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1

Effects of traditional Sino-Japanese herbal medicines on aqueous flare elevation after small-incision cataract surgery.  

PubMed

We evaluated prospectively the effects of traditional Sino-Japanese herbal medicines on elevation of aqueous flare. Fifty-four patients with age-related cataract undergoing phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were studied. In the control group, 20 patients received no herbal medicine. In the treated groups, 14 patients were given Orengedoku- to (Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang in Chinese) granules (7.5 g daily), 10 patients were given Kakkon-to (Ge-Gen-Tang in Chinese) granules (7.5 g daily), and 10 patients were given Sairei-to (Cai-Ling-Tang in Chinese) granules (9.0 g daily), for 3 days before surgery, the day of surgery, and for 7 days after surgery. Aqueous flare was measured before and after surgery. The differences in preoperative flare intensities among the four groups were not significant. In the control group, the flare was 29.4 photon counts/msec on day 1, and then gradually decreased. The flare intensities on days 1, 3, and 5 in the Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to groups were significantly lower than in the control group. The flare intensities in the Sairei-to group were the same as those of the controls. Oral administration of Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to decreased aqueous flare elevation after small-incision cataract surgery. Sairei-to had no effect on the elevation. PMID:11322638

Ikeda, N; Hayasaka, S; Nagaki, Y; Hayasaka, Y; Kadoi, C; Matsumoto, M

2001-02-01

2

Therapeutic effects of saireito (chai-ling-tang), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy: a case series study.  

PubMed

Despite the development of radiotherapy machines and technologies, a proportion of patients suffer from radiation-induced lymphedema. Saireito (SRT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been used for treating edema and inflammation in conditions such as nephritic disease. This study investigated the effect of SRT on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy. Four patients were treated with SRT at a dose of 9?g/day. The severity of lymphedema was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 and Numerical Rating Scale before and after SRT treatment. After the treatment with SRT, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed apparent improvement in lymphedema. One of the cases had difficulty in wearing the custom-made thermoplastic cast, but after SRT administration, he could wear the mask easily. One case decided to stop taking SRT 3 days after initiation because cough and fever appeared. In conclusion, it is important to control the side effects of radiotherapy, which leads to improved tumor control rates. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to confirm the findings of this case series study. PMID:23861700

Nagai, Aiko; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ogawa, Keiko

2013-01-01

3

Therapeutic Effects of Saireito (Chai-Ling-Tang), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on Lymphedema Caused by Radiotherapy: A Case Series Study  

PubMed Central

Despite the development of radiotherapy machines and technologies, a proportion of patients suffer from radiation-induced lymphedema. Saireito (SRT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been used for treating edema and inflammation in conditions such as nephritic disease. This study investigated the effect of SRT on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy. Four patients were treated with SRT at a dose of 9?g/day. The severity of lymphedema was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 and Numerical Rating Scale before and after SRT treatment. After the treatment with SRT, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed apparent improvement in lymphedema. One of the cases had difficulty in wearing the custom-made thermoplastic cast, but after SRT administration, he could wear the mask easily. One case decided to stop taking SRT 3 days after initiation because cough and fever appeared. In conclusion, it is important to control the side effects of radiotherapy, which leads to improved tumor control rates. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to confirm the findings of this case series study. PMID:23861700

2013-01-01

4

Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

5

Effects of Seijo-bofu-to, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Containing Furanocoumarin Derivatives, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.  

PubMed

Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional medicine used to treat acne in Asian countries, contains twelve herbal components, including Angelica dahurica root, a source of furanocoumarin derivatives. In this study, we investigated potential herb-drug interactions of seijo-bofu-to in healthy male volunteers. Thirty-two young, healthy, non-smoking males were assessed for the baseline activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase according to the urinary metabolic indices of 8-hr urine samples collected after the administration of a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan, and the ratio of urinary excretion of 6?-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. Thereafter, the volunteers received 3.75 g of seijo-bofu-to twice daily for 7 days and underwent the same tests on post-dose day 7. The geometric mean ratio of the CYP1A2 activity on day 7 to that observed at baseline was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.79, p = 0.001). The geometric mean phenotypic indices for CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase on day 7 did not differ from the baseline values. The findings of the present study suggest that seijo-bofu-to may inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, whereas it is unlikely to participate in herb-drug interactions involving medications predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 or xanthine oxidase. PMID:24612940

Saruwatari, Junji; Takashima, Ayaka; Yoshida, Kousuke; Soraoka, Hiromi; Ding, Tong-Bin; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Motoki; Oniki, Kentaro; Miyata, Keishi; Nakagawa, Kazuko

2014-10-01

6

Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine. PMID:21892916

Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

2011-12-01

7

Evaluation of the safety and adverse effects of goreisan/wulingsan, a traditional Japanese-chinese herbal formulation (kampo), in a rat model: a toxicological evaluation.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, Arm Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

2014-09-01

8

Evaluation of the Safety and Adverse Effects of Goreisan/Wulingsan, a Traditional Japanese-Chinese Herbal Formulation (Kampo), in a Rat Model: a Toxicological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries in the tropical areas of Africa and South Asia. Goreisan/Wulingsan, a formula of Japanese-Chinese medicinal herbs (Kampo), has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting from ancient times in East Asia. Therefore, we planned a randomized controlled clinical trial of Goreisan/Wulingsan in Bangladeshi children. Although it is believed to be safe in East Asia, information regarding its toxicity on animals is scarce. Since Goreisan/Wulingsan has never been used in Bangladesh, it was necessary to ensure the safety of the formula in an animal experiment. Rats were assigned to a control group (normal saline, n = 4) or various Goreisan/Wulingsan groups (n = 26) receiving doses of 1 to 8 mg/g/day (7.7 to 61.5 times the recommended pediatric dose) over a period of 25 days. Their activities and health conditions were observed until they were sacrificed, after which blood samples were collected for biochemical liver function tests. The kidneys, liver and heart tissue were collected for histopathological study. No lethality was observed during the experiment. All of the rats consumed the doses completely and no constipation was observed, suggesting the absence of any inhibitory effect on intestinal motion. Also, no abnormal neurological activity was detected, nor any significant elevation of AST, ALT or ALP levels, except for AST and ALT at the highest dose of 8 mg/g/day. Histopathological studies of the kidneys, liver and heart tissues revealed no abnormalities. In conclusion, our results showed that Goreisan/Wulingsan is safe for rats, thereby justifying the use of the drug in a human trial. PMID:25324691

Ahmed, Selim; Uchida, Ryuichi; Hussain, Maleeha; Kabir, ARM Luthful; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Honda, Sumihisa; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

2014-01-01

9

Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

Torres, Eliseo

10

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

2004-02-01

11

Ayurveda, malaria and the indigenous herbal tradition in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using key informants and available records, the way in which inhabitants of purana villages in Nuwarakalaviya, Sri Lanka coped with malaria during the pre-DDT era is examined. This study found that the Nuwarakalaviya peasants responded to endemic malaria through a localized herbal tradition, which was to some extent independent of the scholarly ayurveda system common to the whole of South

Kalinga Tudor Silva

1991-01-01

12

Review Herbal Dewormers in Livestock - A Traditional Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is a part of data being collected on the botanical anthelmintics being traditionally used in various parts of the world. Much of the review has been extracted from internet collections. Review presents some examples of herbal medicine used against helminths in livestock, and outlines potentials and limitations in the use of ethnomedicine, or ethnobotanical medicine - the utilization

ZAFAR IQBAL; MUHAMMAD SHOAIB AKHTAR; ZIA-UD-DIN SINDHU; M. NISAR KHAN; ABDUL JABBAR

13

Antipyretic effect of Mao-to, a Japanese herbal medicine, for treatment of type A influenza infection in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mao-to is a Japanese traditional herbal medicine which has been used since ancient times for the treatment of influenza-like illness. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral Mao-to administration in children with type A influenza, in comparison to Oseltamivir. We performed a controlled trial of 60 children, from 5 months through 13 years of age, with fever

Tomohiro Kubo; Hidekazu Nishimura

2007-01-01

14

Traditional Herbal Medicine for the Control of Tropical Diseases  

PubMed Central

Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese (“Cang Zhu”), Japan (“So-jutsu”) and Thai (“Khod-Kha-Mao”) traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA—xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

2014-01-01

15

Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science  

PubMed Central

Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

2013-01-01

16

Herbal medicines in Hawaii from tradition to convention.  

PubMed

The stories of kava and chaulmoogra demonstrate the importance of herbal products in ancient and recent Hawaiian medicine. Kava is a psychoactive beverage that has been used ceremonially for millennia throughout the Pacific. It is a nonfermented depressant that causes tranquil intoxication in which thoughts and memory remain clear. Its broad pharmacologic activity led to use in Hawaii to treat skin disorders and later in Germany to treat gonorrhea. Kava is now available outside the Pacific basin as a relaxant, emerging as a popular, albeit deritualized, natural product. In the late 19th century, the main treatment for leprosy was chaulmoogra, extracted from Hydnocarpus seeds. Chaulmoogra had been a traditional treatment for skin diseases in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. Chaulmoogra from Asian markets was expensive and usually adulterated so the USDA decided to plant Hydnocarpus in Hawaii. Joseph Rock, a botanist at University of Hawaii, trekked through southeast Asia collecting fresh seeds to plant on Oahu. Rock's trees provided chaulmoogra for leprosy patients on Molokai and elsewhere until it was replaced by dapsone. Chaulmoogra, once the treatment for leprosy worldwide, is now nearly forgotten; kava, once poorly known outside the Pacific, is now a widely-used alternative medicine. Hawaii will probably continue its role in the transition of plants from traditional use to conventional use. PMID:9509742

Norton, S A

1998-01-01

17

Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

2010-01-01

18

Protein Molecular Markers for Herbal Natures of Six Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new method of using molecular markers to study the material base of the herbal nature of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs. The feasibility of using the all-electric ion chromatography to select the appropriate protein molecular markers for studying the herbal nature of TCM herbs is also discussed. In the study, the chromatographic peaks of the total

Wang Hou-wei; Dou Yan-ling; Tian Jing-zhen; Wang Zhen-guo

2008-01-01

19

Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

20

Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

2010-01-01

21

Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

22

Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

2012-01-01

23

Anti-allergic mechanisms of Japanese herbal medicine, yokukansan on mast cells.  

PubMed

We previously reported that the addition of orally administered yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, to the standard regimen using histamine H1-receptor inhibitors was effective in controlling refractory chronic urticaria, but the mechanism remained unknown. YKS has also been reported to be effective on inhibiting the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. As known, the release of various chemical mediators including histamine from degranulated mast cells is strongly related to the mechanism of these diseases. Thus the purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms behind the medicinal effects of YKS on mast cells using an in vitro system and rat basophil leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The degree of degranulation was measured by ?-hexosaminidase secretion assay and intracellular calcium influx assay. ELISA for cytokines (TNF-? and IL-4) was also conducted using cell culture media. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of YKS on the expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) and cytokine production (IL-8) in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells using gene-transcriptional- and immunohisotoligical analysis. We found that YKS inhibited secretion of ?-hexosaminidase, intracellular calcium increase, production of TNF-? and ICAM-1 expression, and that several YKS ingredients may be the key effectors. In conclusion, YKS may suppress several mast cell functions such as degranulation and calcium increase that eventually inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, YKS suppresses ICAM-1 expression on human microvascular endothelial cells. These findings may promote our understanding of the beneficial effects of YKS on mast cell-associated allergic diseases. PMID:25156212

Yamamura, Kazuhiko; Kato, Shiori; Kato, Takahiro A; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Monji, Akira; Kanba, Shigenobu; Furue, Masutaka; Takeuchi, Satoshi

2014-09-01

24

Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

2013-01-01

25

Traditional Japanese Management: Upside Down and Inside Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Japanese are bred with a strong sense of dependency and presumption on the benevolence of family, boss, work group, and nation. Ideally, one should blend selfessly into a system of "other directedness." One must give indiscriminate devotion to his colleagues, for it is immature and divisive to like certain group members more than…

Fox, William M.

26

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

27

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal  

PubMed Central

Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention. PMID:21144003

2010-01-01

28

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

29

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

30

Traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.  

PubMed

Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177

Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J

2011-04-01

31

Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources  

PubMed Central

In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

2014-01-01

32

Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium

Mizue Ohsugi; Wenzhe Fan; Koji Hase; Quanbo Xiong; Yasuhiro Tezuka; Katsuko Komatsu; Tsuneo Namba; Tomohiro Saitoh; Kenji Tazawa; Shigetoshi Kadota

1999-01-01

33

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438

2004-01-01

34

Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p?=?0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR?=?3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p?=?0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p?=?0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p?=?0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda. PMID:23209545

Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

2012-01-01

35

Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…

Shiobara, Mari

2011-01-01

36

In vitro antioxidant properties, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potentials for fourteen multipurpose traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa were determined using the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system, the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme inhibitory effects using an ELISA kit and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition using the microtitre plate assay. Nine of the herbal mixtures (Umzimba omubi, Umuthi wekukhwehlela ne zilonda, Mvusa ukunzi, Umpatisa inkosi, Imbiza ephuzwato, Vusa umzimba, Supreme one hundred, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti) exhibited higher antioxidant potentials, while only four (Imbiza ephuzwato, Ingwe® muthi mixture, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and African potato extract™ showed potent activity against the RT enzyme. Nine mixtures (Imbiza ephuzwato, Umpatisa inkosi, African potato extract™, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe®, Vusa umzimba; Ingwe® muthi mixture, Ibhubezi™, Lion izifozonke Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti) showed AChE enzyme inhibitory activity greater than 50%. The observed activity exhibited by some of the herbal mixtures gives some credence to the manufacturers' claims and goes part of the way towards validating their use against certain conditions such as oxidative stress, HIV/AIDS proliferation and some mental conditions. It is however, desirable to carry out further studies to determine the effects of mixing plant species/parts in one mixture on the antioxidant potency as well as isolating active constituents from the herbal mixtures. PMID:20938401

Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

2010-01-01

37

Establishing high temperature gas chromatographic profiles of non-polar metabolites for quality assessment of African traditional herbal medicinal products.  

PubMed

The quality assessment of African traditional herbal medicinal products is a difficult challenge since they are complex mixtures of several herbal drug or herbal drug preparations. The plant source is also often unknown and/or highly variable. Plant metabolites chromatographic profiling is therefore an important tool for quality control of such herbal products. The objective of this work is to propose a protocol for sample preparation and gas chromatographic profiling of non-polar metabolites for quality control of African traditional herbal medicinal products. The methodology is based on the chemometric assessment of chromatographic profiles of non-polar metabolites issued from several batches of leaves of Combretum micranthum and Mitracarpus scaber by high temperature gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, performed on extracts obtained in refluxed dichloromethane, after removal of chlorophyll pigments. The method using high temperature gas chromatography after dichloromethane extraction allows detection of most non-polar bioactive and non-bioactive metabolites already identified in leaves of both species. Chemometric data analysis using Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares after Orthogonal Signal Correction applied to chromatographic profiles of leaves of Combretum micranthum and Mitracarpus scaber showed slight batch to batch differences, and allowed clear differentiation of the two herbal extracts. PMID:24211706

Bony, Nicaise F; Libong, Danielle; Solgadi, Audrey; Bleton, Jean; Champy, Pierre; Malan, Anglade K; Chaminade, Pierre

2014-01-01

38

Traditional Japanese Medicine Daikenchuto Improves Functional Constipation in Poststroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15?g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393). PMID:25089144

Numata, Takehiro; Takayama, Shin; Tobita, Muneshige; Ishida, Shuichi; Katayose, Dai; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Oikawa, Takashi; Aonuma, Takanori; Kaneko, Soichiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Iwasaki, Koh; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

2014-01-01

39

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

40

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine as a source of molecules with antiviral activity.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) is widely used in the prevention and treatment of viral infectious diseases. However, the operative mechanisms of TCHM remain largely obscure, mainly because of its complicated nature and the fragmented nature of research. In recent years, systematic methodologies have been developed to discover the active compounds in TCHM and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent progress in TCHM-based antiviral research in China and other Asian countries. In particular, this review focuses on progress in targeting key steps in the viral replication cycle and key cellular components of the host defense system. Recent developments in centralized and standardized TCHM screening and databases are also summarized. PMID:23153834

Li, Ting; Peng, Tao

2013-01-01

41

Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential. PMID:17486320

Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

2007-09-01

42

Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

2012-01-01

43

Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM. PMID:21172056

2010-01-01

44

Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq  

PubMed Central

Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500?mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5?L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients. PMID:21837249

Kizaibek, Murat; Popescu, Ruxandra; Prinz, Sonja; Upur, Halmurat; Singhuber, Judith; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

2012-01-01

45

Chunggan extract, a traditional herbal formula, ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rat model  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were orally administered 30% ethanol daily for 4 wk with or without CGX. The pharmaceutical properties were assessed through liver enzymes, histopathology, fibrogenic cytokines, and alcohol metabolism in hepatic tissues as well as by in vitro experiment using HSC-T6 cells. RESULTS: Four weeks of alcohol consumption notably increased liver enzymes and malondialdehyde levels in serum and hepatic tissue. CGX not only prevented the collagen deposition determined by histopathology and hydroxyproline content, but also normalized transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-beta and connective tissue growth factor at the gene expression and protein levels in liver tissue. Moreover, CGX treatment also significantly normalized the abnormal changes in gene expression profiles of extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinase and their inhibitors, alcohol metabolism, and inflammatory reactions. In the acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, CGX considerably inhibited collagen production and normalized fibrogenic cytokines in both gene expression and protein levels. CONCLUSION: The present study evidenced that CGX has hepatoprotective properties via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines and alcohol metabolism in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400454

Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Park, Yeon-Hwa; Son, Chang-Gue

2014-01-01

46

Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

2014-01-01

47

Faith & Form: Selected Calligraphy and Painting from Japanese Religious Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive exhibit, collectors Sylvan Barnet and William Burto take users by the virtual hand and guide them through Faith & Form, an exhibition at the Freer Gallery of the Smithsonian Museum. The exhibition is based on Japanese art collected by Barnet and Burto, who "have assembled one of the finest collections of Japanese religious art in the West." Once they have launched the interactive, visitors should be sure to listen to Barnet and Burto discuss the figures in the "Womb World mandala". This mandala is a hanging scroll from the 13th century, and the image automatically adjusts to zoom in on selected figures, such as horses, goats, and humans, all arranged around the central Buddha. The collectors' commentary for another piece in the show, a section of the Lotus Sutra, a beautiful piece of calligraphy adorned with gold leaf, advises viewers to admire the piece as if it were a single page of a first folio Shakespeare.

48

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.  

PubMed

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

49

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

50

The Ethics of Traditional Chinese and Western Herbal Medicine Research: Views of Researchers and Human Ethics Committees in Australia  

PubMed Central

Despite the growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western herbal medicine (WHM) research in Australia, little is known about how ethics committees (HRECs) assess the ethics of TCM or WHM research. The objectives of this study were to examine the experiences of TCM and WHM researchers and HRECs with the evaluation of ethics applications. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of HRECs and TCM and WHM researchers in Australia. Anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to 224 HRECs and 117 researchers. A response confirming involvement in TCM or WHM research applications was received from 20 HRECs and 42 researchers. The most frequent ethical issues identified by HRECs related to herbal products including information gaps relating to mode of action of herbal medicines and safety when combining herbal ingredients. Researchers concurred that they were frequently requested to provide additional information on multiple aspects including safety relating to the side effects of herbs and herb-drug interactions. Overall adherence with the principles of ethical conduct was high among TCM and WHM researchers although our study did identify the need for additional information regarding assessment of risk and risk management. PMID:21197081

Smith, Caroline A.; Priest, Ros; Carmady, Bridget; Bourchier, Suzannah; Bensoussan, Alan

2011-01-01

51

Potent antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of traditional Japanese cereal grains.  

PubMed

To estimate the preventive potential of Japanese traditional cereals against oxygen radical-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities in the extracts of five Japanese traditional cereal grains were analyzed by using an assay system of lipid peroxidation and a radical compound, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). DPPH radical-scavenging activities in the extracts of Japanese cereal grains were divided into two groups. One group including Japanese sorghum, black rice and red rice showed strong radical-scavenging activities, but the other group including Japanese barnyard millet and foxtail millet did not exhibit significant radical-scavenging activities. The DPPH radical-scavenging activities of these extracts were closely correlated to the contents of phenolic compound in the extracts, but not to the sugar or protein content in the extracts. In contrast, all the methanol and water extracts of the cereal grains caused significant antioxidant activities against hydroperoxide generation in the peroxidation of linoleic acid, in which the water extracts of these cereal grains caused much higher antioxidant activities than the methanol extracts of the same cereals. These results suggest that Japanese traditional cereals contain qualitatively different principles associated with antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities, and possible principles responsible for the antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities in the cereal grains are discussed. PMID:19086696

Higashi-Okai, Kiyoka; Ishida, Emi; Nakamura, Yumiko; Fujiwara, Satomi; Okai, Yasuji

2008-12-01

52

Safety Warnings and First Aid Instructions on Nigerian Traditional Herbal Remedies: Are They Adequate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the adequacy of safety warnings and first aid instructions on the labels of 122 made in Nigeria herbal remedies was carried out. The results show that 6.6% of the herbal preparations had correct and appropriate information on their labels while another 6.6% carried legible print size. Only 9, 1.6, 3.3, 1.6% showed dosage, composition, expiration date and

E. Obi; N. A. Ezejiofor; O. E. Orisakwe

2006-01-01

53

1. Women, Tradition and Politics in Japanese Classical Theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elite rule requires a monopolistic retention of the political resources upon which the rule is maintained. In the traditional dramatic arts of Japan, noh and kabuki, the resources of the prestige of tradition, names, knowledge, experience, secrets, access and publicity have been controlled exclusively by and for the male members of acting families. Female roles continue to be played by

Ralph Bunch; Mutsuko Motoyama

1987-01-01

54

Quantitative assessment of traditional Oriental herbal formulation Samhwangsasim-tang using UPLC technique.  

PubMed

A specific and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method has been developed and validated for the quantitative assessment of a traditional Oriental herbal formulation, Samhwangsasim-tang (SST). A Halo reversed-phase amide column (2.7 µm, 4.6 × 150 mm) was used to separate marker compounds; detection was conducted by ultraviolet absorbance at 250 nm. The column temperature was maintained at 45°C. A mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in water (B) was found to be suitable for the separation, at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min with gradient elution. Linearity, specificity, precision and recovery were calculated to validate the method and instrumentation. Under the described conditions, all marker compounds (rhaponticin, berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin) were collected within 25 min. All calibration curves of components showed good linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9996). The limit of detection and limit of quantification ranged from 0.08-3.05 and 0.23-8.12 µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and repeatability values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 2.30, 2.99 and 1.82%, respectively. In the recovery test, the accuracy ranged from 97.56-103.30% with RSD values less than 2.63%. The developed method was simple, specific, sensitive, accurate, precise and reproducible for the quantification of the active chemical constituents of SST. The simultaneous analysis of the contents of marker compounds in different SST samples prepared by different extraction procedures and different commercial products was successfully evaluated. PMID:23403059

Poudel, Amrit; Kim, Se-Gun; Lamichhane, Ramakanta; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Jung, Hyun-Ju

2014-02-01

55

A novel network pharmacology approach to analyse traditional herbal formulae: the Liu-Wei-Di-Huang pill as a case study.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of herbal formulae from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is important for their appropriate application. However, this understanding has been impeded by the complex nature of herbal formulae. A herbal formula is a mixture of hundreds of chemical ingredients with multiple potential targets. The effects produced by an entire herbal formula cannot be adequately explained by considering separately each ingredient in it. This is a recognised problem that remains in need of methods to solve it. Here we introduce a holistic analysis method to decipher the molecular mechanisms of herbal formulae. This method combines chemical and therapeutic properties with network pharmacology, using a novel approach to evaluate the importance of the targets and ingredients of herbal formulae. We used the Liu-Wei-Di-Huang (LWDH) pill, a classic herbal formula, as an example to illustrate our method and validated some results by a following experiment. We revealed the core molecular targets and bioprocess network of the pharmacological effects of LWDH and inferred its therapeutic indications. This method provides a novel strategy to understand the mechanisms of herbal formulae in a holistic way and implies new applications of classic herbal formulae. PMID:24492828

Liang, Xujun; Li, Huiying; Li, Shao

2014-05-01

56

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Sh?n N?ng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

57

Determination of Methanol Concentrations in Traditional Herbal Waters of Different Brands in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Herbal waters are extensively used in most parts of including . Visiting a patient with total blindness due to daily ingestion of around 200 ml of herbal water (Plant forty water) per day for six months was the rational for methanol determination in all herbal waters available in markets. Materials and Methods A total of two hundred and nineteen bottles of herbal waters were randomly bought from market. Methanol concentration was determined by gas chromatography, using a Flame Ionized Detector. Benzene (1000 mg/l) was applied as the internal standard. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), using appropriate descriptive statistical tests. Results Forty six different herbal waters from three main producing factories (A, B and C) were tested. Highest methanol concentration was measured in dill water of A (1208±202.74 mg/l), concentrated rose water of A (1017.41±59.68 mg/l) and concentrated rose water of B (978.52±92.81 mg/l). Lowest methanol concentration was determined in Trachyspermum copticum water of B (18.93±1.04 mg/l), cinnamon and ginger water of B (29.64±10.88 mg/l) and rice skin water of A (41.33±7.85 mg/l). Mean methanol concentrations of herbal waters including ginger, cinnamon, dill, peppermint, alfalfa, and plant forty from A, B and C were 374.69, 209.81 and 280.12 mg/l, respectively (P< 0.001). Conclusion Methanol concentration in all herbal waters, especially rose water of the three producers was very high that may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time. PMID:23493100

Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Namaei-Ghassemi, Mohssen; Layegh, Massomeh; AfzalAghaee, Monavar; vafaee, Manssoreh; Zare, Gholamali; Moghiman, Toktam; Mood, Mahdi Balali

2011-01-01

58

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

59

Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2013-01-01

60

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

PubMed Central

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053

Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

61

Separation and determination of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with organic modifier.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the separation and determination of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline) in two traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). Separation was performed in the running buffer consisting of 20 mM borate, 30 mM SDS, and 20% methanol at pH 9.1. With the optimized separation conditions, four PAs were separated in 17 min by a single run. The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation efficiencies (R(2)) between 0.9940 and 0.9988. RSDs in migration time and peak area were 0.31, 0.40, 0.39, 0.48% and 3.28, 3.48, 4.16, 3.42% for senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline, respectively. Limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 1.19 to 2.70 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied to determine the PAs extracted from Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). PA of senkirkine in Kuan donghua was detected and the amount was found to be 79.1 microg/g. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MEKC method could potentially become an effective alternative tool for qualification control and quantitative analysis of herbal medicines in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:16080213

Yu, Lijun; Xu, Yan; Feng, Huatao; Li, Sam Fong Yau

2005-09-01

62

Application of herbal drugs to health care in Japan.  

PubMed

Kampo, derived from traditional Chinese medicine, has been adopted in Japan for centuries, and the demand for herbal drugs is increasing. At present herbal drugs are utilized in pharmaceutical forms such as granules of the extracts. A special commission has evaluated and selected traditional prescriptons for their efficacy and safety by clinical experience. The Kampo preparations are also accepted by the national health care insurance. About 80% of the plants used are imported. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia reports 116 herbal drugs, the majority of Chinese origin, under specifications established and reviewed by the Pharmacopoeia Committee. In Japan, high quality research, which has developed during the last century, has partly ascertained the active principles in the herbal drugs and pharmacological tests have also been adopted, although limitations exist in the modern pharmacological methods. The handling of herbal drugs is limited to licensed pharmacists in order to ensure their good management. PMID:7464186

Natori, S

1980-03-01

63

Anti-aging and health-promoting constituents derived from traditional oriental herbal remedies: information retrieval using the TradiMed 2000 DB.  

PubMed

Asia, Korea, China, and Japan have legally adopted the traditional Oriental (Chinese) medical system along with the Western system. A number of traditional herbal drugs including the polypharmacy type of prescriptions (a combination of multiple herbs) are available and are widely dispensed. Herbal therapy used in traditional Oriental medicine appears to be quite different from its counterpart Western drug therapy. The polypharmacy type of herbal therapy generally exhibits holistic effectiveness by exerting activities to multitarget organs (organ systems) according to the principles of traditional Oriental medicine. The Traditional Oriental Medicine Database (TradiMed 2000 DB) is a unique database of traditional Oriental herbal therapy containing a variety of information such as formulae, chemical information on ingredients, botanical information on herbal materials, and a dictionary of disease classification (TOM and Western classification). A formula, namely, the Sip-Jeon-Dae-Bo-Tang consisting of 10 different herbs, was selected by retrieving information from the TradiMed 2000 DB. Then its tonic effects for elderly people were shown as an example. PMID:11795519

Chang, I M

2001-04-01

64

An overview on safety issues of interactions between traditional herbal medicines and pharmaceutical medicines (Una apreciación global sobre la seguridad de las interacciones entre las medicinas herbarias tradicionales y los fármacos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity world-wide of using herbal medicinal materials (HMM) from ethnic traditional medicine such as the widely used Chinese materia medica (CMM) or other ethnic herbal medicines and related proprietary health products (PHP), functional food and prescription herbal medicines has raised concerns over their concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines (PHARMED) and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the

Kelvin CHAN

2008-01-01

65

Stimulative effects of saponin from kikyo-to, a Japanese herbal medicine, on pancreatic exocrine secretion of conscious rats.  

PubMed

Our previous report stated that kikyo-to, a Japanese herbal medicine, consisting of the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Glycyrrhiza sp., stimulates the pancreatic exocrine secretion of conscious rats. The present study focused on the effective components of kikyo-to and the mechanism of stimuli to pancreatic secretion of rats. When 10 to 100 mg of platycodin D, a saponin from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, was intragastrically administered, the pancreatic secretion of rats was stimulated. At the same time, the plasma CCK concentration increased. On the other hand, the stimulative effects of glycyrrhizin, a saponin from the root of Glycyrrhiza sp. were weak compared to platycodin D. The effects of 10 mg/kg of platycodin D on pancreatic secretion were inhibited by loxiglumide (50 mg/kg, i.g.), a CCK receptor antagonist. In contrast, the suppressive effect of atropine (300 micrograms/kg/h, i.v.) on pancreatic secretion was reduced by administering 10 mg/kg of platycodin D. In addition, up to 1 mM of platycodin D did not inhibit the trypsin activities in vitro. In conclusion, kikyo-to serves to stimulate pancreatic exocrine secretion mainly because platycodin D causes gastrointestinal hormones, particularly, CCK to be released from the duodenum. PMID:9342945

Arai, I; Komatsu, Y; Hirai, Y; Shingu, K; Ida, Y; Yamaura, H; Yamamoto, T; Kuroiwa, Y; Sasaki, K; Taguchi, S

1997-10-01

66

Rape Perception Differences Between Japanese and American College Students: On the Mediating Influence of Gender Role Traditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the differences in rape perceptions between Japanese and American college students. It was found that the Japanese minimized the seriousness of rapes, blamed the victims, and excused the rapists more than did the Americans. Cross-cultural differences in the gender role traditionality (GRT) were found to mediate these differences. GRT-mediated tendencies for increases in the

Niwako Yamawaki; Brian T. Tschanz

2005-01-01

67

Significance of Kampo, Japanese Traditional Medicine, in the Treatment of Obesity: Basic and Clinical Evidence  

PubMed Central

The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (?????) and boiogito (?????), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine. PMID:23662155

Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

2013-01-01

68

Inhibitory effects of Japanese herbal medicines sho-saiko-to and juzen-taiho-to on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.  

PubMed

Although Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs) are widely used in Japan, only a few studies have investigated their effects on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, we examined the effect of 4 kinds of JHMs [sho-saiko-to (TJ-9), inchin-ko-to (TJ-135), juzen-taiho-to (TJ-48), and keishi-bukuryo-gan (TJ-25)] on a mouse model of NASH. Db/db mice were divided into 6 groups: control diet (control), methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD), and MCD diet supplemented with TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25 (TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25, respectively). All mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks of treatment, and biochemical, pathological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels and liver histology, including necroinflammation and fibrosis, were significantly alleviated in the TJ-9 and TJ-48 groups compared with the MCD group. The expression level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 mRNA in the liver was significantly suppressed by TJ-48. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 were lower, and those of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? were higher in the TJ-9 and/or TJ-48 groups than in the MCD group. Similarly, even though the results were not statistically significant, malondialdehyde levels in liver tissues were lower in the TJ-9 and TJ-48 groups than in the MCD group. We showed that JHMs, especially TJ-9 and TJ-48, inhibited the necroinflammation and fibrosis in the liver of a mouse model of NASH, even though the mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Further studies are needed in the future to investigate the possibility of clinical application of these medicines in the treatment for NASH. PMID:24466347

Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Watanabe, Masato; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

2014-01-01

69

Evaluating the traditional Chinese literature for herbal formulae and individual herbs used for age-related dementia and memory impairment.  

PubMed

Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547

May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L

2012-06-01

70

Nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption caused by a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang ( Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a case of nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption appearing on the right thigh of a 31-year-old woman in Japan. The causative drug was determined by closed patch test on postlesional skin as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang (Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:628-30.)

Kazuhiko Matsumoto; Hajime Mikoshiba; Toshiaki Saida

2003-01-01

71

The changing geography of traditional medicine: Urban herbalism on the Witwatersrand, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

While medical geographers have generally ignored medical pluralism in developing countries, a small but significant geographical literature on traditional medicine has emerged. Progress for research by geographers on traditional medicine lies through a broader contextualisation of medical pluralism sensitive to the socio-economic and political context of health and disease. In this paper, a brief overview of medical pluralism in South

Rolf P. A. Dauskardt

1990-01-01

72

Pharmacokinetic interactions between Japanese traditional Kampo medicine and modern medicine (IV). Effect of Kamisyoyosan and Tokisyakuyakusan on the pharmacokinetics of etizolam in rats.  

PubMed

Kamisyoyosan (KSS) and Tokisyakuyakusan (TSS) are widely used herbal formulas in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to relieve the symptoms occurred in climacteric disturbance. Since Japanese physicians frequently prescribe these formulas combined with etizolam, one of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction between KSS or TSS and etizolam, and in vitro inhibitory effect of KSS and TSS on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity in rat microsomes, to obtain drug information to prevent from disadvantage or adverse effects by their combined therapy. In in vitro experiment, KSS and TSS inhibited CYP3A activity comparable to grapefruit juice. However in in vivo experiments, oral administration of KSS did not influence the plasma concentration profile of etizolam. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of etizolam was significantly reduced when TSS was co-administered at 20 times amount of human daily dosage. Since the double of human daily dose of TSS did not suppress the absorption of etizolam, TSS would not influence the pharmacokinetics of etizolam at the usual clinical dosage. Since both KSS and TSS did not influence the metabolism of etizolam, the result of in vitro experiment would not reflect to that of in vivo experiment or in clinic. The combination of etizolam with KSS or TSS at usual dosage would not cause drug interaction. PMID:15684484

Makino, Toshiaki; Inagaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Ken-ichi; Kano, Yoshihiro

2005-02-01

73

A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR  

PubMed Central

Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

2004-01-01

74

Prevalence and factors associated with traditional herbal medicine use among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related problems. Concurrent use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among HIV infected patients. However, the extent of THM use is not known in most settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with THM use among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) attending The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda. TASO is a non-governmental organization devoted to offering HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in the population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two TASO treatment centres in Uganda among 401 randomly selected eligible participants. We included participants who were 18 years and above, were enrolled on HAART, and consented to participate in the study. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. THM use referred to someone who had ever used or was currently using herbal medicine while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the time of the study. Data was captured in Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 9.0 for analysis. Results The prevalence of THM use was 33.7%. Patients on HAART for < 4 years were more likely to use THM (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.13 - 31.73) as well as those who experienced HAART side effects (OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.15 - 11.68). Older patients (?39 years) were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.26 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.83). Participants with HAART adherence levels > 95% were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.65). Conclusion The prevalence of THM use among participants on HAART was high. This raises clinical and pharmacological concerns that need attention by the health care service providers. PMID:22074367

2011-01-01

75

An effective antibiofilm agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm from traditional Thai herbal recipes used for wound treatments.  

PubMed

The presence of bacterial biofilm, particularly formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been considered an important factor responsible for wound chronicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of water and ethanol extracts obtained from three traditional herbal recipes (THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011) on biofilm formation and on mature biofilm of a reference strain of P. aeruginosa. The effects of the extracts on the biofilm mass were evaluated by using crystal violet (CV) assay. The respiratory activity of preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa after treatment with the extract was determined by MTT reduction assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to furnish images of biofilm reduction after the recipe treatment. Tested ethanol extracts displayed antibiofilm activity, but the water extracts exhibited low biofilm inhibition activity at the tested concentrations. Remarkable reduction in biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa was found after treatment with the THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E). Treatments with this extract resulted in prevention of biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa on both polystyrene and glass surfaces. Almost 50% reduction in the bacterial metabolic activity in the preformed biofilm was seen after exposure to the extract-supplemented buffer for 12?hr. After a 24-hr treatment with THR-SK010E at 62.5??g/ml, 97.3% of the preformed biofilms were destroyed. Promising antibiofilm activity was displayed by the THR-SK010 ethanol extract, suggesting further investigation to explore the possible utilization of the herbal recipe as an antibiofilm agent, especially for wound treatment. PMID:23600560

Chusri, Sasitorn; Jittanon, Wittaya; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

2013-10-01

76

Herbal drug production facility.  

E-print Network

??PREAMBLE "Dr Ibrahim Samba, Africa's regional director, world health organization (WHO), explains that even though African traditional medicine (herbal drug) has been stigmatized as backwards… (more)

Sarfo-Mensah, Rosemary

2009-01-01

77

Japanese herbal medicines shosaikoto, inchinkoto, and juzentaihoto inhibit high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in db/db mice.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the effects of Japanese herbal medicines on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To the best of our knowledge, only one study has examined whether high-fat (HF) diet-fed db/db mice are appropriate animal models of NASH. We investigated the effects of four types of Japanese herbal medicines (shosaikoto (TJ-9), inchinkoto (TJ-135), juzentaihoto (TJ-48), and keishibukuryogan (TJ-25)) on hepatic lesions of HF diet-fed db/db mice. Db/db mice were divided into six groups: control diet (control); HF diet (HF); and HF diet supplemented with TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, or TJ-25 (TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25, respectively). Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment, and biochemical and pathological analyses were performed. Mice in the HF group consistently developed histopathological features consistent with definite NASH, and marked necroinflammation occurred. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels in the TJ-9, TJ-135, and TJ-48 groups were significantly improved compared with those in the HF group. With regard to liver histology, TJ-9 and TJ-48 significantly improved lobular inflammation, and TJ-135 significantly improved ballooning degeneration. We have shown that HF diet-fed db/db mice are animal models that correctly recapitulate the histopathology of human NASH and that TJ-9, TJ-135, and TJ-48 inhibit necroinflammatory activity in this model. PMID:25229199

Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Watanabe, Masato; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

2014-10-01

78

A preliminary survey of mycological and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of African traditional herbal medicines sold in South Africa.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine is an important aspect of healthcare delivery in South Africa and is used by at least 70% of the country's population. The trade in medicinal plants is a multi-million rand business which is a major driver for rural economies. However, the conditions in which these plant products are transported and stored make them prone to fungal contamination which results in economic losses to the traders and pose potential health hazards to consumers. Of major concern is the possible presence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. This study assessed fungal and mycotoxin contamination of African herbal products sold in Cape Town and Tshwane (formerly Pretoria) in South Africa. Of the 16 samples analyzed, 15 were contaminated with at least one of these three fungal genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. Fumonisin B(1) was present in 13 of the samples in quantities ranging from 14 to 139 microg/kg (detection limit 5 microg/kg). None of the samples was contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi or aflatoxin (detection limit 0.5 microg/kg). This is the first study to report on mycological and mycotoxin contamination of commercial traditional African medicines in South Africa. There is a need to expand the study to other urban centers to gain enough insight into this problem and then to intervene with measures that can protect the public from potential harm. PMID:19244286

Katerere, D R; Stockenström, S; Thembo, K M; Rheeder, J P; Shephard, G S; Vismer, H F

2008-11-01

79

Subacute toxicity and stability of Soshiho-tang, a traditional herbal formula, in Sprague-Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Soshiho-tang (SST, Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese), an oriental herbal formula, is used for treatment of chronic liver diseases. Although many researchers have studied the pharmacological properties of SST, information about its safety and toxicity is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the potential safety of SST in Sprague–Dawley rats over a period of 4-weeks. Methods The SST was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. We measured the body weight, mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology. In addition, we analyzed the component of SST and measured the stability of its component in SST according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology, except for salivation and reduction in body weight in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group. These findings in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group are considered toxicologically insignificant because they are not accompanied by other pathological findings, including in hematology, serum biochemistry and histopatholgy, and they do not exhibit a dose–response relationship. SST is detected three components including liquiritin, baicalin, and glycyrrhizin. In addition, there were not observed the significant differences among the contents of three components in SST according to storage periods. Conclusion These results indicate that SST may be a safe material. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was more than 2000 mg/kg for both genders. PMID:23268740

2012-01-01

80

Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A total of 286 traditional healers, 85% of them registered with the Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers' Association (ZINATHA), in five administrative provinces of Zimbabwe, were interviewed to assess their knowledge about the signs and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis. Information on the names of plants used to treat Schistosoma haematobium infections was solicited. Haematuria was mentioned by 99% of the traditional healers to be the most obvious sign of S. haematobium infection. General body weakness, increased urinary frequency and pain on micturition also were reported to be some of the signs of infection. Eight plant materials were identified as the most commonly used for the treatment of S. haematobium. The plants were identified and parts collected to investigate their antischistosomal properties. The plant materials were prepared according to the guidelines of the traditional healers and their efficacy determined by administering the crude extracts orally to hamsters infected with S. haematobium cercariae. The results obtained suggested that plant extracts from Abrus precatorius (Leguminosae), Pterocarpus angolensis (Leguminosae) and Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae) were lethal to adult schistosomes. PMID:8072305

Ndamba, J; Nyazema, N; Makaza, N; Anderson, C; Kaondera, K C

1994-04-01

81

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. METHODS: The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review,

Ripu M Kunwar; Keshab P Shrestha; Rainer W Bussmann

2010-01-01

82

Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic chenopodium ambrosioides L.: Ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol,

Michael M. Kliks

1985-01-01

83

Efficacy of traditional and alternative sunitinib treatment schedules in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

We report the adverse events and efficacy of traditional (4 weeks on 2 weeks off) and alternative sunitinib treatment schedules for Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We retrospectively investigated 54 patients who received sunitinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma between May 2006 and June 2012: 32 received a traditional treatment schedule and 22 received an alternative schedule. According to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk classification, five patients had favorable prognoses, 42 had intermediate prognoses and seven had poor prognoses. The mean observation periods were 16.3 and 20 months for the traditional and alternative schedule groups, respectively. Adverse events were significantly less common in the alternative schedule group, including most high-grade events. In the traditional and alternative schedule groups, median times to failure were 4.1 and 11.6 months (P?=?0.040), median progression-free survival times were 4.1 and 11.3 ?months (P?=?0.031), and median overall survival times were 12.0 and 32.1?months (P?=?0.018), respectively. Each of these measures was better in the group of patients who received an alternative treatment schedule, suggesting that individualized changes to the sunitinib administration schedule can be effective. PMID:24930736

Ohzeki, Takayuki; Fukasawa, Satoshi; Komaru, Atsushi; Namekawa, Takeshi; Sato, Yosuke; Takagi, Kimiaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Ueda, Takeshi

2014-10-01

84

Simultaneous determination of eight marker compounds in the traditional herbal medicine, Sipjundaebo-tang by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

Sipjundaebo-tang, known as a traditional herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of anemia, inflammation, and tumor. For simultaneous determination of eight components, namely 5-HMF, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, cinnamaldehyde, decursinol, 6-gingerol, decursin, and glycyrrhizin in Sipjundaebo-tang, a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established. In order to develop and validate this HPLC-DAD method, C(18) column (S-5 ?m, 4.6 × 250 mm) was used with gradient mobile phase at the column temperature of 35°C. The mobile phase was consisted of water and methanol containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. UV wavelength was set at 230, 254, 280, and 300 nm. Validation of the analytical method was evaluated by linearity, precision, and accuracy test. Calibration curve for eight marker compounds showed good linearity with R(2) > 0.9994. Limits of detection and Limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 ?g/mL to 0.13 ?g/mL and 0.03 ?g/mL to 0.41 ?g/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) value of precision test, intra-day and inter-day test, was less than 1.14% and 2.54%, respectively. The results of accuracy test were varied from 98.31% to 104.88% with RSD < 2%. This developed simultaneous determination method was efficient to the quality control of Sipjundaebo-tang. PMID:21975812

Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je

2011-09-01

85

Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Formula Pyungwi-San on Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF-?. Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23533508

Cha, Ji Young; Jung, Ji Yun; Jung, Jae Yup; Lee, Jong Rok; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Byun, Sung Hui; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G.

2013-01-01

86

A randomized, controlled trial comparing traditional herbal medicine and neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of seasonal influenza.  

PubMed

The herbal medicine, maoto, has been traditionally prescribed to patients with influenza in Japan. To better understand the efficacy of maoto for the treatment of influenza, a randomized trial was conducted for comparison with oseltamivir or zanamivir. Adult patients with influenza symptoms, including fever, positive for quick diagnostic kit for influenza within 48 h of fever onset were assessed for enrollment. The data of 28 patients randomly assigned to maoto (n = 10), oseltamivir (n = 8), or zanamivir (n = 10) were analyzed for the duration of fever (>37.5°C) and total symptom score from symptom cards recorded by the patient. Viral isolation and serum cytokine measurements were also done on days 1, 3, and 5. Maoto granules, a commercial medical dosage form, are made from four plants: Ephedra Herb, Apricot Kernel, Cinnamon Bark, and Glycyrrhiza Root. Median durations of fever of patients assigned maoto, oseltamivir, or zanamivir were 29, 46, or 27 h, respectively, significantly different for maoto and oseltamivir. No significant between-group differences were found in total symptom score among three groups. Viral persistent rates and serum cytokine levels (IFN-?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?) during the study period showed no differences among three groups. The administration of oral maoto granules to healthy adults with seasonal influenza was well tolerated and associated with equivalent clinical and virological efficacy to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:22350323

Nabeshima, Shigeki; Kashiwagi, Kenichiro; Ajisaka, Kazuhiko; Masui, Shinta; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

2012-08-01

87

Anticoccidial activity of traditional Chinese herbal Dichroa febrifuga Lour. extract against Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.  

PubMed

The study was conducted on broiler birds to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of an extract of Chinese traditional herb Dichroa febrifuga Lour. One hundred broiler birds were assigned to five equal groups. All birds in groups 1-4 were orally infected with 1.5 × 10(4) Eimeira tenella sporulated oocysts and birds in groups 1, 2 and 3 were medicated with 20, 40 mg extract/kg feed and 2 mg diclazuril/kg feed, respectively. The bloody diarrhea, oocyst counts, intestinal lesion scores, and the body weight were recorded to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy. The results showed that D. febrifuga extract was effective against Eimeria infection; especially 20 mg D. febrifuga extract/kg feed can significantly increase body weight gains and reduce bloody diarrhea, lesion score, and oocyst excretion in comparison to infected-unmedicated control group. PMID:22898876

Zhang, De-Fu; Sun, Bing-Bing; Yue, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Qian-Jin; Du, Ai-Fang

2012-12-01

88

From non-aligned medicines to market-based herbals: China's relationship to the shifting politics of traditional medicine in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The institutionalization of traditional medicine in Tanzania reveals how strategies for socialist liberation are morphing into strategies for neoliberalization. In the 1960s and 1970s, traditional medicine promised the raw material for the scientific development of an indigenous pharmaceutical industry. At the turn of the millennium, however, traditional medicine has re-emerged in Tanzania as a new path into the fast-growing global herbals market. Tanzania's relationship with China has been central to these dynamics. Development programs rooted in socialist friendship trained Tanzanian doctors in China throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s. These practitioners forged Tanzanian efforts to develop and modernize traditional medicine. In this article, I look with particular detail at one woman who was chosen to start the Office of Traditional Medicine in the Ministry of Health in Tanzania, in order to elaborate the continuities and discontinuities central to the emerging field of market-based traditional medicines. PMID:20391157

Langwick, Stacey

2010-01-01

89

Screening of traditional European herbal medicines for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to enhance central cholinergic transmission. On the other hand, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors were reported to produce a significant increase in brain extracellular AChE without triggering severe peripheral or central side effects. In the present study, we selected twelve plants used in traditional European medicine to treat different central nervous system (CNS) disorders or to improve memory. Methanolic and hexane extracts of these plants were tested for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method. The most potent AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed in the hexane extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and Ruta graveolens L. herb at a concentration of 400 microg mL(-1). However, methanolic extracts of the flowers of Arnica chamissonis Less. subs. foliosa and the Hypericum perforatum L. herb demonstrated at the same concentration, selective inhibition only against AChE but not against BuChE. The other extracts did not show any significant AChE or BuChE inhibitory activity. Our results show that further investigations of the extracts of arnica, rue and St. John's Wort are needed to identity the compounds responsible for the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20228046

Wszelaki, Natalia; Kuciun, Agnieszka; Kiss, Anna Karolina

2010-03-01

90

Simultaneous determination of six active components in traditional herbal medicine 'Oyaksungisan' by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

In this study, an effective high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for simultaneous determination of six marker compounds, ephedrine hydrochloride, 6-gingerol, glycyrrhizin, hesperidin, imperatorin and ferulic acid, in a Korean traditional prescription, Oyaksungisan, which is used for hemiplegia, arthralgia and paralysis. The six marker compounds of Oyaksungisan were separated on a LUNA C18 column (S-5 ?m, 4.6 mm I.D. × 250 mm) at a column temperature of 35°C. The gradient elution was composed of water with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol. The detection UV wavelengths were set at 207, 250, 280 and 320 nm. Calibration curves for the six compounds showed good linear regressions (R (2) > 0.9999). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.003-0.01 and 0.01-0.04 ?g/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of intra- and inter-day testing were within the ranges 0.10-1.82 and 0.04-1.59%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 95.05-104.27% with a RSD value of 0.11-1.85%. In conclusion, the simultaneous determination method developed was useful in the quality evaluation of Oyaksungisan. PMID:22359188

Weon, Jin Bae; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Ma, Choong Je

2012-07-01

91

[Comparative study on the original plant differences of Chinese traditional medicines and Japanese Kampo medicines].  

PubMed

Based on the Chinese pharmacopeia 2000 ed and Japanese pharmacopeia 14st ed., the original plant differencesof Chinese raditional medicines and Japanese Kampo medicines were compared by making list. The differences and reasons were analyzed. PMID:15506274

Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing; Mikage, Masayuki; Naoko, Kondo

2004-08-01

92

Field study on sustainable indoor climate design of a Japanese traditional folk house in cold climate area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of the indoor climate of a typical Japanese traditional folk house located in Hokuriku district were conducted in summer and winter. The aim of the experiment was to clarify the environmental control of this folk house and evaluate the indoor thermal environment and its sustainable devices. In particular, the effect of mud walls, earthen floor or reed roof

Ryozo Ooka

2002-01-01

93

A unique strong fibrinolytic enzyme (katsuwokinase) in skipjack "Shiokara," a Japanese traditional fermented food.  

PubMed

Katsuwokinase (KK) is a unique fibrinolytic enzyme recently found in skipjack "Shiokara," a Japanese traditional salt-fermented food. A crude enzyme extracted from skipjack Shiokara (Katsuwonus pelamis) showed a very strong fibrinolytic activity above 45 CU/g (fibrin plate method) based on plasmin. KK not only hydrolyzed fibrin but also several synthetic amido substrates, particularly pyro-Glu-Gly-Arg-pNA. The fibrinolytic activity of KK was not affected in the presence of 10% NaCl, was stable in the pH range from 1 to 10 at 37 degrees C for 30 min, and was inhibited by DFP, SBTI, BPTI, and aprotinin but not by epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid and t-4-amino-methylcyclohexane carboxylic acid. The crude enzyme contained at least four kinds of KK, and the major form purified had a pI value of approximately 5.0 and a molecular weight of 35,000. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 21 residues, I-V-G-G-Y-E-Q-Z-A-H-S-Q-P-H-Q-V-S-L-N-S-G-, had 80% homology with that of trypsin. The fibrinolytic activity of the purified enzyme was approximately 2.6 times greater than that of plasmin by molar ratio, demonstrating its identity as a new and very potent fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:8529030

Sumi, H; Nakajima, N; Yatagai, C

1995-11-01

94

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

2006-01-01

95

Banhabaekchulchunma-tang, a traditional herbal formula attenuates absolute ethanol-induced gastric injury by enhancing the antioxidant status  

PubMed Central

Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50 mg/kg) or BCT (400 mg/kg), respectively, 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake. PMID:23844748

2013-01-01

96

Application of isoabsorption plots generated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to the development of multicomponent quantitative analysis of traditional herbal medicines.  

PubMed

(J. Sep. Sci. 2014, 37 (22), 3245-3252) DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201400711 With the introduction of the iso-absorption plot, a new HPLC-DAD method was developed to simultaneously determine seven polyphenolic compounds (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, scutellarin, rosmarinic acid, and apigenin) in Qingfei mixture (QFM). Traditional herbal medicines (THM) and their preparation have been widely used for thousands of years in many oriental countries. However, the main challenge that hinders the application of THM is the quality control due to the heterogeneous quality. It could be shown that he newly developed analytical method is rapid, repeatable, sensitive and accurate. PMID:25388020

Fang, Luo; Yang, Guonong; Song, Yu; Li, Fanzhu; Lin, Nengming

2014-11-01

97

The Design of the Automatic Control System of the Gripping-Belt Speed in Long-Rootstalk Traditional Chinese Herbal Harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims to design a kind of gripping-belt speed automatic tracking system of traditional Chinese herbal harvester by AT89C52 single-chip micro computer as a core combined with fuzzy PID control algorithm. The system can adjust the gripping-belt speed in accordance with the variation of the machine's operation, so there is a perfect matching between the machine operation speed and the gripping-belt speed. The harvesting performance of the machine can be improved greatly. System design includes hardware and software.

Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Junfa; Yu, Yonghong

98

Buddhist preaching: The persistent main undercurrent of Japanese traditional rhetorical communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay is an attempt to investigate and discuss the significance and validity of researching Buddhist preaching as the main undercurrent of Japanese rhetorical communication practices. The argument first points out contemporary rhetoricians' weaknesses in research, and proceeds to discuss the importance of viewing preaching as a form of rhetorical communication. It then describes historical backgrounds of Japanese Buddhist preaching,

Satoshi Ishii

1992-01-01

99

Ameliorative effect of traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan on age-related impairments of working memory and reversal learning in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is thought to impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure-sensitive cognitive functions and flexibility, such as working memory and reversal learning. A traditional Japanese medicine, yokukansan (YKS), is frequently used to treat age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease in Japan, but its pharmacological properties have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine whether YKS improves age-related cognitive

K. Mizoguchi; H. Shoji; Y. Tanaka; T. Tabira

2011-01-01

100

Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs?  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPAR? and PPAR? and to inhibit TNF-?-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPAR? or PPAR? (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-?B (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

2013-01-01

101

A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhoea  

PubMed Central

Background Most traditional Chinese herbal formulas consist of at least four herbs. Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) is a documented eight hundred year old formula containing four herbs and has been widely used to relieve menstrual discomfort in Taiwan. However, no specific effect had been systematically evaluated. We applied Western methodology to assess its effectiveness and safety for primary dysmenorrhoea and to evaluate the compliance and feasibility for a future trial. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial was conducted in an ad hoc clinic setting at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Seventy-eight primary dysmenorrheic young women were enrolled after 326 women with self-reported menstrual discomfort in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan were screened by a questionnaire and subsequently diagnosed by two gynaecologists concurrently with pelvic ultrasonography. A dosage of 15 odorless capsules daily for five days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain was administered. Participants were followed with two to four cycles for an initial washout interval, one to two baseline cycles, three to four treatment cycles, and three follow-up cycles. Study outcome was pain intensity measured by using unmarked horizontal visual analog pain scale in an online daily diary submitted directly by the participants for 5 days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain of each menstrual cycle. Overall-pain was the average pain intensity among days in pain and peak-pain was the maximal single-day pain intensity. At the end of treatment, both the overall-pain and peak-pain decreased in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group and increased in the placebo group; however, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The trends persisted to follow-up phase. Statistically significant differences in both peak-pain and overall-pain appeared in the first follow-up cycle, at which the reduced peak-pain in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group did not differ significantly by treatment length. However, the reduced peak-pain did differ profoundly among women treated for four menstrual cycles (2.69 (2.06) cm, mean (standard deviation), for the 20 women with Four-Agents-Decoction and 4.68 (3.16) for the 22 women with placebo, p?=?.020.) There was no difference in adverse symptoms between the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) and placebo groups. Conclusion/significance Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) therapy in this pilot post-market clinical trial, while meeting the standards of conventional medicine, showed no statistically significant difference in reducing menstrual pain intensity of primary dysmenorrhoea at the end of treatment. Its use, with our dosage regimen and treatment length, was not associated with adverse reactions. The finding of statistically significant pain-reducing effect in the first follow-up cycle was unexpected and warrants further study. A larger similar trial among primary dysmenorrheic young women with longer treatment phase and multiple batched study products can determine the definitive efficacy of this historically documented formula. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN23374750 PMID:17710126

Yeh, Lan Lan Liang; Liu, Jah-Yao; Lin, Kao-Si; Liu, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Liang, Kung-Yee; Tsai, Te-Feng; Wang, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Huang, Ching-Yi

2007-01-01

102

Application of isoabsorption plots generated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to the development of multicomponent quantitative analysis of traditional herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Multicomponent quantitative analysis is one of the mainstream quality control methods of traditional herbal medicines. Since the constituents of traditional herbal medicines samples are complex, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography methods is laborious. In this study, an isoabsorption plot, a chromatographic/spectrometric data image plotted by diode array detection was utilized to facilitate the establishment of a high-performance liquid chromatography method by optimizing and validating the detection conditions off-line. Consequently a simple, reliable and accurate method for simultaneous determination of seven active polyphenolic components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, scutellarin, and apigenin) in Qingfei mixture, a long-used Chinese prescription, was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution of phosphoric acid aqueous solution (0.05%, v/v) and acetonitrile, and a wavelength switch program optimized with isoplot was adopted for detection. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the seven polyphenolic components in different production batches of Qingfei Mixture. These results indicated that isoplot is an effective tool to improve the establishment of multicomponent quantitative analysis methods. PMID:25146493

Fang, Luo; Yang, Guonong; Song, Yu; Li, Fanzhu; Lin, Nengming

2014-11-01

103

The origin and the tradition of European herbalism for human wellness: from the roots of an ancient approach to modern herbalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of civilization, people have used plants to improve their health. In recent years, there has been a reawakened\\u000a scientific interest in the fundamental role plants play in many areas, including human health. Beginning from the 20th century,\\u000a the field of folk tradition experienced a shift from the raw compilation of data to a greater methodological and conceptual

Maria Laura Colombo; Stefania Dalfrà; Bruno Scarpa

104

First Nationwide Attitude Survey of Japanese Physicians on the Use of Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) in Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this nationwide survey was to investigate the use of Kampo medicine by Japanese physicians who worked in the core cancer treatment hospitals which were designated by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 900 physicians surveyed, 92.4% reported having prescribed Kampo medications, of whom 73.5% reported having prescribed them for cancer patients. Despite this high percentage and the finding that only 9.7% of the physicians reported that they considered Kampo medications to be harmful, only 23.1% of the physicians expressed high expectations of the efficacy of Kampo medicine in tumor suppression and the exertion of immunostimulatory action. In contrast, many cancer patients have expressed the belief that Kampo medications can suppress tumor growth, and several studies have reported that they exert immunostimulatory action. To resolve this discrepancy in patient and physician expectations and to clarify the research findings, further research into the effectiveness and harmfulness of Kampo medicine in cancer treatment is warranted. PMID:23304230

Ito, A.; Munakata, K.; Imazu, Y.; Watanabe, K.

2012-01-01

105

Efficacy of the kampo medicine xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (kyuki-chouketsu-in), a traditional herbal medicine, in the treatment of maternity blues syndrome in the postpartum period.  

PubMed

This study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, in stabilizing postpartum psychological state. We enrolled 268 women who had a normal delivery in Osaka Medical College Hospital or its affiliated clinics and randomly assigned them to the following two groups: a group of 134 women who received Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) at a dose of 6.0 g/day and another group of 134 women without Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) (control group). We observed 2.06-fold and 1.67-fold higher incidences of depressive mood and nervousness, respectively, after delivery in the control group than in the Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) group. Within 3 weeks of postpartum, there was a significant difference in the incidences of maternity blues between the Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) group (15.7%; 21/134) and the control group (32.1%; 43/134) (p = 0.0195). No adverse effects were observed in this study. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial clinical effects of Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) in stabilizing psychological state in the postpartum period. Xiong-gui-tiao-xue-yin (Kyuki-chouketsu-in) can be expected to improve the mental health of women in the postpartum period and prevent maternity blues. PMID:15844839

Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Kou; Ueki, Minoru

2005-01-01

106

Free radical scavenging activity of the Japanese herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23) and its effect on superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxides, glutamate, and monoamine metabolites in aged rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging activity of the Japanese herbal medicine, Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23; TSUMURA & Co., Tokyo, Japan),\\u000a was examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. TJ-23 scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH),\\u000a superoxide (O2\\u000a ?), and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) dose-dependently. It also diminished carbon centered radicals (·C) generated by oxidative stress\\u000a and inhibited thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation in mouse cortex homogenate.

Y. Ueda; M. Komatsu; M. Hiramatsu

1996-01-01

107

Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.  

PubMed

This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional medicine lack both business and medical ethics. That said, the paper urges practitioners to seriously consider the morality of their adverts as in most cases they (adverts) do more harm than good. Further to that, the piece recommends the governments of the affected countries to put in place stringent measures to address this mounting problem. PMID:22187588

Munyaradzi, Mawere

2011-01-01

108

Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-04-01

109

Cultured Japanese Macaques: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Stone Handling Behavior and Its Implications for the Evolution of Behavioral Tradition in Nonhuman Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Japanese primatologists have paid attention to cultural phenomena in ­nonhuman primates since the earliest stage of their\\u000a studies. The most famous example­ of behavioral traditions in Japanese macaques is probably sweet potato washing behavior.\\u000a After being innovated by a young female on Koshima Islet, this behavior was socially transmitted from the innovator to most\\u000a other group members. More recently, stone

Michael A. Huffman; Jean-Baptiste Leca; Charmalie A. D. Nahallage

110

Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Little is known about the relation of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) to metabolic risk factors, partic- ularly in non-Western populations. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations between dietary GI and GL and several metabolic risk factors in healthy Japanese women with traditional dietary habits. Design: The subjects were 1354 Japanese female farmers aged 20-78 y from

Kentaro Murakami; Satoshi Sasaki; Yoshiko Takahashi; Hitomi Okubo; Yoko Hosoi; Hyogo Horiguchi; Etsuko Oguma; Fujio Kayama

111

CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

2011-06-01

112

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.  

PubMed

Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:24716104

Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

2011-10-01

113

Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly blocked SSE-induced increases in Beclin-1, LC3-II, and Bax expression and decreases in Bcl-2 expression, indicating that JNK activation plays critical role in cell death caused by SSE. Conclusions These findings suggest that SSE efficiently induces cancer cell death via apoptosis as well as autophagy through modification of the Akt/mTOR and JNK signaling pathways. SSE may be as a potent traditional herbal medicine for treating malignancies. PMID:24053190

2013-01-01

114

Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

2014-02-01

115

Effects of Orengedoku-to and Senkanmeimoku-to, traditional herbal medicines, on the experimental elevation of aqueous flare in pigmented rabbits.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of Orengedoku-to (Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang in Chinese) and Senkanmeimoku-to (Xygan-Ming-Mu-Tang in Chinese), traditional herbal medicines, on experimantal elevation of aqueous flare in pigmented rabbits. To produce the elevation of aqueous flare in rabbits, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was applied to the cornea with use of a glass cylinder, or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were injected into the ear vein. Animals were pretreated by the oral administration of 150 g/day of food containing 0.7%, 0.2% or 0.07% (w/w) Orengedoku-to, or 2%, 0.6% or 0.2% (w/w) Senkanmeimoku-to for 5 days. Aqueous flare was measured with a laser flare-cell meter. Pretreatment with 0.7% or 0.2% Orengedoku-to and 2% Senkanmeimoku-to did suppress significantly (P < 0.05) elevation of aqueous flare induced by PGE2. Pretreatment with 0.7% or 0.2% Orengedoku-to and 2% or 0.6% Senkanmeimoku-to significantly suppressed (P < 0.001) elevation of aqueous flare induced by LPS. It is possible that Orengedoku-to and Senkanmeimoku-to may migrate some forms of uveitis. PMID:11321471

Nagaki, Y; Hayasaka, S; Kadoi, C; Matsumoto, M; Nakamura, N; Hayasaka, Y

2001-01-01

116

Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

2014-01-01

117

Anti-diabetic effects of TongGuanWan, a Chinese traditional herbal formula, in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, the anti-diabetic effects of a traditional Chinese medicinal formula extract, TongGuanWan, were investigated in type 2 diabetic animals. It was orally administered to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice once a day for 4 weeks at the doses of 62, 125, and 250?mg/kg body weight. TongGuanWan significantly lowered the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels as well as improved the glucose tolerance in db/db mice. The serum triglyceride levels in the db/db mice were significantly decreased, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased, after treatment with this herbal formula. TongGuanWan also markedly decreased the animals' body weights compared to those of the control db/db group but did not alter food intake. The effects of TongGuanWan were compared to those of the drug rosiglitazone. In addition, five main constituents of TongGuanWan, mangiferin, berberine, cinnamic aldehyde, timosaponin BII, and timosaponin AIII, were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD). These results suggest that TongGuanWan may be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22002851

Tang, Yi Hong; Sun, Zhao Lin; Fan, Ming Song; Li, Zhi Xiong; Huang, Cheng Gang

2012-01-01

118

Effect of combining therapy with traditional chinese medicine-based psychotherapy and herbal medicines in women with menopausal syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

2012-01-01

119

Effect of Combining Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Psychotherapy and Herbal Medicines in Women with Menopausal Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

2012-01-01

120

A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes  

PubMed Central

Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

2013-01-01

121

Zuo Jin Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Reverses P-gp-Mediated MDR In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW), a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been identified to have anticancer activity in recent studies. In this study, we determined the underlying mechanism of ZJW in the reversal effect of multidrug resistance on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that ZJW significantly enhanced the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP, SGC7901/DDP, and Bel/Fu MDR cells. Moreover, combination of chemotherapy with ZJW could reverse the drug resistance of HCT116/L-OHP cells, increase the sensitivity of HCT116/L-OHP cells to L-OHP, DDP, 5-Fu, and MMC in vitro, and inhibit the tumor growth in the colorectal MDR cancer xenograft model. ICP-MS results showed that ZJW could increase the concentration of chemotherapeutic drugs in HCT116/L-OHP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that ZJW could reverse drug resistance of colorectal cancer cells by decreasing P-gp level in vitro and in vivo, which has been represented as one of the major mechanisms that contribute to the MDR phenotype. Our study has provided the first direct evidence that ZJW plays an important role in reversing multidrug resistance of human colorectal cancer and may be considered as a useful target for cancer therapy. PMID:23533531

Sui, Hua; Liu, Xuan; Jin, Bao-Hui; Pan, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Li-Hong; Yu, Nikitin Alexander; Cai, Jian-Feng; Fan, Zhong-Ze; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi

2013-01-01

122

Herbal antitussives.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of actions of cough medicines are not always known. The problem is exacerbated for herbal medicines, where the effectiveness of the plant or its phytochemicals have rarely been carefully evaluated. Moreover, the most active phytomedicinal constituent is difficult to identify, and the expense and difficulty of such studies discourages sponsors who may not be able to benefit by subsequent exclusive marketing of the herbal remedy. Most popular herbs used as cough medicines appear to be demulcents whose action is confined to the oropharynx. It is probable that the vast majority of allegedly effective herbal cough medicines act as non-specific emetic-expectorants. The proof of activity of even marketed herbal derivatives such as guaifenesin and codeine is difficult to obtain. It is therefore likely that herbal cough medications will never be shown to be more active than placebos. Nevertheless, these plant products will continue to be popular remedies for patients and their health care advisors. PMID:12099787

Ziment, Irwin

2002-01-01

123

A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23624157

Sun, Ying-guang; Du, Ying-feng; Yang, Kai; Chang, Lu; Cao, Liang; Ren, Yan-ping; Sun, Qian; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lan-tong; Lv, Pin-tian

2013-01-01

124

Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

2011-01-01

125

Effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines on the pharmacokinetics of western drugs in SD rats of different ages. I. Aminophylline-Tin chuan Tang and aminophylline-Hsiao Ching Long Tang.  

PubMed

The effect of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Tin Chuan Tang and Hsiao Ching Long Tang) on the serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of aminophylline was examined in three different ages of SD rats. Each traditional Chinese herbal medicine was orally preadministered to SD rats for one week and then aminophylline was administered intravenously. The serum concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline were estimated by a two-compartment open model. The liver isolated after the last blood sampling was homogenized and the activity of hepatic cytochrome p-450 was determined. Significant difference was found in some pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline such as K10, t 1/2, Cl and Vd for three different ages of SD rats without pretreatment with Chinese herbal drugs (p less than 0.05). However, pretreatment with Tin Chuan Tang or Hsiao Ching Long Tang did not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in three different ages of SD rats (p greater than 0.05). We also found that there was no correlation between age and activity of cytochrome p-450 of SD rats (p greater than 0.05). The decline in some pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in the elderly rats perhaps might be attributed to the decrease in hepatic blood flow and liver volume. It is concluded that there was no drug interaction between theophylline and Tin Chuan Tang or Hsiao Ching Long Tang in the different ages of SD rats. PMID:1941501

Lin, S Y; Hou, S J; Wu, W H; Chen, S M; Young, T K

1991-04-01

126

Herbal Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

127

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

128

A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of ‘Oketsu’ (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine  

PubMed Central

‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19) or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods. PMID:18955217

Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi

2008-01-01

129

Japanese Traditional Printing \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an interactive CG (Computer Graphics) design system based on virtual woodblock printing, with the stress on an aspect of a tool to enjoy creation in a virtual space. This system is a simulation of real woodblock printing: generating a woodblock, spreading inks on the woodblock, putting a paper sheet on the woodblock, and rubbing the paper sheet with

Shinji MIZUNO; Minoru OKADA; Shinji YAMAMOTO; Jun-ichiro TORIWAKI

2001-01-01

130

Lifespan Creativity in a Non-Western Artistic Tradition: A Study of Japanese Ukiyo-E Printmakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western cultures' conceptions about creativity emphasize originality and final products; Eastern cultures, skill and process. Does this cultural difference impact how creativity unfolds over the lifespan? To examine this, we investigated Japanese "ukiyo-e" printmaking (c. 1670-1865). Almost 2,000 illustrations of datable prints by 44 artists were…

Kozbelt, Aaron; Durmysheva, Yana

2007-01-01

131

Stone-throwing by Japanese macaques: form and functional aspects of a group-specific behavioral tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throwing is a major behavioral component of hominid evolution. Comparison of this behavior across a broad range of non-human primate species is needed to elucidate the phylogenetic constraints on throwing behavior. In this study of stone-throwing in Japanese macaques, we present a systematic multi-group comparison of the frequency and prevalence of this behavior as well as detailed descriptions and quantitative

Jean-Baptiste Leca; Charmalie A. D. Nahallage; Noëlle Gunst; Michael A. Huffman

2008-01-01

132

Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits. PMID:20452484

LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

2010-01-01

133

Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies.  

PubMed

The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO3.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies. PMID:16759683

Obi, E; Akunyili, Dora N; Ekpo, B; Orisakwe, Orish E

2006-10-01

134

Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

2014-01-01

135

Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

2014-01-01

136

Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions  

PubMed Central

Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

2014-01-01

137

Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomi?, Sinisa

2009-12-01

138

[A historical study of coffee in Japanese and Asian countries: focusing the medicinal uses in Asian traditional medicines].  

PubMed

The medicinal properties of coffee, making it a diuretic and stimulant, because of the effects of caffeine, have been known since ancient times, and coffee is today a popular beverage worldwide. In Japan it was introduced at the end of the eighteenth century through overseas trading with the Netherlands. During this period, various Western cultures flowed into Japan, and coffee was one of the subjects introduced through the translations of Dutch medical books. The pharmacological effects of coffee have been presented by Yamamoto in "K?m? Honzou, (--, 1783)"; by K. Takahashi, G. Ohtsuki, and Y. Udagawa et al. in "K?sei Shimpen (--, 1811)"; and by Kai Hirokawa in "Nagasaki Bunkenroku (--, 1795)." In the Chinese and Arabic traditional systems of medicine, the uses of coffee were based on its diuretic and central nervous system stimulant properties, attributed in general to caffeine. This study dealt with the uses of coffee in the traditional medicines of Asian countries and with some biological activities related to aging, infectious diseases, and cardioprotective effects. In various biological tests, the water extract of coffee showed no notable effect on myocardial cell beating; however, it did show superoxide anion-scavenging effects, inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. These biological activities are closely related to the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, especially chlorogenic acid. The findings suggest that besides its stimulant effect, coffee has properties to prevent the deleterious actions of free radicals and viral infections. PMID:12412599

Namba, Tsuneo; Matsuse, Tomoco

2002-01-01

139

Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

Gori, Luigi

2007-01-01

140

Herbal medicines for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: current scenario and future prospects.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Nammi, Srinivas

2014-01-01

141

Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

2014-01-01

142

Identification of a Predictive Biomarker for the Beneficial Effect of Keishibukuryogan, a Kampo (Japanese Traditional) Medicine, on Patients with Climacteric Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan in Chinese) is one of the Kampo (Japanese traditional) medicines used to treat patients with climacteric syndrome. KBG can be used by patients who cannot undergo hormone replacement therapy due to a history of breast cancer. We evaluated whether cytosine-adenine (CA) repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor ? gene can be a predictor of the beneficial effect of KBG on climacteric syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between CA repeat polymorphism, the patients' profiles, and the therapeutic effect. We found that CA was an SS, SL, or LL genotype according to the number of repeats. We studied 39 consecutive patients with climacteric disorders who took KBG for 12?weeks. The diagnosis of climacteric disorders was made on the basis of the Kupperman index. KBG significantly improved the patients' climacteric symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms in the patients with the LL genotype and melancholia in the patients with the SL genotype). No relationship between the patients' profiles and CA repeat polymorphism was recognized. CA repeat polymorphism could thus be a potential biomarker to predict the efficacy of KBG in climacteric syndrome, and its use will help to reduce the cost of treating this syndrome by focusing the administration of KBG on those most likely to benefit from it. PMID:24639885

Namiki, Takao; Sato, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Yukari; Kakikura, Haruka; Ueno, Koichi; Chino, Atsushi; Hisanaga, Akito; Kaneko, Akiyo; Kita, Toshiaki; Kihara, Maki; Shozu, Makio; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

2014-01-01

143

Er-Xian Decoction, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, intervening early in hypothalamic-pituitary axis of male rats with delayed puberty  

PubMed Central

Background: Er-Xian Decoction (EXD) is one of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with unique effect on osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome and delayed puberty in China for many years. Objective: We aim to evaluate the potential activity of starting hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis of male rats with delayed puberty. Materials and Methods: Delayed puberty model of male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were established with soy isoflavones (90 mg·kg-1) and were treated by EXD extract at doses of 5, 10 g·kg-1 or Testosterone undecanoate (TU) for 8 weeks. Body weight, body length, testis weight, T, E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in hypothalamus, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH in pituitary gland were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LH in pituitary gland. Results: Soy isoflavones could significantly decrease body weight, body length, testicular organ coefficient T in serum, GnRH in hypothalamus, FSH and LH in pituitary gland. Both of EXD and TU could improve the condition. E2 and LH in serum of all groups were non-significance of difference (P > 0.05). The immunohistochemical results were well consistent with LH in pituitary gland. Conclusion: The results of the present research indicate that EXD extract is effective to start the HPT axis in puberty and can significantly improve sexual developmental inhibition caused by soy isoflavones.

Zhu, Zheng; Li, LiHong; Jin, Xin; Fang, JianWei; Zhang, DongFang

2014-01-01

144

Simultaneous quantification of nine major active components in traditional Chinese prescription Mahuang decoction and the influence of herbal compatibility on their contents  

PubMed Central

Background: Mahuang decoction (MHD), a famous classic traditional Chinese formula, has been extensively applied for treating cold, influenza, asthma, acute bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. However, the interaction among four drugs of MHD has not been clearly deciphered from the aspect of molecular composition. Objective: To assess the quality of MHD and explore the interplay among different prescription drugs. Materials and Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine bioactive components was developed. A somatomedin A (SMA)-phenyl column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 ?m) was eluted by a gradient mobile phase contained acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid-0.05% triethylamine aqueous solution. Four detection wavelengths (210, 252, 278, and 291 nm) were utilized for the quantitative analysis due to the different ultraviolet (UV) spectra of these compounds. Results: Satisfactory separation was obtained for all the components, and the assay was fully validated in respects of linearity, precision, stability, and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2? 0.9991) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday repeatability were not more than 1.70 and 2.66%, respectively. The spike recoveries of nine components varied from 97.50 ± 1.69 to 99.27 ± 1.37%. Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to analyze nine active compounds in decoction samples of various drug compatibilities of MHD. The variations of contents were obvious for different combinations, which hinted the mutual promotion or inhibition of componential dissolution among four herbs of MHD. PMID:24914312

He, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ruping; Ge, Lijun; Wan, Haitong

2014-01-01

145

Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST. PMID:24410935

2014-01-01

146

Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating erysipelas in pigs; the aerial parts of pellitory ( Parietaria judaica) in decoctions for treating haemorrhoids. Conclusions The fact that half of the most salient species documented in our case study – widely available both in Molise and in Dalmatia and Herzegovina – retain a Slavic name could indicate that they may have also been used in Dalmatia and Herzegovina before the migration took place. However, given the occurrence of several South-Italian plant names and uses, also a remarkable acculturation process affected the Slavic community of Montemitro during these last centuries. Future directions of research should try to simultaneously compare current ethnobotanical knowledge of both migrated communities and their counterparts in the areas of origin. PMID:22672636

2012-01-01

147

Teaching the Japanese Copula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional approach in teaching the Japanese copula is shown to be linguistically and pedagogically defective. An alternative analysis of -da and -desu and a practical method of presenting them is demonstrated. (HP)

Mills, David O.

1977-01-01

148

Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

149

Global herbal medicine: a critique.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

2003-04-01

150

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

151

Herbal Supplements and Anesthesia  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... including all vitamins, herbal supplements and other alternative substances. These products can interfere with anesthesia and potentially ... complications during surgery. Be sure to bring all substances with you, prescription or over-the-counter, when ...

152

An herbal medicine orengedokuto prevents indomethacin-induced enteropathy.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key regulator of gastrointestinal, immunological, and mucosal homeostasis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the prostaglandin-producing enzyme cyclooxygenases (COXs), and can induce serious complications, such as gastrointestinal damage, with long-term treatment. Orengedokuto (OGT), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), is effective in various animal models of enteropathy. In the present study we examined whether OGT prevents enteropathy induced by NSAIDs in mice. Ulceration in the small intestine was induced with 2 subcutaneous injections of indomethacin (20 mg/kg body weight). Orally administered OGT prevented or reduced lethality, intestinal lesions, bleeding, increased serum nitrate/nitrite levels, and reduction of mucosal PGE2 induced by indomethacin. These beneficial effects of OGT were accompanied by increased production of PGE2 and interleukin 10 by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells; COX-2 in these cells may be a major source of PGE2 in normal intestines. These findings suggest that OGT could be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and adverse reactions to NSAIDs. PMID:17329845

Miura, Naoko; Fukutake, Masato; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Ishimatsu, Makoto; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ishige, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kase, Yoshio; Takeda, Shuichi

2007-03-01

153

Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

2010-01-01

154

Effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines on the pharmacokinetics of western drugs in Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (II): Aminophylline-huan shao tan and aminophylline-pu chung yi chi tang.  

PubMed

The effect of Chinese herbal medicines (Huan Shao Tan and Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang) and western drugs (sodium phenobarbital and cimetidine) on the serum concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline and cytochrome P-450 of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of three different ages were examined. The older rats without pretreatment with Chinese herbal medicines and western drugs exhibited higher serum theophylline concentration and lower pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline than middle-aged and younger rats (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in cytochrome P-450 activity among the three different ages of rats. All rats when pretreated with sodium phenobarbital showed lower serum theophylline concentration and higher pharmacokinetics parameters of theophylline. Also, the activity of cytochrome P-450 was higher (P < 0.05). When cimetidine was pre-administered in SD rats of three age groups, all rats exhibited lower serum theophylline concentration and higher pharmacokinetics parameters (P < 0.05), but the activity of cytochrome P-450 remained unchanged (P > 0.05). The results were opposite to other studies, probably because the dose and dosing intervals were different. No single effect occurred on the younger and middle-aged rats after pretreatment with Huan Shao Tan and Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang: their serum theophylline concentration, pharmacokinetics parameters and cytochrome P-450 activity were the same as the control group. However, the older rats after pretreatment with Huan Shao Tan or Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang showed lower serum theophylline concentration and higher pharmacokinetics parameters than the younger and middle-aged rats pretreated with similar Chinese herbal medicines. This indicates that Huan Shao Tan and Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang may perhaps improve the elimination of theophylline in older rats. This might be attributed to the increase in hepatic blood flow or in liver volume, since the activity of cytochrome P-450 was not affected by the administration of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:1340518

Lin, S Y; Hou, S J; Perng, R I; Chen, S M; Young, T K

1992-01-01

155

Chemical constituents and DNA sequence analysis of a psychotropic herbal product  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the distribution of a variety of psychotropic products, especially “spice” and “herbal blends,” which are\\u000a advertised to have narcotic-like effects, has become more widespread in the Japanese illegal drug market. We recently found\\u000a two synthetic annabinoids, cannabicyclohexanol and JWH-018, that serve as adulterants in herbal products purchased via the\\u000a Internet. In this study, we focused on a

Hiroyuki Kikuchi; Nahoko Uchiyama; Jun Ogata; Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri; Yukihiro Goda

2010-01-01

156

Sampath Kumar et.al Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology HERBAL MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Herbal medicines have become popular for healthcare. The consumption of such formulations and botanicals has increased in recent years. Herbal products are defined as herbal medicines that are administered to patients and are mixtures of herbal substances. In the preparation of herbal formulation various parts of plants are used such as roots, bark, stem, seeds, fruit, leaves etc. The various parts of the plants contain different constituents which have different pharmacological effects. Recently, the traditional use of plants for wound healing has received attention by the scientific community. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines in use are for the treatment of wounds and skin disorders, compared to only 1-3 % of modern drugs. Medicinal plants are coming into prominence because of the conventional medicine such as antibiotics which have developed resistance to many of the infection organisms which no longer responsive to conventional medicines. Herbal preparation can be more effective and safer than conventional medicines.

Ismail Shaik; K. P. Samapth Kumar

157

Old herbal remedies and modern combination therapy.  

PubMed

The use of herbs as cures for human ailments is as old as modern man, but has now been replaced by synthetic drugs. However, the mixture of bioactive substances found in many traditional herbal remedies has similarities with modern combination therapies, like those developed by Sir John Crofton in Edinburgh for the treatment of tuberculosis. It is suggested that, in the development of these therapies, it might be possible to learn from the drug 'cocktails' found in plants. PMID:21873725

Butler, A; Keating, R

2011-08-01

158

Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

2012-01-01

159

Herbal Product Education in United States Pharmacy Schools: Core or Elective Program?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined extent of use and knowledge of herbal drugs by pharmacy students through a print survey completed by a convenience sample of culturally diverse students. Found a low knowledge level about popular herbal products; individual scores were affected by ethnicity, work experience, family tradition, and sources of information. Concluded that…

Mackowiak, Elaine D.; Parikh, Ami; Freely, Joshua

2001-01-01

160

Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

Amirghofran, Zahra

2012-06-01

161

Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2011-01-01

162

A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.  

PubMed

Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

2014-11-15

163

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

164

Herbal Medicine Use in Parturients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative medicine use has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recently a 22% incidence of herbal medicine use in presurgical patients was reported. Of concern is the potential for these medications to cause adverse drug-herb interactions or other effects such as bleeding complications. We sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of herbal remedies in par- turients. A

David L. Hepner; Miriam Harnett; Scott Segal; William Camann; Angela M. Bader; Lawrence C. Tsen

2002-01-01

165

[Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology. PMID:23754610

Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

2014-11-01

166

Japanese Internment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will examine the decision to place all Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast into internment camps during WWII. This lesson is part of a mini-unit on Japanese Internment that will include readings in primary source documents and materials from History Alive that will provide most of the background knowledge necessary to evaluate the decision to intern Japanese-Americans during the war and the effects of internment on this group during the post-war period. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Lindskog, Tom

2011-09-14

167

Alternative and Herbal Livestock Health Sourcebook  

E-print Network

care for livestock. Especially interesting is the chapter entitled "Western Herbal Medicine of the plants used in herbal medicines. The chapter is the best single source of information we could find about the use of herbal medicines for livestock. Most information about the use of herbal medicines is written

Alpay, S. Pamir

168

Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

2013-01-01

169

Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433

Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh

2009-10-01

170

Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review  

PubMed Central

This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

2013-01-01

171

A Brief History of Modern Japanese Theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

West, the Japanese theatre underwent a series of transformations. The cultural, economic, and political changes in the nation fundamentally altered the traditional theatres of nö, kyögen, kabuki, and bunraku and challenged Japanese conceptions of the theatre. As J. Thomas Rimer argues, two conflicting ideas of how to modernize the theatre evolved in the face of the modernization of the rest

Kevin J. Wetmore Jr

2006-01-01

172

Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the

Nadhem Mtimet; Kenichi Kashiwagi; Lokman Zaibet; N. Masakazu

2008-01-01

173

Portuguese Ships on Japanese Namban Screens  

E-print Network

scenes of the first European activities in Japan. Among the subjects depicted on Namban screens, some of the most intriguing are ships: the European ships of the Age of Discovery. Namban screens were created by skillful Japanese traditional painters who...

Yamafune, Kotaro

2012-10-19

174

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder.  

PubMed

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as "tailor-made medicine" and has properties similar to "mind and body" or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients' lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans.There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

Ushiroyama, Takahisa

2013-01-01

175

The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder  

PubMed Central

A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “tailor-made medicine” and has properties similar to “mind and body” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans. There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms. PMID:24148283

2013-01-01

176

[Discussion on implications and research ideas of toxic theory in natural characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine].  

PubMed

The meaning of "poisonous" in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is different from that of modern medicine. Narrow meaning of "poisonous" in TCM refers to harmful reaction to human body. Otherwise, generalized meaning of "poisonous" has two main implications: general title of drug and eccentric nature for drug. To fully reveal the scientific content of Chinese herbal toxic theory, we should carry out our research on the relationship between Chinese herbal toxicity and body state under the guidance of TCM theory. Moreover, comprehensive study on toxic information is also necessary for clarifying the natural characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:19459317

Wu, Jiarui; Zhang, Bing; Chang, Zhangfu

2009-02-01

177

Drug interactions with herbal medicines.  

PubMed

In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

2012-02-01

178

Xiao Jin Wan, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, inhibits proliferation via arresting cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase and promoting apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial?dependent pathway in U-2OS human osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Xiao Jin Wan (XJW) is a well-known traditional Chinese folk-medicine, which is commonly used for the treatment of various types of diseases including cancers. However, the mechanism of the anticancer activity of XJW against U-2OS human osteosarcoma cells, have not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the cellular effects of the XJW on the U-2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. Our results showed that XJW induced cell morphological changes, reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner and arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle suggesting that XJW inhibited the proliferation of U-2OS cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining exhibited the typical nuclear features of apoptosis and increased the proportion of apoptotic Annexin V-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. In addition, XJW treatment caused loss of plasma membrane asymmetry, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and increase of the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bax to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Taken together, the results indicate that the U-2OS cell growth inhibitory activity of XJW was due to cell cycle arrested and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, which may partly explain the anticancer activity of Xiao Jin Wan. PMID:23354363

Wu, Guangwen; Chu, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhengrong; Ye, Jinxia; Chen, Panyu; Zheng, Chunsong; Li, Xihai; Liu, Xianxiang; Wu, Mingxia

2013-03-01

179

Determination of In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects, Antioxidant Activities and Phenol Contents of Some Herbal Teas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied\\u000a for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an\\u000a in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol

Aynur Büyükbalci; Sedef Nehir El

2008-01-01

180

Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

2014-01-01

181

Roger Williams Park, Japanese Garden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built in 1935-1936 by the Works Progress Administration in the 430 acre park designed by Horace Cleveland in 1878. The park itself is laid out in the romantic landscape tradition of Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) and complements the asymmetry of the Japanese garden with its japonaise bridge and waterscape.

Chet Smolski

2011-01-01

182

Japanese Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did the Japanese achieve their unrivalled position in world banking? This book provides the first full account in English of the banking industry in Japan for the century following the opening of the country to the outside world in 1859. Professor Tamaki begins by considering the period of experimentation during the Meiji Restoration which resulted in the adoption of

Norio Tamaki

183

Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional

Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

2012-01-01

184

Kampo medicine, based on traditional medicine theory, in treating uncured glossodynia: efficacy in five clinical cases.  

PubMed

Glossodynia, or tongue pain, is resistant to conventional therapies. Kampo medicines were evaluated in patients suffering from incurable glossodynia. Patients were diagnosed by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory in order to determine the appropriate herbal prescriptions. Five Japanese females (50-76 years old) with glossodynia refractory to conventional therapy were enrolled in this study. Small portions of rikkunshito, jiinkokato, hachimijiogan and ryutanshakanto worked for a female diagnosed with "Spleen" and "Heart" Yin deficiency, "Kidney" Yang deficiency and "Liver" Qi stagnation producing heat syndrome. Seishoekkito and bakumondoto were effective for a patient diagnosed with "Spleen Qi" deficiency and "Stomach" Yin deficiency producing heat syndrome. Rikkunshito, kamikihito and chikujountanto worked for a patient diagnosed with "Spleen Qi" and "Heart Yin" deficiency, stagnation of "Liver" Qi producing fire and "Gallbladder" Qi deficiency. Rokumijiogan, kamishoyosan and kambakutaisoto were effective for a patient with Yang rise based on Yin deficiency of "Kidney" and "Liver," and restless organ disorder based on Yin deficiency of 5 viscera. A patient diagnosed with "Spleen" Yang deficiency responded to a combination of anchusan and hangeshashinto. These patients with glossodynia had resolution of pain within 1 month of treatment. Herbal mixtures containing Ganoderam lucidum, not prescribed based on TCM theory, but effective for herpes virus infection, worked for a female suffering from glossodynia for 1 year after artificial teeth were placed, but required about 5 months to note improvement. Kampo medicines, properly prescribed based on TCM theory, quickly resolved the pain of refractory glossodynia. PMID:19051351

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Makiura, Noriko; Kano, Takashi; Higasa, Kumi; Shimizu, Masahiko; Kawata, Kayoko; Mine, Takashi

2008-01-01

185

Herbal Toothpowder Induced Erythema Multiforme  

PubMed Central

Herbal toothpowders are available in market in a wide varieties, which consist of various ingredients. In rural areas of the developing countries, they are still used for cleansing teeth. Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous disorder that is believed to be a sequel of a cytotoxic immunologic attack on keratinocytes which express non-self-antigens. A 31-year-old male who used herbal toothpowder for oral-hygiene maintenance presented with ulcers in mouth, encrustation on lips and target lesions on both hands, suggesting Erythema multiforme. An oral biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report of an association of herbal extracts and EM in the English literature. With this report, we present a rare new triggering factor of Erythema mutiforme, thus adding it to the endless list of aetiologies. PMID:24783158

Satpute, Pranali; Yadav, Lalita; Ahmed, Riyaz; Kashid, Avinash; Peter, Kalpak

2014-01-01

186

Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

2008-01-01

187

Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: a co-ordinated approach.  

PubMed

The submission of data on genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorisation respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) with well established or traditional use in some countries. In European regulatory guidelines prepared by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) of the European drug regulatory agency EMA, a test strategy is defined giving a pragmatic framework adapted to the assessment of the potential genotoxicity of HMPs. It describes a stepwise approach, including the possibility to reduce the number of extracts of a herbal drug to be tested by the use of a bracketing and matrixing approach. According to this strategy, Kooperation Phytopharmaka, a scientific society in the field of HMPs, has so far coordinated the conduction of genotoxicity tests for 30 herbal drugs within the frame of a joint project of several manufacturers of HMPs. Results are delivered to the cooperation partners for use in regulatory applications. PMID:22301069

Kelber, Olaf; Steinhoff, Barbara; Kraft, Karin

2012-03-15

188

Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products  

PubMed Central

Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

2013-01-01

189

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS  

PubMed Central

To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). PMID:23326295

Zou, Wen; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongjuan; Liao, Xing

2012-01-01

190

[Lichenoid sarcoidosis on skin tattoos produced by traditional herbal treatments].  

PubMed

An unusual case of generalised sarcoidosis of the skin on tattoo marks done two years for "medicinal" purposes on a 56 year old woman is presented. The lesions were lichenoid and scaly in appearance with closely grouped papules. The old tattoo marks on the skin were not involved and areas of skin between the new tattoo marks were also spared. In addition, the sarcoidosis lesion were pruritic and burning. The circumstantial evidence indicated the medical agent applied on the tattoo wounds as the provocative factor for the development of sarcoidosis of the skin. PMID:7026927

Soyinka, F; Badejo, O; Laja, A O

1981-01-01

191

Banha-sasim-tang as an herbal formula for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized by a high prevalence rate and no standard conventional treatments. Alternative therapies, such as herbal formulas, are widely used to treat FD. However, there are inadequate evidences regarding the safety and efficacy of these formulas. Moreover, the mechanisms by which herbal formulas act in the gastrointestinal tract are controversial. In traditional Korean medicine, Banha-sasim-tang

Jae-Woo Park; Bongha Ryu; Inkwon Yeo; Ui-Min Jerng; Gajin Han; Sunghwan Oh; Jinsoo Lee; Jinsung Kim

2010-01-01

192

The effect of Shoseiryuto, a traditional Japanese medicine, on cytochrome P450s, N -acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase, in extensive or intermediate metabolizers of CYP2D6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Shoseiryuto (TJ-19) contains eight herbal components, including Ephedra sinica, and has been used for treating asthma and allergic rhinitis in Asian countries for several centuries. In this study, we\\u000a investigated the potential herb–drug interaction of TJ-19 in healthy volunteers and attempted to ascertain whether or not\\u000a the interaction might be affected by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We assessed

Masashi Nakao; Yousuke Muramoto; Motoko Hisadome; Naoko Yamano; Mami Shoji; Yumi Fukushima; Junji Saruwatari; Kazuko Nakagawa

2007-01-01

193

The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382

Routledge, Philip A

2008-01-01

194

Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

2012-01-01

195

Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25104437

2014-01-01

196

The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

2012-01-01

197

Transmediating a Japanese Garden through Spatial Sound Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous artists, architects and designers whose encounters with traditional Japanese garden aesthetics have produced creative works. The author examines John Cage's Ryoanji, a musical translation of the famous karesansui garden in Kyoto, as an important musical precedent and uses it to position his own methodologies for transmediating the spatial predilections of the Japanese garden Sesshutei. He also

Michael Fowler

2011-01-01

198

Normalizing Social Networking in a Beginners' Japanese Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the spread of the Internet, students now have greater opportunities to use Japanese outside of the classroom. For example, they can interact with other Japanese speakers through instant messaging or social networking, or utilize online dictionaries and translation tools to decipher websites in ways that would be impossible with traditional

Morofushi, Mari; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah Ellen

2014-01-01

199

Learning system for human motion characters of traditional arts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful learning system for human motion characters of traditional arts, such as Mai (Japanese classic dance), Kabuki (one of Japan's traditional stage arts), etc., is being developed. In such arts an effective system to pass the tradition down from a top artist to next generations is required. Video contents are generally used to pass the human motions in traditional

Yoshinori Maekawa; Takuya Oda; Taku Komura; Yoshihisa Shinagawa

2006-01-01

200

Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

2012-01-01

201

Traditional Medicine ProgrammeACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  

E-print Network

Although modern medicine is well developed in most of the world, large sections of the population in developing countries still rely on the traditional practitioners, medicinal plants and herbal medicines for their primary care. Moreover during the past decades, public interest in natural therapies has increased greatly in industrialized countries, with expanding use of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. The many and various forms of traditional medicinal products have evolved against widely different ethnological, cultural, climatic, geographical, and even philosophical backgrounds. The evaluation of these products and ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation present important challenges. The purpose of this document is to share national experiences in formulating policies on traditional medicinal products and in introducing measures for their registration and regulation, and to facilitate information exchange on these subjects among Member States. The document, at present, only covers 52 countries, but after a few years it will be updated and expanded in the light of experience. Further contributions from governments, institutions, and others would be greatly appreciated.

Dr Xiaorui Zhang

202

Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

2001-01-01

203

Herbal medicine takes root in Germany  

PubMed Central

The sale of Herbal Medicine is a growth industry in Germany, where physicians routinely prescribe these products and annual sales have surpassed $ 2 billion. Pam Harrison says the rising popularity has been driven by German patients, who began demanding herbal alternatives to synthetic drugs. Medical schools responded by reintroducing lessons on a topic that had been phased out of the medical curriculum. PMID:9526483

Harrison, P

1998-01-01

204

Nudity in Japanese visual media: a cross-cultural observation.  

PubMed

The depiction of nude human beings in Japanese print, film, and electronic media is reported. Modern practices are then related to traditional Japanese culture. The various contexts in which nudes are regularly presented are described and various types of nude presentations are classified. It is suggested that the nude body evokes different responses in Japanese culture and is not always intended to convey sexual or erotic meanings. Sentiment, particularly that evoked by the family and motherhood, and nonsexual humor, are other responses that nudity is intended to elicit. The Japanese situation is compared to presentation of nudity in the United States. PMID:2082862

Downs, J F

1990-12-01

205

The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

206

Bullying in Japanese Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

Kobayashi, Futoshi

207

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

208

The Japanese Saving Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite much work, economists have not been able to quantitatively account for the differences in the Japanese and U.S. saving rates after World War II. In this paper, we show that the use of actual Japanese total factor productivity growth rates in a standard growth model generates saving rates that are reasonably similar to the Japanese data between 1956 and

Kaiji Chen; Ay?e ?mrohoro?lu; Selahattin ?mrohoro?lu

2006-01-01

209

Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use. PMID:7890220

Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S

1995-01-01

210

An Inquiry into Japanese Landscape Garden Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal European gardens tend to be rigid and symmetrical. In contrast to this, oriental gardens are very subtle, refined, and attuned to natural surroundings. The Japanese gardener strives for a harmonious relationship between nature and man, a concept with roots in Taoism, Shinto, and Buddhism. Seven basic principles are traditionally incorporated into the garden: symmetry (fukinsei), simplicity (kanso), austerity (koko),

Karen S. Jore

1978-01-01

211

Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (A?)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

2010-01-01

212

HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

213

Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Power Outages ?? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ... ??????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Nuclear Scans Bone Scan ????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...

214

Evaluation of mercury contamination in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations.  

PubMed

The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented phase 3 registration of traditional medicines in January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety of all dosage forms of these medicines. For this reason, a total of 100 herbal products containing Smilax myosotiflora were purchased in the Malaysian market and analyzed for mercury content, as mercury is a recognized reproductive toxicant. The products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that 89% of the above products do not exceed 0.5 ppm of mercury. Heavy metal poisoning such as mercury has been associated with traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important that doctors and health care practitioners are aware of these risks and finding ways to minimize them, including questions pertaining to the use of these remedies during the routine taking of a patient's history. PMID:17963130

Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng

2007-01-01

215

Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

2014-01-01

216

Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.  

PubMed

We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

2012-06-01

217

Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Ephedrine is the main active ingredient of herbal ephedra, also known as ma huang. The FDA does ... the sale of medicines that contain ephedrine or ephedra. Ephedra can cause serious side effects, including strokes ...

218

Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

2014-01-01

219

Perioperative Use of Herbal, Complementary, and Over the Counter Medicines in Plastic Surgery Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established. PMID:21625528

Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

2011-01-01

220

TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

2014-01-01

221

Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.  

PubMed

Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available. PMID:8978213

Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

1997-01-01

222

The Virtual Museum of Japanese Arts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of traditional Japanese treasures and culture was produced for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and is a virtual museum that includes physical objects and other more intangible items of cultural patrimony, such as fighting styles and performance art. Visitors can scroll over any of the seven "galleries" to read a description of what types of work are contained within. The "Fine Arts" gallery is defined as those visual arts primarily concerned with the creation of beauty, such as architecture and gardens, painting, sculpture, and Ukiyoe. Upon choosing a section of the gallery, visitors can click on it, see examples of the art form, and read about the history of these traditions. The "Cafe" gallery is particularly interesting, and it is described as a "'refreshment space'...to enjoy learning more about the Japanese culture and traditions from many exotic perspectives." The Virtual Museum Theatre allows visitors to watch "Movies of Japanese Festivals" and "Movies of Japanese Martial Arts". An exhibit of Wagashi representing all seasons of the year, and celebrations, is worth a look and can also be found in the "Cafe" gallery. [KMG

223

Learning from Saihô-ji: sustaining a garden tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to explore the principles that sustain the Japanese garden tradition and to better understand how this tradition has been transported outside of its homeland to other cultures and bio-climatic regions. It seeks, as well, an understanding of how the integrity of this tradition has been maintained within the modern design idiom. To do so, an initial

Peter Jacobs

2004-01-01

224

Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

Anzai, Shinobu

2009-01-01

225

Traditional media.  

PubMed

Traditional folk media (such as folk theater, dance and textile arts) offer health program managers a potentially powerful method of reaching rural villagers. While modern mass media (such as radio, television, printed matter) may extend messages to larger audiences at lower cost per person reached, their dependence on centralized, urban facilities and staff and their need for uniform, fixed messages often make them less responsive to local situations and specific audience needs. Traditional media use local language and symbols in a format which is familiar, credible and accessible to rural villagers. To be truly appropriate, traditional media (like other technologies) must be adapted to the overall approach, message, and intended audience with which they are used. Integration with modern media may be successful but must be approached cautiously. Evaluation is critical both for adjusting the specific project and for better assessment of the net effectiveness of folk media communication strategies. With appropriate matching of a strategy's central components and thorough consideration of implemenatation and management issues (integration, training, evaluation, funding), traditional fold media can become an extremely effective means of communicating health information. This issue outlines the guidelines for use of traditional media in health communication activities, with special emphasis on live drama puppetry, song and dance, storytelling and proverbs, and pictures, PMID:12268713

1987-01-01

226

Three patients with lead poisoning following use of a Chinese herbal pill  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the Editor—It was certainly not a surprise to us that trad- itional Chinese medication gave rise to the complication de- scribed in the paper by Auyeung et al. 1 In Hong Kong, the public often assume that these 'non-western' remedies are safe because they are termed 'traditional' and 'herbal', and are plant-derived products, but as many researchers have revealed,

KO Sun

227

Japanese Quality Control Circles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

Nishiyama, Kazuo

228

Japanese Media in English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

1995-01-01

229

The Japanese American Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

Fukei, Budd

230

THE JAPANESE ADVERTISING FAMILY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the representation of the family in Japanese TV commercials. Based on empirical research conducted in 2004 and 2005, it argues that Japanese commercials tend to depict the family and its members in highly stereotypical ways. Mothers are almost always shown doing some kind of house- work, at times supported by their daughters, preparing for their future

Michael Prieler

231

Japanese Economy Rallies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Tuesday, March 20, 2001, Tokyo share prices rallied due to rumors that the Bank of Japan may try to boost the economy by buying stocks. By Wednesday morning, the Nikkei 225 index surged 7.5 percent after the Japanese yen had hit a 22-month low of 123.5 yen per dollar earlier this week. The national banks have been saddled with massive debts, estimated at 64 trillion yen or $521 billion and have been researching ways to revive their economy. According to Japanese economic ministers, the Japanese government will have a plan for dealing with the national banks' debt within the next six months. The Japanese government's new plan of investing into its banking system worries some US government officials who fear that the falling price of the yen will make Japanese imports cheaper and, therefore, more competitive with products made in the US.

Missner, Emily D.

232

Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

2013-01-01

233

MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

234

A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schroder, Sven

2013-01-01

235

Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal medicine has developed new therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on its unique theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this review, 21 traditional Chinese herbs were introduced for their potential benefit in the treatment of NAFLD. Majority of them are evaluated by experimental studies and few by multicenter clinical trials. Herbal monomers as berberine and resveratrol, extracts from Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi, and Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb., and formulae including Yinchenhao Decoction (, YCHD), Qushi Huayu Decoction (, QSHYD), and Danning Tablet () were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Most of these herbal medicines were proved to improve biochemical and histological changes of NAFLD both in vitro and in vivo. Also, their therapeutic activities were associated with inhibiting lipid accumulation through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation or upregulating low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression, alleviating lipid peroxidation, and reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Although the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines needed to be evaluated in multicenter large-scale clinical trials, Chinese medicine is promising and effective for preventing and treating NAFLD disease. PMID:22311412

Dong, Hui; Lu, Fu-Er; Zhao, Li

2012-02-01

236

Therapeutics of Herbal & Other Natural Medicinals Phar 5270 (2 Credits)  

E-print Network

Therapeutics of Herbal & Other Natural Medicinals Phar 5270 (2 Credits) Fall 2013 Course Syllabus as well as required readings assigned by the instructors. The following are references in herbal medicine. (1997). Weiss, R.F. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers (1988). Newall, C. and L. Anderson and J

Thomas, David D.

237

Use of Herbal Supplements for Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ? 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

2013-01-01

238

Herbal remedies: drug-herb interactions.  

PubMed

Controlled clinical studies are needed to clarify and determine the clinical importance of drug-herb interactions. However, it is unlikely that this information will be forthcoming except as anecdotal reports. Patients taking drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (cyclosporine, digoxin, hypoglycemic agents, lithium, phenytoin, procainamide, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, and warfarin) should be discouraged from using herbal products. All drugs with a narrow therapeutic index may either have increased adverse effects or be less effective when used in conjunction with herbal products. More research is required to define the interactions. When adverse reactions are experienced with drug therapy, patients must always be queried as to their intake of herbal products: what they are taking in pills and tincture form, what they are drinking as teas, and what they are eating from their garden. PMID:11961942

Kuhn, Merrily A

2002-04-01

239

Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

240

Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

241

Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation.  

PubMed

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations. PMID:19842218

Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

2009-10-21

242

Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid.  

PubMed

Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism-which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

2010-12-01

243

Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine, a Re-emerging Health Aid  

PubMed Central

Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism—which originally came from Greece and Rome to Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab medicine (particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques. PMID:18955344

Cooper, Edwin; Said, Omar

2010-01-01

244

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

2011-01-01

245

Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of medicinal plants, traditionally used for thousands of years, are present in a group of herbal preparations of the Indian traditional health care system (Ayurveda) named Rasayana proposed for their interesting antioxidant activities. Among the medicinal plants used in ayurvedic Rasayana for their therapeutic action, some of these have been throughly investigated. In the present paper seven plants

Paolo Scartezzini; Ester Speroni

2000-01-01

246

The Influence of Cultural Adaptation on Hispanic-Americans and Japanese-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of cultureon the values of Japanese-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. TheJapanese-American sample and Hispanic-American sample are firstlooked at individually to determine which values are more alignedwith the modern culture (American), and which values are morealigned with the traditional culture (Japanese or Hispanic). These two samples are then compared with each other to

Paul a. Fadil

1997-01-01

247

Expressive Phonemes in Japanese  

E-print Network

It was theorized that phonemes and meaning may be related in a manner that is not arbitrary. Japanese reduplicative onomatopoeia and metaphoric onomatopoeia were used for an investigation of the functioning of the phoneme ...

Bruch, Julie

1986-01-01

248

Super Hero, Japanese Style  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Super Sentai is a long-running Japanese TV series about regular humans who destroy bad guys using nothing but their color-coded uniforms, excellent martial arts skills and, you know, totally advanced weapons and gigantic...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-02

249

Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

Jenkins, Andrew P.

250

Herbal healing in pregnancy: women's experiences.  

PubMed

Many women use home remedies to maintain their health during pregnancy. Here, pregnant women's perspectives on herbal medicine are exposed in a small (n = 27) non-random sample of pregnant women in British Columbia, Canada, and follow-up interviews with six mentors from the community. While many of the women were cautious about using herbs during pregnancy, they considered them to be safer-as a general rule-than pharmaceutical drugs. Herbal tonics were widely used, and simple home remedies were usually the first line of defence against common health complaints. In choosing to self-medicate with herbs, the women said they were guided by prior knowledge (32%), trusted sources of advice (56%), and intuition (12%). A reliance on prior knowledge was not strongly correlated with the woman's age (r = -0.27) or the number of pregnancies she had experienced (r = 0.21). Trusted sources of advice included books, friends, family members, maternity care providers, herbalists, herb shops, and internet. The majority of herbal advice (69%) was received by word-of-mouth. The women's mentors were an important source of herbal self-care information. PMID:15277118

Westfall, Rachel Emma

2003-01-01

251

Online sources of herbal product information.  

PubMed

Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

2014-02-01

252

A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

Moore, Susan A.

2003-01-01

253

Evidence-based drug–herbal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the growing use of herbals and other dietary supplements healthcare providers and consumers need to know whether problems might arise from using these preparations in combination with conventional drugs. However, the evidence of interactions between natural products and drugs is based on known or suspected pharmacologic activity, data derived from in vitro or animal studies, or isolated case

Mary L. Chavez; Melanie A. Jordan; Pedro I. Chavez

2006-01-01

254

Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

Mills, Melinda B.

1994-01-01

255

X-ray powder diffractometry and liquid chromatography studies of sibutramine and its analogues content in herbal dietary supplements.  

PubMed

The contemporary societies of the developed countries are prone to use traditional far-east medicines as remedies for all diseases. Some of them, such as obesity, might be classified as civilization diseases. Combating the problem, people try not only several miraculous diets but also herbal infusions (teas) and variety of "herbal" preparations. All these believing that such treatment is healthy and harmless as far as it is "natural". Leaving out of the way the question if herbal medicines can be taken safely without doctors' control the query arises if the common preparations are strictly natural and herbal. Here we report examples of quality studies of such medicines using both X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and liquid chromatography (LC) with various types of detection: ultraviolet (UV), coulometric electrode array (CEAD) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Especially the XRPD assisted with an optical microscopy seems to be useful as a fast screening method of general sample composition of such preparations. First of all it can discriminate between capsules containing pure herbal materials and those with some chemical. PMID:21899974

Stypu?kowska, K; B?a?ewicz, A; Maurin, J; Sarna, K; Fija?ek, Z

2011-12-15

256

Japanese resource dependence  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is an examination of Japan's strategic resource dependence and her reliance of the three raw materials-rich regions of Southeast Asia (ASEAN), the Persian Gulf, and Southern Africa. A discussion of the Japanese formula for securing resources in the less developed countries of the 'South' is included along with a brief overview of her onshore resource utilization in business/industry. The roles of direct foreign investment, official development assistance, energy conservation, and Japanese multinationalization are discussed.

Sim, R.W.

1982-03-01

257

Physical Settings and Materials Recommended for Play Therapy with Japanese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room style), reading…

Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

2008-01-01

258

Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German colonial sovereignty in the Marshall Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls, depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This

Dirk H. R. Spennemann

1998-01-01

259

Jon M. Brokering - Ninagawa Yukio's Intercultural Hamlet: Parsing Japanese Iconography - Asian Theatre Journal 24:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts of Ninagawa Yukio to draw upon traditional Japanese theatrical techniques in the staging of Western classics arose from his desire to break from the mimetic, Western style of staging plays and to revitalize aspects of classical Japanese theater that had fallen out of use in modern \\

Jon M. Brokering

2007-01-01

260

The MBA and Japanese Language: Toward Proficiency-Oriented Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that Master's in Business Administration (MBA) degree programs integrate Japanese language instruction in order to train business people to be sensitive to cultural differences and capable of operating effectively and comfortably in Japanese environments. The discussion begins by presenting some issues concerning traditional MBA…

Saito, Yoshiko

261

Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern  

PubMed Central

Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

2014-01-01

262

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology  

PubMed Central

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053

Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

2005-01-01

263

Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in Japanese Brazilians than in Japanese and levels similar to or higher than in non-Japanese Brazilians. Our findings may help explain the increase in the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer among Japanese Brazilians. PMID:21324183

2011-01-01

264

Mutual harmony and temporal continuity: a perspective from the Japanese garden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional style of Japanese gardens, which has been elaborated over centuries, can be an inspiration for a highly refined style of human-computer interaction (HCI). It offers an example of an \\

HIROHIKO MORI

1993-01-01

265

Revealing the secrets of composite helmets of ancient Japanese tradition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present novel results from a non-invasive examination of two kabuto (helmets), made in Japan in the 17th century. Neutron-imaging experiments (radiography and tomography), carried out at the ICON and NEUTRA beamlines, operating at the neutron source SINQ (CH), have allowed to determine the inner metal structure and manufacturing techniques of these beautiful examples of past technology, revealing some otherwise invisible details.

Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Fedrigo, A.; Williams, A.; Civita, F.; Scherillo, A.; Vontobel, P.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Zoppi, M.

2013-08-01

266

A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

Carlson, Scott

2008-01-01

267

NATIONAl CHARACTER STUDIES OF JAPANESE  

E-print Network

In this paper, I suggest that the national character studies of Japanese have largely been focused on cultural explanations. Thus, they share the weaknesses attributed to this approach. After a review of the literature on Japanese national character...

Kato, Ryoko

1988-01-01

268

Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Japanese knotweed  

E-print Network

-seed- ed, shiny, dark brown to black, three-sided fruit. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc Japanese;Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Japanese knotweed continued Similar weeds Giant knotweed (P. sachalinense F. W

269

New Frontiers for Japanese Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

Tucker, Frank H.

1974-01-01

270

Herbal tea identification using mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Herbal teas and other herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular, and it is essential to ensure their quality. Quality control methods that are simple, fast, and of low cost are needed by the producers and by inspections. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate mathematical methods has been shown to be useful for the identification and characterization of plant samples. In this work, we developed a method for the identification of herbal drugs in different herbal teas. 100 one-component herbal teas were first used to build an identification algorithm, which showed 100?% correct classification. In the next validation step, 13 samples from 7 herbal mixtures were analyzed, confirming high accurate results for classification. The influence of using different number of components in the principal component analysis is also explored. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and discriminant analysis was shown to be highly applicable for quality control procedures. PMID:25098931

Kokalj, Meta; Štih, Karmen; Kreft, Samo

2014-08-01

271

Network-based raditional Japanese Crafting Presentation System Using Agent and Virtual Reality Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a user-friendly three-dimensional CG presentation system for a typical traditional Japanese crafting industry based on agent and virtual reality functions over Japan Gigabit Network (JGN) which is a testbed highspeed backbone network with 2.4Gbps. A large number of traditional Japanese fittings in a local city are redesigned by three-dimensional computer graphics into CAD data and

Akihiro Miyakawa; Masamitsu Sugimoto; Mikako Hosokawa; Yoshitaka Shibata

2002-01-01

272

Japanese Ant Image Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2003 revised edition of the Japanese Ant Image Database was developed under the direction of the Japanese Ant Database Group (JADG). The website, which merges taxonomic information and stunning photographs, will no doubt delight myrmecologists and others. Information about different types of ants can be accessed through browseable, hyperlinked lists organized by subfamily, genus, and species. Genus and species profiles include images, references, descriptive information, simple distribution maps, and more. The site includes a Japanese Ant Image Library with hundreds of quality images, and a smaller SEM Image Library as well. The site also offers sections with Type Specimens and Taxonomic Keys. Please note that the site has not been updated since 2003; there are future plans to revisit the project when updates and corrections become necessary.

273

UCSF Japanese Prints Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at San Francisco has spent thirty years cultivating its collection of Japanese woodblock prints, and it has become an important part of the Library's East Asian Collection. The collection of 400 digitized prints concern Japanese health-related topics from the mid-19th century, and portray the gradual acceptance of Western medicine. Visitors can view the collection by theme or perform a search to find something more specific. The themes include "Contagious Diseases", which focuses on smallpox, measles and cholera, "Foreigners and Disease", which highlights the Japanese belief that foreigners carried diseases to Japan, and "Drug Advertisements". The "Drug Advertisements" are quite possibly the most beautiful drug ads in existence, and they feature elaborate images of drugs slaying disease, kabuki actors promoting a show sponsored by a children's medicine, Kindoru powder, and a detailed rendering of the interior of a drugstore, printed on a fan that was given out as a promotional item to advertise the business.

274

The quest for a herbal contraceptive.  

PubMed

An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support. PMID:8241931

Chaudhury, R R

1993-01-01

275

Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.  

PubMed

Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies. PMID:23293189

Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

2013-01-01

276

Japanese House Kazuko Suzki Carlson  

E-print Network

connections among language, art and culture at regional, national, and international scales. Share1 Japanese House Kazuko Suzki Carlson Mutsumi Corson Natsumi Ueno OVERVIEW This Japanese culture and language residential learning program is designed for students eager to study Japanese culture and

Hayden, Nancy J.

277

A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE

BAILEY, DON C.

278

Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

Koike, Shohei

279

Herbal Supplement Survey We would like to know your opinions about herbal supplements. Please take a few moments to complete this  

E-print Network

Herbal Supplement Survey We would like to know your opinions about herbal supplements. Please take. Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 3. Herbal supplements are safe to use. Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree 4. Herbal supplements can act like Strongly Agree Neutral

280

Japanese VLBI Network  

E-print Network

We present the basic features and the activities of Japanese VLBI network (JVN), a newly-established VLBI network with baselines ranging from 50 to 2560 km spreading across the Japanese islands, and capable of observing at 6.7, 8.4, and 22 GHz. We show a number of results of JVN observations: 8.4-GHz continuum images of a Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source and radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), the spatial and velocity structures of water masers in NML Cygni as well as methanol masers in Cep A, and demonstrative observations with the bigradient phase referencing.

Akihiro Doi; Kenta Fujisawa; Keiichiro Harada; Takumi Nagayama; Kousuke Suematsu; Koichiro Sugiyama; Asao Habe; Mareki Honma; Noriyuki Kawaguchi; Hideyuki Kobayashi; Yasuhiro Koyama; Yasuhiro Murata; Toshihiro Omodaka; Kazuo Sorai; Hiroshi Sudou; Hiroshi Takaba; Kazuhiro Takashima; Ken-ichi Wakamatsu

2006-12-19

281

Effects of 19 herbal extracts on the sensitivity to paclitaxel or 5-fluorouracil in HeLa cells.  

PubMed

The popularity of traditional herbal medicine (THM) being used as complementary medicines or alternative medicines is increasing. On the other hand, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major hurdle to successful cancer chemotherapy. Some THMs capable of reversing MDR may contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes in cancer chemotherapy. Herein, 19 kinds of herb were chosen from the ingredients of major THMs, and their effects on the sensitivity to anticancer drugs of tumor cells were investigated using the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Focusing on the major mechanism for MDR, i.e., MDR1/P-glycoprotein, the effects of herbal extracts on its transport function were also examined using a MDR1 substrate Rhodamine123. Glycyrrhizae Radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Poria, Zizyphi Fructus, Zingiberis Rhizoma (dry), Coptidis Rhizoma, Ephedrae Herba and Asiasari Radix significantly enhanced the sensitivity to a MDR1 substrate paclitaxel, whereas none of the herbal extracts used had any effect on the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, which is not a substrate for MDR1. Rhodamine123 uptake was significantly increased by Rhei Rhizoma, Poria or Ephedrae Herba among nine herbal extracts sensitized to paclitaxel. This suggests that the increase in paclitaxel sensitivity by Glycyrrhizae Radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Poria or Ephedrae Herba was caused, in part, by the inhibition of MDR1 function, and the change in paclitaxel sensitivity by the other herbal extracts was not always dependent on this. Collectively, these findings indicate that the combination of anticancer drugs with some herbal extracts contributes to the enhancement of clinical outcomes in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:15635178

Takara, Kohji; Horibe, Sayo; Obata, Yukihisa; Yoshikawa, Eri; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

2005-01-01

282

History and progress of Japanese acupuncture.  

PubMed

After Chiso brought acupuncture to Japan from Wu (China) in the sixth century, it has progressed in unique ways within the various historical milieus of the past 1500 years. Ishitsu-rei, the first medical law of Japan established in 701, explains the medical system of acupuncture in detail showing that acupuncture was being administered under the authorization of the national government. For the next 1200 years, acupuncture continued to be an important facet of public health in Japan. From the Azuchimomoyama through the Edo period, the knowledge exchange with China became active and people who studied in China developed new styles and techniques of acupuncture treatment and organized their own private schools or ryu-ha in Japan. In 1635, when the Edo government decided to close the country, Japan cut-off exchange with foreign countries for over 200 years. The national isolation caused some development that was unique to Japan. During that time, acupuncture filtered into people's everyday lives. Moxibustion, in particular, became popular as a treatment that ordinary people could practice by themselves. Also in this period of isolation, Western medicine was imported from Holland, the only country allowed to maintain trade with Japan. This novel modern medicine had a strong impact on Japanese medicine, which has its foundation of Chinese traditional medicine. At the same time, Japanese acupuncture was introduced into Europe via Holland. When Japan opened its borders in 1865 period, the new government was eager to accept Western culture to the extent of prohibiting the progress of Japanese acupuncture for a period of time. Even so, Japanese acupuncture has survived and flourished up to the present day due to the strong demand and the great efforts of the practitioners. Scientific studies are now in the process of establishing a firm evidence base for over a millennium of clinical use, respecting the classic ideas of the traditional treatment. PMID:18955321

Kobayashi, Akiko; Uefuji, Miwa; Yasumo, Washiro

2010-09-01

283

Individualist Collectivist Values American, Indian and Japanese Cross Cultural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigates the universality of Schwartz and Bilsky theory pertaining to values types and ascertain whether the value preference of American, Indian and Japanese students adhere to Triandis individualist- collectivist value types. The current study employs Schwartz and Bilsky's 56-value scale to obtain a measure of preference for traditionally individualistic, collectivist and mixed value types

Catherine Konsky; Mariko Eguchi; Janet Blue; Suraj Kapoor

284

Prescription Patterns of Chinese Herbal Products for Osteoporosis in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese herbal products (CHPs), acupuncture, and traumatology manipulative therapies. TCM physicians often prescribe CHP to treat patients with osteoporosis; however, the drugs used and their patterns of prescriptions have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the CHP used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Taiwan and their prescription patterns. Methods. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was analyzed to evaluate the frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for osteoporosis. Association rules were then applied to evaluate the CHP coprescription patterns and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Results. The osteoporosis cohort included 16?544 patients, of whom more than 70% had used TCM on one or more occasion. Of these patients, 4?292 (25.9%) had been hospitalized at least once because of fracture. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion. This study identified patterns of CHP use for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of these CHP. PMID:23093986

Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung

2012-01-01

285

Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

2007-01-01

286

Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-02-21

287

Japanese Foreign Minister Nobutaka  

E-print Network

for a plentiful future supply of clean power as the world moves away from coal, oil and natural gas. Top Japanese China Iter Defense and Foreign Policy FAMU01 Thu, 5 May 2005 04:46:59 GMT © AFP TOP | | | | | | | | | | | | Press Review The Business Connection Front Page Defense and Foreign Policy Politics and Society Style

288

Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

Aoki, Haruo

1972-01-01

289

Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

Ishii, Yasuo

290

Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

Kama, Amit

2011-01-01

291

Infants Delivered in Maternity Homes Run by Traditional Birth Attendants in Urban Nigeria: A Community-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored factors associated with traditional maternity\\/herbal homes (TMHs) run by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) compared with hospital or home delivery in Lagos, Nigeria, and found that infants delivered at TMHs were less likely to have severe hyperbilirubinemia compared with infants delivered in hospitals or residential homes. These infants were also less likely to be preterm compared with those delivered

Bolajoko O. Olusanya; Victor A. Inem; Olayinka A. Abosede

2011-01-01

292

Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

2013-01-01

293

Native American Healing Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

2006-01-01

294

Potential anti-osteoporotic effects of herbal extracts on osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy. PMID:24438322

2014-01-01

295

Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of these species. In addition, cytoxicity assays, to test the anticancer activity of methanolic extracts of Alnus incana and Shepherdia canadensis against mouse mastocytoma cells, were shown to be positive. PMID:8771456

Ritch-Krc, E M; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-07-01

296

Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

2010-01-01

297

The peri-operative implications of herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An increasing number of patients are taking herbal medicines such as echinacea, garlic, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, St John's Wort, valerian, ephedra, kava, grapefruit juice and ginger. Although these herbal medications are considered natural products that may have some benefits, adverse effects such as increased bleeding tendencies and drug interactions are associated with their use. Surgeons and anaesthetists may be

P. J. Hodges; P. C. A. Kam

2002-01-01

298

Commonly used herbal medicines in the United States: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicines are widely used in the United States, with approximately one quarter of adults reporting use of an herb to treat a medical illness within the past year. Herbs contain complicated mixtures of organic chemicals, the levels of which may vary substantially depending upon many factors related to the growth, production, and processing of the herbal product. While many

Stephen Bent; Richard Ko

2004-01-01

299

Contaminations of herbal products determined by NMR fingerprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilisation of NMR fingerprinting is proposed as a rapid, available and reliable method to determine the contamination of herbal products. The presence of nimesulide has been reported recently as the contaminant of P.C. 28 Plus, a product based on herbal drugs marketed by the Italian company Cosval. The presence of the substance, as well as its relevant concentration (5%),

Marcello Nicoletti; Valentina Petitto

2010-01-01

300

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbs have been used as medical treatments since the beginning of civilization and some derivatives (eg, aspirin, reserpine, and digitalis) have become mainstays of hu- man pharmacotherapy. For cardiovascular diseases, herbal treatments have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, ath- erosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency, and arrhythmia. However, many herbal remedies used today have

Nick H. Mashour; George I. Lin; William H. Frishman

1998-01-01

301

Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

2006-01-01

302

Preparation of Herbal Tea as Infusion or by Maceration at Room Temperature Using Mistletoe Tea as an Example  

PubMed Central

Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea. PMID:21617779

Jager, Sebastian; Beffert, Markus; Hoppe, Katharina; Nadberezny, Dominik; Frank, Bruno; Scheffler, Armin

2011-01-01

303

The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.  

PubMed

Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations. PMID:18928138

Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

2007-01-01

304

Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines  

PubMed Central

Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

2014-01-01

305

DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research  

PubMed Central

Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

2006-01-01

306

Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

307

Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.  

PubMed

Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. PMID:23906802

Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

2013-10-25

308

Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

2014-01-01

309

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

310

Comprehensive review on herbal medicine for energy intake suppression.  

PubMed

The obesity drug development is present not a bright and successful story. So far, drugs reported to be effective, either from synthetic or natural sources, mostly stimulated controversy because of serious adverse effects, which ended with stopping clinical trials or even withdrawal from the market. However, obesity and its comorbidities have become rapidly a major problem in both developed and developing countries. This has encouraged pharmaceutical companies and academia to keep on struggling on developing novel effective but safe obesity drugs, and on characterizing novel obesity drug targets. From existing scientific work on obesity drug discovery and commercial slimming preparations, compounds originating from nature, especially from plants, seem to be the first choice. Traditional belief that herbal medicine is safer than synthetic ones is one of the classical arguments, although scientifically this is not always true (e.g. ban on Ephedra). But in general, it has been widely acknowledged that a plant compound, with its unique scaffolds and rich diversity is an unlimited source of novel lead compounds. This paper aims to summarize all works focused on screening plant materials by targeting important pathways related to energy intake regulation, either by in vivo or in vitro experiments. PMID:20659298

Yuliana, N D; Jahangir, M; Korthout, H; Choi, Y H; Kim, H K; Verpoorte, R

2011-07-01

311

The inter-relationship of folk, traditional and western medicine within an Asian community in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based interview study of Asians and a questionnaire study of health professionals were performed to ascertain the role of traditional medicine in the context of health care within the Asian community. Among Asians, knowledge of herbal remedies, the Asian healer and cultural concepts such as the 'hot\\/ cold' theory was high. They frequently used culinary ingredients to treat common

Rajinder Singh Bhopal

1986-01-01

312

Recent advances in analysis of Chinese medical plants and traditional medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined

Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova

2004-01-01

313

MRI in Japanese encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10–60\\u000a days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present\\u000a in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the

S. Kumar; U. K. Misra; J. Kalita; V. Salwani; R. K. Gupta; R. Gujral

1997-01-01

314

Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: application of the "bracketing and matrixing" concept using the example of Valerianae radix (valerian root).  

PubMed

An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus demonstrating the lack of a genotoxic potential. In conclusion the two guidelines on genotoxicity provide a practically applicable concept. Valerianae radix has no genotoxic potential, supporting its use in HMPs and its inclusion in the Community list. PMID:24837473

Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin

2014-01-01

315

Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

Toh, Glenn

2013-01-01

316

Effects of Chinese Herbal Compound "Xuemai Ning"on Rabbit Atherosclerosis Model and Expression of ABCA1  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease. PMID:24170990

Chen, Min

2013-01-01

317

Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821

He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

2010-01-01

318

Relationship Between San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang and its herbal components on the gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years. Most Chinese herbal formulae consist of several herbal components and have been used to treat various diseases. However, the mechanisms of most formulae and the relationship between formulae and their components remain to be elucidated. Here we analyzed the putative mechanism of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT) and defined the relationship between SHXXT and its herbal components by microarray technique. HepG2 cells were treated with SHXXT or its components and the gene expression profiles were analyzed by DNA microarray. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that SHXXT and its components displayed a unique anti-proliferation pattern via p53 signaling, p53 activated, and DNA damage signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. Network analysis showed that most genes were regulated by one molecule, p53. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis showed that Rhizoma Coptis shared a similar gene expression profile with SHXXT. These findings may explain why Rhizoma Coptis is the principle herb that exerts the major effect in the herbal formula, SHXXT. Moreover, this is the first report to reveal the relationship between formulae and their herbal components in TCM by microarray and bioinformatics tools. PMID:18711774

Cheng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Shih-Lu; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Shen, Wei-Shuen; Lee, Chang-Hsien; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Wu, Hsiu-Ching; Ho, Tin-Yun

2008-01-01

319

Herbal remedies: issues in licensing and economic evaluation.  

PubMed

In recent years, the use of alternative therapies has become widespread. In particular, there has been a resurgence in the public's demand for herbal remedies, despite a lack of high-quality evidence to support the use of many of them. Given the increasing pressures to control healthcare spending in most countries, it is not surprising that attention is being focused on the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. We address the question of whether there is sufficient information to enable the assessment of the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. In so doing, we discuss the current state of play with several of the more high-profile alternative herbal remedies [Chinese medicinal herbs for atopic eczema, evening primrose oil, ginkgo biloba, hypericum (St John's wort)] and some which have made the transition from being alternative to being orthodox remedies. We use historical context to discuss, on the one hand, the increasing commodification of herbal remedies and on the other, the trend towards greater regulatory control and licensing of alternative herbal remedies. We argue that unless great care is exercised, these changes are not necessarily in the best interests of patients. In order to identify cost-effective care, we need reliable information about the costs as well as the efficacy and safety of the treatments being assessed. For most alternative therapies, such data are not available. We believe that studies to gather such data are long overdue. Whilst we argue strongly in favour of control of some herbal remedies, we urge caution with the trend towards licensing of all herbal remedies. We argue that the licensing of those herbal remedies with equivocal benefits and few risks, as evidenced by a long history of safe use, increases barriers to entry and increases societal healthcare costs. PMID:10623361

Ashcroft, D M; Po, A L

1999-10-01

320

Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

2012-01-01

321

History and Experience: A Survey of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM. PMID:24624220

Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping

2014-01-01

322

[Biorefinery engineering for Chinese herbal medicines: a review].  

PubMed

The resource limitation, ineffective utilization and severe waste generated during processing restrict the sustainable development of the Chinese herbal medicine industry. The main reasons lie in insufficient utilization of medicinal components as well as few and outdated technologies. Integration and optimization of serial technologies including pretreatment, extraction, conversion and waste treatment are the keys to solve these issues. In this article, the updated research progress and technology development of biorefinery engineering for herbal medicines are reviewed. Guided by multi-products oriental fractionation refining, Chinese herbal medicine refinery technical system is constructed relied on advanced refinery technology platforms. PMID:25211999

Chen, Hongzhang; Sui, Wenjie

2014-06-01

323

Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements  

PubMed Central

We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

2010-01-01

324

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

325

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

326

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL  

E-print Network

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE The Inuit view of how the Arctic is changing WITH SPECIAL GUESTS: Tusaqtuut Traditional Inuit Knowledge Initiative Elders Chairperson Jamesie Mike, Pangnirtung Tusaqtuut Traditional Knowledge Initiative Directors Project Director Meeka Mike, Iqaluit, Nunavut Southern

Garousi, Vahid

327

Social Networks and the Maintenance of Conformity: Japanese sojourner women  

PubMed Central

Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other “company wives.” Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families. PMID:23162609

Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J.

2011-01-01

328

Infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values among contemporary Japanese mothers  

PubMed Central

We examined infant sleeping arrangements and cultural values of Japanese mothers in 2008 and 2009. Based on Greenfield's theory of social change and human development, we predicted that social change in Japan over the last decades (higher economic and education level, urbanization, complex technology, more women in the work force) would lead to a decline in mother-infant co-sleeping, compared with published findings concerning Japanese sleeping arrangements in the 1960s and 1980s. We also predicted that the practice of having babies sleep in their own beds and/or own rooms would be supported by ethnotheories stressing infant independence and other values adaptive in an urban, technologically sophisticated, relatively wealthy, and highly educated populace. Fifty-one Japanese mothers' comments posted on Internet parenting forums were analyzed. Contrary to our hypothesis, co-sleeping was as frequent among Japanese mothers in 2008-2009 as it had been in the 1960s and 1980s. However, analysis of the values of co-sleeping mothers revealed frequent discrepancies between values and practices. In contrast, the minority of mothers whose babies slept alone in a separate room all expressed consonant values. Our qualitative analysis indicates that it is not always easy for Japanese mothers to construct values for child rearing and gender roles that integrate traditional infant care practices with current sociodemographic conditions.

Shimizu, Mina; Park, Heejung; Greenfield, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

329

Social Networks and the Maintenance of Conformity: Japanese sojourner women.  

PubMed

Asian immigrant women have the lowest utilization of mental health services of any ethnic minority (Garland, Lau, Yeh & McCabe 2005). Because help seeking for distress occurs within social networks, we examined how social networks supported or disabled help seeking for Japanese sojourners living in the US. Unfortunately, most of the literature about Japanese social relationships focuses on men in organizational settings. This study used intensive ethnographic interviewing with 49 Japanese expatriate women to examine how social relationships influenced psychosocial distress and help seeking. We found that the women in these samples engaged in complex, highly regulated, complicated and obligatory relationships through their primary affiliation with other "company wives." Like many immigrant women, increased traditional cultural norms (referred to in Japanese as ryoosai kenbo, or good wives and wise mothers), were expected from these modern women, and the enactment of these roles was enforced through scrutiny, gossip and the possibility of ostracism. Fears of scrutiny was described by the women as a primary barrier to their self-disclosure and ultimate help seeking. Understanding the social organization and support within the Japanese women's community is central to understanding how culturally specific social networks can both give support, as well as create social constraints to help seeking. Health oriented prevention programs must consider these social factors when evaluating the immigration stressors faced by these families. PMID:23162609

Saint Arnault, Denise; Roles, Deborah J

2012-08-01

330

New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development  

PubMed Central

Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

331

Difficulties Japanese Gay Youth Encounter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature is a collection of brief essays recently written by Japanese and Chinese gay youth, followed by commentary from several leading educators and scholars. Akihiko Komiya's "Difficulties Japanese Gay Youth Encounter" provides excerpts from the stories of six gay youth and their everyday lives, based on their letters in "Buddy", a magazine…

Komiya, Akihiko; Ofuji, Keiko

2003-01-01

332

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

333

Language Habits of the Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts Japanese language habits with Western language habits, asserting that Japanese need to speak more concisely, express themselves clearly and frankly, and eliminate superfluous polite language and preliminaries in order to be successful in the efficiency-oriented civilization that is a product of Western culture. (RAE)

Kinosita, Koreo

1988-01-01

334

A review of the bioactivity of South African herbal teas: rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia).  

PubMed

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin. The principal polyphenols in honeybush include the xanthone mangiferin and the flavonones hesperitin and isokuranetin. Despite their divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions, rooibos and honeybush share potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in vitro. Animal model studies indicate both herbal teas possess potent antioxidant, immune-modulating and chemopreventive actions. However, human studies of rooibos are limited and of honeybush are absent. No adverse effects of rooibos or honeybush consumption as tisanes have been reported. PMID:16927447

McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2007-01-01

335

Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

2011-01-01

336

CAM and Hepatitis C: A Focus on Herbal Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... the NIDDK Web site . Top Use of Herbal Supplements and Other Complementary Approaches for Hepatitis C Several ... Top If You Are Considering Taking a Dietary Supplement for Hepatitis C Do not use any complementary ...

337

[Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].  

PubMed

In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction. PMID:21657088

Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

2011-03-01

338

Fox smell abrogates the effect of herbal odor to prolong mouse cardiac allograft survival  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicines have unique odors, and the act of smelling may have modulatory effects on the immune system. We investigated the effect of olfactory exposure to Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese herbal medicine, on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Methods Naïve or olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 heart and were exposed to the odor of TJ-23 until rejection. Some naïve CBA recipients of an allograft were given olfactory exposure to Sairei-to (TJ-114), trimethylthiazoline (TMT), individual components of TJ-23, or a TJ-23 preparation lacking one component. Adoptive transfer studies were performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Results Untreated CBA mice rejected their C57BL/6 allografts acutely, as did olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice exposed to the odor of TJ-23. CBA recipients of a C57BL/6 heart given olfactory exposure to TJ-23 had significantly prolonged allograft survival, whereas those exposed to the odor of TJ-114, TMT, one component of TJ-23, or TJ-23 lacking a component did not. Secondary allograft recipients that were given, at 30 days after transplantation, either whole splenocytes, CD4+ cells, or CD4+CD25+ cells from primary recipients exposed to the odor of TJ-23 had indefinitely prolonged allograft survival. Conclusions Prolonged survival of cardiac allografts and generation of regulatory cells was associated with exposure to the odor of TJ-23 in our model. The olfactory area of the brain may have a role in the modulation of immune responses. PMID:24886081

2014-01-01

339

Chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs in herbal products.  

PubMed

Several synthetic cannabinoids were found in 44 of 46 different kinds of herbal products that are currently distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan due to their expected narcotic effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses indicated that most of the products contained two major synthetic cannabinoids: (1RS,3SR)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-methylnonan-2-yl)phenyl]cyclohexan-1-ol, renamed cannabicyclohexanol with the agreement of Pfizer Inc., and/or 1-naphthalenyl(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone, named JWH-018. Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide), which is an endogenous cannabinoid, was also detected in 7 products. Additionally, two synthetic cannabinoids were identified as minor components in some products. One was (1RS,3SR)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenyl]cyclohexan-1-ol, which is named CP-47,497 and is a homolog of cannabicyclohexanol. The other was 1-naphthalenyl(1-butyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone, which is named JWH-073 and is a homolog of JWH-018. These compounds were reported as synthetic cannabinoids possessing pharmacological cannabimimetic activity. The concentrations of cannabicyclohexanol, JWH-018 and oleamide in the products ranged from 1.1 to 16.9mg/g, 2.0 to 35.9mg/g and 7.6 to 210.9mg/g, respectively, and showed considerable variation. In this study, details of the analysis and identification of these synthetic cannabinoids in herbal products being sold on the Japanese drug market are described. PMID:20117892

Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Ogata, Jun; Goda, Yukihiro

2010-05-20

340

The traditional treatment of AIDS in Uganda: benefits and problems. Key issues and debates: traditional healers.  

PubMed

Many Ugandans turn to the traditional healing system for help in dealing with the psychosocial stress associated with HIV infection as well as for herbal treatments. Use of traditional healers for this purpose is encouraged by social and cultural beliefs that posit AIDS is a result of witchcraft or a curse from God. It is believed that if a sick person does not obtain treatment and dies, his spirit will cause further disease. Of concern is a tendency for people with AIDS to travel from one part of the country to another, seeking a cure from spiritualists, pure herbalists, and visionaries. Moreover, the intensified emergence of cults in response to the AIDS crisis creates potential for serious exploitation and further spread of the AIDS virus. Not only do these groups drain a family's financial resources, some practice unsafe practices such as intergroup sex or contact with unscreened blood. The estimated 6000-120,000 traditional healers in Uganda have the potential to provide a structure through which AIDS-related psychosocial problems are managed ("psychohealing"). Steps should be taken to understand the conditions that facilitate the emergence of healers purporting to be able to cure AIDS, the type of clients attracted to these services, and the costs and benefits of traditional medicine, with the ultimate goal of involving traditional healers in ongoing AIDS information, education, and counseling programs. PMID:12179373

Baguma, P

1996-07-01

341

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-02-15

342

The Japanese: Conflict and Consensus Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance in Japan of group identity, the Japanese approach to decision making, and the way in which the Japanese avoid conflict and build consensus when making a decision are characteristics of Japanese interactions that are critical for Americans to understand in order to communicate successfully with the Japanese. Those who would be…

Christie, Vickie

343

Aspects of the Russo-Japanese War  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 6 February 1998 a symposium was held in STICERD on Aspects of the Russo-Japanese War at which two papers were presented: 'The Japanese Military during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05: A Reconsideration of Command Politics and Public Images', by Dr Lone, and 'British Observers of the Russo-Japanese War', by Dr Towle.

Stewart Lone; Philip Towle

1998-01-01

344

Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial.  

PubMed

Administration of hot water extracts of a herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum, WTMCGEPP (Wisteria floribunda 0.38, Trapa natans 0.38, Miristica agrans 0.38, Coix lachryma-jobi 0.75, cultivated Ganoderma lucidum 0.75, Elfuinga applanata 0.38, tissue cultured Panax ginseng 0.3, and Punica granatum 0.38: numerals designate dry weight gram/dose), decreased herpes zoster pain for five Japanese patients suffering from shingles. Pain relief started within a few days of intake and was almost complete within 10 days. Two acute herpes zoster with manifestations including trigeminal nerve ophthalmia (both 74 years old), lower body zoster (70 years old), herpes zoster oticus (17 years old), and leg herpes (28 years old), responded quickly to treatment and no patient developed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) after more than one year of follow-up. PMID:16173526

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Yasuhara, Akihiro; Sahashi, Yuko

2005-01-01

345

Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China and other Asian countries for long time. We conducted this review to systematically summarize the evidences of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the prevention and treatment of recurrent miscarriage in randomized trials, and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM compared with placebo or conventional medicine. Methods We searched studies in PubMed, ClinicalTrials, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed and VIP databases until December, 2012. Randomized trials on CHM alone or in combination with conventional medicine for recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo or conventional medicine were included. We evaluated the methodological quality of each included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 41 RCTs (3660 participants) were included. The majority of trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. CHM used alone or plus progesterone-based treatment showed superior effect over progesterone-based treatment in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state (measured by B ultrasound). However, there is substantial heterogeneity within each subgroup analysis (I2 ranging from 35% to 71%). CHM plus progesterone and hCG-based treatment was superior to progesterone and hCG-based treatment in improving the embryonic developmental state, but not live birth rate. No severe adverse events were reported in relation to CHM. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines or in combination with progesterone-based treatment demonstrated potentially beneficial effect in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state for women with recurrent miscarriage. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the herbal interventions and limitations of methodological quality of the included trials, it is not possible to recommend any specific CHMs for recurrent miscarriage. Further rigorous clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM. PMID:24245671

2013-01-01

346

Pien Tze Huang, a composite Chinese traditional herbal extract, affects survival of neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Pien Tze Huang is a popular Chinese medicine for liver diseases. In the investigations of possible effects of Pien Tze Huang on the central nervous system, we first studied the in vitro anti-cancer activity of Pien Tze Huang on neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) as compared with normal fibroblasts (NIH-3T3). Results showed that Pien Tze Huang significantly decreased (p < .05) cell survival of SH-SY5Y as compared to NIH-3T3. Furthermore, the decreases in cell survival of SH-SY5Y were significantly and linearly dose-dependent (p < .05) from 400 to 1,000 microg/ml. This supports further in vivo and animal studies for anti-cancer effect, neuroprotection, and their mechanisms. PMID:19125378

Lü, Lanhai; Wai, Maria S M; Yew, David T; Mak, Ying T

2009-01-01

347

Pterocarpus santalinus: a traditional herbal drug as a protectant against ibuprofen induced gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of Pterocarpus santalinus (PS) was evaluated for gastroprotection in rats using ibuprofen as the induction model. Rats treated with PS (100-400 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in gastric lesions. PS at a dose of 200 mg/kg was found to be the minimum effective dose and hence further studies with that dose were carried out. PS treatment increased the LDH activity and decreased the lipid peroxidation levels. The extract had the ability to increase the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx when compared with the untreated but induced rats. The membrane bound ATPases - H(+)K(+)ATPase, Na(+)K(+)ATPase and Ca(2+)ATPases were increased upon the induction with ulcerogen. The treated group showed a decrease in the activities of these enzymes and also had the ability to restore the sodium and potassium ion concentrations to near normal levels, which were altered by ibuprofen mediated acid stimulation. The results suggest that the antiulcer properties of PS could traced to its acid inhibiting potential, antioxidant activity and the ability to maintain functional integrity of the cell membranes. PMID:16317653

Narayan, Shoba; Devi, R S; Srinivasan, P; Shyamala Devi, C S

2005-11-01

348

Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna  

PubMed Central

Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after it has created blisters, cold drugs are suitable for the first goal and dry drugs with moderate in cold and hot qualities are better for second goal, this study reviewed remedies for burn wounds in Canon.

Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

2013-01-01

349

Bangpungtongseong-san, a traditional herbal medicine, attenuates chronic asthmatic effects induced by repeated ovalbumin challenge.  

PubMed

Airway remodeling is characterized by airway wall thickening, subepithelial ?brosis, increased smooth muscle mass, angiogenesis and increased mucus secretion, which can lead to chronic and obstinate asthma and can obstruct pulmonary function. In this study, the effects of Bangpungtongseong-san water extract (BPTS) on airway remodeling were examined using a murine model of bronchial asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge. We focused on the effects of BPTS on the regulation of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups, some of which were sensitized and challenged with OVA for 4 weeks. After the final ovalbumin challenge, typical asthma-like morphological changes were observed in the lung tissue with hematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff, as well as with Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and Smad3 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were also detected by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that BPTS reduced the OVA-induced increase in the infiltration of leukocytes, mucus hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Compared with the OVA-challenged group, the BPTS group had lower expression levels of adhesion molecules, TGF-?1, Smad3 and VEGF proteins in the lung tissues. The results of the current study suggest that BPTS prevents asthma airway remodeling in chronic asthma by inhibiting the activation of the TGF-?1-Smad3-signaling pathway, as well as the expression of VEGF and adhesion molecules. BPTS may thus be a potential drug for the treatment of patients with changes that occur in the airways due to severe asthma. PMID:24535550

Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, Nara; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2014-04-01

350

Compilation of a herbal medicine formulary for herbal substances in Malta and its usefulness amongst healthcare professionals  

PubMed Central

Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care. PMID:24023448

Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.

2013-01-01

351

The liver in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Medical thinkers in China visualized the liver in microcosmal and macrocosmal terms. An anatomical tradition did not exist, hence the liver was described grossly in broad outline. It was recognized as being functionally important in the movement of qi (vital energy) and storage of xue ('blood'). The liver corresponded to various phenomena in both the natural and social orders, according to the scheme of yin yang and five phases. These interrelationships provided the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of liver dysfunctions. The disorders fell into three general groups: (i) hepatic qi stasis; (ii) hepatic yang excess with yin deficiency; and (iii) hepatic yin insufficiency. The signs and symptoms represented the logical outcomes of the disturbed physiology. Acupuncture, moxibustion and herbal drugs were used to redress the imbalance of hepatic qi and yin-yang. The impact of Western medicine led traditional authors to recognize the hepatobiliary role in bile secretion and in jaundice. The exchange between the Western and Chinese medical traditions revealed that active agents were included in the Chinese formulary, such as glycyrrhizin, which has recently been shown to be beneficial in chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:9641312

Chen, T S; Chen, P S

1998-04-01

352

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946

McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.

2012-01-01

353

Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.  

PubMed

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

354

Mycetoma Herbal Treatment: The Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan Experience  

PubMed Central

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

355

Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele, Rivers State.  

PubMed

Herbal antimalarials still remain an alternative to our traditional communities who can not afford orthodox antimalarials. This study was aimed at investigating the microbial quality of six herbal antimalarials using standard microbiological methods. Of the six preparations analyzed, "schnapps", palm wine and water were the media of preparation; the water base preparations recorded higher microbial load. The mean microbial load was 159.5 × 10(5) cfu/ml and 217.4 × 10(2)cfu/ml in water and alcohol base preparations respectively. The microbial profile of the preparations showed that the schnapps base preparations were predominantly contaminated with Bacillus sp (Aerobic spore bearers) and Mucor spp. The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor spp. Conclusively, this study underlines the public health importance of these preparations given the high burden of such human pathogen as Ecoli O157H7, Ps aeruginosa, Stahp aureus, etc. in the preparations. PMID:21304626

Tatfeng, Y M; Olama, E H; Ojo, T O

2010-01-01

356

In vivo effects of Faizol Ubat Batuk, a herbal product on aminopyrine metabolism in rat hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicines, in particular herbal products, have been used abundantly over the years in curing several diseases. Pharmacological interactions of herbal products with modern drugs, however, remain to some extent unknown. Herein, we examined whether co-administration of Faizol Ubat Batuk (FUB), a mixture of aqueous extract of different plants, modifies the metabolism of aminopyrine, a conventional analgesic drug, in rat liver. We used rat hepatocytes outfitted by collagenase perfusion technique. Determination of aminopyrine n-demethylase activity was performed using the Nash colorimetric method, by measuring the amount of formaldehyde produced. Compared to control treatment, FUB significantly increased the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in healthy adult male rats. In contrast, the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in adult female rats was decreased. Besides, a biphasic effect in n-demethylase activity was observed in young male rats treated with FUB. In a subsequent experiment, FUB did not change the metabolism of aminopyrine in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic adult male rats. In conclusion, administration of FUB could affect phase I aminopyrine metabolism in rat heptocytes. In addition, the effects of FUB on hepatic n-demethylase activity were gender and disease dependent. PMID:21977110

Taher, Yousef A.; Hussin, Abas Hj

2011-01-01

357

Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations.  

PubMed

Uva-ursi folium (bearberry leaf) has been traditionally used to treat symptoms of lower urinary tract infections. The most representative constituent of this herbal drug is arbutin that is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and undergoes hepatic conjugation to form hydroquinone (HQ) conjugates. As free HQ is crucial for the safety of the herbal preparation, we reviewed published and unpublished experimental and human studies to clarify some outdated assumptions and to support the safety of therapeutic daily doses of Uva-ursi folium extract. Specifically, data on pharmacokinetics and the human exposure of arbutin and HQ were reviewed. A therapeutic recommended human daily dose of bearberry leaf extract (420 mg hydroquinone derivatives calculated as anhydrous arbutin) liberates free HQ in urine at a maximum exposure level of 11 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d. By means of an experimental no observed effect level value, a permitted daily exposure dose below which there is a negligible risk to human health was estimated for free HQ (100 µg/kg bw/d). Dietary sources of arbutin/HQ that are regularly consumed long term by humans generate comparable free HQ exposure levels. There is no direct evidence, regarding human data, supporting the fact that free HQ causes convulsion, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or promotion of tumors in humans. Free HQ had no activity promoting pancreatic, bladder, stomach, or liver carcinogenesis. In conclusion, under the recommended use conditions Uva-ursi folium is a safe therapeutic option for treating lower urinary tract infections. PMID:24296864

de Arriba, Susana Garcia; Naser, Belal; Nolte, Klaus-Ulrich

2013-01-01

358

Herbal remedies for combating irradiation: a green anti-irradiation approach.  

PubMed

Plants play important roles in human life not only as suppliers of oxygen but also as a fundamental resource to sustain the human race on this earthly plane. Plants also play a major role in our nutrition by converting energy from the sun during photosynthesis. In addition, plants have been used extensively in traditional medicine since time immemorial. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated that many natural herbs have been investigated for their efficacy against lethal irradiation. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that natural herbs possess significant radioprotective activity. In view of the immense medicinal importance of natural product based radioprotective agents, this review aims at compiling all currently available information on radioprotective agents from medicinal plants and herbs, especially the evaluation methods and mechanisms of action. In this review we particularly emphasize on ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemistry, mechanisms of action and toxicology. We also describe modern techniques for evaluating herbal samples as radioprotective agents. The usage of herbal remedies for combating lethal irradiation is a green anti- irradiation approach for the betterment of human beings without high cost, side effects and toxicity. PMID:24289545

Lachumy, Subramanion Jothy; Oon, Chern Ein; Deivanai, Subramanian; Saravanan, Dharmaraj; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Choong, Yee Siew; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

2013-01-01

359

Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864

Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin

2013-01-01

360

Treating gynaecological disorders with traditional Chinese medicine: a review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal syndrome, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic inflammation, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cervicitis and vaginitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and acupuncture. The use of TCM in the field of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has also been included in the review. In addition, thirty-two commonly used Chinese medicinal formulas in treating gynaecological disorders have been introduced. PMID:20606770

Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan

2009-01-01

361

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

362

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

363

[The risks of combining medicine and herbal remedies].  

PubMed

The risks of using herbal remedies, considered 'natural', should not be disregarded, as some have serious side effects and some interact with and influence conventional medical therapeutics. The effect may be pharmacokinetic by altering absorption or metabolism, and may be pharmacodynamic, by changing the final effect of the drug. St. John's wort, for example, an antidepressant herbal remedy, may pharmacodynamically interact with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), causing a serotonin syndrome. St. Johns wort also causes serious pharmacokinetic interactions by activating the cytochrome CYP3A4, dangerously decreasing blood levels of cyclosporin, warfarin, and theophylline, and reducing the efficacy of contraceptive pills and AIDS therapy. The article presents a review of a number of herbal remedies, commonly used in Israel, that have documented drug interactions, providing details of common indications, adverse reactions and drug interactions of each herbal remedy. Physicians should recognize the fact that patients use herbal remedies, purchased directly at pharmacies or health stores, and be aware of the potential interactions of these remedies with conventional drugs. PMID:17078430

Goldstein, L H; Elias, M; Berkovitch, M; Golik, A

2006-09-01

364

A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.  

PubMed

Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

2014-01-01

365

Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the safety of oral administration of Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods The toxicological information of HLXLD and its individual constituent herbs was searched in cintcm or TCMlars (www.cintcm.com), PubMed (MEDLINE), Chinese Herbal Medicine (1999) and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Vol. I—III). Single-dose acute toxicity was assessed by using the highest possible dosage. Motor function test was used to determine whether the herbal formula might cause motor impairment. Nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects, and 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects in rats were also assessed. Results The literature searches showed that HLXLD and its eleven ingredient herbs had no side/adverse effects listed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature. Under the dosages proposed in the formula, the HLXLD formula had no side/adverse effects according to MEDLINE, Chinese Herbal Medicine and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. The studies in rats showed: (1) in single-dose acute toxicity assessment, the maximal feasible single oral dose, 9.20 g/kg HLXLD, showed no significant effect on clinical signs, or body weight and mortality over a 14-day period in rats; (2) during motor function test, nine-day repeat-dose of daily HLXLD treatment at 4.60 g/kg did not cause motor impairment; (3) in nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessment, there were no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes or obvious adverse reactions and signs in complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats (highest observed dosage: 4.60 g/kg), and no noticeable adverse effects were observed during, or 14 days after nine-day treatment at 4.60 g/kg in non-inflamed rats; (4) during 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessments, no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes, no obvious adverse reactions and signs were observed in normal rats administered with HLXLD at a dose of 2.30 g/kg and the values of serum biochemistry and histopathology were in normal range. Conclusion Both existing information and animal data support that Modified HLXLD is a safe herbal product for clinical application. PMID:20456842

FAN, Arthur Yin; LAO, Lixing; ZHANG, Rui-xin; ZHOU, An-nan; BERMAN, Brian M.

2013-01-01

366

Beverage and culture. "Zhourat", a multivariate analysis of the globalization of a herbal tea from the Middle East.  

PubMed

The "Zhourat" herbal tea consists of a blend of wild flowers, herbs, leaves and fruits and is a typical beverage of Lebanon and Syria. We aim to evaluate cultural significance of "Zhourat", to determine cultural standards for its formulation including key ingredients and to determine acceptable variability levels in terms of number of ingredients and their relative proportions, in summary what is "Zhourat" and what is not "Zhourat" from an ethnobotanical perspective. For this purpose we develop a novel methodology to describe and analyse patterns of variation of traditional multi-ingredient herbal formulations, beverages and teas and to identify key ingredients, which are characteristics of a particular culture and region and to interpret health claims for the mixture. Factor analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to display similarities between samples whereas salience index was used to determine the main ingredients which could help to distinguish a standard traditional blend from a global market-addressed formulation. The study revealed 77 main ingredients belonging to 71 different species of vascular plants. In spite of the "Zhourat's" highly variable content, the salience analysis resulted in a determined set of key botanical components including Rosa x damascena Herrm., Althaea damascena Mouterde, Matricaria chamomilla L., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Zea mays L. and Elaeagnus angustifolia L. The major health claims for "Zhourat" as digestive, sedative and for respiratory problems are culturally coherent with the analysis of the traditional medicinal properties uses of its ingredients. PMID:24703931

Obón, Concepción; Rivera, Diego; Alcaraz, Francisco; Attieh, Latiffa

2014-08-01

367

Japanese Science and Technology Management Program (JSTMP) Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japanese Science and Technology Management Program designed a training program with four major components; i)Japanese language training, 2) education in Japanese business and social culture, 3)education on the inter- relationships between Japanese fam...

J. Wolff

1999-01-01

368

The Japanese Balloon Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  • Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  • A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  • Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  • Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  • New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.

    Nishimura, J.

  • 369

    Genetic relationship of Chinese and Japanese gamecocks revealed by mtDNA sequence variation.  

    PubMed

    Cockfighting has a very long history dating back to as early as 2500 years ago in China. Cockfighting was intertwined with human cultural traditions, helped disperse chickens across the world, and influenced the subsequent breed selection. Therefore, tracing the origin of gamecocks could mirror the distribution of the cockfighting culture. In this study, we compared the available mtDNA control region sequences in Chinese and Japanese gamecocks to test the recently proposed hypothesis behind the dual origin of the Japanese cockfighting culture (from China and Southeast Asia independently). We assigned gamecock mtDNAs to different matrilineal components (or phylogenetic clades) that emerged from the phylogenetic tree and network profile, and compared the frequency differences between Chinese and Japanese gamecocks. Among the six clades (A-F) identified, Japanese gamecocks were most frequently found in clades C and D (74%, 32/43), whereas more than half of the Chinese gamecock samples (69%, 35/51) were grouped in clades A and B. Haplotypes in Japanese gamecocks assigned to clades A, B, and E were either shared with those of the Chinese samples or differed from the close Chinese types by no more than a three-mutation distance. This genetic pattern is in accordance with the proposed dual origin of Japanese gamecocks but has left room for single origin of Japanese gamecocks from China. The genetic structure of gamecocks in China and Japan might also be influenced by subsequent breed selection and conservation after the initial gamecock introduction. PMID:16648993

    Liu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Qing; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2006-02-01

    370

    Herbal Supplements and Athlete Immune Function What's Proven, Disproven, and Unproven?  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate current immunological and cli- nical literature regarding the effects of herbal preparations on athlete immune function. First, we review rates of herbal supplement use by athletes. Second, we use ginseng (Panax ginseng) and coneflower (Echinacea spp.) as models for examining how herbal supplements may influence immune function within the contexts of

    David S. Senchina; Nisarg B. Shah; Danielle M. Doty; Cole R. Sanderson; Justus E. Hallam

    371

    Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components

    Songlin Li; Quanbin Han; Chunfeng Qiao; Jingzheng Song; Chuen Lung Cheng; Hongxi Xu

    2008-01-01

    372

    [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].  

    PubMed

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    373

    [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].  

    PubMed

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

    Szafra?ski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    374

    [Identification of Chinese herbal medicines based on terahertz spectroscopy analysis].  

    PubMed

    In order to study the feasibility of the identification of Chinese herbal medicines based on terahertz spectroscopy, the optical characteristic of astragalus, angelica, eucommia and three kinds of astragalus samples with different impurities in the frequency range 0.2-2.2 THz were researched by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), and their time-domain spectra, the frequency spectra and the absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature. The results indicated that the time-domain spectra, frequency-domain spectra and absorption spectra of astragalus, angelica, and eucommia have large differences in such a frequency range, the frequency-domain spectra and absorption spectra of three kinds of astragalus samples with different impurities are similar but there exists distinct difference. These researches proved that it is feasible to use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to identify Chinese herbal medicine and provided a new method for Chinese herbal medicine quality control. PMID:25269292

    Zhou, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jin-Song; Wang, Ke-Jia; Yang, Zhen-Gang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    375

    RAPD Analysis for Determination of Components in Herbal Medicine  

    PubMed Central

    In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for determination of the components in an Ayurvedic herbal prescription, Rasayana Churna. One-hundred-and-twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened in the RAPD analysis to identify three Ayurvedic medicines, dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, dried fruit of Emblica officinalis and dried fruit of Tribulus terestris, the Ayurvedic prescription. Primer OPC-6 simultaneously generated three distinct amplicons, each specific to one component. The marker with 600 bp is specific to Tinospora cordifolia; the marker 500 bp is specific to Emblica officinalis and the remaining marker >1000 bp was present in Tribulus terestris. Presence of three herbal medicines was determined when RAPD reaction with OPC-6 was performed. The technique was proved to contribute to the identification of components in Ayurvedic herbal preparation and thus helping to serve as a complementary tool for quality control. PMID:18227927

    Dhalwal, K.; Mahadik, K. R.; Joshi, K. S.; Patwardhan, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    376

    Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review  

    PubMed Central

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H.

    2013-01-01

    377

    Chinese herbal medicines revisited: a Hong Kong perspective.  

    PubMed

    Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) and Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) are widely used by people of Chinese origin throughout the world. Although the use of these medicinal materials rarely causes significant toxic effects, cases of severe and even fatal poisoning have occurred after medication with herbs containing aconitine, podophyllin, and anticholinergic substances. Furthermore, CHM and CPM are often adulterated with substituted herbs, heavy metals, and western medicines; such contamination can have important clinical consequences. In Hong Kong, surveillance and legislation are required to control the use of some of these herbal preparations. In other countries, medical practitioners should also be aware of the possibility that these herbal-medicine-related remedies may cause significant clinical problems in their Chinese patients. PMID:7902907

    Chan, T Y; Chan, J C; Tomlinson, B; Critchley, J A

    378

    DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements  

    PubMed Central

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    379

    Herbal drug ninjin'yoeito accelerates myelopoiesis but not erythropoiesis in vitro.  

    PubMed

    Some Kampo medicines that are herbal and traditional in Japan have had beneficial effects when given to patients with anemia. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their effects are unclear. To address this question, four Kampo medicines used to treat anemia-ninjin'yoeito (NYT), shimotsuto (SMT), juzentaihoto (JTT), and daibofuto (DBT)-were tested separately using in vitro cultures of mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells. Among them, NYT was most effective in stimulating cell proliferation and up-regulating Myc expression. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that, among hematopoietic components of those cultures, myeloid cells expressing CD45/Mac-1/Gr-1/F4/80 increased in number, but Ter119/CD71 erythroid cells did not. Accordingly, real-time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of the myeloid gene Pu.1, whereas the erythroid genes Gata1 and Klf1 were down-regulated. Overall, these findings provide molecular evidence that NYT accelerates myelopoiesis but not erythropoiesis in vitro. PMID:24636045

    Inoue, Tomoko; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Muennu, Kanitta; Tanaka, Yuka; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Sugiyama, Daisuke

    2014-05-01

    380

    The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II.  

    PubMed

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is a time-honored tonic food and herbal medicine in China, where recent research has shown that many of its traditional uses may be viewed from the basis of pharmacological activities. The ongoing exploration of C. sinensis in its wild form and cultured, fermented mycelial products derived from it, are reviewed from English and Chinese literature. Part II concludes the series with a review of C. sinensis in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, and open-label and double-blinded clinical trials on the respiratory, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, immunologic, and nervous systems, and its effects on cancer, glucose metabolism, inflammatory conditions, and toxicological studies. In Part I, which appeared in the Fall 1998 issue of this journal (4(3):289-303), we discussed the effects of C. sinensis on antisenescence, endocrine and sexual functions, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and free radicals. PMID:9884180

    Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K

    1998-01-01

    381

    Herbal medicinal products in the paediatric population--status quo and perspectives.  

    PubMed

    The limited extent of data available for herbal medicinal products (HMPs) in the paediatric population is related to missing documentation of their use in practice and in literature. Therefore, information for properly evaluating indications, posology, length of treatment and safety in children is often lacking. Frequently, these documentation gaps are reflected in the product information of HMPs as final result of regulatory decisions. On the other hand, there is long-term experience of HMPs as well established and traditionally used medicinal products, which also covers the use in the paediatric population, as applied by parents themselves, and the recommendations of physicians, other health practitioners and pharmacists. The methodology of pharmaco-epidemiologic studies is a valuable tool to evaluate data of the practical use of HMPs in children. The documentation gap may be closed by such methodologies, and HMPs may be applied prospectively on the basis of well-documented empirical knowledge. PMID:23377951

    Wegener, Tankred

    2013-02-01

    382

    Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

    PubMed Central

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

    Wang, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    383

    What Is Business Japanese? Designing a Japanese Course for Business Communication.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Experiences in developing "Business Japanese" courses for the undergraduate major in Language and International Trade at Eastern Michigan University are described. In 1987, six new courses in Japanese were proposed so that Japanese could be offered as a language specialty in the program. Issues considered in defining business Japanese and in…

    Koike, Shohei

    384

    Sexual Role Identity Among Japanese and Japanese-American High School Students  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese, Japanese-American, and Caucasian high school students were tested to investigate sex role identity. Japanese students were more feminine than either of the other two groups. Within the latter two, the Japanese-Americans were more feminine than the Caucasians on one measure, but not different on the other. (DM)

    Blane, Howard T.; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    1970-01-01

    385

    Database of traditional Chinese medicine and its application to studies of mechanism and to prescription validation  

    PubMed Central

    Background and purpose: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely practised and is viewed as an attractive alternative to conventional medicine. Quantitative information about TCM prescriptions, constituent herbs and herbal ingredients is necessary for studying and exploring TCM. Experimental approach: We manually collected information on TCM in books and other printed sources in Medline. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Database TCM-ID, at http://tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcm-id/tcmid.asp, was introduced for providing comprehensive information about all aspects of TCM including prescriptions, constituent herbs, herbal ingredients, molecular structure and functional properties of active ingredients, therapeutic and side effects, clinical indication and application and related matters. Results: TCM-ID currently contains information for 1,588 prescriptions, 1,313 herbs, 5,669 herbal ingredients, and the 3D structure of 3,725 herbal ingredients. The value of the data in TCM-ID was illustrated by using some of the data for an in-silico study of molecular mechanism of the therapeutic effects of herbal ingredients and for developing a computer program to validate TCM multi-herb preparations. Conclusions and Implications: The development of systems biology has led to a new design principle for therapeutic intervention strategy, the concept of ‘magic shrapnel' (rather than the ‘magic bullet'), involving many drugs against multiple targets, administered in a single treatment. TCM offers an extensive source of examples of this concept in which several active ingredients in one prescription are aimed at numerous targets and work together to provide therapeutic benefit. The database and its mining applications described here represent early efforts toward exploring TCM for new theories in drug discovery. PMID:17088869

    Chen, X; Zhou, H; Liu, Y B; Wang, J F; Li, H; Ung, C Y; Han, L Y; Cao, Z W; Chen, Y Z

    2006-01-01

    386

    The Japanese need travel vaccinations.  

    PubMed

    At a travel clinic in Kathmandu we reviewed the vaccination records from March 1997 to March 1998 for all travelers to developing countries like Nepal, for two important vaccines, namely, typhoid and hepatitis A. These travelers visited the clinic for various medical problems. One of the reasons for doing this study was that in previous years we saw a disproportionate number of Japanese travelers with hepatitis A, who had not taken the hepatitis A vaccine or immune gamma globulin for prevention of this illness. We hypothesized, therefore, that one of the reasons that Japanese patients visiting our clinic had higher rates of hepatitis A was because they were not vaccinated against this disease. There were 765 tourists for that time period out of which about 10% were Japanese. The rest were Americans, British, Israelis, Canadians, Australians, Danish and a small miscellaneous group from other countries. PMID:10689240

    Basnyat, B; Pokhrel, G; Cohen, Y

    2000-01-01

    387

    Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities.  

    PubMed

    The oldest remedies known to mankind are herbal medicines. India is known worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. Euphorbia hirta is often used traditionally for female disorders, respiratory ailments (cough, coryza, bronchitis, and asthma), worm infestations in children, dysentery, jaundice, pimples, gonorrhea, digestive problems, and tumors. It is reported to contain alkanes, triterpenes, phytosterols, tannins, polyphenols, and flavanoids. This review describes the medicinal properties, chemical constituents, and other important aspects of Euphorbia hirta. PMID:22228942

    Kumar, Sunil; Malhotra, Rashmi; Kumar, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    388

    Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: Studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Summary  Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice.\\u000a The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes,

    Sara K. Swanston-Flatt; Caroline Day; Clifford J. Bailey; Peter R. Flatt

    1989-01-01

    389

    Popular Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine in HIV Patients in the HAART era  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seventy-six Chinese male HIV patients were interviewed on their use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). All except one\\u000a had undetectable viral load, 28 had already progressed to AIDS. Forty-five (59.2%) had used TCM – 11 infrequently and 33 commonly. No specific TCM recipe was preferentially used, while a variety of herbal tea and other over-the-counter health products\\u000a of TCM in

    Kurtland Ma; Shui-Shan Lee; Elsie K. Y. Chu; Dennise K. P. Tam; Victoria S. C. Kwong; Choi-Fung Ho; Kathy Cheng; Ka-Hing Wong

    2008-01-01

    390

    Japanese House Kazuko Suzuki, Faculty Director  

    E-print Network

    connections among language, art and culture at regional, national, and international scales. Share This Japanese culture and language residential learning program is designed for students eager to study Japanese culture and/or language in mutual teaching and learning activities. Its major goal is to explore Japanese

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    391

    Intercultural Communication Problems in Japanese Multinationals.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Many large Japanese-owned multinational corporations have established successful subsidiaries in the United States, but distinct ethnic and cultural differences have caused communication problems between Japanese managers and American laborers and business people. Many top executives of the Japanese subsidiaries are sent to the United States on a…

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    392

    Developing Instructional Materials for Business Japanese.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Japanese should be the study of Japanese language and culture for business communication and should include values and beliefs and institutional constraints on which the Japanese act as well as business etiquette and terminology. Topics to be covered in instruction will vary depending on the role (seller, buyer, or colleague) played by…

    Koike, Shohei

    393

    Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women  

    PubMed Central

    Background: In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve. Materials and Methods: Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods) Results: The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka. Conclusion: Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home. PMID:20532094

    Shukla, Khushbu; Dwivedi, Manjari; Kumar, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    394

    Barriers to environmental management in clusters of small businesses in Brazil and Japan: from a lack of knowledge to a decline in traditional knowledge  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This study aimed to examine the main barriers to environmental management (EM) in two clusters of small businesses (SBs). A study of two clusters was performed: one cluster in Brazil (the leather\\/shoe sector) and one cluster in Japan (traditional Japanese products). The case studies involved 23 interviews and an analysis of 12 SBs within these clusters. The Japanese cluster has

    Charbel José Chiappetta Jabbour; José Antonio Puppim-de-Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    395

    Barriers to environmental management in clusters of small businesses in Brazil and Japan: from a lack of knowledge to a decline in traditional knowledge  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This study aimed to examine the main barriers to environmental management (EM) in two clusters of small businesses (SBs). A study of two clusters was performed: one cluster in Brazil (the leather\\/shoe sector) and one cluster in Japan (traditional Japanese products). The case studies involved 23 interviews and an analysis of 12 SBs within these clusters. The Japanese cluster has

    Charbel José Chiappetta Jabbour; José Antonio Puppim-de-Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    396

    Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    397

    Epidemiological Studies of Hypertension Among Elderly Japanese and Japanese Americans  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A prospective international study of cardiovascular disease among Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California in 1965 provided the opportunity of comparing the levels of blood pressure and hypertension among men aged 45 to 68 years, and of examining the factors which accounted for the differences. In addition, within the group of 8, 006 men from Hawaii, a subsample

    D Reed; K Yano

    1987-01-01

    398

    Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis  

    PubMed Central

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) ?3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) ?10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7.5 points on a 30 point scale in the ibuprofen-treated group; treatment with Arnica gel reduced function by 0.4 points (MD ?0.4, 95% CI ?1.75 to 0.95), absolute improvement 1% (6% improvement to 3% decline)). Total adverse events were higher in the Arnica gel group (13% compared to 8% in the ibuprofen group): relative risk (RR) 1.65 (95% CI 0.72 to 3.76). Moderate quality evidence from a single trial of 99 people with knee osteoarthritis indicated that compared with placebo, Capsicum extract gel probably does not improve pain or knee function, and is commonly associated with treatment-related adverse events including skin irritation and a burning sensation. At four weeks follow-up, mean pain in the placebo group was 46 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Capsicum extract reduced pain by 1 point (MD ?1, 95%CI ?6.8 to 4.8), absolute reduction of 1%(7%reduction to 5% increase). Mean knee function in the placebo group was 34.8 points on a 96 point scale at four weeks; treatment with Capsicum extract improved function by a mean of 2.6 points (MD ?2.6, 95% CI ?9.5 to 4.2), an absolute improvement of 3% (10% improvement to 4% decline). Adverse event rates were greater in the Capsicum extract group (80% compared with 20% in the placebo group, rate ratio 4.12, 95% CI 3.30 to 5.17). The number needed to treat to result in adverse events was 2 (95% CI 1 to 2). Moderate evidence from a single trial of 220 people with knee osteoarthritis suggested that comfrey extract gel probably improves pain without increasing adverse events. At three weeks, the mean pain in the placebo group was 83.5 points on a 100 point scale. Treatment with comfrey reduced pain by a mean of 41.5 points (MD ?41.5, 95% CI ?48 to ?34), an absolute reduction of 42% (34% to 48% reduction). Function was not reported. Adverse events were similar: 6%(7/110) reported adverse events in the comfre

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    399

    Perioperative risks and benefits of herbal supplements in aesthetic surgery.  

    PubMed

    Most medications, herbal preparations, and nutraceutical supplements have notable effects on biochemical pathways and may influence wound healing, coagulation, and cardiovascular function. They can also interact with other drugs. A large portion of the data available regarding the effects of naturopathic medicines is anecdotal. Marketing of certain products may be misleading and potentially harmful, and quality control standards are highly variable. In order to ensure quality control and standardization of products, it is prudent to work with preparations manufactured by companies that adhere to pharmaceutical (good manufacturing practice [GMP]) standards. However, many of these higher-quality products are not readily available to the public over the counter. A large percentage of patients undergoing plastic surgery use one or more herbal medications, but the disclosure of such medications to allopathic providers is often incomplete. In addition, patients may not understand the importance of discontinuing such medications before surgery. The authors review research on the possible benefits and risks of commonly used herbal medications such as arnica montana, St. John's wort, bromelain, echinacea, ginkgo biloba, ephedra, valerian, and others, focusing on their potentially positive or negative impact during the perioperative period of aesthetic surgery. Good communication with surgical patients, including the administration of a presurgical questionnaire to help identify any use of herbal medications, is emphasized. PMID:19371848

    Rowe, David J; Baker, Arden C

    2009-01-01

    400

    Soar Workshop XXIV, June 04 An Introduction to Herbal  

    E-print Network

    Soar Workshop XXIV, June 04 An Introduction to Herbal Mark A. Cohen (1,2 ) Frank E. Ritter (2,3) Steve Haynes (3) 1 BA CS & IT Department, Lock Haven University 2 Applied Cognitive Science Lab, 3 Penn of the XXIV Workshop. 75-77. The Soar Group, University of Michigan. #12;Soar Workshop XXIV, June 04 Project

    Ritter, Frank

    401

    Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats  

    PubMed Central

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    402

    Trends in Utilization of Herbal Medicine: Implications for Health Education  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abstract English: Over the last few decades, people have increasingly used herbal medicine as an alternative or adjunct to modern drugs. Few of the herbs available to the public have undergone testing for safety, efficacy, or potential interaction with other drugs taken for an ailment. Alt hough herbs are generally safe when used properly, they can be harmful and even

    Behjat A. Sharif

    403

    Herbal and other complementary medicine use by Texas midwives.  

    PubMed

    This cross-sectional survey sought to document complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by Texas midwives, as well as to determine whether licensed direct-entry midwives (LMs) and certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) differed significantly in their patterns of use. All respondents (n = 69) indicated that they used, recommended, or referred their clients for at least one CAM therapy during the preceding year. Ninety percent (90%) of respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for an herbal remedy (not including homeopathic tinctures). Herbal therapies were among the top three modalities recommended for 7 of 12 (58%) clinical indications. Herbs were the most salient CAM therapy used for cervical ripening (83%), followed closely by use for nausea, vomiting, and hyperemesis (80%), and labor induction (77%). Herbal therapies also constituted 50% or more of the CAM therapies used for the following indications: anemia/iron supplementation (70%), perineal healing (66%), and anxiety/stress/fatigue (50%). LM respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for a greater number of herbal therapies compared to CNMs. While several of the CAM modalities used or recommended by Texas midwives show potential for clinical benefit, few have been studied sufficiently to determine their efficacy or safety during pregnancy. PMID:17826710

    Bayles, Bryan P

    2007-01-01

    404

    The toxicity and pathology of selected dietary herbal medicines.  

    PubMed

    Toxicity studies were conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to provide information on the potential for toxicity from long-term use of commonly used herbal medicines. Here, we review the findings from these NTP toxicology/carcinogenesis 2-year rodent studies of 7 commonly used herbs. In these studies, the individual herb or herbal product was administered to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by oral administration for up to 2 years. The spectrum of carcinogenic responses ranged from no or equivocal evidence for carcinogenic activity (ginseng, milk thistle, and turmeric oleoresin) to a liver tumor response (ginkgo, goldenseal, kava), thyroid tumor response (ginkgo), or an intestinal tumor response (Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract). Different mechanisms may be involved in the occurrence of liver (ginkgo, goldenseal, and kava kava) and gastrointestinal toxicity (turmeric oleoresin and Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract), while the toxic lesion is the same. The results from these hazard identification toxicity/carcinogenesis studies along with those from ongoing National Institute of Health clinical trials of herbal medicines provide more complete information on the risks and benefits from herbal medicine use in the general population. PMID:23262639

    Dunnick, June K; Nyska, Abraham

    2013-02-01

    405

    Japanese couples' opinions.  

    PubMed

    The Japanese National Survey on Family Planning has been conducted since 1950 by the Mainichi Newspapers. The 21st survey, which included approximately 3400 persons, was conducted in 1992 in conjunction with various family planning organizations. The results reported include the ideal number of children, care for the elderly, tolerance for induced abortion, beliefs about the side effects of oral contraceptives, attitudes of husbands toward their wives working outside the home, sexual harassment, and elderly husband's concern about contracting AIDS. 45% of respondents supported Japan's involvement in FP efforts in developing countries, and 20.9% disapproved of involvement. Fertility declined from 1.54 in 1990 to 1.53 in 1991. There was an 5% increase to 75.3% in the number of women concerned about declining fertility for such reasons as the loss of social vitality and the increased burden of support in old age. However, 60.9% of wives and 56.8% of husbands felt that the government should not take action to prevent further fertility decline. Public policies for reducing the cost of education were supported by 39.6% of wives and 43.6% of husbands. A similar number supported increases in child allowance, and a smaller percentage of husbands and wives wanted the government to subsidize housing expenses. The ideal number of children was 3 for 45.7% of those surveyed, which was more than those desiring 2 children. The ideal of 3 children was held by survey participants who were more than 35 years old and by those with a high education. Part-time workers and office clerks were more likely to report that 2 children were ideal. An increasing number of respondents (60.4%) do not intend to rely on their children in old age. There has been a shift in family planning methods from induced abortions to increased contraceptive use. The highest rate of contraceptive use is among wives 35-39 years old. 75.3% use condoms. 67.7% reported concern about side effects from oral contraceptive use. 53.5% of husbands favored wives working, and 15.6% thought wives need to stay at home to care for the family. 28.5% of the husbands concerned about contracting AIDS were in their late 50s. Contracting AIDS was not a concern for 78.6% of the wives. 16.6% of the wives reported sexual harassment. PMID:12286480

    Ozaki, M

    1993-06-01

    406

    African Traditional Religion (ATR)  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.

    Isizoh, Chidi D.

    1998-01-01

    407

    Non-Traditional Instruction.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The focus of this paper is to present non-traditional or alternate instructional methods in remedial mathematics education at the community college level. However, these methods will apply to credit math courses as well as courses from other disciplines. With the large number of students needing remediation and the United States traditionally

    O'Rourke, Jeannette

    408

    Traditional Native Poetry.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    409

    Family Customs and Traditions.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    410

    "Soaking" Model for Learning: Analyzing Japanese Learning/Teaching Process from a Socio-Historical Perspective  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analyzing how Japanese people learned in the Edo Period (1603-1867), one realizes that Japan had one of the highest literacy rates in the world in the 17th century. By studying this period, I will introduce traditional non-directive teaching and learning theories which still influence educational practices in today's Japan. I will further propose…

    Kubota, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    411

    Italian Renaissance and Japanese Zen Gardens: An Approach for Introducing Cultural Landscapes.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presents a method for teaching about cultural landscapes in introductory geography classes by comparing Italian Renaissance gardens with Japanese Zen gardens. Discusses the background and attributes of both garden types. Maintains that, by contrasting the two traditions, it is possible to illustrate cultural landscapes. (CFR)

    Purkayastha, Bandana

    1995-01-01

    412

    Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of Japanese and American Advertising Appeals.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A study examined the advertising of Japan and the United States to determine if commercial messages reflect the cultural values of a particular society, thereby indicating the need for specialized campaigns. It was hypothesized that the majority of Japanese advertisements would use the traditional appeals of group, consensus, soft sell, veneration…

    Mueller, Barbara

    413

    Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China  

    PubMed Central

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these species is endangered, one species is critically endangered, eight species are vulnerable, one is listed in CITES II, three are listed in Regional Red Data Book and the remaining 224 species are in the least concerned conservation category. Conclusions The liáng chá industry of southern China reflects the plant species richness and cultural diversity of the region. Future research on safety and efficacy of herbal drinks as well as ecological and cultural conservation efforts are needed for the sustainable growth of China’s botanical industry. PMID:24354903

    2013-01-01

    414

    Factors Influencing Japanese Women To Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male students. Moreover, the general public continues to regard two-year colleges as

    Shinobu Anzai; Chie Matsuzawa Paik

    2012-01-01

    415

    [The herbals and floristic albums of Eliza Orzeszkowa].  

    PubMed

    In many of her literary works, the writer and columnist Eliza Orzeszkowa (1841-1910), who was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature (1905, 1909), depicted the life of the Polish society in the eastern lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 19th century. A great lover of nature, Orzeszkowa appreciated the botanical knowledge of the local rural population in the vicinities of Grodno. She combined attempts to master that knowledge with her other great passion, that of investigating folk culture, and was always ready to listen to what women who were village herbalists had to tell her about medicinal plants, and about the customs and legends connected with the medical practices based on herbal remedies. She then passed on the information to botanists for scientific verification. Orzeszkowa's naturalist and ethnographic fascinations led her to write a cycle of articles on "The people and flowers on the Niemen river", published in 1888-1891 in the ethnographic-tourist magazine "Wis?a". This collection of articles has been analysed not only by historians of literature, but also, since 1985, by historians of science. The first analysis was conducted at the Section for the History of Pharmacy of the Institute of the History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences. This yielded Ewa Kami?ska's study: Zio?oznawstwo i zio?olecznictwo w publikacjach etnograficznych Elizy Orzeszkowej [The knowledge of herbs and medicine based on herbal remedies in the ethnographic publications of Eliza Orzeszkowa] published as part of the Institute's Historia leków naturalnych [History of natural medicines], ed. Barbara Ku?nicka, vol. I: Zród?a do dziejów etnofarmacji polskiej [Sources for the history of Polish ethnopharmacy], Warszawa 1996, pp.25-88. The subject-matter of the publication aroused much interest among historians of pharmacy from Pozna?. The first sign of that interest could be seen in the article by Jan Majewski and S?awoj Kucharski entitled Pasje pisarki [The writer's passions], published in 1998 in "Gazeta Farmaceutyczna" [Pharmaceutical Journal] and illustrated with pages from the herbal created by Orzeszkowa. One of the authors, Jan Majewski, has found also other herbal-albums, kept, among other places, at the Museum of the Marist Fathers near London, and in the archival collections of the Ossolineum publishing house. A major surprise was connected with the discovery of a herbal that had the features of genuine botanical documentation. The title page of the herbal, which was discovered (by Jan Majewski and S?awoj Kucharski ) at Pozna?, in the collections of the Pozna? Society of the Friends of Science, carries the inscription: Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej. Z pól, lak i lasów, nadnieme?skich miejscowo?ci, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemu?, Horny, Ko?paki [The Herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. From the fields, meadows and woods of localities on the Niemen river, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemu?, Horny, Ko?paki]. The value of the herbal for the history of botany has been appreciated by Anna Maria Kielak, the author of a beautiful bibliophile publication entitled Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej nieznany zabytek botaniczny przechowywany w zbiorach Pozna?skiego Towarzystwa Przyjació? Nauk. [The herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. An unknown botanical aabytek kept in the collections of the Pozna? Society of the Friends of Science], Pozna? 2004, pp. 151. The author has presented Eliza Orzeszkowa's biography, as well as her botanical and ethnographic passions. She has also made a list of the plants mentioned in the herbal, as well as appendices containing Orzeszkowa's correspondence with botanists. The author also describes the artistic albums composed by Orzeszkowa from dried herbs. PMID:17333878

    Ku?nicka, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    416

    Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

    PubMed Central

    Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

    2011-01-01

    417

    Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning.  

    PubMed

    Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

    Gunturu, Krishna S; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; McPhedran, Peter; Goodman, Thomas R; Hodsdon, Michael E; Strout, Matthew P

    2011-01-01