shigeki; Kashiwagi, Kenichiro; Ajisaka, Kazuhiko; Masui, Shinta; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

2012-02-16

84

Simultaneous determination of eight marker compounds in the traditional herbal medicine, Sipjundaebo-tang by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

Sipjundaebo-tang, known as a traditional herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of anemia, inflammation, and tumor. For simultaneous determination of eight components, namely 5-HMF, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, cinnamaldehyde, decursinol, 6-gingerol, decursin, and glycyrrhizin in Sipjundaebo-tang, a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established. In order to develop and validate this HPLC-DAD method, C(18) column (S-5 ?m, 4.6 × 250 mm) was used with gradient mobile phase at the column temperature of 35°C. The mobile phase was consisted of water and methanol containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. UV wavelength was set at 230, 254, 280, and 300 nm. Validation of the analytical method was evaluated by linearity, precision, and accuracy test. Calibration curve for eight marker compounds showed good linearity with R(2) > 0.9994. Limits of detection and Limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 ?g/mL to 0.13 ?g/mL and 0.03 ?g/mL to 0.41 ?g/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) value of precision test, intra-day and inter-day test, was less than 1.14% and 2.54%, respectively. The results of accuracy test were varied from 98.31% to 104.88% with RSD < 2%. This developed simultaneous determination method was efficient to the quality control of Sipjundaebo-tang. PMID:21975812

Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je

2011-10-06

85

Clematis huchouensis Tamura: a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its quality control using a high performance liquid chromatography technique.  

PubMed

A simple, specific and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for study of fingerprint chromatograms of extracts from the whole plant of Clematis huchouensis Tamura (CHT) for quality control of a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herb. An Agilent C18 column was used to separate extracts in this protocol and detection was made by ultraviolet absorbance at 340 nm. The column temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. A mobile phase consisting of (a) water (with 30 mM KH2PO4) and (b) CH3CN, (c) CH3OH was found to be suitable for this separation at a flow rate of 0.8 microl min(-1) with gradient elution. Under the described conditions, a fingerprint profile of 8 compounds was collected within 35 min, which made the HPLC method unique and interesting. The fingerprint chromatograms had good stability, precision and reproducibility. Moreover, eco-climatic (habitat) effects were studied by comparison of fingerprint chromatograms obtained from extracts of CHT collected from two habitats, with rutin as a reference marker peak. The protocol developed is quite suitable for differentiation of extracts of CHT and can be used as a quality control method for this herb and a model for other herbal drugs. PMID:17202679

Chaudhary, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Qing, He; Xiao, Pei Gen; Cheng, YiYu

2007-01-01

86

Serum levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are associated with a beneficial response to traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the usefulness of biomarkers indicating beneficial response to traditional herbal medicine (THM) among\\u000a patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed 34 RA patients who received keishinieppiittokaryojutsubu (KER), one of\\u000a the representative THM. The observational term was 12 months, and we calculated the disease activity score of 28 joints every\\u000a 3 months and evaluated the response to KER using European

Toshiaki Kogure; Hiroko Sato; Daijiro Kishi; Tomoyuki Ito; Takeshi Tatsumi

2009-01-01

87

In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). METHODS: In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. RESULTS: Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 mug/ml and 68 mug/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 mug/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 mug/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 mug/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 mug/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 mug/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 mug/ml). CONCLUSION: Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

Ali, Shereen K; Hamed, Ahmed R; Soltan, Maha M; Hegazy, Usama M; Elgorashi, Esameldin E; El-Garf, Ibrahim A; Hussein, Ahmed A

2013-05-30

88

The traditional Japanese formula keishibukuryogan inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines by dermal endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is one of the traditional herbal formulations widely administered to patients with blood stagnation for improving blood circulation; currently, it is the most frequently prescribed medicine in Japan. KBG has been reported to improve conjunctional microcirculation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of KBG and paeoniflorin, a bioactive compound of KBG, in inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines using human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HDMECs). The authors observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1??g/mL) stimulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in HDMECs. KBG treatment (10?mg/mL) significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in LPS-stimulated cultured HDMECs. Similarly, paeoniflorin significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of these cytokines in LPS-stimulated cultured HDMECs. ELISA showed that KBG and paeoniflorin suppressed the production of MIF, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? in LPS-stimulated HDMECs. Moreover, KBG and paeoniflorin decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in these cells. These results suggest that KBG may be useful for improving microvascular inflammation in patients with skin diseases. PMID:21253500

Yoshihisa, Yoko; Furuichi, Megumi; Ur Rehman, Mati; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

2010-12-28

89

The Traditional Herbal Medicine, Dangkwisoo-San, Prevents Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Dangkwisoo-San (DS) is an herbal extract that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine to treat traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effect of DS in cerebrovascular disease has not been examined experimentally. The protective effects of DS on focal ischemic brain were investigated in a mouse model. DS stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). DS (10–300??g/mL) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in mouse aorta, which was significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting that DS causes vasodilation via a NO-dependent mechanism. DS increased resting cerebral blood flow (CBF), although it caused mild hypotension. To investigate the effect of DS on the acute cerebral injury, C57/BL6J mice received 90?min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22.5?h of reperfusion. DS administered 3 days before arterial occlusion significantly reduced cerebral infarct size by 53.7% compared with vehicle treatment. However, DS did not reduce brain infarction in mice treated with the relatively specific endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of DS is primarily endothelium-dependent. This correlated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS in the brains of DS-treated mice. DS acutely improves CBF in eNOS-dependent vasodilation and reduces infarct size in focal cerebral ischemia. These data provide causal evidence that DS is cerebroprotective via the eNOS-dependent production of NO, which ameliorates blood circulation.

Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Sun Haeng; Kim, Young Whan; Ha, Jung Min; Bae, Sun Sik; Lee, Guem San; Cho, Su In; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

2011-01-01

90

[Profiles of effects of traditional oriental herbal medicines on central nervous systems in humans--assessment of saiboku-to and saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to using EEG and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine-derived ingredients as indices].  

PubMed

To elucidate usefulness of traditional oriental herbal medicines in psychiatric fields, we investigated their influences on central nervous systems in humans by using EEG and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine-derived ingredients as the indices. The subjects were 12 healthy male volunteers who received single oral administration and after that received repeated oral administrations at a daily dose of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to or Saiboku-to; EEG was recorded before administration, 1, 3, 6 hours and 10 days after administration. On direct comparison of global field powers calculated from 19-lead EEG before and after administration, it was verified that Saiboku-to possessed effects on central nervous systems. For assessment of pharmacokinetics of ingredients derived from Saiboku-to, pre- and post-treatment serum samples were assayed by HPLC and two ingredients were detected, besides individual differences being observed in their pharmacokinetic profiles. Given that these pharmacokinetics could be interpreted as the phenomena associated with Sho (traditional physical status classifications of patients), the subjects were classified into groups according to individual differences whereby quantitative pharmaco-EEG were employed to elucidate neurotropic effects of Saiboku-to. As the result, following two groups were evidenced: (1) a group demonstrating the mood elevator type after a single administration despite of no changes after repeated administrations, and (2) a group with a shift from the mood elevator type to the nootropics type being observed over time, delineating overt differences in EEG profiles among groups. Consequently, individual differences were evidenced to be involved in onset of neurotropic effects of Saiboku-to, permitting prediction of possible responses following repeated administrations by using EEG profiles. It was also suggested that neurotropic effects of respective ingredients could be anticipated by monitoring the time-course changes of both EEG and plasma levels of these ingredients. In summary, once further studies on oriental herbal medicines might progress based on efficacy assessments of respective ingredients with a clue of the present study, it is conceivable that these findings would play an important role as the objective indices in clinical application of herbal medicines in psychiatric fields, resulting in broadening the usefulness of oriental herbal medicines. PMID:9283235

Fukushima, M

1997-01-01

91

The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

2007-01-01

92

The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

2007-01-01

93

The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked to draw and describe pictures of

Miharu Sagara-Rosemeyer; Betty Davies

2007-01-01

94

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

2006-01-01

95

Traditional Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment of Diabetes among Two Major Tribal Groups in South Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants used to treat diabetic conditions are of considerable interest and a number of plants have shown varying degrees of hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activity. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was carried out among the Kani and Paliyar tribals in southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu for the exploration of antidiabetic herbal medicines. They frequently use ten species of plants for the

M. Ayyanar; K. Sankarasivaraman; S. Ignacimuthu

2008-01-01

96

Studies on interactions between traditional herbal and western medicines. IV: Lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to and carbamazepine in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions between Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to extract powder (TJ-12), a widely used traditional\\u000a Chinese herbal (Kampo) medicine, and carbamazepine (CBZ), an important anti-epileptic drug, was examined in rats. There were\\u000a no significant differences in the serum protein binding of CBZ and carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide (CBZ-E), its active metabolite,\\u000a at two concentrations (1 and 10 Bg\\/ml) between two groups pretreated orally

Noriaki Ohnishi; Shiniji Nakasako; Kazuya Okada; Sachiko Umehara; Koji Takara; Kazuki Nagasawa; Mutsunobu Yoshioka; Kazuo Kuroda; Teruyoshi Yokoyama

2001-01-01

97

Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Hochu-ekki-to in the Long-Term Management of Kikyo (Delicate Constitution) Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A 6Month, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hochu-ekki-to is a traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine that has been shown to be effective for patients with Kikyo (delicate, easily fatigable, or hypersensitive) constitution. Previous case reports have suggested that this herbal drug was effective for a certain subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hochu-ekki-to in the long-term management of

Hiromi Kobayashi; Masamitsu Ishii; Satoshi Takeuchi; Yoichi Tanaka; Takahiro Shintani; Atsushi Yamatodani; Tadashi Kusunoki; Masutaka Furue

2010-01-01

98

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.  

PubMed

Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934

Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

2012-03-28

99

Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs?  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPAR? and PPAR? and to inhibit TNF-?-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPAR? or PPAR? (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-?B (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads.

Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

2013-01-01

100

A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhoea  

PubMed Central

Background Most traditional Chinese herbal formulas consist of at least four herbs. Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) is a documented eight hundred year old formula containing four herbs and has been widely used to relieve menstrual discomfort in Taiwan. However, no specific effect had been systematically evaluated. We applied Western methodology to assess its effectiveness and safety for primary dysmenorrhoea and to evaluate the compliance and feasibility for a future trial. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial was conducted in an ad hoc clinic setting at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Seventy-eight primary dysmenorrheic young women were enrolled after 326 women with self-reported menstrual discomfort in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan were screened by a questionnaire and subsequently diagnosed by two gynaecologists concurrently with pelvic ultrasonography. A dosage of 15 odorless capsules daily for five days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain was administered. Participants were followed with two to four cycles for an initial washout interval, one to two baseline cycles, three to four treatment cycles, and three follow-up cycles. Study outcome was pain intensity measured by using unmarked horizontal visual analog pain scale in an online daily diary submitted directly by the participants for 5 days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain of each menstrual cycle. Overall-pain was the average pain intensity among days in pain and peak-pain was the maximal single-day pain intensity. At the end of treatment, both the overall-pain and peak-pain decreased in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group and increased in the placebo group; however, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The trends persisted to follow-up phase. Statistically significant differences in both peak-pain and overall-pain appeared in the first follow-up cycle, at which the reduced peak-pain in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group did not differ significantly by treatment length. However, the reduced peak-pain did differ profoundly among women treated for four menstrual cycles (2.69 (2.06) cm, mean (standard deviation), for the 20 women with Four-Agents-Decoction and 4.68 (3.16) for the 22 women with placebo, p?=?.020.) There was no difference in adverse symptoms between the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) and placebo groups. Conclusion/significance Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) therapy in this pilot post-market clinical trial, while meeting the standards of conventional medicine, showed no statistically significant difference in reducing menstrual pain intensity of primary dysmenorrhoea at the end of treatment. Its use, with our dosage regimen and treatment length, was not associated with adverse reactions. The finding of statistically significant pain-reducing effect in the first follow-up cycle was unexpected and warrants further study. A larger similar trial among primary dysmenorrheic young women with longer treatment phase and multiple batched study products can determine the definitive efficacy of this historically documented formula. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN23374750

Yeh, Lan Lan Liang; Liu, Jah-Yao; Lin, Kao-Si; Liu, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Liang, Kung-Yee; Tsai, Te-Feng; Wang, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Huang, Ching-Yi

2007-01-01

101

Cytoprotective properties of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts in hydrogen peroxide challenged human U373 astroglia cells.  

PubMed

Age is the leading risk factor for many of the most prevalent and devastating diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. A number of herbal medicines have been used for centuries to ameliorate the deleterious effects of ageing-related diseases and increase longevity. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in normal ageing as well as in neurodegenerative processes. Since many of the constituents of herbal extracts are known antioxidants, it is believed that restoring oxidative balance may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which medicinal herbs can protect against ageing and cognitive decline. Based on the premise that astrocytes are key modulators in the progression of oxidative stress associated neurodegenerative diseases, 13 herbal extracts purported to possess anti-ageing properties were tested for their ability to protect U373 human astrocytes from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. To determine the contribution of antioxidant activity to the cytoprotective ability of extracts, total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were examined. Polygonum multiflorum, amongst others, was identified as possessing potent antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Not surprisingly, total phenol content of extracts was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, when total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were compared to the cytoprotective properties of extracts, only moderately strong correlations were observed. This finding suggests the involvement of multiple protective mechanisms in the beneficial effects of these medicinal herbs. PMID:22982670

Steele, Megan L; Truong, John; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Ooi, Lezanne; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

2012-09-11

102

Rheological properties of somen noodles--a traditional Japanese wheat product.  

PubMed

We investigated the rheological properties of the Japanese wheat product tenobe somen noodles manufactured using a unique traditional process-"Te-nobe (hand-stretched)." In an extension test, the maximum resistance to extension (R(max)) and extensibility until rupture (Erup) of boiled somen noodles were measured on a Texture Analyzer in the tension test mode and compared with those of machine-made somen noodles. The R(max) and Erup values per unit cross-sectional area were significantly higher for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, clearly indicating the higher resistance to extension and extensibility of the former. A compression test performed using the Texture Analyzer in the biting-test mode revealed that although the maximum force of compression (F(max)) was lower for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, the former had more characteristic texture than the latter, which was shown by comparing the force-deformation curve of each somen noodle. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences between dried tenobe and machine-made somen noodles, which may reflect their rheological differences. Lateral and sectional micrographs of tenobe somen noodles showed regular arrays of starch granules and gluten networks, and some air spaces. Tenobe somen noodles exhibited significantly higher dityrosine content than the flour used for their manufacture, indicating that tyrosine residues in gluten proteins cross-link during the manufacturing process; however, the dityrosine content in tenobe somen noodles were not higher than that in machine-made somen noodles. PMID:20492166

Katagiri, Mina; Kitabatake, Naofumi

103

Protective Effect of Hainosankyuto, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, on Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) causes various serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. One serious problem observed recently with S. pyogenes therapy is attenuation of the antibiotic effect, especially penicillin treatment failure and macrolide resistance. Hainosankyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine based on ancient Chinese medicine, has been used for treatment of infectious purulent diseases in Japan. In this study, we investigated the protective and therapeutic efficacy of Hainosankyuto against S. pyogenes-skin infection. Methodology/Principal Findings A broth microdilution method revealed that Hainosankyuto did not show a direct anti-bacterial effect against S. pyogenes. Force-feeding Hainosankyuto to infected mice for 4 consecutive days increased the survival rate and reduced the size of local skin lesions compared with mice fed PBS. Although we did not find the significant recovery of survival rate in Hainosankyuto administration only after S. pyogenes infection, the sizes of ulcer lesion were significant smaller after Hainosankyuto administration compared with mice fed PBS. No difference was observed in the anti-bacterial effect of Hainosankyuto between macrolide-susceptible and -resistant strains. Blood bactericidal assay showed that the survival rate of S. pyogenes using the blood from Hainosankyuto -treated mice was lower than that using the blood from untreated mice. We also found increased levels of IL-12, IFN-? and a decreased level of TNF-? in the serum of S. pyogenes-infected mice treated with Hainosankyuto. Mouse peritoneal macrophage from Hainosankyuto-treated mice had significant phagocytic activity and increased mRNA levels of IL-12, IFN-? and decreased mRNA level of TNF-? compared with control macrophage. Conclusions/Significance Hainosankyuto increased survival rate after S. pyogenes infection and up-regulated both blood bactericidal activity and macrophage phagocytic activity through modulation of inflammatory cytokines. Our data also suggest Hainosankyuto may be useful for the treatment of S. pyogenes infection more prophylactically than therapeutically.

Minami, Masaaki; Ichikawa, Mariko; Hata, Nanako; Hasegawa, Tadao

2011-01-01

104

Effect of a traditional Japanese garlic preparation on blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults  

PubMed Central

Numerous clinical studies have used differing garlic preparations leading to controversial results with regard to the hypotensive effect of garlic. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine the effect of a traditional Japanese garlic homogenate-based supplementary diet (GH diet) product on blood pressure (BP) in subjects with prehypertension and in those with mild hypertension. In total, 34 eligible subjects with prehypertension and 47 with mild hypertension were treated with a daily dose of GH diet (300 mg as dried garlic homogenate; n=16 and 23, respectively) or placebo (n=18 and 24, respectively) for 12 weeks. Of these, 32 prehypertensive subjects (15 on the GH diet and 17 on the placebo) and 40 mildly hypertensive subjects (19 on the GH diet and 21 on the placebo) completed the study and were subjected to efficacy analyses. Systolic and diastolic BPs were monitored at weeks 4, 8 and 12 during the treatment and at post-week 4 following the termination of the treatment. The GH diet induced significant reductions of systolic BP (of between 6.6 and 7.5 mmHg) and diastolic BP (of between 4.6 and 5.2 mmHg) compared with the placebo subsequent to 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. A 12-week intake of the GH diet did not cause any clinically problematic side-effects. We conclude that the GH diet was well tolerated, and had a clinically relevant hypotensive effect in adults with mild hypertension, but not in those with prehypertension.

NAKASONE, YASUSHI; NAKAMURA, YOSUKE; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

2013-01-01

105

Effect of a traditional Japanese garlic preparation on blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.  

PubMed

Numerous clinical studies have used differing garlic preparations leading to controversial results with regard to the hypotensive effect of garlic. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine the effect of a traditional Japanese garlic homogenate-based supplementary diet (GH diet) product on blood pressure (BP) in subjects with prehypertension and in those with mild hypertension. In total, 34 eligible subjects with prehypertension and 47 with mild hypertension were treated with a daily dose of GH diet (300 mg as dried garlic homogenate; n=16 and 23, respectively) or placebo (n=18 and 24, respectively) for 12 weeks. Of these, 32 prehypertensive subjects (15 on the GH diet and 17 on the placebo) and 40 mildly hypertensive subjects (19 on the GH diet and 21 on the placebo) completed the study and were subjected to efficacy analyses. Systolic and diastolic BPs were monitored at weeks 4, 8 and 12 during the treatment and at post-week 4 following the termination of the treatment. The GH diet induced significant reductions of systolic BP (of between 6.6 and 7.5 mmHg) and diastolic BP (of between 4.6 and 5.2 mmHg) compared with the placebo subsequent to 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. A 12-week intake of the GH diet did not cause any clinically problematic side-effects. We conclude that the GH diet was well tolerated, and had a clinically relevant hypotensive effect in adults with mild hypertension, but not in those with prehypertension. PMID:23404465

Nakasone, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

2012-11-20

106

The origin and the tradition of European herbalism for human wellness: from the roots of an ancient approach to modern herbalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of civilization, people have used plants to improve their health. In recent years, there has been a reawakened\\u000a scientific interest in the fundamental role plants play in many areas, including human health. Beginning from the 20th century,\\u000a the field of folk tradition experienced a shift from the raw compilation of data to a greater methodological and conceptual

Maria Laura Colombo; Stefania Dalfrà; Bruno Scarpa

107

A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS)  

PubMed Central

A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

2013-01-01

108

A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).  

PubMed

A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

2013-02-01

109

First Nationwide Attitude Survey of Japanese Physicians on the Use of Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) in Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this nationwide survey was to investigate the use of Kampo medicine by Japanese physicians who worked in the core cancer treatment hospitals which were designated by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 900 physicians surveyed, 92.4% reported having prescribed Kampo medications, of whom 73.5% reported having prescribed them for cancer patients. Despite this high percentage and the finding that only 9.7% of the physicians reported that they considered Kampo medications to be harmful, only 23.1% of the physicians expressed high expectations of the efficacy of Kampo medicine in tumor suppression and the exertion of immunostimulatory action. In contrast, many cancer patients have expressed the belief that Kampo medications can suppress tumor growth, and several studies have reported that they exert immunostimulatory action. To resolve this discrepancy in patient and physician expectations and to clarify the research findings, further research into the effectiveness and harmfulness of Kampo medicine in cancer treatment is warranted.

Ito, A.; Munakata, K.; Imazu, Y.; Watanabe, K.

2012-01-01

110

Effect of Hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41), a Japanese Herbal Medicine, on Daily Activity in a Murine Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We aimed to evaluate the effect of a Japanese herbal medicine, Hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41), on daily activity in a murine model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA) antigen every 2 weeks. TJ-41 was orally administered to mice in a dose of 500?mg/kg/day for 1 week before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving TJ-41 as compared with that in untreated mice. Survival of both mouse groups was also monitored during the observation period. Body weight (BW), spleen weight (SW), SW/ BW ratio and expression levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. Two mice in the untreated group died 2 days after the second injection of BA, whereas no mice in the group treated with TJ-41 died. The SW and SW/BW ratio were significantly lower in the treated mice than in the control. Suppressed IL-10 mRNA levels were observed in the spleens of the mice treated with TJ-41. Our data suggest that Hochu-ekki-to might possess an inhibitory effect on the marked decrease in running activity following BA injection.

2004-01-01

111

Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.  

PubMed

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

Munyaradzi, Mawere

2011-09-21

112

Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies  

PubMed Central

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem.

Munyaradzi, Mawere

2011-01-01

113

Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

2009-01-01

114

The Traditional Herbal Medicine Saireito Exerts Its Inhibitory Effect on Murine Oxazolone-Induced Colitis via the Induction of Th1-Polarized Immune Responses in the Mucosal Immune System of the Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ulcerative colitis is an intractable inflammatory colonic disease, and its etiology remains unclear. Saireito, a traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for treating ulcerative colitis in Japan. We analyzed the immunological characteristics of an oxazolone (OXZ)-induced colitis (OC) model and examined the effects of sareito on this model. Methods: OXZ was injected into the colon of BALB\\/c mice. Saireito

Tetsuo Watanabe; Takeshi Yamamoto; Minako Yoshida; Kanae Fujiwara; Natsuko Kageyama-Yahara; Hirofumi Kuramoto; Yutaka Shimada; Makoto Kadowaki

2010-01-01

115

Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-08-24

116

Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine): A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system.

Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.

2012-01-01

117

CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

2011-06-01

118

Highly efficient sample preparation and quantification of constituents from traditional Chinese herbal medicines using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

In this work, a rapid and simple method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Guge Fengtong preparation (GGFT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was investigated for validation, and eight major constituents were determined including four saponins (protodioscin, protogracillin, pseudoprotodioscin and dioscin) and four gingerols (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol). Response surface methodology and desirability function were employed to optimize the extraction conditions, such as dispersant, dispersant/sample ratio, solvent concentration, and elution volume, of MSPD. Results showed that MSPD using C18 (1.75 g) as the dispersant material and methanol (89%, v/v) as the eluting solvent (12.00 mL) resulted in a high extraction efficiency. MSPD extraction had the advantages of combining extraction and clean-up in a single step, was less time consuming and required lower solvent volumes compared with conventional methods. Quantification of chemical compounds from GGFT preparations were performed using UPLC-MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The proposed method afforded a low limit of detection ranging from 0.02 to 0.40 ng for saponins and gingerols. For all the analytes, recoveries ranged from 80.9% to 103% and repeatabilities were acceptable with relative standard deviations of less than 6.81%. The proposed MSPD-UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully utilized to analyze five batches of GGFTs, and the results demonstrated that this method is simple, efficient and has potential to be applied for the quality control of herbal preparations. PMID:23443607

Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Qi; Liu, Xin-Guang; Boubertakh, Besma; Wan, Jin-Yi; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

2013-04-21

119

Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Little is known about the relation of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) to metabolic risk factors, partic- ularly in non-Western populations. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations between dietary GI and GL and several metabolic risk factors in healthy Japanese women with traditional dietary habits. Design: The subjects were 1354 Japanese female farmers aged 20-78 y from

Kentaro Murakami; Satoshi Sasaki; Yoshiko Takahashi; Hitomi Okubo; Yoko Hosoi; Hyogo Horiguchi; Etsuko Oguma; Fujio Kayama

120

Intragastric Dai-Kenchu-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, stimulates colonic motility via transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 in dogs.  

PubMed

Japanese herbal medicine, also known as Kampo, is used for various diseases in Japan. One of those medicines, Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT), is considered clinically effective for adhesive bowel obstruction and chronic constipation. Although scientific evidence of DKT to improve adhesive bowel obstruction was shown in several previous reports, mechanism of DKT to improve constipation remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effect of intragastric DKT on colonic motility and defecation, and the involvement of various receptors in DKT-induced colonic contractions. Five beagle dogs were instructed with serosal strain-gauge force transducers to measure circular muscle activity at the proximal, middle, and distal colon. Dogs are suitable for a present study to administer the drugs repeatedly to the same individual and look at its effect on colonic motility. We studied the effects of DKT (2.5 or 5 g) administered into the stomach on colonic motility. Muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamthonium, or 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist ondansetron was injected intravenously 10 min before DKT administration. Capsazepine, an antagonist to transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), was administered into the stomach 5 min before DKT administration. Intragastric DKT (2.5 or 5 g) induced colonic contractions within 10 min after administration but did not induce defecation. Pretreatment with atropine, hexamthonium, ondansetron, or capsazepine inhibited DKT-induced colonic contractions. These results indicate that orally administered DKT stimulates colonic motility via TRPV1, muscarinic, nicotinic, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptors, thereby providing scientific support for the efficacy of oral DKT in chronic constipation. PMID:23892797

Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Chikashi; Imoto, Hirofumi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Miura, Koh; Unno, Michiaki

2013-01-01

121

Free radical scavenging activity of the Japanese herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23) and its effect on superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxides, glutamate, and monoamine metabolites in aged rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging activity of the Japanese herbal medicine, Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23; TSUMURA & Co., Tokyo, Japan),\\u000a was examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. TJ-23 scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH),\\u000a superoxide (O2\\u000a ?), and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) dose-dependently. It also diminished carbon centered radicals (·C) generated by oxidative stress\\u000a and inhibited thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation in mouse cortex homogenate.

Y. Ueda; M. Komatsu; M. Hiramatsu

1996-01-01

122

Evaluation of Oral Subchronic Toxicity of Soshiho-Tang Water Extract: The Traditional Herbal Formula in Rats  

PubMed Central

Soshiho-tang (Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese) has been widely used for its various pharmacological effects, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihepatic fibrosis, and antitumor properties. To evaluate the safety of Soshiho-tang water extract (SST), we tested its subchronic toxicity in male and female Crl:CD (SD) rats. Rats were orally treated with four different doses (0, 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg/day) of SST administered for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption changes, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study. The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, or histopathology. Histological analysis did not show any liver or kidney alteration. We concluded that the 13-week repeated oral administration of SST did not cause any adverse effects in rats at dosage levels of ?2000?mg/kg/day. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was concluded to be 2000?mg/kg/day for both sexes.

Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, In-Shik; Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2013-01-01

123

Things Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

Shigeta, Jessie M.

124

Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Selection of Acupoints in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Insomnia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern differentiation, treatment principle, and pattern-based treatment for insomnia has therefore been conducted. A total of 227 studies, 17916 subjects, and 87 TCM patterns were analyzed. There was a limited consistency in pattern-based TCM treatment of insomnia across practitioners. Except for Gui Pi Tang, An Shen Ding Zhi Wan, and Wen Dan Tang which were used more commonly for deficiency of both the heart and spleen, internal disturbance of phlegm-heat, and qi deficiency of the heart and gallbladder, respectively, the selection of herbal formula for other patterns and pattern-based prescription of individual herbs and acupoints were not consistent. Suanzaoren (Semen Z. spinosae), Fuling (Poria), Yejiaoteng (Caulis P. multiflori), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Baishao (Radix P. alba), Shenmen (HT7), Yintang (EX-HN3), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Baihui (GV20), Anmian (EX-HN22), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) were commonly used, but nonspecifically for many patterns. Treatment principles underlying herb and acupoint selection were seldom reported. Although many studies were reviewed, the study quality and diagnostic process were inadequate. More high quality studies are needed to examine the additional benefits of pattern differentiation and pattern-based TCM treatment.

Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Poon, Maggie Man-Ki; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi; Wong Taam, Vivian

2012-01-01

125

Studies on interactions between traditional herbal and Western medicines. IV: lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to and carbamazepine in rats.  

PubMed

The possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions between Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to extract powder (TJ-12), a widely used traditional Chinese herbal (Kampo) medicine, and carbamazepine (CBZ), an important anti-epileptic drug, was examined in rats. There were no significant differences in the serum protein binding of CBZ and carbamazepine- 10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E), its active metabolite, at two concentrations (1 and 10 Bg/ml) between twogroups pretreated orally with the vehicle andTJ-12 suspension (1 g/kg/d, p.o.) for 1 week. One-week repeated pretreatment with TJ- 12 (1 g/kg/d) did not influence liver weight, contents of cytochromes P450 and b5 in hepatic microsomes or the formation rate of CBZ-E from CBZ by its microsomes, while pretreatment with phenobarbital (80 mg/kg/d, i.p.) significantly increased these parameters. Neither a single nor 1-week repeated oral pretreatment with TJ-12 (1 g/kg/d) affected the plasma concentration-time profile and any pharmacokinetic parameter of CBZ or CBZ-E after oral administration of CBZ (50 mg/kg). These results indicated that oral co-administration of TJ-12 with CBZ has no effect ofthe pharmacokinetics of CBZ or CBZ-E in rats. Concomitant treatment with TJ- 12 and CBZ appears to be pharmacokinetically safe in humans. PMID:11554427

Ohnishi, N; Nakasako, S; Okada, K; Umehara, S; Takara, K; Nagasawa, K; Yoshioka, M; Kuroda, K; Yokoyama, T

126

Chemical composition of some traditional herbal drug preparations: essential oil and aromatic water of costmary (Balsamita suaveolens Pers.).  

PubMed

The compositions of the essential oil and the aromatic water of costmary (Balsamita suaveolens Pers.) cultivated in Tuscany were investigated. They represent the main ingredients of some traditional preparations sold commercially. The essential oil as such and the n-hexane extract of the aromatic water were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Both samples were found to be rich in monoterpenes. Eighty-five compounds were identified, accounting for 95.1 and 95.4% of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of aromatic water, respectively. Carvone was the main compound (43.5% in the essential oil and 74.9% in the n-hexane extract of aromatic water). In addition, solid phase microextraction was used to sample the volatile organic compounds emitted from the fresh plant and from the aromatic water, and carvone was again the main component, amounting to 46.2 and 41.3%, respectively. PMID:11743783

Gallori, S; Flamini, G; Bilia, A R; Morelli, I; Landini, A; Vincieri, F F

2001-12-01

127

The traditional Chinese herbal compound rocaglamide preferentially induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activities.  

PubMed

With an increasing cancer rate worldwide, there is an urgent quest for the improvement of anticancer drugs. One of the main problems of present chemotherapy in treatment of tumor patients is the toxicity of drugs. Most of the existent anticancer drugs, unfortunately, attack also proliferating normal cells. In recent years, traditional Chinese herbal remedies have gradually gained considerable attention as a new source of anticancer drugs. Although their healing mechanisms are still largely unknown, some of the drugs have been used to help cancer patients fight their disease at reduced side effects compared to other treatments. In our study, we show that Rocaglamide (Roc), derived from the traditional Chinese medicinal plants Aglaia, induces apoptosis through the intrinsic death pathway in various human leukemia cell lines and in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia cells freshly isolated from patients. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms by which Roc kills tumors revealed that it induces a consistent activation of the stress-response mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 accompanied with a long-term suppression of the survival MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These events affect proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins leading to depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger caspase-mediated apoptosis involving caspase-9, -8, -3 and -2. Importantly, Roc shows no effects on MAPKs in normal lymphocytes and therefore has no or very low toxicity on healthy cells. Up to now, more than 50 different Roc derivatives have been isolated from Aglaia. Our study suggests that Roc derivatives may be promising candidates for the development of new drugs against hematologic malignancies. PMID:17565740

Zhu, Jia Y; Lavrik, Inna N; Mahlknecht, Ulrich; Giaisi, Marco; Proksch, Peter; Krammer, Peter H; Li-Weber, Min

2007-10-15

128

Effect of oral administration of a pectic polysaccharide fraction from a kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "juzen-taiho-to" on antibody response of mice.  

PubMed

A dried decoction of a kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine, Juzen-Taiho-To (TJ-48), has been fractionated into five fractions and tested for their effects on antibody response of mice. An intraperitoneal injection (300 mg/kg) of TJ-48 stimulated anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antibody response of normal Balb/c mice, but only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5, 300 mg/kg) enhanced the antibody response among the fractions from TJ-48. When F-5 (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day) was orally administered to normal Balb/c mice (7-weeks-old) from 7 days before to 4 days after immunization with SRBC, the number of anti-SRBC-IgM-PFC in spleen and the titer of anti-SRBC-IgM in plasma were increased significantly. However, a lower dose (0.1 g/kg/day) of F-5 did not show a significant stimulative activity on the anti-SRBC-response. Although aged Balb/c mice (6-months-old) produced a lower level of anti-SRBC-IgG in comparison with young Balb/c mice (8-weeks-old), the anti-SRBC-IgG response of the aged mice was stimulated significantly when F-5 (0.13 g/kg/day) or TJ-48 (1.0 g/kg/day) was orally administered to the aged mice from 6 days before immunization. Intraperitoneal injections of i-carrageenan (2.5 mg/kg/day) at 3 and 1 days before the immunization with SRBC increased the level of anti-SRBC antibody response compared with normal mice. Oral administrations of TJ-48 (1.0 g/kg/day) or F-5 (0.5 g/kg/day) to the i-carageenan-treated mice reduced the level of the anti-SRBC-antibody response near to that of normal mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7480204

Kiyohara, H; Matsumoto, T; Takemoto, N; Kawamura, H; Komatsu, Y; Yamada, H

1995-10-01

129

A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23624157

Sun, Ying-guang; Du, Ying-feng; Yang, Kai; Chang, Lu; Cao, Liang; Ren, Yan-ping; Sun, Qian; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lan-tong; Lv, Pin-tian

2013-04-06

130

Anti-pressor effect of a Chinese-Japanese herbal medicine, saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to on hemodynamics in rabbits.  

PubMed

Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (TJ-12) is a traditional Chinese-Japanese medicinal mixture clinically used for the treatment of hypertension and/or atherosclerosis concurrent with neurotic disorders. Study on the effect of TJ-12 on the vasoconstriction of cutaneous arterioles induced by nor-adrenaline (NA) was carried out using a rabbit ear chamber (REC) under conscious conditions. Before and after oral administration of TJ-12 everyday for 2 weeks, the same position of an arteriole within a REC was analyzed using an image shearing monitor every minute up to 15 min after varying doses (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 micrograms/kg i.v.) of NA. The changes of mean arteriolar diameter and vasomotion amplitude, before and after feeding of TJ-12 (1% w/w) supplemented diet were compared in the same position. Consequently, the pretreatment with TJ-12 significantly attenuated the changes of mean diameter of NA-induced vasoconstriction and also shortened its duration. In addition, concurrent with its cutaneous microcirculatory response, the pretreatment with TJ-12 systemically suppressed the increase of blood pressure under NA-induced vasoconstriction. These results suggest that the anti-pressor effect of TJ-12 might be apparently attributable to the inhibition of NA-induced vasoconstriction. PMID:10586374

Okano, H; Ohkubo, C

131

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2011-08-12

132

Influence of air flow on the behavior of thoron and its progeny in a traditional Japanese house  

SciTech Connect

Air flow influence on the spatial distribution of thoron ({sup 220}Rn) concentration in a typical Japanese traditional house was investigated at various indoor air flow levels. The effect of air flow on the behavior of both thoron and radon progeny were examined simultaneously. Measurements were carried out by using two types of passive monitors, the radon-thoron discriminative monitor and the Radtrak monitor. Thoron and radon progeny were measured by filter grab sampling with ZnS scintillation counting. Under static condition, a horizontal distribution with greatly varied thoron concentrations was found as reported by previous studies. Under turbulent conditions, thoron concentrations in the middle of the room increased and the concentration gradient of thoron gas became lower. An obvious vertical distribution of thoron was also observed. Prominent diurnal variation of radon progeny concentrations was observed whereas that of thoron progeny concentrations was not. Concentration of thoron progeny changed little at different air flow levels, although the thoron gas level at the middle of the room varied significantly. The influence of air flows on detection efficiencies of the two types of thoron monitors were also checked. The mechanism of behavioral change of thoron and its progeny in turbulent atmosphere is discussed. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Ma, Jizeng [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

1997-01-01

133

Constituents and tissue affinities in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained researchers and clinicians can better understand herbal medicine if they master at least a basic set of essential concepts used by herbal practitioners to describe how herbs work. Constituents, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, can all be used to develop a basis for imputed herb actions. Tissue affinity is also an important concept shared by all herb traditions, which can enhance clinical results and illuminate traditional herbal use. PMID:22432461

Tillotson, Alan

2008-01-01

134

A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of ‘Oketsu’ (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine  

PubMed Central

‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19) or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods.

Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi

2008-01-01

135

Are herbal compounds the next frontier for alleviating learning and memory impairments? An integrative look at memory, dementia and the promising therapeutics of traditional chinese medicines.  

PubMed

Recent advances in neuroscience have revealed a greater, in-depth understanding of the complexities associated with memory. Contemporary theories hold that an integral relationship between memory formation, stabilization and consolidation revolve around plasticity of neuronal networks. The associated requisite receptors ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and cellular mechanisms surrounding plasticity (posed to incite molecular functionality), also display strong correlations in the pathogenesis of dementias. When the brain is in a diseased state as a result of malignant neurotransmission (i.e. in Alzheimer's disease; AD), the homeostatic balance required for normal neuronal processes is disrupted, which leads to degeneration of neural circuitry. Present efforts to find new treatments aimed at reversing or halting neurodegeneration are immense, with increasing attention being placed on investigating various herbal medicines. A wide variety of herbal plants (i.e. Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia, Acorus gramineus and Huperzia serrata, examined here within), extracts and compounds have, to date, already presented advantageous results when tested against known pathogenic markers related to AD-associated dementia. The efficaciousness of herbal medicines appears to be a modulatory effect on neurotrophins, kinases and their substrates that, in turn, initiate or take part in intracellular cascades related to memory processes. PMID:21305632

Jesky, Robert; Hailong, Chen

2011-02-09

136

Leaching of pesticides in herbal decoction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the degree of leaching of pesticide residues from herbal substrates to their respective decoction as in traditional system a decoction process is also an important feature to the manufacture of herbal medicines. To investigate pesticide transfer, eleven pesticides of different groups commonly applied on crops for the protection of plants against

Dhananjay Kumar Tewary; Vipin Kumar; Adarsh Shanker

2004-01-01

137

Effect of a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Tang), on immunity in elderly persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the elderly show a significant age-related decline in their immune response, thus leading to an increased vulnerability to infections or to an increase in the occurrence of malignant tumors. In this study, we examined the effect of Hochu-ekki-to (HOT or TJ-41) on the immunological capacity of the elderly. A group of elderly patients complaining of general fatigue or

Ataru Kuroiwa; Shin'yu Liou; Hong Yan; Akihiko Eshita; Seiko Naitoh; Ariaki Nagayama

2004-01-01

138

Tradition, tradition  

PubMed Central

Starting with this issue, the Editorial duties for the JCI move to Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As we begin our five-year tenure at the helm of this prestigious journal, the tradition of excellence that these two schools typically display on the basketball court now enters the editorial boardroom.

Rockman, Howard A.

2012-01-01

139

Anti-allergic effects of So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang, a traditional Korean herbal medicine, in an allergic rhinitis mouse model.  

PubMed

The herbal medicine, So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT) has been empirically used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis for hundreds of years; however, its in vivo effects on allergic rhinitis have been rarely elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of SCRT in an allergic rhinitis mouse model and to examine the underlying mechanism(s) of its anti-allergic effects. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum and then challenged intranasally with OVA. SCRT (1 g/kg) was given to the treatment group, and multiple parameters of allergic responses were evaluated to determine the effects of SCRT on allergic rhinitis. SCRT reduced allergic symptoms, such as rubbing and sneezing, and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa. It also suppressed serum total IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and OVA-specific IgG1 levels and increased OVA-specific IgG2a level. SCRT significantly reduced expression of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4; however, the expression of IL-5, IFN-?, and IL-10 was unchanged in the nasal mucosa of the treatment group (by real-time RT-PCR). In splenocyte culture, levels of both IL-4 and IL-5 decreased, and IFN-? level increased in the treatment group; however, levels of IL-10 and TGF-? were unaffected by administration of SCRT. This study shows that SCRT induced anti-allergic effects by decreasing, locally and systemically, the Th2 cytokine IL-4, isotype switching to IgE, and eosinophilic infiltration into the nasal mucosa in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. Thus, SCRT might be considered a potential therapeutic agent in treating allergic rhinitis. PMID:22903755

Mo, Ji-Hun; Lee, Seung-Eun; Wee, Jee Hye; Lee, Ji-Eun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Kim, Dong-Young

2012-08-19

140

Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits.

LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

2010-01-01

141

Herbal Therapy in Dermatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbal therapy is becoming increasingly popular among patients and physicians. Many herbal preparations are marketed to the public for various ailments including those of the skin. Herbal therapies have been used successfully in treating dermatologic disorders for thousands of years in Europe and Asia. In Germany, a regulatory com- mission oversees herbal preparations and recommended uses. In Asia, herbal treatments

Monica K. Bedi; Philip D. Shenefelt

2002-01-01

142

A review of studies and measures to improve the mycotoxicological safety of traditional Japanese mold-fermented foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miso (fermented soybean paste), shoyu (soy sauce) and sake (rice wine) are traditional moldfermented foods in Japan and have\\u000a been consumed throughout much of its history. These have long been considered safe foods. In this contribution we review and\\u000a summarize long-term studies to investigate potential problems with mycotoxin contamination of these products. The fungal cultures\\u000a used for fermentation of these

K. Tanaka; M. Kushiro; M. Manabe

2006-01-01

143

Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications.

2010-01-01

144

Comparative study of double blind clinical trial in side-effects among Areca catechu l., Thai traditional herbal formula and mebendazole  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Center, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was randomized control trial clinical study in order to examine the side effects of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole in the treatment of anti-helmintic activity of mixed worms infection in human. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and 5 patients for control group with inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were screened by parasitologist with the selection of mixed worm infection patient samples. The investigation of side effects was recorded after the treatment of each group of patient with different kinds of 4 group of medicine. Results: The percentage of side effects was collected by nurses and confirmed by the physician at Mahasarakham Health Center, which were diarrhea and nausea side effects. The percentage of side effects by the treatments of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole were investigated by the physician and the pharmacist, which the result showed 20% of diarrhea in Areca catechu Linn., 20% of nausea in Areca catechu Linn, 20% in side effect of diarrhea in mebendazole treatment, and no side effects were found by the treatment of TTFM. The result showed that Areca catechu Linn. had higher side effects among the 3 anti-helmintic drugs. Conclusion: The findings indicate to increase the numbers of samples of worm-infected patients, which the samples can be identified with the specification of helminthes genus and species in order to obtain the efficacy by the treatment using Areca catechu Linn and also indicates to increase various forms of dosage preparations and various demographic locations in Thailand.

Samappito, Supachai; Srichaikul, Buavaroon; Viroj, Jaruwan; Bakker, Gordon

2012-01-01

145

Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Hochu-ekki-to in the Long-term Management of Kikyo (Delicate Constitution) Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A 6-month, Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study.  

PubMed

Hochu-ekki-to is a traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine that has been shown to be effective for patients with Kikyo (delicate, easily fatigable, or hypersensitive) constitution. Previous case reports have suggested that this herbal drug was effective for a certain subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hochu-ekki-to in the long-term management of Kikyo patients with AD. In this multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 91 Kikyo patients with AD were enrolled. Kikyo condition was evaluated by a questionnaire scoring system. All patients continued their ordinary treatments (topical steroids, topical tacrolimus, emollients or oral antihistamines) before and after their protocol entry. Hochu-ekki-to or placebo was orally administered twice daily for 24 weeks. The skin severity scores, total equivalent amount (TEA) of topical agents used for AD treatment, prominent efficacy (cases with skin severity score = 0 at the end of the study) rate and aggravated rate (more than 50% increase of TEA of topical agents from the beginning of the study) were monitored and evaluated. Seventy-seven out of 91 enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment course (Hochu-ekki-to: n = 37, placebo: n = 40). The TEA of topical agents (steroids and/or tacrolimus) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group than in the placebo group, although the overall skin severity scores were not statistically different. The prominent efficacy rate was 19% (7 of 37) in the Hochu-ekki-to group and 5% (2 of 40) in the placebo group (P = 0.06). The aggravated rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group (3%; 1 of 37) than in the placebo group (18%; 7 of 39). Only mild adverse events such as nausea and diarrhea were noted in both groups without statistical difference. This placebo-controlled study demonstrates that Hochu-ekki-to is a useful adjunct to conventional treatments for AD patients with Kikyo constitution. Use of Hochu-ekki-to significantly reduces the dose of topical steroids and/or tacrolimus used for AD treatment without aggravating AD. PMID:18955318

Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shintani, Takahiro; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Kusunoki, Tadashi; Furue, Masutaka

2008-01-31

146

Comparison of the Effects on Rib Fracture between the Traditional Japanese Medicine Jidabokuippo and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Jidabokuippo is a traditional Japanese medicine used for contusion-induced swelling and pain. This open multicenter randomized study was designed to compare the efficacies of jidabokuippo and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rib fracture by analyzing the treatment duration. Our study involved 170 rib fracture patients capable of oral ingestion divided randomly into 2 groups: the jidabokuippo and NSAID groups. We compared the duration of treatment and healthcare expenditure between these 2 groups. Medication was continued in both groups until the visual analogue scale score decreased to less than 50% of the pretreatment score. We excluded the patients in whom medication was prematurely discontinued. We analyzed 81 patients belonging to the jidabokuippo and NSAIDs groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in age, gender, severity (injury severity score), and presence/absence of underlying disease. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P = 0.0003). Healthcare expenditure was significantly lower in the jidabokuippo group than in the NSAIDs group (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that compared to NSAIDs, jidabokuippo can shorten the duration of treatment in patients with rib fracture and is a promising analgesic agent based on the medical economic viewpoint.

Nakae, Hajime; Yokoi, Aya; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Akira

2012-01-01

147

The Traditional Japanese Medicine Rikkunshito Promotes Gastric Emptying via the Antagonistic Action of the 5-HT3 Receptor Pathway in Rats  

PubMed Central

The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine using the phenol red method in male Wistar rats. 5-HT (0.01–1.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.) dose dependently delayed gastric emptying, similar to the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide (0.01–1.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.). Dopamine also dose dependently delayed gastric emptying. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.04–4.0?mg?kg?1) and rikkunshito (125–500?mg?kg?1) significantly suppressed the delay in gastric emptying caused by 5-HT or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide. Hesperidin (the most active ingredient in rikkunshito) suppressed the 5-HT-induced delayed gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner, the maximum effect of which was similar to that of ondansetron (0.4?mg?kg?1). The improvement obtained by rikkunshito or ondansetron in delaying gastric emptying was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. Rikkunshito appears to improve delay in gastric emptying via the antagonistic action of the 5-HT3 receptor pathway.

Tominaga, K.; Kido, T.; Ochi, M.; Sadakane, C.; Mase, A.; Okazaki, H.; Yamagami, H.; Tanigawa, T.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Oshitani, N.; Arakawa, T.

2011-01-01

148

Pharmacovigilance of herbal products in India.  

PubMed

Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines. PMID:21897669

Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, Ak

2011-07-01

149

Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Products in India  

PubMed Central

Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines.

Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, AK

2011-01-01

150

Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating erysipelas in pigs; the aerial parts of pellitory ( Parietaria judaica) in decoctions for treating haemorrhoids. Conclusions The fact that half of the most salient species documented in our case study – widely available both in Molise and in Dalmatia and Herzegovina – retain a Slavic name could indicate that they may have also been used in Dalmatia and Herzegovina before the migration took place. However, given the occurrence of several South-Italian plant names and uses, also a remarkable acculturation process affected the Slavic community of Montemitro during these last centuries. Future directions of research should try to simultaneously compare current ethnobotanical knowledge of both migrated communities and their counterparts in the areas of origin.

2012-01-01

151

Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients.

Gori, Luigi

2007-01-01

152

Scientific Publications in Herbals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbal system of medicine, popularly known as Phytotherapy, is rapidly developing as an independent subject. Specialties subjects like Medicinal botany or Pharmaceutical botany, Medicinal Phytochemistry, Ethno pharmacology and Phytopharmacotherapy are emerging. Several studies have reported growing popularity of herbal medicine. There is increased awareness about herbal medicine among masses. Authorities including Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M.) and department

Amritpal Singh

2007-01-01

153

Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*  

PubMed Central

Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan.

Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

2006-01-01

154

Starters' Traditional Chinese Ephedra Herbal Tea  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... FDA's regulations in 21 CFR Part 170 define "safe" and "safety." Under 21 CFR 170.3(i), "i:s]afe or safety means that there is a reasonable certainty ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

155

Teaching the Japanese Copula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional approach in teaching the Japanese copula is shown to be linguistically and pedagogically defective. An alternative analysis of -da and -desu and a practical method of presenting them is demonstrated. (HP)

Mills, David O.

1977-01-01

156

Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice  

PubMed Central

This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.

Kim Sooi, Law

2013-01-01

157

Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.  

PubMed

(1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

2008-06-01

158

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

159

Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

2010-01-01

160

Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues.  

PubMed

Exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to many positive health outcomes, yet its widespread adoption as the primary mode of providing nutrition to infants remains challenging. The most common reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is perception of inadequate milk production. To augment breast milk production, a substantial number of women turn to herbal galactogogues despite the limited scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to evaluate the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. PubMed was searched from inception to October 2012 using an iterative search process that proceeded from broad categories to specific herbs. Manuscript references were also reviewed. Only experimental studies with objective outcome measures were included. Six trials met our search criteria. Using an adapted version of the CONSORT checklist, each trial was evaluated for potential sources of bias in design and reporting. Shatavari, torbangun, fenugreek, milk thistle, and a Japanese herbal medication were the 5 herbal preparations studied. Five trials found an increase in breast milk production. Several limitations exist that affect the validity of the trial results, including small sample size, insufficient randomization methods, poorly defined eligibility criteria, use of poly-herbal interventions, and variable breastfeeding practices among enrolled subjects. Given the insufficiency of evidence from these trials, no recommendation is made for the use of herbs as galactogogues. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical trials that address the above limitations are necessary to generate a body of evidence as a basis for recommendations regarding herbal galactogogues. PMID:23468043

Mortel, Mylove; Mehta, Supriya D

2013-03-06

161

New status of traditional childrens songs: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been an increasing emphasis on traditional Japanese music in educational policy. Under such a political trend, music educators have to take responsibility for children's development, not merely teaching the heritage of the past. For us it is an important task to develop school music curriculum involving traditional Japanese music. Warabe-uta, traditional children's songs, is a prototype of

Ritsuko Kojima

162

Effects of three Kampo formulae: Tokishakuyakusan (TJ-23), Kamishoyosan (TJ-24), and Keishibukuryogan (TJ-25) on Japanese peri- and postmenopausal women with sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess the effects of Kampo, a traditional Japanese adaptation of Chinese herbal medicine, on peri- and postmenopausal\\u000a women with sleep disturbances.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Among the records of 1,523 peri- and postmenopausal women who are enrolled in the Health and Nutrition Education Program at\\u000a the Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Menopause Clinic, during 1995–2009, about 151 women suffering from moderate to severe

Masakazu TerauchiShiro; Shiro Hiramitsu; Mihoko Akiyoshi; Yoko Owa; Kiyoko Kato; Satoshi Obayashi; Eisuke Matsushima; Toshiro Kubota

163

Guizhi-Fuling-Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ameliorates Memory Deficits and Neuronal Apoptosis in the Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemic Rodents via the Decrease of Bax/Bcl2 Ratio and Caspase-3 Expression  

PubMed Central

Brain neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairment are associated with hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. The present study determined if the Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi-Fuling-Wan (GFW) would reduce memory loss and neuronal apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemic rodents. Two weeks after STZ induction, GFW was orally administered once daily for 7 days. GFW significantly improved spatial memory deficits in STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice. GFW decreased TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 positive cells in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats. It also was found that GFW treatment reduced caspase-3 protein levels and increased levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 that were indicative of neuroprotection. The protective therapeutic effects of GFW on neuronal apoptosis and cognition deficits caused by STZ-induced hyperglycemia may be due in part to inhibition of the cellular apoptosis pathway. GFW may have therapeutic effects in patients with diabetes-mellitus-induced neuropathology.

Wu, Kuo-Jen; Chen, Yuh-Fung; Tsai, Huei-Yann; Wu, Chi-Rei; Wood, W. Gibson

2012-01-01

164

A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of

N Qinna; H Taha; K Z Matalka; A A Badwan

2009-01-01

165

Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities.

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2011-01-01

166

Herbal treatment of headache.  

PubMed

Herbal (botanical) therapy has been used as treatment for headache disorders for millennia. Botanical therapy can be divided into 3 categories: oral, topical, and "aromatherapy." In this article, the options in these categories and the evidence supporting their use are discussed. Unfortunately, evidence is sparse for most herbal treatments, in large part due to a paucity of funding for the type of studies needed to assess their efficacy. Butterbur and feverfew are the 2 herbal oral preparations best studied, and they seem to have real potential to help many patients with migraine and perhaps other headache types. Patients most appropriate for trials of herbal therapy include those who have been refractory to pharmaceutical and other modes of therapy, patients who have had intolerable side effects from pharmaceutical medications, and patients willing to participate in controlled comparative studies. As for mechanisms behind botanical treatments, the lack of funding for studying these agents will continue to retard progress in this area as well, but hopefully the future will bring more concentrated efforts in this field. PMID:23030536

Levin, Morris

2012-10-01

167

Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

Amirghofran, Zahra

2012-06-01

168

Selected herbal hazards.  

PubMed

One of the most important considerations in treating herbal ingestions is product quality assurance. Although most herbal companies are reputable, there are numerous reports of adulterated products (addition of substances not noted on the label). This has been particularly true of Chinese herbal products, which frequently contain pharmaceutical agents. Plant identification errors occur, and entire batches of product have been mixed using the wrong herb. In some cases, labels are written in a foreign language or only contain directions for mixing, making interpretation difficult. In cases where a known ingestion produces unexpected clinical signs, the potential for adulteration or other errors should be considered. When a product is not standardized, a consumer cannot be sure what dose of active constituents has been used or how bioavailable the product may be. Standardization also provides assurance that the actual herb is in the product [26]. Clients who use herbal products should be advised to treat them as a medication and to keep them away from pets. Specifically, ask clients if they take or use any natural or herbal products. Many people do not consider these substances drugs or assume, "If natural, it is harmless." Clients should be encouraged to learn about the herbal and neutraceutical products they are taking or giving their pets. Owners need to discuss the proper use of herbal products in pets with their veterinarian. Clients can be encouraged to discuss alternative therapies by discussing a pet's diagnosis and suggested treatments thoroughly. Discuss the client's expectations and opinions of alternative and conventional medicine. Issues of safety and efficacy must be fully explained to clients. Clients should be encouraged to report potential adverse reactions or to discuss different routes of therapy if a pet's medical condition is not improving. Clients who want to use alternative medical treatments should obtain a thorough medical workup so as to make a correct diagnosis and be referred to a veterinarian trained in alternative medicine. In choosing an alternative medicine practitioner, the same criteria would be used as for any other specialist: education, training, and professionalism [14]. PMID:12012741

Means, Charlotte

2002-03-01

169

Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels  

PubMed Central

Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels.

Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

2008-01-01

170

Japanese language and Japanese science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

2003-08-01

171

[Traditional Chinese medicine in urology.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology. PMID:23754610

Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

2013-06-12

172

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p < 0.05)] while only geopolitical zones and educational qualifications seemed to have influence on respondents' opinion on the harmful effects of herbal medicines to the fetus [p < 0.05]. Conclusion The study emphasized the wide spread use of herbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and other health care givers to be aware of this practice and make efforts in obtaining information about herb use during ante-natal care. This will help forestall possible interaction between herbal and conventional medicines.

2009-01-01

173

Recurrent erythema nodosum associated with echinacea herbal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of recurrent erythema nodosum that is temporally and perhaps causally associated with use of echinacea herbal therapy. The genusEchinacea is traditionally used as an immunostimulant in the prophylaxis and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. In vitro and in vivo studies of echinacea administration in animal and human-derived models suggest a definite stimulatory effect on the

Seaver Lee Soon; Richard I. Crawford

2001-01-01

174

Herbal products: behaviors and beliefs among Italian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Purpose The use of phytotherapy is growing worldwide, but the popular perception is that this kind of approach is natural and therefore safer than traditional medicine; for this reason the use is frequently not communicated to the doctor. Instead, even if many herbal remedies are benign in nature, some of these therapies have potentially harmful side effects or adverse

Silvana Zaffani; Laura Cuzzolin; Giuseppina Benoni

2006-01-01

175

Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.  

PubMed

The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint). PMID:12141849

Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

2001-09-01

176

Herbal medicines in pediatric neuropsychiatry.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies have evaluated the role of herbal supplements in pediatric disorders, but they have numerous limitations. This review provides an overview of herbal components, regulation of supplements, and importance of product quality assurance. Use of herbal supplements is discussed with reference to factors that influence use in the pediatric population. The remainder of the article discusses the use of St John's wort, melatonin, kava, valerian, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, focusing on indications, adverse effects, and drug interactions, and providing a limited efficacy review. Herbal supplements used for weight loss are also briefly discussed. PMID:21281847

Feucht, Cynthia; Patel, Dilip R

2011-02-01

177

Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): Lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural\\/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from

K. M. Wu; J. G. Farrelly; R. Upton; J. Chen

2007-01-01

178

[Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].  

PubMed

Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies. PMID:17111709

Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

2006-10-01

179

Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.  

PubMed

The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374

Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

2012-05-22

180

Antimotility effects of Chinese herbal medicines on human sperm.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia sappan extract from a study of screened Chinese herbal medicines was found to be a potent agent for the inactivation of human sperm in vitro. Exposure of sperm from healthy donors to this agent showed remarkably reduced sperm motility. The antimotility effect of Caesalpinia sappan is concentration-dependent and about 2.5 mg/ml is required to reduce motility to 50% the control medium (EC50). This result suggests that this traditional Chinese herbal medicine possesses an antimotility effect on human sperm in vitro and has the potential of becoming in the future a new and acceptable male oral contraceptive. PMID:1977862

Shih, I M; Chiang, H S; Yang, L L; Wang, T L

1990-06-01

181

Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines. Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others.

Ansari, S. H.; Islam, Farha; Sameem, Mohd.

2012-01-01

182

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV\\/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for

Edward Mills; Curtis Cooper; Dugald Seely; Izzy Kanfer

2005-01-01

183

Qualitative laboratory analysis for the detection of conventional drugs in herbal preparations supplied by healers in major towns of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has always been an air of uncertainty whether or not traditional healers, especially those in the urban areas, supplied herbal remedies adulterated with modern drugs. Objectives: This study aims to analyze herbal preparations prescribed by healers against malaria, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, etc. for the presence of conventional drugs, with emphasis on anti-microbial pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods: Patient simulated convenience based

Asfaw Debella; Dawit Abebe; Kissi Mudie; Ashenif Tadele; Awot Gebreegziabher

184

X-ray powder diffractometry and liquid chromatography studies of sibutramine and its analogues content in herbal dietary supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary societies of the developed countries are prone to use traditional far-east medicines as remedies for all diseases. Some of them, such as obesity, might be classified as civilization diseases. Combating the problem, people try not only several miraculous diets but also herbal infusions (teas) and variety of “herbal” preparations. All these believing that such treatment is healthy and

K. Stypu?kowska; A. B?a?ewicz; J. Maurin; K. Sarna; Z. Fija?ek

2011-01-01

185

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467

Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

2013-07-10

186

The evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine effectiveness on periodontal pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases. Three Chinese herbal composites [Conth Su (CS), Chi Tong Ning (CTN) and Xi Gua Shuang (XGS)], widely used for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases, and the major components of these composites were tested for their ability to: (1) alleviate disease progression of experimental periodontitis in hamsters, (2) inhibit bacterial growth, and (3) induce mutations. Our results indicate that in treating experimental periodontitis, there were no significant differences between the animal groups with or without the use of Chinese herbal medicines in terms of the degree of inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and rate of repair. However, hamsters treated with CS presented earlier regenerative epithelium. CTN demonstrated superior bacterial inhibition ability among all tested herbs (MIC 0.025 g/ml); CS showed good anti-bacterial abilities at a concentration of 0.05 g/ml. It is interesting to note that while both CS and CTN were capable of inhibiting bacterial growth, none of the individual herb components showed comparable bacterial inhibition abilities. None of the tested herbal composites or their components showed signs of inducing cell mutations using the Ames test. These results indicated that traditional Chinese herbal medicines, which have been used to treat periodontal diseases for hundreds of years by Chinese people, can effectively inhibit bacterial growth without causing cell mutation. Further investigation into their possible clinical applications in periodontal therapy is encouraged. PMID:14696678

Chan, You; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Yang, Hui-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Yie; Chan, Chi-Ho

2003-01-01

187

Confucian ethics and Japanese management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that an important method for understanding the ethics of Japanese management is the systematic study of its Confucian traditions and the writings of Confucius. Inconsistencies and dysfunction in Japanese ethical and managerial behavior can be attributed to contradictions in Confucius' writings and inconsistencies between the Confucian code and modern realities. Attention needs to be directed to modern

Marc J. Dollinger

1988-01-01

188

Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the

Nadhem Mtimet; Kenichi Kashiwagi; Lokman Zaibet; N. Masakazu

2008-01-01

189

The use of herbal therapies in pediatric oncology patients: treating symptoms of cancer and side effects of standard therapies.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine is increasing in use in the pediatric oncology population. Although there is a multitude of herbal therapies used, the focus of this article is a review of the literature addressing some herbal therapies used to treat the symptoms of cancer and side effects of traditional methods of treatment. Ginger is used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. St. John's wort is successful in treating depression and anxiety. Echinacea is used as an immunostimulant. Herbal therapies in the pediatric oncology population are usually initiated and managed by parents. Many herbal therapies are beneficial, but some potential herb-drug interactions should be considered. This poses a challenge to the oncology nurse because herbal treatments are managed by the parents and pharmaceuticals are managed by the practitioner. Educating the patient, family, and practitioner is important in ensuring a thorough health history assessment and, subsequently, safe and effective herbal and pharmacological therapies. PMID:17185400

Quimby, Erin L

190

Japanese Internment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will examine the decision to place all Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast into internment camps during WWII. This lesson is part of a mini-unit on Japanese Internment that will include readings in primary source documents and materials from History Alive that will provide most of the background knowledge necessary to evaluate the decision to intern Japanese-Americans during the war and the effects of internment on this group during the post-war period. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Lindskog, Tom

2011-09-14

191

The Anatomy of the Hara: Japanese Self in Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because Japanese society has traditionally emphasized the group rather than the individual, less research has been done to understand how Japanese culture conceptualizes the individual and how that individual develops within the society. This paper focuses on the individual in Japanese society. Following an introduction (Section I), Section II…

White, Merry I.; Taniuchi, Lois K.

192

Effects of herbal medicines on menopausal symptoms induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effects of certain Japanese herbal medicines on menopausal symptoms induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy were examined in Japanese women with endometriosis, adenomyosis, or leiomyoma. Menopausal symptoms occurred in 17 of the 22 patients. Toki-shakuyaku-san, Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, Keishi-bukuryo-gan, Kami-shoyo-san, Tokaku-joki-to, or Keishi-to was administered to 13 of the 17 patients with menopausal symptoms, and efficacy was observed in all 13. Eleven patients with hot flashes were treated with Toki-shakuyaku-san, and all II patients experienced some relief; four experienced total relief. Three patients complaining of severe shoulder stiffness were treated with Shakuyaku-kanzo-to and were completely relieved of symptoms. There was no significant change in serum estradiol levels after treatment with the Japanese herbal medicines. Our results indicate that Japanese herbal medicines can be recommended for menopausal symptoms induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists without a negative effect on serum estradiol levels. PMID:11332582

Tanaka, T

2001-01-01

193

[Artichoke--herbal drug].  

PubMed

The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Wo?niak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

2012-01-01

194

Herbal preparations for obesity: are they useful?  

PubMed

The opportunities for additional research in this area are plentiful. Unfortunately, there has been relatively limited funding for research on herbal supplements compared with the amount of funding that is available for research on pharmaceuticals. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. For example, the tea catechins include a group of related compounds with effects that are demonstrable beyond those that are seen with epigallocatechin gallate, the most potent catechin. The metabolism of families of related compounds may be different than the metabolism of purified crystallized compounds. In some cases, herbal medicines may simply be less purified forms of single active ingredients, but in other cases they represent unique formulations of multiple, related compounds that may have superior safety and efficacy compared with single ingredients. Obesity is a global epidemic, and traditional herbal medicines may have more acceptance than prescription drugs in many cultures with emerging epidemics of obesity. Several ethnobotanical studies found herbal treatments for diabetes, and similar surveys, termed bioprospecting, for obesity treatments may be productive. Beyond increasing thermogenesis, there are other biological rationales for the actions of several different alternative medical and herbal approaches to weight loss. For example, several supplements and herbs claim to result in nutrient partitioning so that ingested calories will be directed to muscle, rather than fat. These include an herb (Garcinia cambogia), and a lipid which is the product of bacterial metabolism (conjugated linoleic acid). Moreover, a series of approaches attempt to physically affect gastric satiety by filling the stomach. Fiber swells after ingestion and has was found to result in increased satiety. A binding resin (Chitosan) has the ability to precipitate fat in the laboratory and is touted for its ability to bind fat in the intestines so that it is not absorbed. In double-blind studies, however, this approach was found to be ineffective. There are two key attractions of alternative treatments to obese patients. First, they are viewed as being natural and are assumed by patients to be safer than prescription drugs. Second, there is no perceived need for professional assistance with these approaches. For obese individuals who cannot afford to see a physician, these approaches often represent a more accessible solution. Finally, for many others, these approaches represent alternatives to failed attempts at weight loss with the use of more conventional approaches. These consumers are often discouraged by previous failures, and are likely to combine approaches or use these supplements at doses higher than are recommended. It is vital that the primary care physician is aware of the herbal preparations that are being used by patients so that any potential interaction with prescription drugs or underlying medical conditions can be anticipated. Unfortunately, there have been several instances where unscrupulous profiteers have plundered the resources of the obese public. Although Americans spend $30 billion per year on weight loss aids, our regulatory and monitoring capability as a society are woefully inadequate. Without adequate resources, the FDA resorted to "guilt by association" adverse events reporting, which often results in the loss of potentially helpful therapies without adequate investigation of the real causes of the adverse events that are reported. Scientific investigations of herbal and alternative therapies represent a potentially important source for new discoveries in obesity treatment and prevention. Cooperative interactions in research between the Office of Dietary Supplements, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and the FDA could lead to major advances in research on the efficacy and safety of the most promising of these alternative approaches. PMID:14567158

Heber, David

2003-06-01

195

HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

196

[Japanese encephalitis].  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis is an arboviral disease due to a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito of the genus Culex. It is a major public health problem in Southeast Asia where it is endemo-epidemic. The socio-economic impact of Japanese encephalitis is great since most cases occur in children and young adults and lead to death in 25 to 30 % and neurological sequelae in survivors. The tendency of Japanese encephalitis to spread geographically and the existence of imported cases are particularly important issues. The clinical features are the same as other viral encephalitis. Suspicion of imported Japanese encephalitis depends on awareness of the epidemiological setting (return from endemic areas). Diagnosis must be confirmed by serology using ELISA capture method to detect anti-viral antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Unlike herpes encephalitis, there is currently no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis. Only preventive measures can be effective against infection. At the present time the most widely used vaccine is Biken's lyophilized vaccine produced from a reference strain (Nakayama strain), but its high cost prevents mass vaccination in endemic areas. Recent progress in molecular biology has raised hope for the discovery of a genetically engineered vaccine to improve overall protection against Japanese encephalitis. PMID:16548493

Diagana, M; Tabo, A; Debrock, C; Preux, P M

2005-09-01

197

Comparison of “herbal highs” composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are\\u000a typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal\\u000a highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the “head shops”\\u000a were

Dariusz Zuba; Bogumila Byrska; Martyna Maciow

2011-01-01

198

Determination of In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects, Antioxidant Activities and Phenol Contents of Some Herbal Teas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied\\u000a for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an\\u000a in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol

Aynur Büyükbalci; Sedef Nehir El

2008-01-01

199

Drug interactions with herbal medicines.  

PubMed

In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

2012-02-01

200

Technical Japanese Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Washington, Technical Japanese Program. Services related to the teaching of Technical Japanese, and a good selection of Japan-related resources. Programs offered: Inter-Engineering MSE in Technical Japanese (IMTJ) and Japanese Program for Professionals (JPP).

201

Consumers' attitude towards the use and safety of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia.  

PubMed

Background The use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia is very common and many patients consume herbal preparations with conventional drug therapy. Objective The aim of this survey was to evaluate the consumers' awareness of herbal remedies and the safety of herbal dietary supplements, their attitude towards combining herbals and drugs, and the source of recommendations for their use. Setting The study included all consumers who bought herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements in 15 pharmacies on the territory of Novi Sad during 2011 and who accepted to be interviewed. Methods Structured interviews using questionnaire, conducted by pharmacists. The questionnaire included 4 parts: socio-demographic characteristics of consumers, source of recommendations for the use of herbal products, attitude towards safety of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements use and their combination with regular drugs, as well as the question of purchased herbal products. Main outcome measure Consumers' attitude towards the safety and use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements measured by 9 items. Results The majority of interviewed participants were highly educated, aged 41-60 and they consumed herbal remedies on their own initiative or on recommendation of nonmedically educated person, without previous consultation with medical doctor or pharmacist. Out of all participants: 88.9 % did not consider it important to inform their physician or pharmacist about use of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements; 73.3 % found the use of herbal remedies harmless (where 9.4 % did not have any attitude towards that issue), while 40.3 % of participants regarded the combining of herbal and regular drugs unsafe. Conclusion There is a need for consumers' education on reliable use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements, in order to improve their awareness of the limits of herbal remedies safety and potential risks of their combination with drugs. PMID:23820895

Samojlik, Isidora; Mijatovi?, Vesna; Gavari?, Neda; Krstin, Sonja; Božin, Biljana

2013-07-03

202

Herbal formula CGX ameliorates LPS\\/ d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

CGX, a traditional herbal drug, has been prescribed for patients suffering from various liver diseases, including hepatitis B, alcoholic liver disease, and fatty liver. We investigated whether CGX has hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide\\/d-galactosamine (LPS\\/d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury and its underlying mechanism(s). Mice were administered CGX orally for 7days prior to an injection of LPS (5?g\\/kg)\\/d-GalN (700mg\\/kg). Complete blood count, serum

Jang Woo Shin; Jing Hua Wang; Hye Jung Park; Min Kyeong Choi; Hyeong Geug Kim; Chang Gue Son

2011-01-01

203

Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

2012-01-01

204

Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

2012-01-01

205

Japanese post-industrial management: the cases of Asics and Mizuno  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an examination of two Japanese sporting goods corporations, Asics and Mizuno, to uncover the ways in which the traditional forms of Japanese management have been modified to fit within a post-industrial, global context. Our findings reveal a strong link between the cultural context of the firms and their managerial approach. However, the impact of traditional Japanese values

Koji Kobayashi; John M. Amis; Richard Irwin; Richard Southall

2010-01-01

206

Comparison of "herbal highs" composition.  

PubMed

Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition. PMID:21318244

Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna

2011-02-13

207

HIV/AIDS and traditional healers: a blessing in disguise.  

PubMed

Traditional healers contribute significantly to the level of health-care systems in Africa. They could play an important role in the prevention and care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the community. The traditional healing system deals with psychosocial stress associated with HIV/AIDS as well as herbal medications. Sometimes, herbal medicine causes serious life-threatening complications. Two case reports are presented in this article. The first is a 48-year-old woman with HIV who was made to drink a large volume of a herbal decoction to stimulate vomiting in the belief that cleansing the bowel would rid the system of the disease. The second is a 25-year-old young man who had a herbal enema, which resulted in gangrene of the large bowel. The case histories, mechanism of action and causes of death are discussed. PMID:21133268

Meel, B L

2010-07-01

208

Toxic epidermal necrolysis after extensive dermal use of realgar-containing (arsenic sulfide) herbal ointment.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Realgar (arsenic sulfide) is thought to be safe with few reports on toxicities or adverse effects and has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many centuries. Serious realgar poisoning is rare, and we report a fatal case resulted from short-term use of realgar-containing herbal medicine through dermal route. Case details. A 24-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had received 18 days of oral herbal medicine and realgar-containing herbal ointments over whole body from a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner. Seven days after the herbal use, he had diminished appetite, dizziness, abdomen discomfort, itching rash, and skin scaling. He later developed generalized edema, nausea, vomiting, decreased urine amount, diarrhea, vesico-edematous exanthems, malodorous perspiration, fever, and shortness of breath. He was taken to the hospital on Day 19 when the dyspnea became worse. Toxic epidermal necrolysis complicated with soft tissue infection and sepsis was noted, and he later died of septic shock and multiple organ failure. The post-mortem blood arsenic level was 1225 ?g/L. Herbal analysis yielded a very high concentration of arsenic in three unlabeled realgar-containing ointments (45427, 5512, and 4229 ppm). Conclusion. Realgar-containing herbal remedy may cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The arsenic in realgar can be absorbed systemically from repeated application to non-intact skin and thus should not be extensively used on compromised skin. PMID:24003889

Wu, M L; Deng, J F

2013-09-04

209

Japanese encephalitis.  

PubMed

A young couple come to see you for a pretravel consultation. They are planning to spend a month backpacking in Thailand over December and January. They have read about Japanese encephalitis in travel books and seek your advice on the need for vaccination against this disease. PMID:11458591

Scrimgeour, D

2001-06-01

210

Possible toxicity of herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world as a result of dissatisfaction with conventional medicines. It is a widely held belief that herbal preparations are "natural" and are therefore intrinsically harmless. However, their effects can be very powerful and potentially lethal if used incorrectly and their use as a substitute for conventional medicines may be ineffective. Toxic effects have been attributed to several factors including hepatotoxicity of main constituents, contamination of preparations by heavy metals or microorganisms, and adverse reactions due to age, and genetic and concomitant disease characteristics of the user. PMID:9533252

Bateman, J; Chapman, R D; Simpson, D

1998-02-01

211

[Present and future of traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy is the contact theory of traditional Chinese medicine and herbal application on the bridge, this paper systematically reviews the clinical pharmacy of traditional Chinese medicine the history, current situation of clinical pharmacy to conduct a comprehensive review, put forward the development of Chinese clinical pharmacy path, in order to strengthen the traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy discipline construction and research. PMID:23668029

Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan

2013-02-01

212

Towards the scientific validation of traditional medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of the population of developing countries usestraditional medicine alone, or in combination with Western drugs to treat awide variety of ailments. There has seldom been effective collaborationbetween the traditional and Western medical practitioners, largely due tothe perception that the use of traditional and herbal medicines has noscientific basis. With the renewed interest from Western countries in herbalremedies,

J. L. S. Taylor; T. Rabe; L. J. McGaw; A. K. Jäger; J. van Staden

2001-01-01

213

Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.

Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

2012-01-01

214

Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors' conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.

Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

2011-01-01

215

Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines.  

PubMed

A World Health Organisation survey indicated that about 70-80% of the world populations rely on non-conventional medicine mainly of herbal sources in their primary healthcare. In recent years, we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of over-the-counter (OTC) health foods, nutraceuticals, and medicinal products from plants or other natural sources in developed countries. This indirectly indicates that the public is not satisfied with their orthodox medical (OM) treatment. Such increase in popularity has also brought concerns and fears over the professionalism of practitioners, and quality, efficacy and safety of their treatment methods and products from herbal and natural sources available in the market. Over the past decade several news-catching episodes in developed communities indicated adverse effects, sometimes life threatening, allegedly arisen consequential to taking of OTC herbal products or traditional medicines from various ethnic groups. These OTC products may be contaminated with excessive or banned pesticides, microbial contaminants, heavy metals, chemical toxins, and for adulterated with orthodox drugs. Excessive or banned pesticides, heavy metals and microbial contaminants may be related to the source of these herbal materials, if they are grown under contaminated environment or during collection of these plant materials. Chemical toxins may come from unfavourable or wrong storage conditions or chemical treatment due to storage. The presence of orthodox drugs can be related to unprofessional practice of manufacturers. Some of these environment related factors can be controlled by implementing standard operating procedures (SOP) leading to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), Good Supply Practice (GSP) and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for producing these medicinal products from herbal or natural sources. The public's belief that herbal and natural products are safer than synthetic medicines can only be ascertained by imposing regulatory standards on these products that should be manufactured using these Good Practices. Using Chinese medicines, as examples, this paper illustrate how advances in chemical and biomedical analysis would help to detect intentional and unintentional toxic contaminants in herbal substances. The paper also summarises how modernization and progress are being carried out to get the best out of Chinese medicines for public healthcare. PMID:12867165

Chan, K

2003-09-01

216

Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.  

PubMed Central

China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future.

Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

1997-01-01

217

Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)|

Larson, Phyllis

2003-01-01

218

The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382

Routledge, Philip A

2008-01-01

219

Preventive effects of a herbal medicine on bone loss in rats treated with a GnRH agonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to evaluate the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-zong-yi-qi-tang), which was composed of 10 herbal medicines and had been used for the treatment of oligospermia and as a postoperative medication in Japan, on bone loss in rats treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Female rats at 40 weeks of age were divided

Shinobu Sakamoto; Shuji Sassa; Hideki Kudo; Satoe Suzuki; Tadasu Mitamura; Hisashi Shinoda

2000-01-01

220

The use of herbal medicine in cancer-related anorexia/ cachexia treatment around the world.  

PubMed

Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia. PMID:22632862

Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang

2012-01-01

221

Herbal remedies and anticoagulant therapy.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies, considered to be both safe and effective by most consumers, may interact with conventional drugs. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist originally derived from the sweet clover plant, has a narrow therapeutic window which can be monitored using prothrombin international normalized ratios (PT-INR). Many herbs can increase the risk for bleeding when combined with warfarin, either by augmenting the anticoagulant effects of the drug (with increased PT-INR levels) or through intrinsic anti-platelet properties (without altering PT-INR levels). The increased risk for bleeding among such patients may be difficult to predict, especially when formulas which contain many herbs are used. Further research into herb-drug interactions is warranted, as are guidelines for the use of herbal remedies by patients on chronic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:15630483

Samuels, Noah

2005-01-01

222

Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family's interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It

Jared Denman

223

The herbal medicine compound falcarindiol from Notopterygii Rhizoma suppresses dendritic cell maturation.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) are important for regulating the immune response. We report an herbal medicine compound called falcarindiol that affects DC function. Ethanol extracts of 99 crude drugs that are the main components of 210 traditional Japanese medicines (Kampo medicine) approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan were prepared and screened using the murine epidermal-derived Langerhans cell line XS106. Notopterygii Rhizoma strongly suppressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in XS106 cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of falcarindiol as a principal active compound in Notopterygii Rhizoma. Falcarindiol (1-5 microM) dose-dependently suppressed MHC II expression in XS106 cells. Fresh-isolated bone marrow-derived DCs were examined for the production of MHC II, CD80, CD86, interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-10. Treatment of bone marrow-derived DCs with 5 muM falcarindiol significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotype activation and cytokine secretion and inhibited MHC II expression by CD40 ligation, but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate + ionomycin or IL-12. Falcarindiol inhibited DC maturation by blocking the canonical pathway of nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphorylated p38. Topical application of 0.002 and 0.01% falcarindiol before sensitization dose-dependently suppressed delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin (p < 0.01). Falcarindiol induces immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo and might be a novel therapy for autoimmune or allergic diseases. PMID:20215408

Mitsui, Seika; Torii, Kan; Fukui, Hajime; Tsujimura, Kunio; Maeda, Akira; Nose, Mitsuhiko; Nagatsu, Akito; Mizukami, Hajime; Morita, Akimichi

2010-03-09

224

Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts has been investigated. The MIC of extracts of Evodia rutaecarpa and grape kernel ranged between 0.25 and 1 mg/ml against gram-positive cocci and P. aeruginosa. Cocci were killed after 30-90 min of incubation in grape kernel extract (0.5-1.5 mg/ml), and after 8 h in evodia extract (0.5-1 mg/ml), respectively. C. albicans was only susceptible to evodia (MIC 0.5 mg/ml). The organic solvents of the preparations contributed to the antibacterial effect of herbal extracts with MICs of ethanol between 4 and 10 vol% and those of methanol between 6 and 10 vol%. Taking this into consideration, mastic and thyme extracts exerted hardly any microbicidal activity, while grape kernel extract and evodia were still effective at 2- to 6-fold dilutions below the MIC of the solvent. Because of the weak antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts we recommend to give preference to preparations of single or more purified compounds. PMID:12872531

Thuille, Nikolaus; Fille, Manfred; Nagl, Markus

2003-06-01

225

South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary

E. Joubert; W. C. A. Gelderblom; A. Louw; D. de Beer

2008-01-01

226

Food Allergy Herbal Formula1 (FAHF-1) blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is a major cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. There is no curative therapy for this condition. Traditional Chinese medicines have been reported to have antiallergic properties, which might be useful for treating peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula, FAHF-1, on peanut

Xiu-Min Li; Teng-Fei Zhang; Chih-Kang Huang; Kamal Srivastava; Ariel A. Teper; Libang Zhang; Brian H. Schofield; Hugh A. Sampson

2001-01-01

227

Administration of a herbal immunoregulation mixture enhances some immune parameters in carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbal immunoregulation mixture (HIRM) were extracts of several traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs): Astragalus membranaceus (from the root and stem), Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (from the root), Isatis tinctoria L. (from the root), Glycyrrhiza glabra (from the stem). Immune parameters, which included macrophage phagocytic activity, macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS),\\u000a activity of serum lysozyme, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase

Chuntao Yuan; Dongmei Li; Wei Chen; Fangfang Sun; Guanghong Wu; Yi Gong; Jianqing Tang; Meifang Shen; Xiaodong Han

2007-01-01

228

Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco- epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year

Fang-Pey Chen; Maw-Shiou Jong; Yu-Chun Chen; Yen-Ying Kung; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Fun-Jou Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang

2009-01-01

229

Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.

2005-01-01

230

The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only.

Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

2012-01-01

231

Contamination of mercury in tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations.  

PubMed

The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. PMID:16567029

Ang, H H; Lee, K L

2006-03-29

232

Identification of nanofibers in the Chinese herbal medicine: Yunnan Baiyao.  

PubMed

Yunnan Baiyao is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to treat wounds for over 100 years. Here, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine nano-scale structures of the Yunnan Baiyao. AFM images revealed uniform nanofibers present in relatively high abundance in a solution of this medicine. Fibers were typically 25.1 nm in diameter and ranged in length from 86-726 nm due to processing. Due to the unique adhesive and structural properties of nanofibers, we concluded that these fibers may play a role in platelet aggregation, leading to clotting, and the sealing of wounds. PMID:20201420

Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Zhang, Mingjun

2009-10-01

233

[Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative].  

PubMed

Extracts and fluid extracts from the aerial parts from Passiflora incarnata L. are widely used as components of herbal sedatives. Many pharmacological investigations confirm the sedative effects of Passiflorae herba. From some of the studies also anxiolytic effects can be deduced. As Passionflower is mainly used in combinations, clinical studies of the single drug are not available. Based on pharmacological data, the experiences of traditional use and the use in combinations Passiflora extracts are an important factor in the phytotherapy of tenseness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep. PMID:12244887

Krenn, Liselotte

2002-01-01

234

Traditional Mediation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four articles address traditional mediation in library services, including the librarian as mediator, the reference librarian as information intermediary, recommitment to patrons' information needs, and mediation in reference service to extend patron success. (87 references) (LRW)|

Hafner, Arthur W.; And Others

1992-01-01

235

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

236

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine common herbal supplements, explore potential risks associated with herbal use, and provide recommendations to the athletic trainer regarding patient care issues. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases 1990–2000 using the key words herbals, regulation, supplements, toxicity, and adulteration. Data Synthesis: The use of herbal products continues to grow. While the origins of some medications and herbal supplements are similar, clinical testing and understanding of most herbal remedies is lacking. Some herbal products may prove useful in an athletic setting; however, current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations do not ensure safe and effective products. A descriptive review focusing on specific considerations for the athletic trainer is provided. Conclusions/Recommendations: Despite their increasing tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes need to be aware that “natural” does not equal “safe.” Athletes are entitled to know that most herbs are not proven safe or effective under current FDA standards. The athletic trainer must be able to provide honest, unbiased information when educating athletes regarding herbal supplements.

Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

237

Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

2013-04-01

238

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

239

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

240

Herbal Drugs in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India occupies the top-most position in the use of herbal drugs. This publication endeavours to give an idea of the extent of use of herbal drugs or their crude extractives, by the pharmaceutical concerns of India in their preparations. This will incident...

S. L. Kapoor R. Mitra

1979-01-01

241

Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT

Qiutao Gao; Jun Li; Jerry Ka Hei Cheung; Jinao Duan; Anwei Ding; Anna Wing Han Cheung; Kuijun Zhao; Winnie Zhuoming Li; Tina Tingxia Dong; Karl Wah Keung Tsim

2007-01-01

242

Safety of herbal supplements: a guide for cardiologists.  

PubMed

Many patients use herbal supplements to treat chronic cardiovascular conditions and often combine herbal ingredients with cardiovascular medications. However, physicians do not reliably elicit a history of herbal use from their patients and may overlook herbal supplements' adverse effects. Although often considered harmless by patients, herbal supplements may cause adverse cardiovascular effects from an herbal ingredient, a contaminant, or an herb-drug interaction. Herbal stimulants, including bitter orange, ephedra, caffeine, guarana, maté, kola, areca, lobelia, khat, and others are the most common category of herbal therapies to cause cardiovascular effects. However, dozens of other herbal ingredients have also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In addition to listed ingredients, herbal supplements may become contaminated at a number of stages during production. Pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and pharmaceutical agents have been detected in herbal supplements. Supposedly "herbal" products that are adulterated with prescription anorectics, antidepressants, diuretics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors along with other medications have been identified throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. All of these adulterants have potential cardiovascular effects. Herbal interactions with a variety of cardiovascular medications may also lead to adverse events. Herbal ingredients may cause pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions. We review clinically relevant patterns of adverse cardiovascular reactions to herbal supplements, and we provide resources and recommendations for practicing cardiologists evaluating patients with suspected herbal adverse effects. PMID:20633025

Cohen, Pieter A; Ernst, E

2010-08-01

243

Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: a literature review on case reports.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common amongst cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side-effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n=34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n=8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), noni (n=1) and Silymarin (n=1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D

2010-12-23

244

HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed.

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

245

Learning from Analysis of Japanese EFL Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Japan has a long tradition of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL). A common feature of EFL courses is reliance on specific textbooks as a basis for graded teaching, and periods in Japanese EFL history are marked by the introduction of different textbook series. These sets of textbooks share the common goal of taking students from…

Weir, George R. S.; Ozasa, Toshiaki

2010-01-01

246

Adaptive Texture Alignment for Japanese Kimono Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yukata is a type of traditional Japanese kimono. An alignment of its texture pattern is an important factor of the yukata design. There are rules in the texture alignment of the yukata. The rules are comparatively simple. However, the texture alignment is difficult for the designer because the texture alignment should be performed with consideration to the rules and

Tetsuya Sano; Hirouki Ukida; Hideki Yamamoto I

2005-01-01

247

Japanese Character in the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Japanese personality is a character istic emphasis of postwar social sciences in Japan. H. Minami describes basic traditions of submission to the powerful and of duty as fixed obligations toward statuses, not to individuals. The family hierarchy still is the model for social relations. Obedience is the highest virtue, and clever persons manipulate obedience to private advantage.

Douglas Gilbert Haring

1967-01-01

248

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.  

PubMed

Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

1999-01-15

249

Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity.

Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

2013-01-01

250

Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)|

Wada, Shuji

1993-01-01

251

Deadly Love: Mothers, Whores, and Other Demonic Females in Japanese Theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co?existing with the traditional Japanese view of woman as docile, self?sacrificing, and nurturing is an equally ancient image of woman as powerful shamaness, terrifying demon, sexual enchantress, or suffocating mother. Misogynistic and gynophobic tendencies in traditional and contemporary Japanese culture represent to certain male artists an authentic, pre?Buddhist, pre?Shinto Japanese soul.Fear of female sexuality and female power is traced in

Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei

1994-01-01

252

Evaluation of mercury contamination in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations.  

PubMed

The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented phase 3 registration of traditional medicines in January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety of all dosage forms of these medicines. For this reason, a total of 100 herbal products containing Smilax myosotiflora were purchased in the Malaysian market and analyzed for mercury content, as mercury is a recognized reproductive toxicant. The products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that 89% of the above products do not exceed 0.5 ppm of mercury. Heavy metal poisoning such as mercury has been associated with traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important that doctors and health care practitioners are aware of these risks and finding ways to minimize them, including questions pertaining to the use of these remedies during the routine taking of a patient's history. PMID:17963130

Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng

253

Communication Characteristics of Asians in American Urban Settings: The Case of Honolulu Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group…

Ogawa, Dennis M.

254

Communication Characteristics of Asians in American Urban Settings: The Case of Honolulu Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group…

Ogawa, Dennis M.

255

Title Syncretism in Japanese New Religions : The Case of Aum Shinrikyo and Aleph  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that there is a religious pluralism in Japan (e.g. Shinto, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity) and syncretism has traditionally been one of the general features of Japanese religious culture. Most Japanese new religious movements are also recognized to share in this character. In this paper, however, instead of construing it in terms of the traditional or cultural

256

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

257

The inhibitory effect of common traditional anti-rheumatic herb formulas on prostaglandin E and interleukin 2 in vitro: a comparative study with Tripterygium wilfordii  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the clinical efficacy of traditional anti-rheumatic herbal medicines on acute and severe arthritis or immune diseases, four herbal formulas and one herb were tested in vitro to determine their effects on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 2 (IL2). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were incubated with different concentrations of four herbal formulas including Shaur Yau Gan

C. T Chou; S. C Chang

1998-01-01

258

Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.  

PubMed

Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

2008-06-01

259

Perioperative Use of Herbal, Complementary, and Over the Counter Medicines in Plastic Surgery Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established.

Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

2011-01-01

260

Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ??????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Nuclear Scans Bone Scan ????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ... ?? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Nuclear or Radiation Emergencies ?????????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...

261

Herbal Meds, Cosmetic Surgery a Bad Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Herbal Meds, Cosmetic Surgery a Bad Mix: Experts Despite risks, nearly ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine Dietary Supplements Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery FRIDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- About half ...

262

Quantitative Determination of 14 Major Constituents in the Herbal Preparation Luan-Pao-Prescription Using HPLC Coupled with Photodiode Array Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC–DAD) was employed for the determination\\u000a of 14 major constituents in traditional Chinese herbal formula ‘Luan-Pao-Prescription’. Two different chromatographic determinations\\u000a for the 14 constituents were carried out to control the quality of this herbal formula. The sample was extracted under ultrasonic\\u000a extraction with 75% methanol at the frequency of 42 kHz for

Jin-qiang Zhang; Xiao-ming Wang; Zhi-qiang Lu; Hui-lian Huang; Guang-tong Chen; Rong-xia Liu; Kai-shun Bi; De-an Guo

2007-01-01

263

Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China.  

PubMed

Over the centuries, Chinese herbal drugs have served as a major source of medicines for the prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus (known as 'Xiao-ke'). It is estimated that more than 200 species of plants exhibit hypoglycaemic properties, including many common plants, such as pumpkin, wheat, celery, wax guard, lotus root and bitter melon. To date, hundreds of herbs and traditional Chinese medicine formulas have been reported to have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This paper provides a brief review of the antidiabetic drugs of plant origin that have been approved by the Chinese health regulatory agency for commercial use in China. It was believed, through pharmacological studies, that medicinal herbs were meticulously organized in these antidiabetic drug formulas such that polysaccharide containing herbs restore the functions of pancreatic tissues and cause an increase in insulin output by the functional beta cells, while other ingredients enhance the microcirculation, increase the availability of insulin and facilitate the metabolism in insulin-dependent processes. Pharmacological and clinical evaluations indicated that these drugs had a mild, but significant, blood glucose lowering effect and that the long-term use of these agents may be advantageous over chemical drugs in alleviating some of the chronic diseases and complications caused by diabetes. Additionally, the use of these natural agents in conjunction with conventional drug treatments, such as a chemical agent or insulin, permits the use of lower doses of the drug and/or decreased frequency of administration which decreases the side effects most commonly observed. PMID:14669243

Jia, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Lida

2003-12-01

264

The Virtual Museum of Japanese Arts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of traditional Japanese treasures and culture was produced for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and is a virtual museum that includes physical objects and other more intangible items of cultural patrimony, such as fighting styles and performance art. Visitors can scroll over any of the seven "galleries" to read a description of what types of work are contained within. The "Fine Arts" gallery is defined as those visual arts primarily concerned with the creation of beauty, such as architecture and gardens, painting, sculpture, and Ukiyoe. Upon choosing a section of the gallery, visitors can click on it, see examples of the art form, and read about the history of these traditions. The "Cafe" gallery is particularly interesting, and it is described as a "'refreshment space'...to enjoy learning more about the Japanese culture and traditions from many exotic perspectives." The Virtual Museum Theatre allows visitors to watch "Movies of Japanese Festivals" and "Movies of Japanese Martial Arts". An exhibit of Wagashi representing all seasons of the year, and celebrations, is worth a look and can also be found in the "Cafe" gallery. [KMG

265

Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Chinese Herbal Medicines: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.

Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai

2011-01-01

266

Inhibition of airway smooth muscle tone by Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether Chinese traditional herbal drugs, Gorei-San (TJ-17) and Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23), affect airway smooth muscle tone and, if so, to determine what the mechanism of action is. Rabbit tracheal segments were isolated and the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and acetylcholine were measured before and after the application of TJ-17 or TJ-23 under isometric conditions in vitro. Ouabain-sensitive rubidium-86 (86Rb) uptake by tissues in response to each drug was also measured. Each herbal medicine attenuated the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction being 37.5+/-4.9% for TJ-17 and 42.4+/-5.3% for TJ-23 (p<0.05 for each). These effects were not altered by mechanical removal of the epithelium, indomethacin, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS), the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT5823, or the calcium (Ca2+)-activated potassium (K+) channel inhibitor charybdotoxin, but were greatly inhibited in the presence of the sodium (Na+)-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitor ouabain. Incubation of tissues with TJ-17 and TJ-23 dose dependently increased ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake. The results of the study suggest that both Gorei-San and Toki-Shakuyaku-San reduce airway smooth muscle tone via a postjunctional mechanism probably through stimulation of the sodium pump and the subsequent hyperpolarization/repolarization of the cell membrane. These effects may contribute to the antiasthmatic properties of these herbal medicines. PMID:11292117

Tagaya, E; Tamaoki, J; Kawatani, K; Taira, M; Nagai, A

2000-12-01

267

Regulatory issues concerning the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies and alternative medicines are used throughout the world, and in the past herbs were often the original sources of most drugs. Today we are witnessing an increase in herbal remedy use throughout the Western world raising the question as to how safe are these preparations for the unborn fetus? Many women use herbal products during pregnancy. The dilemma facing most regulatory authorities is that the public considers these products as either traditional medicines or natural food supplements. The user sees no reason for regulation. Most countries have laws concerning foods, drugs, and cosmetics, the details of which seldom clearly define to what section of the law and regulations alternative remedies belong. In most countries alternative remedies are regulated as foods, provided that no medicinal claim is made on the label. The global regulatory sector, however, is changing rapidly. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia created a Complimentary Medicines Evaluation Committee in late 1997 to address this issue, and Canada has created a new Natural Health Products Directorate in the realigned Therapeutic Products and Foods Branch in 2000. In parallel, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products has drafted test procedures and acceptance criteria for herbal drug preparations and herbal medicinal products. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration classifies these natural products as dietary supplements. Manufacturers must label a dietary supplement thus: "this statement has not been evaluated by the FDA [, and] this product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease." Whether these products are foods or drugs is undecided. To add complexity to this issue, most of the potential deleterious effects of natural products on the unborn may be related to hormonal effects (e.g., phytoestrogens) and nutriceutical drug interactions (e.g., St. John's Wort and antidepressants), rather than direct embryotoxicity per se. We suggest that ensuring quality of herbal products should receive immediate attention by regulatory authorities, before embarking on the more arduous tasks of safety and efficacy. PMID:14745988

Rousseaux, Colin G; Schachter, Howard

2003-12-01

268

Ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of studyMalaria is one of the most important diseases in the world. Because of the devastating nature of the disease there is an urgent need to develop new drugs or vaccines for the treatment, prevention and management of the disease. The objective of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the

Alex Asase; George A. Akwetey; Daniel G. Achel

2010-01-01

269

The inhibitory effect of a Korean herbal medicine, Zedoariae rhizoma, on growth of cultured human hepatic myofibroblast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ZR on the growth of cultured human hepatic myofibroblast cells (hMF). The zedoary (Zedoariae Rhizoma) made from the dried rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe is an herbal drug used as an aromatic stomachic. The plant is a perennial herb which is natively distributed throughout Korea and is a traditional

Dong-Il Kim; Tae-Kyun Lee; Tae-Hyun Jang; Cheorl-Ho Kim

2005-01-01

270

An herbal formula, CGX, exerts hepatotherapeutic effects on dimethylnitrosamine-induced chronic liver injury model in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Chunggan extract (CGX), a modified traditional Chinese hepatotherapeutic herbal, on the dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury model in rats. METHODS: Liver injuries were induced in Wistar rats by injection of DMN (ip, 10 mg\\/mL per kg) for 3 consecutive days per week for 4 wk. The rats were administered with CGX (po ,

Jang-Woo Shin; Jin-Young Son; Se-Mi Oh; Seung-Hyun Han; Jing-Hua Wang; Jung-Hyo Cho; Chong-Kwan Cho; Hwa-Seung Yoo; Yeon-Weol Lee; Myong-Min Lee; Xiao Ping Hu; Chang-Gue Son

2006-01-01

271

Effects of hepatic stimulator substance, herbal medicine, selenium\\/vitamin E, and ciprofloxacin on cirrhosis in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis is a potentially lethal condition for which there is no proven effective therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hepatic stimulator substance, traditional Chinese herbal medicine, selenium plus vitamin E, and ciprofloxacin treatment on biochemical and histological features of fibrosis in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)\\/ethanol-induced cirrhosis. METHODS: One hundred twenty

M Zhang; G Song; GY Minuk

1996-01-01

272

Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid.  

PubMed

Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism-which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

2008-06-13

273

Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid  

PubMed Central

Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism—which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques.

Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

2010-01-01

274

An investigation into the use of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of orofacial disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryWhile on student elective from the Dental School of Bristol University, the authors had the chance to study the basic principles of traditional Chinese medicine and to observe the treatment of orofacial disease in a modern general hospital in Shanghai and in a specialist stomatological hospital at Beijing Medical University. The background to traditional herbal medicine and various forms of

F Au; J Cresswell

1997-01-01

275

Traditional Chinese medicine network pharmacology: theory, methodology and application.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of viewing an individual or patient as a system with different statuses, and has accumulated numerous herbal formulae. The holistic philosophy of TCM shares much with the key ideas of emerging network pharmacology and network biology, and meets the requirements of overcoming complex diseases, such as cancer, in a systematic manner. To discover TCM from a systems perspective and at the molecular level, a novel TCM network pharmacology approach was established by updating the research paradigm from the current "one target, one drug" mode to a new "network target, multi-components" mode. Subsequently, a set of TCM network pharmacology methods were created to prioritize disease-associated genes, to predict the target profiles and pharmacological actions of herbal compounds, to reveal drug-gene-disease co-module associations, to screen synergistic multi-compounds from herbal formulae in a high-throughput manner, and to interpret the combinatorial rules and network regulation effects of herbal formulae. The effectiveness of the network-based methods was demonstrated for the discovery of bioactive compounds and for the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of herbal formulae, such as Qing-Luo-Yin and the Liu-Wei-Di-Huang pill. The studies suggest that the TCM network pharmacology approach provides a new research paradigm for translating TCM from an experience-based medicine to an evidence-based medicine system, which will accelerate TCM drug discovery, and also improve current drug discovery strategies. PMID:23787177

Li, Shao; Zhang, Bo

2013-03-01

276

Japanese Companies' Investments in China (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper provides an overview of Japan-China economic relations focusing primarily on Japanese companies' direct investments in China.First, I will outline the chronological development of investment relations between Japan and China over the past 20 years. Historically, there have been three boom periods for Japanese investments in China: the first boom from 1985 through 1987, the second from 1991

SHIBOTA Atsuo

2009-01-01

277

Herbal medicine: Beneficial effects, side effects, and promising new research in the treatment of arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medications and dietary supplements are unregulated in the United States. The use of these medications has dramatically\\u000a increased over the past decade. Many of these drugs are biologically active, yet physicians are often unaware their patients\\u000a are using a traditional remedy. Physicians are frequently unfamiliar with the medications being used and the intended effect,\\u000a as well as the side-effect

C. William Stout; Jonathan Weinstock; Munther K. Homoud; Paul J. Wang; N. A. Mark Estes; Mark S. Link

2003-01-01

278

Analysis of lead content in herbal preparations in Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Malaysia, the phase 3 registration for traditional medicines was implemented on 1 January 1992 under the Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulation 1984, emphasizing quality, efficacy and safety (including the detection of the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. Therefore, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, were analysed for lead content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 8% (eight products) possessed 10.64-20.72 ppm of lead, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. One of these products, M-Tongkat Ali (exhibited 10.64 +/-0.37 ppm of lead), was in fact already registered with the DCA Malaysia. The rest, Sukarno Tongkat Ali, Eurycoma Madu, Super Pill Tongkat Ali, Force Pill Tongkat Ali, Tender Pill Tongkat Ali, Super Pill Tongkat Ali Plus and Great Pill Tongkat Ali Plus have not registered with the DCA Malaysia and exhibited 12.24-20.72 ppm of lead. Although this study showed that only 92% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:12948085

Ang, H H; Lee, E L; Matsumoto, K

2003-08-01

279

Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

Navarro, Victor J

2009-10-13

280

Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.

Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

2013-01-01

281

Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.  

PubMed

In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves > sage > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > roselle. In particular, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities may be useful for meal planning in type 2 diabetes. They could contribute to sustain plasma antioxidant level because antioxidants present in plants and herbs prevent the development of vascular diseases seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:18183488

Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

2008-01-09

282

Herbal Stroke Remedy No Better Than Dummy Pill  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Herbal stroke remedy no better than dummy pill (*this news ... July 5, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Herbal Medicine Stroke By Kerry Grens NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A ...

283

Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations.

Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

2009-01-01

284

Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.  

PubMed

Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

2010-11-01

285

New approaches in analyzing the pharmacological properties of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

Herbal extracts are widely used and accepted in the population. The pharmacological characterization of such products meets some specific challenges, given the chemical complexity of the active ingredient. An overview is given on modern methods and approaches that can be used for that purpose. In particular, HPLC-based activity profiling is discussed as a means to identify pharmacologically active compounds in an extract, and expression profiling is described as a means for global assessment of effects exerted by multi-component mixtures such as extracts. These methods are illustrated with selected axamples from our labs, including woad (Isatis tinctoria), the traditional Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). PMID:18605255

Hamburger, Matthias

2007-01-01

286

Antioxidant properties of tropical and temperate herbal teas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant properties (AOP) of thirteen tropical and five temperate herbal teas were screened. Comparisons were made with green, oolong and black teas of Camellia sinensis. The AOP studied were total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) ability. Tropical herbal teas were more diverse in types and more variable in AOP values than temperate herbal teas. Herbal

E. W. C. Chan; Y. Y. Lim; K. L. Chong; J. B. L. Tan; S. K. Wong

2010-01-01

287

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2010-10-18

288

Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese

Edzard Ernst

2002-01-01

289

Internet websites selling herbal treatments for erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the safety and reliability of internet websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes for Viagra. Using keywords ‘Herbal’ and ‘Viagra’, websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes were identified. The top 50 sequential sites were assessed for safety and reliability against the Health on the Net (HON) criteria.

R Thurairaja; B Barrass; R Persad

2005-01-01

290

Acute cholinergic syndrome following ingestion of contaminated herbal extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular and increasingly used in the USA. Herbs are from natural plants and therefore often considered to be harmless compared with western medicines. Nevertheless, as the use of herbal remedies has risen, so has the incidence of acute and chronic herbal intoxication. The case history is presented of a 68-year-old man who presented

M-J Hsieh; Z-S Yen; S-C Chen; C-C Fang

2008-01-01

291

Possible interaction of herbal tea and carbamazepine.  

PubMed

A study was conducted using Wistar rats to determine the effect of concurrent administration of a herbal tea prepared from dried flowers of Cassia auriculata and carbamazepine on (a) blood levels of the prescription drug and (b) changes in toxicity (as assessed by changes in hematological parameters, liver and kidney function, and histology of major body organs) that may occur due to drug interaction. Results demonstrate that in rats receiving the herbal tea and carbamazepine, the blood levels of the prescription drug were significantly enhanced by 47.1% (p <0.04) when compared with the levels in animals receiving only carbamazepine, with no apparent changes in toxicity. Concurrent ingestion of the herbal tea prepared from Cassia auriculata flowers with carbamazepine may therefore influence the bioavailability of the prescribed drug and hence its therapeutic potential. PMID:14682609

Thabrew, M Ira; Munasinghe, T M Janake; Chackrewarthi, Surekha; Senarath, Susantha

2003-01-01

292

Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention.

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

293

A Japanese Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a view of Japanese education based on the experiences and observations of an American educator. Explains cultural contrasts, educational aspects and model, and the question of discipline. A Japanese educator responds with a personal view on educational equality in ability. (RT)

DeVito, Alfred; Ogawa, Masakata

1989-01-01

294

The Japanese American Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

Fukei, Budd

295

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.

2011-01-01

296

An Integrative Platform of TCM Network Pharmacology and Its Application on a Herbal Formula, Qing-Luo-Yin  

PubMed Central

The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable.

Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao

2013-01-01

297

X-ray powder diffractometry and liquid chromatography studies of sibutramine and its analogues content in herbal dietary supplements.  

PubMed

The contemporary societies of the developed countries are prone to use traditional far-east medicines as remedies for all diseases. Some of them, such as obesity, might be classified as civilization diseases. Combating the problem, people try not only several miraculous diets but also herbal infusions (teas) and variety of "herbal" preparations. All these believing that such treatment is healthy and harmless as far as it is "natural". Leaving out of the way the question if herbal medicines can be taken safely without doctors' control the query arises if the common preparations are strictly natural and herbal. Here we report examples of quality studies of such medicines using both X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and liquid chromatography (LC) with various types of detection: ultraviolet (UV), coulometric electrode array (CEAD) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Especially the XRPD assisted with an optical microscopy seems to be useful as a fast screening method of general sample composition of such preparations. First of all it can discriminate between capsules containing pure herbal materials and those with some chemical. PMID:21899974

Stypu?kowska, K; B?a?ewicz, A; Maurin, J; Sarna, K; Fija?ek, Z

2011-08-24

298

Effects of herbal medicinal formulas on suppressing viral replication and modulating immune responses.  

PubMed

The Chinese medicinal herbs Radix Isatidis and Viola yedoensis Makino have been suggested to possess antiviral activity. This study tests whether these and other Chinese and Western herbal medicinal formulas can modulate the immune functions involving virus-suppression in BALB/c mouse. We first confirmed the extract from Viola yedoensis Makino, but not from Radix Isatidis, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Chui-Uren-Chien (CUC), or a Western homeopathic medicinal drink Método Canova, could inhibit the replications of herpes simplex virus-1 and enterovirus 71 in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. Subsequently, the same herbal extracts and drink underwent toxicity and immunomodulatory tests on mice of 5-7 weeks old. After 8 weeks of feeding different herbal medicinal formulas, no hepatic or renal toxicity was noted in any tested animal; whereas among the immune function evaluations, only the mice treated with CUC extract were found to be associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in both the level of plasma IgG and the percentage of monocyte in blood mononuclear cells as well as the activation of macrophage Raw264.7 cells for nitric oxide production, suggesting its role in modulating the non-specific immune response. Analyses using protein arrays showed CUC was the most potent herbal medicinal formula eliciting fluctuations in plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Taking all experimental data together, we conclude Chui-Uren-Chien possesses immunomodulatory capability in mouse, but none of the herbal medicinal formulas tested here are involved in strengthening antiviral immunity. PMID:20128053

Liao, Hui-Fen; Lu, Min-Chi; Chang, Hon-Chou; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Kao, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Zong-Huei; Huang, Chin-Chin; Li, Ching

2010-01-01

299

Herbal products in Canada. How safe are they?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a

Kozyrskyj, A.

1997-01-01

300

Japanese religion as ritual order  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued in this paper that beneath the superficial analysis of Japanese ‘religions’ such as Buddhism, Shinto, Confucianism and the New Religions, there is one dominant ideological complex which, following some Japanese scholars, can conveniently be dubbed ‘The Japanese Religion’ or Nihonkyo. This Japanese religion is a ritual order based on the hierarchical concept of ‘ie’ and its variations

Timothy Fitzgerald

1993-01-01

301

Traditional knowledge for promotion of socioeconomic inclusion of local communities.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the key role played by public research institutes for promoting socioeconomic inclusion of local communities based on traditional knowledge and traditional medicine. Nongovernmental organizations and cooperatives have had an important role in raising financial resources, being involved with advocacy of local communities and advancing legislation changes. But strict best manufacturing practices regulations imposed by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency on the requirements for approval and commercialization of drugs based on herbal medicine products call for the involvement of strong public research institutes capable of supporting community-based pharmacies. Thus, public research institutes are pivotal as they can conduct scientific research studies to evidence the efficacy of herbal medicine products and help building the capacity of local communities to comply with current regulations. PMID:22510971

Sorte Jr, Waldemiro Francisco

2012-04-17

302

A review on herbal antiasthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional systems of medicine, many plants have been documented to be useful for the treatment of various respiratory\\u000a disorders including asthma. In the last two decades the use of medicinal plants and natural products has been increased dramatically\\u000a all over the world. Current synthetic drugs used in pharmacotherapy of asthma are unable to act at all the stages and

Ravindra G. Mali; Avinash S. Dhake

303

[A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].  

PubMed

Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT. PMID:23158937

Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

2012-11-01

304

A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)|

Moore, Susan A.

2003-01-01

305

Kava: herbal panacea or liver poison?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following reports of liver toxicity, including liver failure, associated with extracts from the Pacific islands plant kava (Piper methysticum), these have been banned from sale as a herbal anxiolytic in many Western countries, to the detriment of Pacific island economies. ? Pacific Islanders have used kava extensively for centuries, without recognised liver toxicity. However, the population is small, and there

Robert F W Moulds; Joji Malani

306

Herbal and homeopathic medicine: understanding the difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeopathy is frequently confused with holistic medicine and with herbal products. The latter is particularly problematic when homeopathic medicines are made from herbs with which they share the same nomenclature. However, homeopathy differs in both toxicity and therapeutic paradigm with important implications for use and future research. The article illustrates this with cases and a review of the history of

Joyce C Frye

2003-01-01

307

Artificial neural network for herbal ingredient discoveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach, which is based on artificial neural network (ANN) by backpropagation, for fast and trusted herbal ingredient discoveries, is proposed. It is fast , because different ANN modules can be executed in parallel, and the ANN results are trustworthy, because they can be verified by TCM domain experts in real clinical environments. The ANN is able to learn

Jackei H. K. Wong; Wilfred W. K. Lin; Allan K. Y. Wong; Tharam S. Dillon

2010-01-01

308

Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary\\/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary\\/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador)

Michael Smith; Heather S. Boon

1999-01-01

309

Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

Jenkins, Andrew P.

310

Hovenia dulcis--an Asian traditional herb.  

PubMed

Hovenia dulcis Thunb., known as Japanese raisin tree, is commonly found in East Asia. It has a long history as a food supplement and traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea, but is little known and used in Western countries so far. This minireview summarizes traditional uses and current knowledge on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of H. duclcis and covers, in particular, literature from specialized Asian journals that are not readily accessible. Extracts from H. dulcis accelerate detoxification of ethanol, and possess hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antidiabetic properties. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, free radical scavenging and enhancement of ethanol catabolism have been reported. PMID:20379955

Hyun, Tae Kyung; Eom, Seung Hee; Yu, Chang Yeon; Roitsch, Thomas

2010-04-08

311

Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German colonial sovereignty in the Marshall Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls, depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This

Dirk H. R. Spennemann

1998-01-01

312

East Meets West in Japanese Doctoral Education: Form, Dependence, and the Strange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Against the background of current reforms in higher education, we analyze the traditional education of Japanese doctoral students in philosophy of education from Western and Japanese perspectives by focusing on learning as self-education, on being and learning with others, on the socialization into the profession, and on the study of the foreign…

McCarty, Luise Prior; Hirata, Yoshitsugu

2010-01-01

313

Effects of Contextual Congruence in Advertising Execution: The Case of Japanese Culture-Bound Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of congruence in advertising execution and relevance to the target audience were tested in a specific Japanese cultural context. An experiment was designed to test if significant differences existed between an advertisement for a traditional piece of clothing as modeled by a Japanese and an identical advertisement as modeled by a Westerner. The selected piece of clothing was

Emmanuel J. Chéron; Rodi C. Pau

2009-01-01

314

Innovation through dialectical leadership—case studies of Japanese high-tech companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a new point of view regarding the knowledge management and leadership theory of new product development, a high-tech field requiring the merging and integration of different technologies. As in-depth case studies, the author examine the dynamism of the knowledge creation process in new product development at three Japanese companies, traditional Japanese telecommunications manufacturers and carrier, as they

Mitsuru Kodama

2005-01-01

315

Revealing the secrets of composite helmets of ancient Japanese tradition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present novel results from a non-invasive examination of two kabuto (helmets), made in Japan in the 17th century. Neutron-imaging experiments (radiography and tomography), carried out at the ICON and NEUTRA beamlines, operating at the neutron source SINQ (CH), have allowed to determine the inner metal structure and manufacturing techniques of these beautiful examples of past technology, revealing some otherwise invisible details.

Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Fedrigo, A.; Williams, A.; Civita, F.; Scherillo, A.; Vontobel, P.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Zoppi, M.

2013-08-01

316

A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

Carlson, Scott

2008-01-01

317

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology.  

PubMed

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053

Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

2005-05-31

318

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology  

PubMed Central

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment.

Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

2005-01-01

319

[Use of traditional Chinese medicine during the Red Army period in Chinese history].  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors make an analysis of the historical literature during the Red Army period of the agrarian revolution war, dealing with the situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Red Army. During that time the Red Army had created revolutionary medical hospitals, gathering herbal medicine, growing herbal plants and producing Chinese medicines. At the same time the Red Army paid great attention to enriching Chinese medicine, cultivating practitioners and treating and preventing diseases using traditional Chinese medicine. During the Red Army period there was an extreme lack of medical facilities; traditional Chinese medicine played an important role in ensuring the fighting capabilities of the Red Army units. Looking back at the Red Army period, the development of our tradition can be seen, which enables future development of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as integrated medicine. PMID:22015198

Wang, Fa-wei; Chen, Li-ping; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Gang

2011-10-01

320

Japanese Beetle Program Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: List of Tables; List of Figures; Introduction (Japanese Beetle Program Manual for Airports); General Information (Management and Compliance Agreements (CAs), Airport Monitoring and Classification, Monitoring Airports in JB-infested Areas, Determ...

2004-01-01

321

Future of Japanese Nationalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Problem of Japanese Nationalism; The Nature of Prewar Nationalism; The Suppression of Nationalism in Postwar Japan; The Decline of the Progressive View of the Nation; Economic Nationalism--The Neo-mercantilist View; The Debate over National ...

K. B. Pyle

1985-01-01

322

Japanese speakers of English: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese speakers' pronunciation difficulties with \\/l\\/ and \\/r\\/ and with \\/s\\/ before \\/i:\\/ and \\/?\\/ are well known, but a common difficulty seems not to have been studied: confusion between \\

Margaret Maeda; Hiroko Saito

323

Herbal medicines for the treatment of COPD: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to systematically assess the effectiveness of herbal medicines in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) testing herbal medicines against any type of control intervention in patients with COPD and assessing clinically relevant outcomes were included. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by at least two reviewers. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Jadad score. Effect sizes and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Fourteen eligible RCTs, testing 14 different herbal medicines, were located. Herbal medicines were compared against placebo or no treatment in six trials. Significant intergroup differences for one or more outcome were reported for several herbal medicines including Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza. In seven RCTs, which compared herbal medicines with other herbal medicines, the results were mixed. A single trial compared a herbal medicine (Hedera helix leaf extract) with a conventional treatment (ambroxol tablet) and reported no significant difference between groups. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, statistical pooling was not performed. The median methodological quality score was 2 out of a possible maximum 5. The effectiveness of herbal medicines for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not established beyond reasonable doubt. Currently, the evidence from randomised clinical trials is scarce and often methodologically weak. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, rigorously designed studies seem warranted. PMID:16880367

Guo, R; Pittler, M H; Ernst, E

2006-08-01

324

Japanese resource dependence  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is an examination of Japan's strategic resource dependence and her reliance of the three raw materials-rich regions of Southeast Asia (ASEAN), the Persian Gulf, and Southern Africa. A discussion of the Japanese formula for securing resources in the less developed countries of the 'South' is included along with a brief overview of her onshore resource utilization in business/industry. The roles of direct foreign investment, official development assistance, energy conservation, and Japanese multinationalization are discussed.

Sim, R.W.

1982-03-01

325

The Japanese value of harmony and nursing ethics.  

PubMed

Harmony is one of the most fundamental Japanese values. It is derived from Confucianism and encompasses a state of mind, an action process and outcomes of the action. This article draws on research data and discusses Japanese nurses' perceptions of harmony as reflected in their everyday practice. The most important virtues for these nurses were reported as politeness and respect for other persons. The outcome from the nurses' harmonious practice, it is claimed, benefited patients and created peaceful, harmonious relationships for all. Because of the unique link between harmony and the location of interaction, the ideal 'workplace harmony' threatened some nurses' professional decision making. These nurses confused harmony with conformity by superficial agreement. The Japanese seniority system could be a major factor contributing to this problem. Ethics education that includes traditional values and concepts in Japanese culture is strongly urged. PMID:19671648

Konishi, Emiko; Yahiro, Michiko; Nakajima, Naoko; Ono, Miki

2009-09-01

326

Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.  

PubMed

Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar. PMID:19919515

Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

2009-12-01

327

Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.  

PubMed

Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies. PMID:23293189

Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

328

Antiproliferative activities of tea and herbal infusions.  

PubMed

The consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased rapidly in recent years. More and more people consume these infusions as daily beverages as well as for health purposes. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the antiproliferative function of these infusions for nutritionists and the general public. The in vitro antiproliferative activities of 60 different tea and herbal infusions on four cancer cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that some infusions strongly inhibited the proliferation of A549 (human lung cancer cells), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), HepG2 (human hepatoma cells) and HT-29 (human colon cancer cells), and decreased the viability of these cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, some bioactive components in the infusions were also separated and determined by HPLC. The results suggested that some tea and herbal infusions may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:23307138

Li, Fang; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Ling, Wen-Hua; Xu, Xiang-Rong

2013-01-10

329

Herbal product use in a patient with polypharmacy.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old homebound patient was experiencing new onset porthostatic hypotension and lightheadedness. The pharmacist conducted a thorough medication review, which revealed the use of several herbal products, including St. John's wort, in addition to several prescription medications. The pharmacist counseled the patient on the potential hazards of using herbal products with prescription medications. This prompted the patient to discontinue all herbal supplements with the subsequent resolution of his lightheadedness and orthostasis. He also experienced improvement in his pain control. Pharmacists need to be vigilant in establishing a dialogue with their patients about the pros and cons of herbal product use, particularly with prescription medications. PMID:17243855

Cappuzzo, Kimberly A

2006-11-01

330

In vitro and in vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Momordica balsamina Alone or in a Traditional Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because of the dramatic situation of malaria in Africa, there is an urgent need to find new and cheap drugs, such as herbal medicines. Here we report the study of the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of Momordica balsamina alone or in a traditional mixture used in Niger. Methods: Extracts were obtained with different solvents and tested

F. Benoit-Vical; P. Grellier; A. Abdoulaye; I. Moussa; A. Ousmane; A. Berry; K. Ikhiri; C. Poupat

2006-01-01

331

Recent advances in analysis of Chinese medical plants and traditional medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined

Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova

2004-01-01

332

The inter-relationship of folk, traditional and western medicine within an Asian community in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based interview study of Asians and a questionnaire study of health professionals were performed to ascertain the role of traditional medicine in the context of health care within the Asian community. Among Asians, knowledge of herbal remedies, the Asian healer and cultural concepts such as the 'hot\\/ cold' theory was high. They frequently used culinary ingredients to treat common

Rajinder Singh Bhopal

1986-01-01

333

The effect of three Korean traditional medicines on the growth rate of cultured human keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of three different Korean Traditional Medicines (KTM) was studied on several functional parameters of adult human cells in culture. The cells were non-transformed strains of normal, skin epidermal cells (keratinocytes) from adult humans. Aqueous extracts of the herbal medicines were tested using two types of cell strains: one type was essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) cells which grow

Seok Hee Chung; Hiroto Terashi; Lenore M Rhodes; Namdoo Moon; William R Dunham; Cynthia L Marcelo

2001-01-01

334

Student Preconceptions of Japanese Language Learning in 1989 and 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares student preconceptions and expectations of Japanese language learning from studies conducted in 1989 and 2004. Over the years, student interests and pedagogical approaches have changed. However, the changes do not reflect on the student preconceptions and expectations. They still believe in traditional approaches to language…

Hayashi, Atsuko

2009-01-01

335

Japanese Negotiation Through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese kara ‘because\\/so’ and kedo ‘but’, traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a “subordinate” clause and connect it to a following “main” clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and that they are grammaticizing into final particles functioning

Tsuyoshi Ono; Sandra A. Thompson; Yumi Sasaki

2012-01-01

336

Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…

Taylor, Yuki Io

2010-01-01

337

Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…

Taylor, Yuki Io

2010-01-01

338

Japanese Negotiation through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and…

Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi

2012-01-01

339

Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a 170 kDa phosphorylated glycoprotein encoded by human MDR1 gene. It is responsible for the systemic disposition of numerous structurally and pharmacologically unrelated lipophilic and amphipathic drugs, carcinogens, toxins, and other xenobiotics in many organs, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and brain. Like cytochrome P450s (CYP3A4), Pgp is vulnerable to inhibition, activation, or induction by herbal constituents. This was demonstrated by using an ATPase assay, purified Pgp protein or intact Pgp-expressing cells, and proper probe substrates and inhibitors. Curcumin, ginsenosides, piperine, some catechins from green tea, and silymarin from milk thistle were found to be inhibitors of Pgp, while some catechins from green tea increased Pgp-mediated drug transport by heterotropic allosteric mechanism, and St. John's wort induced the intestinal expression of Pgp in vitro and in vivo. Some components (e.g., bergamottin and quercetin) from grapefruit juice were reported to modulate Pgp activity. Many of these herbal constituents, in particular flavonoids, were reported to modulate Pgp by directly interacting with the vicinal ATP-binding site, the steroid-binding site, or the substrate-binding site. Some herbal constituents (e.g., hyperforin and kava) were shown to activate pregnane X receptor, an orphan nuclear receptor acting as a key regulator of MDR1 and many other genes. The inhibition of Pgp by herbal constituents may provide a novel approach for reversing multidrug resistance in tumor cells, whereas the stimulation of Pgp expression or activity has implication for chemoprotective enhancement by herbal medicines. Certain natural flavonols (e.g., kaempferol, quercetin, and galangin) are potent stimulators of the Pgp-mediated efflux of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (a carcinogen). The modulation of Pgp activity and expression by these herb constituents may result in altered absorption and bioavailability of drugs that are Pgp substrates. This is exemplified by increased oral bioavailability of phenytoin and rifampin by piperine and decreased bioavailability of indinavir, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, digoxin, and fexofenadine by coadministered St. John's wort. However, many of these drugs are also substrates of CYP3A4. Thus, the modulation of intestinal Pgp and CYP3A4 represents an important mechanism for many clinically important herb-drug interactions. Further studies are needed to explore the relative role of Pgp and CYP3A4 modulation by herbs and the mechanism for the interplay of these two important proteins in herb-drug interactions. PMID:15072439

Zhou, Shufeng; Lim, Lee Yong; Chowbay, Balram

2004-02-01

340

Alternative Approach for Mitigation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity Using Herbal Agents.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective and frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various malignancies. However, its clinical use is hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Investigations have proved that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity occurs through mechanisms other than those mediating its antitumor effect. This theory sheds a light towards the development of strategies for cardioprotection without altering therapeutic effectiveness of DOX. Bioactive plant constituents of dietary supplements, traditional herbs and foods with potential health benefits can play an important role in therapeutics. This manuscript is an exhaustive review and prospect of herbal and botanical agents against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with their proposed mechanisms. The activity of herbs evaluated against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have shown number of mechanisms, which  include apoptosis, antioxidant, effect on mitochondria, calcium regulation etc. The manuscript reveals that most of the herbal drugs studied are effective through antioxidant mechanism. Only few have been studied for their role against apoptosis and iron-mediated toxicity, which are other major pathways involved in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and are only few reports available for  the prevention  of DOX-induced drug resistance by these botanicals. Manuscript reports a number of constituents with evident potential in prevention of DOX cardiotoxicity e.g. proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, S-allylcysteine, reseveratrol, rutoside etc. In the present communication, several herbal drugs have been discussed, which can act through mechanisms other than antioxidant and may be evaluated as a combination therapy for prevention of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in future. PMID:23342982

Khana, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Ahmad, Wasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Sayeed

2013-01-15

341

Prescription Patterns of Chinese Herbal Products for Osteoporosis in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese herbal products (CHPs), acupuncture, and traumatology manipulative therapies. TCM physicians often prescribe CHP to treat patients with osteoporosis; however, the drugs used and their patterns of prescriptions have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the CHP used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Taiwan and their prescription patterns. Methods. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was analyzed to evaluate the frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for osteoporosis. Association rules were then applied to evaluate the CHP coprescription patterns and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Results. The osteoporosis cohort included 16?544 patients, of whom more than 70% had used TCM on one or more occasion. Of these patients, 4?292 (25.9%) had been hospitalized at least once because of fracture. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion. This study identified patterns of CHP use for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of these CHP.

Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung

2012-01-01

342

Inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators in primary and cultured cells by a Chinese herbal medicine formula for allergic rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production\\/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. METHODS:

George B Lenon; Charlie CL Xue; David F Story; Frank CK Thien; Sarah McPhee; Chun G Li

2007-01-01

343

History and progress of Japanese acupuncture.  

PubMed

After Chiso brought acupuncture to Japan from Wu (China) in the sixth century, it has progressed in unique ways within the various historical milieus of the past 1500 years. Ishitsu-rei, the first medical law of Japan established in 701, explains the medical system of acupuncture in detail showing that acupuncture was being administered under the authorization of the national government. For the next 1200 years, acupuncture continued to be an important facet of public health in Japan. From the Azuchimomoyama through the Edo period, the knowledge exchange with China became active and people who studied in China developed new styles and techniques of acupuncture treatment and organized their own private schools or ryu-ha in Japan. In 1635, when the Edo government decided to close the country, Japan cut-off exchange with foreign countries for over 200 years. The national isolation caused some development that was unique to Japan. During that time, acupuncture filtered into people's everyday lives. Moxibustion, in particular, became popular as a treatment that ordinary people could practice by themselves. Also in this period of isolation, Western medicine was imported from Holland, the only country allowed to maintain trade with Japan. This novel modern medicine had a strong impact on Japanese medicine, which has its foundation of Chinese traditional medicine. At the same time, Japanese acupuncture was introduced into Europe via Holland. When Japan opened its borders in 1865 period, the new government was eager to accept Western culture to the extent of prohibiting the progress of Japanese acupuncture for a period of time. Even so, Japanese acupuncture has survived and flourished up to the present day due to the strong demand and the great efforts of the practitioners. Scientific studies are now in the process of establishing a firm evidence base for over a millennium of clinical use, respecting the classic ideas of the traditional treatment. PMID:18955321

Kobayashi, Akiko; Uefuji, Miwa; Yasumo, Washiro

2008-02-04

344

History and Progress of Japanese Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

After Chiso brought acupuncture to Japan from Wu (China) in the sixth century, it has progressed in unique ways within the various historical milieus of the past 1500 years. Ishitsu-rei, the first medical law of Japan established in 701, explains the medical system of acupuncture in detail showing that acupuncture was being administered under the authorization of the national government. For the next 1200 years, acupuncture continued to be an important facet of public health in Japan. From the Azuchimomoyama through the Edo period, the knowledge exchange with China became active and people who studied in China developed new styles and techniques of acupuncture treatment and organized their own private schools or ryu-ha in Japan. In 1635, when the Edo government decided to close the country, Japan cut-off exchange with foreign countries for over 200 years. The national isolation caused some development that was unique to Japan. During that time, acupuncture filtered into people's everyday lives. Moxibustion, in particular, became popular as a treatment that ordinary people could practice by themselves. Also in this period of isolation, Western medicine was imported from Holland, the only country allowed to maintain trade with Japan. This novel modern medicine had a strong impact on Japanese medicine, which has its foundation of Chinese traditional medicine. At the same time, Japanese acupuncture was introduced into Europe via Holland. When Japan opened its borders in 1865 period, the new government was eager to accept Western culture to the extent of prohibiting the progress of Japanese acupuncture for a period of time. Even so, Japanese acupuncture has survived and flourished up to the present day due to the strong demand and the great efforts of the practitioners. Scientific studies are now in the process of establishing a firm evidence base for over a millennium of clinical use, respecting the classic ideas of the traditional treatment.

Uefuji, Miwa; Yasumo, Washiro

2010-01-01

345

UCSF Japanese Prints Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at San Francisco has spent thirty years cultivating its collection of Japanese woodblock prints, and it has become an important part of the Library's East Asian Collection. The collection of 400 digitized prints concern Japanese health-related topics from the mid-19th century, and portray the gradual acceptance of Western medicine. Visitors can view the collection by theme or perform a search to find something more specific. The themes include "Contagious Diseases", which focuses on smallpox, measles and cholera, "Foreigners and Disease", which highlights the Japanese belief that foreigners carried diseases to Japan, and "Drug Advertisements". The "Drug Advertisements" are quite possibly the most beautiful drug ads in existence, and they feature elaborate images of drugs slaying disease, kabuki actors promoting a show sponsored by a children's medicine, Kindoru powder, and a detailed rendering of the interior of a drugstore, printed on a fan that was given out as a promotional item to advertise the business.

346

Japanese Ant Image Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2003 revised edition of the Japanese Ant Image Database was developed under the direction of the Japanese Ant Database Group (JADG). The website, which merges taxonomic information and stunning photographs, will no doubt delight myrmecologists and others. Information about different types of ants can be accessed through browseable, hyperlinked lists organized by subfamily, genus, and species. Genus and species profiles include images, references, descriptive information, simple distribution maps, and more. The site includes a Japanese Ant Image Library with hundreds of quality images, and a smaller SEM Image Library as well. The site also offers sections with Type Specimens and Taxonomic Keys. Please note that the site has not been updated since 2003; there are future plans to revisit the project when updates and corrections become necessary.

347

Dietary supplements and herbal medicine toxicities—when to anticipate them and how to manage them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Dietary supplements and herbal medicines are gaining popularity in many developed countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  Although most can be used without any problem, serious toxicities do occur.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Problems can be anticipated when they are used for non-traditional indications, at excessive dose, for prolonged duration,\\u000a or by patients who are also on multiple modern pharmaceuticals. Problems should also be anticipated when these products claim

D. H. Phua; A. Zosel; K. Heard

2009-01-01

348

Computer Science in Japanese Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some impressions of computer science in Japanese universities based on the authors'sabbatical visits. The focus is primarily on such structural aspects of the discipline as departmental organization,faculty and student populations, funding, research activity, and computing facilities. Perhaps the keyobservation is that Japanese cultural practices influence the way in which computer science is approachedin Japanese universities to a

David Notkin; Richard D. Schlichting

1993-01-01

349

Introducing experimental design by evaluating efficacy of herbal remedies (Do herbal remedies really work?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases producing diarrhea as a major symptom.

Robert A. Smith; Laura Pontiggia; Carrie Waterman; Meghan Lichtenwalner

2010-01-01

350

Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and herbal medicines (Interacciones entre fármacos antiepilépticos y medicinas herbales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been

Cecilie JOHANNESSEN LANDMARK; Philip N. PATSALOS

2008-01-01

351

Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

2010-01-01

352

Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

2010-01-01

353

Herbals : The Vade Mecum of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claus Nissen, in his book, Herbals of Five Centuries, 1958, defines a herbal as a book on medicinal plants which describes their appearance, gathering and preparation, contains notes concerning their preservation and storage, and finally provides the inclusion of data about their indication and dosage. The word \\

Peacher William G. M. D

1972-01-01

354

Herbal bioactivation: The good, the bad and the ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites\\/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to

Shufeng Zhou; Hwee-Ling Koh; Yihuai Gao; Zhi-yuan Gong; Edmund Jon Deoon Lee

2004-01-01

355

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. Design 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Setting Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. Main outcome measure Presence of steroid. Results Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a

F M Keane; S E Munn; N F Taylor; E M Higgins

1999-01-01

356

Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed…

Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

2006-01-01

357

Psychosis Related to Ephedra-containing Herbal Supplement Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephedra, a psychoactive substance with stimulant prop- erties, is found in many herbal products. Often perceived by the lay public as benign, the potential health-related dangers of using these products are beginning to be recognized. We review four cases associated with ephedra-containing herbal products and report three additional cases. Unlike the previously reported cases, the patients presented in this report

Ruth Walton; Gail H. Manos

2003-01-01

358

Chionanthus virginicus L.: phytochemical analysis and quality control of herbal drug and herbal preparations.  

PubMed

Root barks of Chionanthus virginicus L. are used in homeopathic medicines in the treatment of icterus and hepatitis. The objective of this study is to identify novel secoiridoids and lignans and to develop a simple and reliable HPLC method for the determination of oleuropein, phillyrin, total secoiridoids and total lignans for quality control and stability studies of C. virginicus herbal drug and preparations. Secoiridoids and lignans were purified by preparative HPLC. Compounds previously described were identified by HPLC according to their retention times and UV spectra. Structures of new compounds were determined by NMR. Two compounds namely excelside B and acetoxypinoresinol-4"-O-beta-D-glucoside are described for the first time in the drug. HPLC separation was performed on Symmetry C18 (Waters) by gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification for simultaneous determination of secoiridoids and lignans in herbal drug and herbal preparations as mother tinctures. The proposed HPLC method is linear in the range studied (r2 > or = 0.9989) for all the analytes. The method is precise with intra- and inter-day variations of less than 4%. The mean recoveries of the analytes range from 99.65 to 102.81%. The method is successfully applied to the quantification of nine compounds belonging to secoiridoids and lignans and for the stability studies of these compounds. The study allowed completing the phytochemical knowledge of C. virginicus. This simple developed assay could be used as tools for routine quality control of C. virginicus herbal drug and herbal medicinal products. PMID:21815404

Boyer, Laurent; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Bun, Sok-Siya; Taoubi, Khalil; Diaz-Lanza, Ana; Elias, Riad; Ollivier, Evelyne

2011-06-01

359

Characterization of temporary metabolic changes following Cantonese herbal tea intervention.  

PubMed

Cantonese herbal tea (CHT) has been consumed in South China to alleviate feelings of discomfort due to the heat and humidity in the body according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To understand the in vivo mechanism of CHT, a ¹H-NMR-based metabonomic approach was used to investigate the global biological characterization of rat serum following the intake of CHT and to understand the mechanisms of action of CHT. Serum samples from rats with consecutive CHT intake after 10, 20 and 30?days and corresponding control rats were analysed by high-resolution ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were utilized for ¹H-NMR spectra analysis and temporal metabolic changes identification. For the 10-day CHT intake group, no significant metabolic response was detected, whereas the 20-day group showed elevation of glucogeneogenesis and a shift in energy metabolism from carbohydrate metabolism to lipid metabolism. In addition, a notable decrease in pyruvate content with a consistent increase in lactate content, and significant decrease in both lipoprotein and glucose contents was observed for the 30-day group, indicating potential metabolic dysfunction. The metabonomics technique combining metabolic profiles with multivariate analysis enhanced our current understanding of the host's metabolic response to CHT intake. PMID:22228579

You, Rong; Xu, Zhenbo; Hu, Songqing; Li, Lin

2012-01-07

360

Herbal formula CGX ameliorates LPS/D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis.  

PubMed

CGX, a traditional herbal drug, has been prescribed for patients suffering from various liver diseases, including hepatitis B, alcoholic liver disease, and fatty liver. We investigated whether CGX has hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute liver injury and its underlying mechanism(s). Mice were administered CGX orally for 7 days prior to an injection of LPS (5 ?g/kg)/D-GalN (700 mg/kg). Complete blood count, serum diagnostic markers, antioxidant activities, caspase activity, and histopathological examinations were conducted 8 h after the injection. To evaluate the immunological mechanism of CGX, serum TNF-? and IL-10 were investigated 1.5 h after LPS/D-GalN injection. CGX pretreatment (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the elevation of serum AST and ALT levels as well as histopathological alterations. Moreover, CGX pretreatment inhibited activation of caspase-3/7. CGX attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced lipid peroxidation with concomitant improvement in total antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). CGX elevated the antioxidant capacity of the liver in both the pathological and normal conditions. Furthermore, LPS/D-GalN-induced alterations of neutrophil and lymphocyte populations were ameliorated and serum TNF-? was decreased significantly by CGX. From these data we conclude that CGX protects the liver from LPS/D-GalN-induced hepatitis through antioxidant mechanisms as well as immune modulation. PMID:21414374

Shin, Jang Woo; Wang, Jing Hua; Park, Hye Jung; Choi, Min Kyeong; Kim, Hyeong Geug; Son, Chang Gue

2011-03-22

361

The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.  

PubMed

Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations. PMID:18928138

Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

2007-01-01

362

[Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].  

PubMed

The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model. PMID:18323151

Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

363

DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research  

PubMed Central

Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts.

Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

2006-01-01

364

Phytophotodermatitis due to chinese herbal medicine decoction.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old female presented to the clinic complaining of bizarre patterns and linear streaks of hyperpigmentation on her legs and bizarre alutaceous patches on the neck and upper breast of her son for 7 days. Physical examination showed sharply demarcated hyperpigmented streaks on the extensor aspects of legs and bizarre brown maculae and patches on the right neck and upper chest of her son. Considering the history of Chinese herbal medicine decoction had been splashed onto these sites, phytophotodermatitis was definitely diagnosed. PMID:21772602

Zhang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Wenyuan

2011-05-01

365

Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

366

Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.  

PubMed

Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. PMID:23906802

Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

2013-07-12

367

Acute cholinergic syndrome following ingestion of contaminated herbal extract.  

PubMed

Herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular and increasingly used in the USA. Herbs are from natural plants and therefore often considered to be harmless compared with western medicines. Nevertheless, as the use of herbal remedies has risen, so has the incidence of acute and chronic herbal intoxication. The case history is presented of a 68-year-old man who presented with an acute cholinergic syndrome soon after ingesting a herbal preparation containing Flemingia macrophylla and ginseng. His red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity dropped to 50% of the normal reference range. He was treated successfully with atropine and supportive care. It was thought that contamination with pesticides, such as organophosphate residue, was the probable cause. This case highlights the need to be more aware of the possibility of acute pesticide intoxication in herbal users, even when only small amounts are consumed. PMID:18955628

Hsieh, M-J; Yen, Z-S; Chen, S-C; Fang, C-C

2008-11-01

368

Therapeutic applications of herbal medicines for cancer patients.  

PubMed

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-07-11

369

The Japanese scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese Society of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering (JSMEBE) was founded in November, 1962. In May of this year, we celebrated our 30th anniversary in Tokyo. At the foundation of our society we had about 500 members. The number of the members has increased steadily during the last three decades and now we have about 5,000 members in our

Fumihiko Kajiya

1992-01-01

370

English loanwords in Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the economic, political and cultural influence of Britain and the US, and the emergence of English as an international language, many world languages have absorbed loanwords from English, especially during the twentieth century. Japanese contains thousands of such borrowings, many of which are well-established and in universal use. A domestic phonetic script is available to both

GILLIAN KAY

1995-01-01

371

Taste Blindness of Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that the strongly bitter taste of phenyl-thiourea is not noticed by some persons. It is said that 30 per cent of persons of white race do not recognize the taste. The result of tests on Japanese is given below :

Keizo Suzuki

1949-01-01

372

Japanese Fisheries, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines the substantial changes in the Japanese fishing industry up to 1988. The report: analyzes the impact on the industry as a result of the extended jurisdictions of the U.S. and the Soviet Union, the subsequent reduction of Japan's catch ...

J. Salisbury Y. Nasaka

1990-01-01

373

JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most people, the first time they have ever heard of Japanese encephalitis (JE) is when visiting a travel clinic in preparation for a trip to Asia. They are then faced with the seemingly impossible decision of whether to spend money on a vaccine that has a rather bad reputation or to risk developing the disease, which would be much

Tom Solomon

374

Japanese Temple Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

2004-01-01

375

Effects of Chinese Herbal Compound "Xuemai Ning"on Rabbit Atherosclerosis Model and Expression of ABCA1  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease.

Chen, Min

2013-01-01

376

De-territorialized Ethnic Community: The Residential Choices and Networks among Japanese Lifestyle Migrants in South-East Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates the contemporary characteristics of the Japanese community in South-East Queensland, Australia. Although traditional migration studies reveal a common tendency for immigrants to congregate and form their own ethnic niche in cities, the contemporary Japanese settlement in South-East Queensland has unique features, as well as theoretical implications for migration study. This ethnic community can be characterized by the

Jun Nagatomo

2011-01-01

377

Japan: Tradition and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

Ellington, Lucien

378

Determination of sulfite in Oriental herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Sulfite was detected in 7 varieties of Oriental herbal medicines (Pueraria radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Platycodon radix, Adenophora radix, Pinellia tuber, Astragalus radix, and Paeonia radix) on the Korean market. Sulfiting of commercial Oriental herbal medicines by fumigation with burning bituminous coal was simulated, and the accumulation of sulfite was investigated by using fresh Platycodon radix roots obtained from a growing field. The sulfite level reached a plateau in 9 h, and the maximum sulfite level found by the Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC 990.28) was 1020 ppm. The sulfite content in the simulated Platycodon radix sample determined by alkali extraction followed by ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection (AOAC 990.31) was approximately 17% lower on average than the MW results. Free-sulfite levels determined by acid extraction and ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection were between 19 and 49% of the MW results. The advantages of different methods for sulfite determination and the significance of the results are discussed. PMID:11048856

Kim, Y K; Koh, E; Park, S Y; Chang, S Y; Park, S J; Na, W I; Kim, H J

379

Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821

He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

2010-01-01

380

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies

Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa

2009-01-01

381

Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

Ueno, Junko

2001-01-01

382

Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

Ueno, Junko

2001-01-01

383

An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.  

PubMed

Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783

Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Xue, Chun-Miao; Zhang, Bing

2013-09-01

384

Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

2012-01-01

385

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

386

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

387

Herbal remedy in the treatment of malaria: cross sectional survey of residents of Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Semi structured questionnaires. designed to capture information on the type. composition, method of preparation. dosage, mode of administration. and frequency of use of herbal preparations in malaria treatment, were administered to 1,593 adults of the 3 main ethnic groups and a forth group comprising other smaller ethnic groups designated as "others", all resident in Lagos metropolis in a cross sectional survey. The 1,593 respondents were made up of 892 males and 701 females and their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years. A high percentage in all the ethnic groups especially the Yorubas admitted to the use of herbs in treating malaria [Yoruba (69%), Hausa (47%). others (32%) and Igbo (30%)1. Effectiveness of herbs in treating malaria episodes featured as the major factor for their use. as claimed by the majority (>50%) of the respondents in each of the ethnic groups, while cost consideration was the next most important factor. Other factors mentioned included the absence of side effect in herbal use. to avoid the itchy side effect and ineffectiveness of chloroquine and some other anti-malarials. An appreciable percentage across the ethnic groups had no idea of the constituents of the herbal remedies they use for treating their malaria episodes since they buy these from traditional herbalists. Varied combinations of these herbs in combination with different types of fruits and other substances are claimed to be used, the main ones of which are Azardiracha indica and pineapple. A large majority of respondents in all the ethnic groups claimed to use the same herbs for the treatment and prevention of malaria and great improvement is experienced after use [Hausas (90%). Igbos (83%). Yorubas (77%) and the others (88%)]. There is usually no specific dose or dose regimen. however a high proportion in all the ethnic groups use herbal preparation thrice a day and a few of the respondents take unspecified measures at arbitrary intervals. The lack of standards in the use of these herbal preparations needs to be urgently addressed especially as use continued until the malaria symptoms and signs are deemed to have disappeared. There is also need to standardize the usage of herbs if they are to play a significant role in malaria prevention and treatment. PMID:17209310

Idowu, E T; Mafe, M A; Otubanjo, O A; Adeneye, A K

2006-06-01

388

Contribution of traditional medicine in the healthcare system of the Middle East.  

PubMed

Unani medicine or Islamic medicine is one of the main healing systems in the world, which was set up by the Islamic physicians in the Middle East about a thousand years ago based on the teachings of Hippocrates and Galen. This medical system had been practiced widespread in the world including Europe until the 16th century and contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine. Despite the remarkable advancements in orthodox medicine, the traditional medicine has always been practiced in the Middle East communities. Due to cultural beliefs and practices, the Middle East communities have a very rich tradition in the utilization of herbal remedies as well as diverse spiritual techniques for treating various disorders. Traditional practitioners have become the main component of disease management in the Middle East and they have used herbal remedies along with spiritual techniques for the treatment of ailments mainly based on the Unani medicine. PMID:21390574

Yesilada, Erdem

2011-03-09

389

Chromatographic fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics for quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

The holistic system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is reflected by the integrity of the ingredients contained in herbal medicines, which creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards for raw materials and the standardization of finished herbal drugs because no single component contributes to the total efficacy. Thus, the chromatographic fingerprinting technique of TCM has proved to be a comprehensive strategy for assessing the intact quality of herbal medicine, since the origin of the herbal medicines could be identified and classified based on so-called phytoequivalence. On the other hand, chromatographic fingerprinting is essentially a high-throughput technique and an integral tool to explore the complexity of herbal medicines. In order to further control the comprehensive quality of TCMs, some strategies are proposed to trace the chemical changes of chromatographic fingerprints both in product processing and/or after their administration by modern chromatographic techniques and chemometrics. Combined with the techniques developed in systems biology, it seems also possible to reveal the working mechanism of TCMs and to further control their intrinsic quality. PMID:22273377

Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Wei-Ping

2011-01-01

390

Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Network Pharmacology Could Lead to New Multicompound Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug.

Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping

2012-01-01

391

Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university…

Shin, Jung Cheol

2012-01-01

392

New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development  

PubMed Central

Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.

Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

393

Detection of estrogenic activity in herbal teas by in vitro reporter assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal teas have become popular as alternatives to caffeinated beverages during past two decades. However, toxicological studies\\u000a of herbal teas have been limited and the safety of herbal teas thus remains unknown. We focused on the estrogenic activities\\u000a of herbal teas since some of their ingredients are similar to those used in herbal remedies for menopause relief and therefore\\u000a contain

Hirao Kohno; Katsuyasu Kouda; Rikio Tokunaga; Yoshiaki Sonoda

2007-01-01

394

Japanese space program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organization and budget of Japanese space activities is outlined. There are two major performers: NASDA (National Space Development Agency) and ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences). The budget is roughly 1 billion dollars/year (1/10 of NASDA's budget), 70% goes to NASA, and 10% to ISAS. NASDA's space development programs, launch vehicles, NASDA's satellite programs, HOPE (H-2 Orbiting Plane) Project, scientific satellites of ISAS and NASDA's major facilities are described.

Morino, Yoshiki

1993-06-01

395

Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements  

PubMed Central

We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

2010-01-01

396

Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (1–42 days). Group 2–10 chicks were fed with basal diet containing cadmium at 100 ppm from day 1 to day 28 (4 weeks). From 29th to 42nd day (2 weeks), basal diet alone was fed to group 2 chicks which acted as toxic control and group 3–10 birds were fed with feed containing 0.1% powder of W. somnifera, O. sanctum, Aspe. recemosus, An. paniculata, Asph. panjabinum (Shilajith), G. sylvestre, S. platensis, and P. ginseng, respectively. Body weight gain, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), liver functional markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), kidney functional markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and concentration of cadmium in liver and kidney were investigated. Results: Body weight gains were significantly decreased in birds of groups 2–10 compared to group 1 at the end of 4th week. Supplementation of various medicinal herbs in feed after 4th week significantly improved the body weight gain compared to that in group 2 chicks. The increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in cadmium intoxicated birds were significantly reversed by the above-said herbs. The liver and kidney functional markers were also restored to normal levels. Highest concentration of cadmium was found accumulated in kidney, followed by liver in birds of group 2. Herbal supplementation in groups 3–10 prevented Cd bioaccumulation which was most evident in liver, followed by kidney. Conclusions: Administration of herbal adaptogens at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of Cd and reversed the Cd-induced oxidative tissue damage.

Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, D. Srinivas; Prasadini, P. Prabhu

2011-01-01

397

Suicide of Japanese Youth.  

PubMed

The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479

Iga, M

1981-01-01

398

Sources of Japanese patent information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years Japanese patent information has become more widely available. With the development of new Internet databases and the launch of PATOLIS-e, an English-language search service, it has become easier for non-Japanese speakers to access patent information from Japan. This article provides an up-to-date assessment of the various sources now available in this key area. Both Japanese

Irene Schellner

2001-01-01

399

Psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Aversion to Women Who Work Scale in Japanese undergraduate women.  

PubMed

The Multidimensional Aversion to Women Who Work Scale is a self-report measure of gender attitudes. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the scale with 213 Japanese university female students who completed the Japanese version. Exploratory factor analyses yielded the same two factors, Employment Skepticism and Traditional Roles Preference, as previously identified. A relivery ability estimate of internal consistency of Employment Skepticism and Traditional Roles Preference was acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Japanese version in another group of 245 university female students showed the construct validity of the 2-factor model of the 7-item scale. This study supported the generalization of the previous findings in American samples and the multicultural utility of the scale. The Japanese version of the Multidimensional Aversion to Women Who Work Scale seems a useful measure of employment-related gender attitudes. PMID:17958124

Nakano, Keiko

2007-08-01

400

The toxicity of Callilepis laureola, a South African traditional herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review the literature on the toxicity of Callilepis laureola, and to assess the cytotoxicity of C. laureola in human hepatoblastoma Hep G2 cells in vitro. Design and methods: Cells were incubated for up to 48 h in the presence of increasing concentrations of an aqueous extract of C. laureola (0.3-13.3 mg\\/mL). Cytotoxicity was quantitated spectrophotometrically by the metabolism

Alpa Popat; Neil H. Shear; Izabella Malkiewicza; Michael J. Stewart; Vanessa Steenkamp; Stuart Thomson; Manuela G. Neuman

401

Traditional herbal drugs of Southern Uganda, II: literature analysis and antimicrobial assays.  

PubMed

Continuing field interviews brought the total species used for disease treatment by herbalists of the majority Baganda Tribe of southern Uganda to 168. Literature searches provided support for the ethnomedical claims for a number of these species, and provided criteria for the species classification into four categories of use validation. They also helped guide the selection of species for recollection, for chemical extraction and further testing in laboratories of the Uganda Ministry of Health and the University of Illinois at Chicago. Many species proved active against microorganisms in several susceptibility assays conducted in Uganda and the US. PMID:12499078

Hamill, F A; Apio, S; Mubiru, N K; Bukenya-Ziraba, R; Mosango, M; Maganyi, O W; Soejarto, D D

2003-01-01

402

Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall., a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

He, Dong-Yi; Dai, Sheng-Ming

2011-01-01

403

Inhibition of HIV1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is the current HIV\\/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV\\/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV\\/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90%

In-Woo Park; Changri Han; Xiaoping Song; Linden A Green; Ting Wang; Ying Liu; Changchun Cen; Xinming Song; Biao Yang; Guangying Chen; Johnny J He

2009-01-01

404

The use of oral herbal medicine by women attending antenatal clinics in urban and rural Tanga District in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A prospective study on the use of oral herbal medicine was conducted on 214 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in urban and rural Tanga district, which is well-known for traditional healers. There is a perception that traditional healers are very respected locally, and should be cooperated with. However herb effects range from therapeutic to dangerous. The overall prevalence rate of use of herbal medicine was 42%. The prevalence in urban and rural areas was 43.3% and 40.2% respectively. The highest use rate was towards the end of the 1st trimester and during labor, for a total of 87.7%. Of the users, 54% did so to relieve pregnancy-associated symptoms, while the rest used it as a consequence of beliefs, possibly superstitious, circumstantial constraints, and combinations of these. Significant differences were found between women delivering at home (55% used herbal medicine) and in a modern health facility (38.8%), P=0.038, between Moslems (44.4%) and Christians (32.2%), P=0.22, and among tribes. It seems that oral herbal medicines are commonly used in pregnancies and childbirth in Tanga, as well as in other areas, Bagamoyo being an example. Fear of the health facility eivironment as being a place for dying is an interesting factor. A form of Koranic medicine known as Kombe, which included the use of Quranic inscriptions, was used widely. It is recommended that immediate and long-term outcomes of herb-tested pregnancies be evaluated. Phytochemical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies are necessary to enable health workers to warn against inappropriate and dangerous usage. PMID:4054028

Mbura, J S; Mgaya, H N; Heggenhougen, H K

1985-08-01

405

Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine.  

PubMed

More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador) commonly used by cancer patients are reviewed here and a list of recommended reference texts is provided. In addition, health care providers are encouraged to initiate discussions about complementary/alternative products and therapies with their patients so that they may help them make safe and informed decisions about these products. Not knowing what patients are taking is definitely a less desirable option. PMID:14528703

Smith, M; Boon, H S

1999-10-01

406

Social Networks and the Maintenance of Conformity: Japanese sojourner women  

PubMed Central

Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other “company wives.” Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families.

Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J.

2011-01-01

407

International monitoring of adverse health effects associated with herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines are used in health care around the world and may increase in importance. There is much uncertainty, however, with regard to their composition, efficacy and safety. There is substantial evidence that herbal medicines can cause serious adverse reactions, but more data are needed as regard their nature, frequency and preventability. In this respect the Uppsala Monitoring Centre of the World Health Organization can play a crucial role. Better reporting of adverse reactions to herbal medicines is needed, in particular with regard to the precise identity and composition of these products. A consistent use by producers, regulators and reporters of the international Latin binomial nomenclature and the use of the new Herbal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification are recommended. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19025809

Farah, M H; Edwards, R; Lindquist, M; Leon, C; Shaw, D

2000-03-01

408

Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... affect warfarin: Danshen Dong quai Evening primrose oil Garlic Ginkgo Ginseng St. John's wort That's why it's ... supplements you take. Herbal supplement Medication Potential effect Garlic Aspirin Clopidogrel (Plavix) Warfarin (Coumadin) Increases risk of ...

409

Chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs in herbal products.  

PubMed

Several synthetic cannabinoids were found in 44 of 46 different kinds of herbal products that are currently distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan due to their expected narcotic effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses indicated that most of the products contained two major synthetic cannabinoids: (1RS,3SR)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-methylnonan-2-yl)phenyl]cyclohexan-1-ol, renamed cannabicyclohexanol with the agreement of Pfizer Inc., and/or 1-naphthalenyl(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone, named JWH-018. Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide), which is an endogenous cannabinoid, was also detected in 7 products. Additionally, two synthetic cannabinoids were identified as minor components in some products. One was (1RS,3SR)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenyl]cyclohexan-1-ol, which is named CP-47,497 and is a homolog of cannabicyclohexanol. The other was 1-naphthalenyl(1-butyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone, which is named JWH-073 and is a homolog of JWH-018. These compounds were reported as synthetic cannabinoids possessing pharmacological cannabimimetic activity. The concentrations of cannabicyclohexanol, JWH-018 and oleamide in the products ranged from 1.1 to 16.9mg/g, 2.0 to 35.9mg/g and 7.6 to 210.9mg/g, respectively, and showed considerable variation. In this study, details of the analysis and identification of these synthetic cannabinoids in herbal products being sold on the Japanese drug market are described. PMID:20117892

Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Ogata, Jun; Goda, Yukihiro

2010-05-20

410

[Hepatotoxicity of dietary supplements and herbals is mostly unknown].  

PubMed

The use of herbals and dietary supplements is considerable and increasing. Several cases of serious hepatotoxic side effects and a wide range of clinical manifestations have been described. As toxic hepatitis often arises in an unpredictable and dose-independent manner, diagnosis may be difficult. Increased public awareness of the potential risks of herbals and dietary supplements is desirable in order to ensure that suspected adverse effects and interactions are formally reported. PMID:21867654

Jacobsen, Claire; Semb, Synne; Kromann-Andersen, Hans

2011-08-22

411

Effectiveness of a herbal supplement (Zotrim™) for weight management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There are many herbal supplements on the market claiming to aid weight loss but few are evidence-based. This study aims to test one such formulation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An over-the-counter herbal supplement containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana (YGD) was tested in 73 overweight health professionals for six weeks. Subjects were not asked to make any lifestyle changes. Findings

C. H. S. Ruxton; L. Kirkwood; B. McMillan; D. St John; C. E. L. Evans

2007-01-01

412

Due process traditionalism.  

PubMed

In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges. PMID:18595214

Sunstein, Cass R

2008-06-01

413

Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine.  

PubMed

The authors report rhabdomyolysis following the ingestion of weight-loss herbal medicine in an otherwise healthy 54-year-old woman. Three hours after ingestion of the herbal medicine, the patient suffered chest pain that continued for 2 hours and resolved gradually. Laboratory investigation showed the presence of rhabdomyolysis with peak serum creatine kinase (CK) of 1028 IU/L, which gradually decreased and normalized after the herbal medicine was discontinued. The pharmacological effects of the active ingredients of the herbal medicine, ma huang (ephedrine), guarana (active alkaloid caffeine), chitosan, Gymnena sylvestre, Garcinia cambogia (50% hydroxycitric acid), and chromium, are discussed, and similar case reports are reviewed. The elevation of CK in this case is of concern, as it may denote that muscle breakdown may be one of the mechanisms of weight loss in these herbal remedies. Further studies are needed to investigate their effects on muscle bulk or CK. Physicians should be aware of the potential side effects of many herbal medicines. It may be advisable to measure serum CK enzyme for patients who admit using weight-loss herbs. PMID:15201651

Mansi, Ishak A; Huang, Jian

2004-06-01

414

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.  

PubMed

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

2007-10-12

415

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-02-15

416

The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease--A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration.

dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patricia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida

2006-01-01

417

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

418

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

419

Inequities in Japanese Urban Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with Japanese public school educators allow a distinctive view of how the continuing economic decline in Japan has affected educational motivation and decision-making among students and parents. The nature of socioeconomic stratification within Japanese educational opportunity is seen as a continuing situation exacerbated by the costs of education in a context of chronic economic uncertainty.

June A. Gordon

2005-01-01

420

Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

Kimura, Yukiko

421

U. S. -Japanese energy relations  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the energy policies of the US and Japan. Topics considered include bilateral and multilateral aspects of energy cooperation, the changing character of US-Japanese energy relations, political aspects of US oil exports, prospects for energy cooperation, synthetic fuels, liquefied natural gas, US-Japanese competition for the world photovoltaic market, and energy cooperation in Siberia.

Ebinger, C.K.; Morse, R.A.

1984-01-01

422

Doshu Kanamaya: Contemporary Japanese Calligraphy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new online exhibition from the Huntington Archive (discussed in the June 30, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) highlights the work of renowned Japanese calligrapher, Doshu Kanayama. The exhibition includes an introduction to Japanese calligraphy and Kanayama, as well as a selection of twenty calligraphic paintings with short descriptions. Future plans for the site include a collection of essays.

423

REMEDYTEAS Voluntarily Recalls Peppermint Organic Herbal Tea And Organic Herbal Tea Blend Because Of Possible Health Risk  

NASA Website

lbs of Peppermint Organic Herbal Tea produced by Aromatics Inc., Basin City, WA, because it has the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella. Salmonella is an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, ...

424

Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.  

PubMed

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples. PMID:21210215

Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

2011-01-06

425

Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial.  

PubMed

Administration of hot water extracts of a herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum, WTMCGEPP (Wisteria floribunda 0.38, Trapa natans 0.38, Miristica agrans 0.38, Coix lachryma-jobi 0.75, cultivated Ganoderma lucidum 0.75, Elfuinga applanata 0.38, tissue cultured Panax ginseng 0.3, and Punica granatum 0.38: numerals designate dry weight gram/dose), decreased herpes zoster pain for five Japanese patients suffering from shingles. Pain relief started within a few days of intake and was almost complete within 10 days. Two acute herpes zoster with manifestations including trigeminal nerve ophthalmia (both 74 years old), lower body zoster (70 years old), herpes zoster oticus (17 years old), and leg herpes (28 years old), responded quickly to treatment and no patient de