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Sample records for japonica bajo condiciones

  1. Antifungal stilbenoids from Stemona japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Zhong; Xu, Guo-Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2008-01-01

    Three new dihydrostilbenes, stilbostemins P-R (1-3), and a new dihydrophenanthrene, stemanthrene G (4), were isolated from the roots of Stemona japonica together with three known bibenzyls, 3,5-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy bibenzyl (5), 3,3'-dihydroxy-2,5'-dimethoxy bibenzyl (6), and 3,5,2'-trihydroxy-4-methyl bibenzyl (7). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 5 and 6 exhibited strong antifungal activities against Candida albicans. PMID:18636375

  2. Rice, Japonica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Main, Marcy; Frame, Bronwyn; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of rice, as a food crop, is reflected in the extensive global research being conducted in an effort to improve and better understand this particular agronomic plant. In regard to biotechnology, this has led to the development of numerous genetic transformation protocols. Over the years, many of these methods have become increasingly straightforward, rapid, and efficient, thereby making rice valuable as a model crop for scientific research and functional genomics. The focus of this chapter is on one such protocol that uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare with an emphasis on tissue desiccation. The explants consist of callus derived from mature seeds which are cocultivated on filter paper postinfection. Hygromycin selection is used for the recovery of subsequent genetically engineered events. PMID:25300839

  3. Production of biodiesel from carbon sources of macroalgae, Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Yu Ri; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-10-01

    As aquatic biomass which is called "the third generation biomass", Laminaria japonica (also known as Saccharina japonica) consists of mannitol and alginate which are the main polysaccharides of algal carbohydrates. In this study, oleaginous yeast (Cryptococcus curvatus) was used to produce lipid from carbon sources derived from Laminaria japonica. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced by fermentation of alginate extracted from L. japonica. Thereafter, mannitol was mixed with VFAs to culture the oleaginous yeast. The highest lipid content was 48.30%. The composition of the fatty acids was similar to vegetable oils. This is the first confirmation of the feasibility of using macroalgae as a carbon source for biodiesel production. PMID:25084043

  4. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Cai, Weiyan; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Wang, Yajie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qing; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. PMID:26257818

  5. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Cai, Weiyan; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Wang, Yajie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qing; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. PMID:26257818

  6. [Bioinformatics analysis of DNA demethylase genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Chong; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-03-01

    The DNA demethylase genes are widespread in plants. Four DNA demethylase genes (LJDME1, LJDME2, LJDME3 and LJDME4) were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb by using bioinformatics methods and the proteins' physicochemical properties they encoded were predicted. The phylogenetic tree showed that the four DNA demethylase genes and Arabidopsis thaliana DME had a close relationship. The result of gene expression model showed that four DNA demethylase genes were different between species. The expression levels of LJDME1 and LJDME2 were even more higher in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis than those in L. japonica. LJDME] and LJDME2 maybe regulate the active compounds of L. japonica. This study aims to lay a foundation for further understanding of the function of DNA demethylase genes in L. japonica. PMID:26118119

  7. Antiinflammatory activity of Polygala japonica extract.

    PubMed

    Kou, Junping; Si, Minda; Dai, Guofei; Lin, Yuwen; Zhu, Danni

    2006-09-01

    The antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Polygala japonica (AEPJ) was investigated in mice and rats to find the pharmacological basis for its ethnomedical use. The extract produced a significant inhibition of peritoneal and cutaneous vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and histamine, respectively and ear swelling induced by picryl chloride in mice at the dose of 25.0 mg/kg. Moreover, the extract markedly inhibited footpad edema induced by histamine in rats, and decreased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) content in carrageenan-induced air-pouch at doses of 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg respectively. PMID:16814958

  8. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos. PMID:27403439

  9. Light demands of juvenile Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiugeng; Jiang, Benyu; Ding, Meili; Wu, Yajing; Huang, Ruyi; Li, Hanchang

    1989-03-01

    The light demands of seaweeds is an interesting and rather complex phenomenon because they depend not only on the species but also on their different development stages. Even different parts of the same plant sometimes have different light demands. Light control is an important procedure at large scale Laminaria nursery stations in China. Technicians and scientists have different viewpoints on the best method to regulate light. A culture study on Laminaria japonica starting from zoospores to several centimeter sporophytes to find the optimal and critical irradiance ranges for juvenile Laminaria at different development stages added more knowledge on this aspect. Experiment results show gametophytes can not tolerate irradiance of more than 150 μE m-2s-1 while sporophytes can tolerate more than 519 μE m-2s-1. This big difference starts from the very early stage of 1-to 2-celled sporophytes. The biological basis and mechanism of this phenomenon need further research.

  10. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  11. Rapid quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicera species in preparations of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Qing; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is often adulterated with Lonicerae Flos, which is derived from the other four Lonicera species, in both the crude drug and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. We proposed a methodology for the quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. Taking macranthoidins A, B, dipsacoside B (saponins), sweroside (iridoids), and luteolin-7-O-d-glucoside (flavonoids) as markers, a method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was employed to determine their amounts in Lonicerae Flos, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. The proportion of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations was estimated based on the saponin contents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. All analytes separated under isocratic elution in 12 min with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was easily distinguished from Lonicerae Flos by the total amount of saponins (0.067 and > 45.8 mg/g for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, respectively). Eighteen of twenty one Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparation samples were adulterated with Lonicerae Flos in proportions of 11.3-100%. The developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method could be used for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the four species of Lonicerae Flos and for the analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations adulterated with Lonicerae Flos. PMID:26420337

  12. Cellulitis in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Burns, Karen E; Otalora, Raul; Glisson, John R; Hofacre, Charles L

    2003-01-01

    A case of cellulitis was observed in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared for commercial meat production. This condition in Japanese quail has not been reported in the literature. This incident was the first, and to date only, occurrence of cellulitis in this processing plant. The cellulitis lesions were localized to the subcutis overlying the breast and inner thigh. Carcasses of processed birds and live birds from the affected farm were presented to the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia. Escherichia coli was cultured from the lesion. The affected live birds displayed lameness and had osteomyelitis. Pasteurella multocida serotype 3,4 was cultured from the liver and bone marrow of affected birds. Approximately 4.61% of the processed carcasses from the flock were condemned because of cellulitis. This represented a 10fold increase from the typical condemnation rate. Further investigation revealed birds were placed in higher than normal density; therefore, we theorize that the concurrent pasteurellosis and increased placement density resulted in the cellulitis condition. PMID:12713180

  13. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las car

  14. Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-01-01

    New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties. PMID:25054108

  15. Negative gravitactic behavior of Caenorhabditis japonica dauer larvae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi

    2013-04-15

    Gravity on Earth is a constant stimulus and many organisms are able to perceive and respond to it. However, there is no clear evidence that nematodes respond to gravity. In this study, we demonstrated negative gravitaxis in a nematode using dauer larvae (DL) of Caenorhabditis japonica, which form an association with their carrier insect Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica DL demonstrating nictation, a typical host-finding behavior, had a negative gravitactic behavior, whereas non-nictating C. japonica and C. elegans DL did not. The negative gravitactic index of nictating DL collected from younger nematode cultures was higher than that from older cultures. After a 24 h incubation in M9 buffer, nictating DL did not alter their negative gravitactic behavior, but a longer incubation resulted in less pronounced negative gravitaxis. These results are indicative of negative gravitaxis in nictating C. japonica DL, which is maintained once initiated, seems to be affected by the age of DL and does not appear to be a simple passive mechanism. PMID:23307800

  16. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388

  17. Effects of Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Type 2 Diabetes via PPAR-γ Activation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Min; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Haesu; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2015-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetic symptoms. Notwithstanding its use, the scientific basis on anti-diabetic properties of L. japonica is not yet established. This study is designed to investigate anti-diabetic effects of L. japonica in type 2 diabetic rats. L. japonica was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced rats. After the treatment of 4 weeks, L. japonica reduced high blood glucose level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic rats. In addition, body weight and food intake were restored by the L. japonica treatment. In the histopathologic examination, the amelioration of damaged β-islet in pancreas was observed in L. japonica-treated diabetic rats. The administration of L. japonica elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor subunit-1 protein expressions. The results demonstrated that L. japonica had anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetic rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulatory action of L. japonica as a potential mechanism. PMID:26174209

  18. [Bioinformatics analysis and expressed level of histone methyltransferase genes in Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Long, Ping; Zha, Liang-ping; Wang, Yao-long

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three histone methyltransferase genes were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica. The nucleotide and proteins characteristics, subcellular localization, senior structural domains and conservative forecasting were analyzed. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that 23 histone methyltransferases were mainly divided into two groups: lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferases. The result of gene expression showed that 23 histone methyltransferases showed preference in terms of interspecies and organs. They were more expressed in buds of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis and lower in leaves of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis. Eight genes were specific expressed in flower. These results provided basis for further understanding the function of histone methyltransferase and epigenetic regulation of active ingredients of L. japonica. PMID:26552158

  19. Group I intron located in PR protein homologue gene in Youngia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Ogura, A; Yokota, A; Yamaguchi, I; Sugiyama, J

    2000-03-01

    A Youngia japonica strain had a group I intron that was suggested to have been transferred from Protomyces inouyei, a pathogenic fungus of Y. japonica. It was located in the miraculin homologue coding gene by reverse complementation. The deduced amino acid sequence of this miraculin homologue of Y. japonica was similar to the amino acid sequences of tobacco and tomato pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:10803963

  20. Hormetic Responses of Lonicera Japonica Thunb. To Cadmium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouli; Chen, Wei; Jia, Lian; Yu, Shuai; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2015-01-01

    The hormetic responses of Lonicera japonica Thunb. to cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. The present results showed that root length and total biomass dry weight increased in comparison with the control at low concentrations Cd. The height of the plant exposed to 2.5 and 5 mg L-1 Cd increased significantly by 11.9% and 12.8% relative to the control, and with the increase of Cd concentrations in the medium, plant height began to decrease. The responses of photosynthetic pigments contents and relative water content to Cd stress had a similar trend, which all showed significantly an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve and confirmed that the stimulatory effect of low concentrations Cd occurred in the plant. Furthermore, L. japonica, as a new Cd-hyperaccumulator, could be considered as a new plant model to study the underlying mechanisms of the hormesis. PMID:26672952

  1. Hormetic Responses of Lonicera Japonica Thunb. To Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Jia, Lian; Yu, Shuai; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2015-01-01

    The hormetic responses of Lonicera japonica Thunb. to cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. The present results showed that root length and total biomass dry weight increased in comparison with the control at low concentrations Cd. The height of the plant exposed to 2.5 and 5 mg L(-1) Cd increased significantly by 11.9% and 12.8% relative to the control, and with the increase of Cd concentrations in the medium, plant height began to decrease. The responses of photosynthetic pigments contents and relative water content to Cd stress had a similar trend, which all showed significantly an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve and confirmed that the stimulatory effect of low concentrations Cd occurred in the plant. Furthermore, L. japonica, as a new Cd-hyperaccumulator, could be considered as a new plant model to study the underlying mechanisms of the hormesis. PMID:26672952

  2. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gi Byoung; Heo, Ki Joon; Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hee Ju; Nho, Chu Won; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2(filter) at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively). In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97%) than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß)-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a bioaerosol control

  3. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hee Ju; Nho, Chu Won; Bae, Gwi- Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively). In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97%) than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß)-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a bioaerosol control

  4. Species-specific recognition of the carrier insect by dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis japonica.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi

    2013-02-15

    Host recognition is crucial during the phoretic stage of nematodes because it facilitates their association with hosts. However, limited information is available on the direct cues used for host recognition and host specificity in nematodes. Caenorhabditis japonica forms an intimate association with the burrower bug Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica dauer larvae (DL), the phoretic stage of the nematode, are mainly found on adult P. japonensis females but no other species. To understand the mechanisms of species-specific and female carrier-biased ectophoresy in C. japonica, we investigated whether C. japonica DL could recognize their hosts using nematode loading and chemoattraction experiments. During the loading experiments, up to 300 C. japonica DL embarked on male and female P. japonensis, whereas none or very few utilized the other shield bugs Erthesina fullo and Macroscytus japonensis or the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In the chemoattraction experiments, hexane extracts containing the body surface components of nymphs and both adult P. japonensis sexes attracted C. japonica DL, whereas those of other shield bugs did not. Parastrachia japonensis extracts also arrested the dispersal of C. japonica DL released at a site where hexane extracts were spotted on an agar plate; i.e. >50% of DL remained at the site even 60 min after nematode inoculation whereas M. japonensis extracts or hexane alone did not have the same effect. These results suggest that C. japonica DL recognize their host species using direct chemical attractants from their specific host to maintain their association. PMID:23077159

  5. Duration of Temperature exposure controls growth of Zostera japonica: implications for zonation and colonization

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass congeners in the genus Zostera are found along the Pacific Coast of North America: native Z. marina L. and the non-native Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn. Efforts to understand the drivers behind the expanding colonization of Z. japonica have led to interest ...

  6. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  7. Complexity of indica-japonica varietal differentiation in Bangladesh rice landraces revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mumu; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Fu, Yongcai; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. As a result, three distinct groups were detected by cluster analysis, corresponding to indica, Aus and japonica rice. Among deepwater rice varieties analyzed some having particular morphological features that mainly corresponded to the japonica varietal group. Some small seeded and aromatic varieties from Bangladesh also corresponded to the japonica varietal group. This research for the first time establishes that the japonica varietal group is a prominent component of traditional varieties in Bangladesh, particularly in deepwater areas. PMID:23853518

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin; Shen, He Ding

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica are described first in the article. The mitogenomes (14 772 bp and 14 601 bp) contain 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes, and one putative control region (CR). CR is not well characterized due to the lack of discrete conserved sequence blocks. This characteristic is similar with CRs of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes, which is the typical bivalvia mitochondrial gene composition. PMID:26244691

  9. A bacterial pathogen infecting gametophytes of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yanting; Li, Wei

    2013-03-01

    A newly identified bacterial disease of kelp ( Saccharina japonica) gametophytes was found in clone cultures. It is characterized by swollen gametophyte cells in the early period of infection followed by filamentous fading. An alginolytic marine bacterium referred to as A-1 was isolated from the diseased gametophytes. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing and morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterium was identified as a strain of the genus Alteromonas. By testing Koch's postulates, Alteromonas sp. A-1 was further confirmed as the pathogen. The infection process was also investigated using both scanning electron and light microscopy.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes; order Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masato; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    We used two sequencing methods, namely long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer walking, to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Dugesia japonica and most of the mtDNA sequence of Dugesia ryukyuensis. The genome of D. japonica contained 36 genes including 12 of the 13 protein-coding genes characteristic of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The genome of D. ryukyuensis contained 33 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 19 transfer RNA genes. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome from the Dugesia species showed no clear homology with either the Neodermata or other free-living Rhabditophora. This indicates that the platyhelminths exhibit great variability in mitochondrial gene order. This is the first complete sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome of a free-living member of Rhabditophora, which will facilitate further studies on the population genetics and genomic evolution of the Platyhelminthes. PMID:23030340

  11. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development. PMID:12970483

  12. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females. PMID:26492411

  13. [Study on antioxidant chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica leaves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Zhang, Qi-wei; Li, Chun; Liu, Su

    2015-06-01

    Guided by the antioxidant activity, the EtOAc-soluble and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the 50% methanol extract of Lonicera japonica leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatorgraphic methods, and the structures were identified by spectral analysis and comparison to the data reported in literature. As a result, nine compounds were obtained and identified as 5-O-caffeoylquinicacid (1), chlorogenicacid (2), 4-O-caffeoylquinicacid (3), luteolin-7-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)] -β-D-glucopyranoside (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8) and luteolin (9). The antioxidant activity of the nine compounds were determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging method, and ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Their antioxidant activities from high to low were 5 > 9 > 2 > 8 > 7 > 6 > 1 > 3 > 4. Among them, luteoloside (5) had the strongest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 0.018 18 g x L(-1), and luteolin (IC50 0.023 6 g x L(-1)) and chlorogenicacid (IC50 0.035 17 g x L(-1)) ranks No. 2 and 3. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of luteoloside and luteolin were stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 0.027 54 g x L(-1)). These results gave a basis for the further study and utilization of L. japonica leaves. PMID:26591528

  14. Rice tungro spherical virus resistance into photoperiod-insensitive japonica rice by marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Shim, Junghyun; Torollo, Gideon; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Cabunagan, Rogelio C; Choi, Il-Ryong; Yeo, Un-Sang; Ha, Woon-Goo

    2015-09-01

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is one of the destructive and prevalent diseases in the tropical region. RTD is caused by Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. Cultivation of japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica) in tropical Asia has often been restricted because most japonica cultivars are sensitive to short photoperiod, which is characteristic of tropical conditions. Japonica1, a rice variety bred for tropical conditions, is photoperiod-insensitive, has a high yield potential, but is susceptible to RTD and has poor grain quality. To transfer RTD resistance into Japonica1, we made two backcrosses (BC) and 8 three-way crosses (3-WC) among Japonica1 and RTSV-resistant cultivars. Among 8,876 BC1F2 and 3-WCF2 plants, 342 were selected for photoperiod-insensitivity and good grain quality. Photoperiod-insensitive progenies were evaluated for RTSV resistance by a bioassay and marker-assisted selection (MAS), and 22 BC1F7 and 3-WCF7 lines were selected based on the results of an observational yield trial. The results demonstrated that conventional selection for photoperiod-insensitivity and MAS for RTSV resistance can greatly facilitate the development of japonica rice that is suitable for cultivation in tropical Asia. PMID:26366118

  15. Science and management of the introduced seagrass Zostera japonica in North America.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Deborah J; Kaldy, James E; Gaeckle, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Zostera japonica. Z. japonica is considered "invasive" and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. Oregon and British Columbia, Canada appear to have no specific policies with regard to Z. japonica. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develop better informed management decisions and aid in defining a uniform management strategy for Z. japonica. PMID:24100942

  16. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Deborah J.; Kaldy, James E.; Gaeckle, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Zostera japonica. Z. japonica is considered "invasive" and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. Oregon and British Columbia, Canada appear to have no specific policies with regard to Z. japonica. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develop better informed management decisions and aid in defining a uniform management strategy for Z. japonica.

  17. Different Gene Expression Patterns between Leaves and Flowers in Lonicera japonica Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libin; Long, Yan; Fu, Chunhua; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Jia, Haibo; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), GO (Gene Ontology), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P ≤ 0.05) between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including "Metabolic process," "Response to stimulus," "Cellular process," and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future. PMID:27242839

  18. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  19. Dissolution of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Zoysia japonica in AMIMCl with ultrasonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Hou, Qidong

    2013-10-15

    In this study, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), an ionic liquid, was synthesized and characterized by a series of test methods. Pretreatment of Zoysia japonica by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) was shown to reduce significantly the mass of hemicellulose and lignin in biomass, thereby breaking the lignocellulosic structure. Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX showed reasonable solubility in AMIMCl upon ultrasonic treatment. The rate of cellulose regeneration from Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX increased with increase in applied power of ultrasonication within a certain power range from 0 to 110 W. The regeneration rate of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Z. japonica reached a maximum of 97% when the ultrasonic power was 110 W. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that the regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:23987362

  20. Development of microsatellite loci for the endangered seagrass Zostera japonica (Zosteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Xue, Dongxiu; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: New microsatellite markers were developed for the Asian endangered seagrass Zostera japonica (Zosteraceae) to assess genetic diversity and population structure of this species. In China, Z. japonica populations have drastically decreased since the 1970s. Methods and Results: A total of 12 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in Z. japonica. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 11. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.772 and from 0 to 1.000, respectively. Conclusions: The new microsatellites will be useful in evaluating clonality and population structure of Z. japonica and aiding in conservation and management of the endangered seagrass in Asia. PMID:26421255

  1. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mysid shrimp, Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida).

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sanghee; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the mitogenome sequence of Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida), which is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the order Mysida. The mitogenome of N. japonica is 17,652 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region (CR). Mitogenome analysis of N. japonica revealed a novel gene order that included inversions in three PCGs and five tRNAs, compared with H. americanus, the ancestral pancrustacean ground pattern. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Malacostraca. As seen from the phylogenetic tree, N. japonica belongs to the order Mysida within Malacostraca. PMID:26114317

  3. Transepithelial transport of phenolic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2015-09-01

    The oral bioavailabilities of phenolic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae beverage were low. The observation from an in vitro Caco-2 cell model showed that the absorptions of phenolic acids were mainly permeated via paracellular diffusion, and influenced by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Besides, the Papp (AP→BL) values in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae were significantly higher than those of monomers, which was attributed to the decrease of efflux ratios (<1.0) influenced by flavones (luteoloside and luteolin) on the P-gp, but they were still poorly absorbed. The results indicated that the absorptions in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae as well as those of monomers were mainly restricted by the tight junctions (TJs). Food supplements (honey and propolis) or edible excipient (chitooligosaccharide) as TJ enhancers will be investigated to improve the functions of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae healthy beverages. PMID:26213252

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Malassezia japonica isolated from psoriasis vulgaris patients.

    PubMed

    Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Handa, Sanjeev; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M

    2015-03-01

    Malassezia species, which are skin colonizers, are being debated as to their pathogenic role in various cutaneous diseases. Species identification of Malassezia is important as particular species have been implicated in or associated with specific diseases. Malassezia japonica, a relatively newly described species, has not been completely characterized owing to the rarity of its isolation. In the present study we describe phenotypic and molecular characterization of six M. japonica strains isolated from patients with psoriasis vulgaris. In contrast to the physiological and biochemical properties of the M. japonica type strain, CBS9348, all our isolates assimilated Tween 20 and showed positive β-glucosidase activity, and the Cremophor EL utilization test was negative. However, the sequences of the D1/D2 region of rDNA, ITS2 and IGS1 regions of all our isolates clustered with the type strain of M. japonica. PMID:25587082

  5. Bioactive sesquiterpenoids from the flowers of Inula japonica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-De; Ding, Lin-Fen; Tu, Wen-Chao; Yang, Hui; Su, Jia; Peng, Li-Yan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Inula japonica led to isolation of nine sesquiterpenoids, inujaponins A-I, as well as eighteen known ones. These sesquiterpenoids belong to six skeletal-types, including eudesmane, 1,10-seco-eudesmane, germacrane, guaiane, 4,5-seco-guaiane, and pseudoguaiane sesquiterpenoids. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of inujaponin A, eupatolide, and deacetylovatifolin were determined by Cu-Kα X-ray crystallographic analysis. Most of the isolated compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.57 to 22.58 μM. Some selected compounds also possessed significant inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values ranging from 1.42 to 8.99 μM. PMID:27452450

  6. Aromatic glycosides from the whole plants of Iris japonica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-Ru; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan; Li, Li; Ni, Gang; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the whole plants of Iris japonica led to the isolation of four new aromatic glycosides. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (2), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (3), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. PMID:27310650

  7. The biogeography of the North Pacific right whale ( Eubalaena japonica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Coyle, Kenneth O.

    2009-03-01

    The eastern North Pacific population of right whales ( Eubalaena japonica) is among the most endangered whale populations, with an estimated size of only 10s of individuals. The effectiveness of measures (e.g., protected areas, abundance surveys) intended to promote recovery of this population will be enhanced by understanding its distribution, habitat use, and habitat characteristics. In order to facilitate such understanding, we summarized relevant right whale biology, reviewed the life history of their zooplankton prey species, and related North Pacific oceanography to the production, distribution, and concentration of these prey at three scales of variability. We discuss how ocean processes may drive zooplankton distribution and concentration, and present hypotheses about how prey patches suitable for right whale foraging might be formed. Such hypotheses, combined with available distributional data and descriptions of the ocean environment, would be suitable for predicting potential right whale foraging habitat.

  8. Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sunil; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Janick, Jules; Cao, Shifeng; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-06-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical evergreen tree whose fruit is consumed both fresh and processed. Loquat fruit is a good source of minerals and carotenoids, while the kernel is rich in protein and carbohydrates. It has been considered a non-climacteric fruit, but there is evidence that some cultivars have a ripening pattern similar to that of climacteric fruits. The fruit has a short postharvest life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to physical and mechanical damage, loss of moisture and nutrients, and decay. Low-temperature storage extends the shelf life of loquat fruit, but some cultivars are severely affected by chilling injury and flesh browning during cold storage. Purple spot, browning and leatheriness are major postharvest disorders. The shelf life of loquat can be extended by modified or controlled atmosphere storage as well as by postharvest treatment with 1-methyl cyclopropene or methyl jasmonate. PMID:24395491

  9. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  10. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of Laminaria japonica against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Si Young

    2013-06-01

    Laminaria japonica is a brown alga, which is consumed widely in Korea, Japan, and China. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of L. japonica against oral microbial species to assess the possible application of L. japonica extracts in dental care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined in culture medium using a microdilution method. The MICs of ethanol extracts of L. japonica with oral streptococci were 62.5-500 μg/ml and the MBCs were 125-1000 μg/ml. The MICs of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs of A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus were 500 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. The MICs were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The killing of Streptococcus mutans and P. gingivalis was dependent on the incubation time. The killing of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis was significantly dependent on the extract concentration. Bacterial treatment with L. japonica extracts changed the cell surface texture of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis. The results of this study suggest that L. japonica extracts may be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents to combat oral pathogens. PMID:23583539

  11. Different Gene Expression Patterns between Leaves and Flowers in Lonicera japonica Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Libin; Long, Yan; Fu, Chunhua; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Jia, Haibo; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), GO (Gene Ontology), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P ≤ 0.05) between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including “Metabolic process,” “Response to stimulus,” “Cellular process,” and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future. PMID:27242839

  12. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North AmericaOF THE INTRODUCED SEAGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  13. Research and control of advanced schistosomiasis japonica in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Aicheng; Huang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Among the three main schistosomes (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma haematobium) known to infect humans, S. japonicum causes the most serious pathological lesions. In China, only schistosomiasis japonica is transmitted. From the 1950s, massive epidemiological investigations and active control measures for schistosomiasis japonica have been carried out. At the early stage of schistosomiasis control program, there were about 12 million schistosomiasis patients, and about 5% of schistosomiasis patients belong to advanced patients, which was 600,000. After more than a half century of active schistosomiasis control work, the schistosomiasis situation has been reduced markedly. The nearest epidemiological investigation showed that, by the end of 2012, there were still 240,000 schistosomiasis patients with the descent rate of 98% and 30,000 advanced patients with the descent rate of 95%. This paper reviews the rich experiences of advanced schistosomiasis research and control in China, including that the epidemiology researches confirm there is a family aggregation of advanced schistosomiasis and advanced schistosomiasis patients have no significance to the schistosomiasis transmission in transmission-interrupted areas but still are an infection source in endemic areas; pathogenic mechanism researches verify that genetic factors and immunoregulation play important roles in the disease developing process; ultrasound image examinations are used not only in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis but also in the guidance of treatment and evaluation of therapeutic effects and, furthermore, in the risk predictions of portal hypertension and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; clinical practices demonstrate that praziquantel can be used in most of advanced schistosomiasis patients, and the therapy not only can interrupt the schistosomiasis transmission somewhat but also is favorable for liver fibrosis improvement; the

  14. Mapping invasive Fallopia japonica by combined spectral, spatial, and temporal analysis of digital orthophotos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Lucieer, Arko; Podobnikar, Tomaž; Čarni, Andraž

    2012-10-01

    Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is listed among 100 of the World's worst invasive alien species and poses an increasing threat to ecosystems and agriculture in Northern America, Europe, and Oceania. This study proposes a remote sensing method to detect local occurrences of F. japonica from low-cost digital orthophotos taken in early spring and summer by concurrently exploring its temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics. Temporal characteristics of the species are quantified by a band ratio calculated from the green and red spectral channels of both images. The normalized difference vegetation index was used to capture the high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of F. japonica in summer while the characteristic texture of F. japonica is quantified by calculating gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) measures. After establishing the optimum kernel size to quantify texture, the different input features (spectral, spatial, and texture) were stacked and used as input to the random forest (RF) classifier. The proposed method was tested for a built-up and semi-natural area in Slovenia. The spectral, spatial, and temporal provided an equally important contribution for differentiating F. japonica from other land cover types. The combination of all signatures resulted in a producer accuracy of 90.3% and a user accuracy of 98.1% for F. japonica when validation was based on independent regions of interest. A producer accuracy of 61.4% was obtained for F. japonica when comparing the classification result with all occurrences of F. japonica identified during a field validation campaign. This is an encouraging result given the very small patches in which the species usually occur and the high degree of intermingling with other plants. All hot spots were identified and even likely infestations of F. japonica that had remained undiscovered during the field campaign were detected. The probability images resulting from the RF classifier can be used to reduce the

  15. Population dynamics and production of Neanthes japonica (Izuka) in a shrimp pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianwen; Wu, Baoling

    1993-12-01

    During late February to mid-March, 1991, when mature N. japonica swarmed in the sea surface off Jimo County, Qingdao, seawater containing numerous early embryos was pumped into a nearby 2.7 ha. muddysand shrimp pond, where the embryos continued to develop. 800000 Penaeus chinensis seedlings were introduced into the pond on May 30, 1991. Monthly benthic samplings were carried out to determine the population dynamics and production of N. japonica in this atypical environment. The density of N. japonica varied from 0 to 20 400 ind./m2. The predation of P. chinensis was considered to be responsible for the mass mortality of N. japonica in June through July, when the worms were 2.2 3.3cm in length and lived in the top 2 4cm sediment. From August to September of 1991, the hottest period in the site, there was no substantial mortality of N. japonica as reported in earlier literature. This was explained by the deeper burrowing of the worms that protected them from predation by shrimps. Monthly biomass ranged from 45.2 to 385.3 g/m2, with a mean of 187.7 g/m2. Production of May. 1991 through March, 1992 was 1071.4 g/m2, with a P/B ratio of 5.7.

  16. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Gene Expression of MicroRNAs in Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaolong; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Junhui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Tiying; Jiang, Chao; Zha, Liangping; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which play crucial regulatory roles in plant secondary metabolism and responses to the environment, could be developed as promising biomarkers for different varieties and production areas of herbal medicines. However, limited information is available for miRNAs from Lonicera japonica, which is widely used in East Asian countries owing to various pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target miRNA expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of secondary metabolic regulation in different tissues and varieties of L. japonica. For precise normalization of gene expression data in L. japonica, 16 candidate miRNAs were examined in three tissues, as well as 21 cultivated varieties collected from 16 production areas, using GeNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed combination of u534122 and u3868172 as the best reference genes across all samples. Their specificity was confirmed by detecting the cycling threshold (C t) value ranges in different varieties of L. japonica collected from diverse production areas, suggesting the use of these two reference miRNAs is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization with different tissues, varieties, and production areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on validation of reference miRNAs in honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.). Restuls from this study can further facilitate discovery of functional regulatory miRNAs in different varieties of L. japonica. PMID:27507983

  17. Therapeutic effect of Broussonetia papyrifera and Lonicera japonica in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Eun; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Lee, Somin; Park, Sung-Jin; Chang, Seung-Hee; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Vibin, M; Han, Kiwon; Son, Kun-Ho; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Chae, Chanhee; Bang, Sung-Hye; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2013-11-01

    Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. and Lonicera japonica Thunb. have been used in recent medicinal research for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of B. papyrifera and L. japonica ethanolic extracts in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma, in which intra-peritoneal (IP) injections and aerosol ovalbumin delivery were used to induce allergic asthma. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum samples, lungs and livers were collected from the experimental groups. In the groups treated with B. papyrifera and L. japonica extracts, CD3, CD4, serum IgE and IL-4 levels; activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9; and eotaxin levels in the BALF significantly decreased to near normal levels. Results of a histopathological analysis showed that the level of inflammation and mucous secretions reduced in the treated groups compared to the corresponding levels in the other groups. Moreover, results of a serum enzymatic analysis showed the non-toxic nature of the extracts in the B. papyrifera and L. japonica treated groups. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that the B. papyrifera and L. japonica extracts may be very effective against asthma and inflammation related diseases. PMID:24427953

  18. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Gene Expression of MicroRNAs in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaolong; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Junhui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Tiying; Jiang, Chao; Zha, Liangping; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which play crucial regulatory roles in plant secondary metabolism and responses to the environment, could be developed as promising biomarkers for different varieties and production areas of herbal medicines. However, limited information is available for miRNAs from Lonicera japonica, which is widely used in East Asian countries owing to various pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target miRNA expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of secondary metabolic regulation in different tissues and varieties of L. japonica. For precise normalization of gene expression data in L. japonica, 16 candidate miRNAs were examined in three tissues, as well as 21 cultivated varieties collected from 16 production areas, using GeNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed combination of u534122 and u3868172 as the best reference genes across all samples. Their specificity was confirmed by detecting the cycling threshold (Ct) value ranges in different varieties of L. japonica collected from diverse production areas, suggesting the use of these two reference miRNAs is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization with different tissues, varieties, and production areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on validation of reference miRNAs in honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.). Restuls from this study can further facilitate discovery of functional regulatory miRNAs in different varieties of L. japonica. PMID:27507983

  19. Calystegine B4, a novel trehalase inhibitor from Scopolia japonica.

    PubMed

    Asano, N; Kato, A; Kizu, H; Matsui, K; Watson, A A; Nash, R J

    1996-10-31

    GLC-MS analysis has been developed for screening plants of the family Solanaceae for new calystegines. GLC-MS analyses of the extract of Scopolia japonica showed the presence of a new tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid in addition to the known calystegines A3, A5, B1, B2, B3, and C1. We gave this new alkaloid the trivial name calystegine B4. The structure of calystegine B4 was determined as 1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 alpha, 4 alpha-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane from a variety of NMR spectral data. Calystegines B1, B2, and C1 are potent competitive inhibitors with Ki values ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-7) M for almond beta-glucosidase, while calystegine B4 inhibited this enzyme in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 7.3 microM. Calystegine B2 is also a potent inhibitor of green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase, whereas calystegine B4 exhibited no significant activity for this enzyme. Among rat intestinal glycosidases, only trehalase was potently inhibited by calystegine B4, with an IC50 value of 9.8 microM. Furthermore, calystegine B4 potently inhibited pig kidney trehalase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 1.2 microM, but it was almost inactive against yeast and fungal trehalases. PMID:8938376

  20. Sound production in the aquatic isopod Cymodoce japonica (Crustacea: Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Takeru; Ishida, Hideki; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and/or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 2500-3000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 μm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and/or reproductive competitions. PMID:26504157

  1. Expression of Nephrin Homologue in the Freshwater Planarian, Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomomi; Takagi, Sota; Matsumoto, Midori; Tashiro, Fumio; Sakai, Tatsuo; Ichimura, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells. PMID:25859064

  2. Protective effect of Laminaria japonica with probiotics on murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Bu, Youngmin; Bae, Jinhyun; Bang, Yu-mi; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Hyejung; Beom-Joon, Lee; Hyun, Yoo Hye; Park, Jae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN- γ , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF- α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1 β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1 β , IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN- γ , IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics. PMID:24948848

  3. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections. PMID:26758298

  4. Characteristic odor components of essential oils from Eurya japonica.

    PubMed

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), α-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-β-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-β-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-β-damascenone and (E)-β-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts. PMID:25843279

  5. INTERTIDAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURE VARIANCE AS A POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND ZOSTERA JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...

  6. Effects of salinity on survival of the exotic seagrass Zostera japonica subjected to extreme high temperature stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-indigenous seagrass that is expanding along the Pacific Coast of North America. The ecophysiology of this seagrass is poorly studied and management of the species is fragmented. We collected Z. japonica plants from Padilla Bay, WA., Yaquina Bay and Coo...

  7. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  8. Study on creep properties of Japonica cooked rice and its relationship with rice chemical compositions and sensory evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creep properties of four varieties japonica cooked rice were tested using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA Q800). The creep curve was described by Burgers model. The creep process of japonica cooked rice mainly consisted of retarded elastic deformation, epsilonR and viscous flow deformation, epsil...

  9. Litter quality, decomposition rates and saprotrophic mycoflora in Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene and in adjacent native grassland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincheva, T.; Barni, E.; Varese, G. C.; Brusa, G.; Cerabolini, B.; Siniscalco, C.

    2014-01-01

    Fallopia japonica succeeds in invading different ecosystems likely because of its huge biomass production. This biomass is characterized by low nutritional quality and low decomposition rates but knowledge on whether these features are correlated to microbial decomposers is still lacking. The aims of this work were: i) to determine litter decomposition rates of native grassland vegetation and F. japonica under different conditions in a year-round experiment; ii) to evaluate litter quality and/or site effect on the decomposition of the invader and native vegetation and iii) to characterize mycoflora isolated from F. japonica and native vegetation litter. The results showed that F. japonica litter decomposes 3-4 times slower than that of native grassland, mainly due to its low N content and consequently high C/N ratio both in leaves and stems. As decomposition proceeds C/N in F. japonica litter decreases to values approaching those of the grassland litter. Site had no effect on the decomposition rates of F. japonica and grassland litter. Total fungal load and composition differed between F. japonica and native litter, and also varied across sites. These results indicate that the successful invasive plant F. japonica affects the structure and functions of the invaded ecosystem through a huge production of low quality, slow-decomposing litter that selects saprotrophic fungi.

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fatsia japonica (Apiales: Araliaceae) and the phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinyi; Feng, Xiao; Li, Mengzhu; Yang, Bingxian; Gao, Cuixia; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we have sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Fatsia japonica, a well-known ornamental and potential medicinal plant. The complete chloroplast genome of F. japonica is 155 613 bp in length with 62.09% AT content, has a typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC 86 487 bp) and small (SSC 17 866 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs 25 929 bp) and contains 114 unique genes with 18 genes duplicated in the IR making a total of 132 genes. The phylogenetic analysis indicated the position of F. japonica in Apiales and has the potential to facilitate a better understanding of the intergeneric relationships in the family. PMID:26153743

  11. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  12. Terminal N-Acetylgalactosamine-Specific Leguminous Lectin from Wisteria japonica as a Probe for Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Keisuke; Teruya, Futaba; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Millettia japonica was recently reclassified into the genus Wisteria japonica based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Because the seed of Wisteria floribunda expresses leguminous lectins with unique N-acetylgalactosamine-binding specificity, we purified lectin from Wisteria japonica seeds using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Glycan microarray analysis demonstrated that unlike Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria brachybotrys lectins, which bind to both terminal N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues, Wisteria japonica lectin (WJA) specifically bound to both α- and β-linked terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose residues on oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. Further, frontal affinity chromatography using more than 100 2-aminopyridine-labeled and p-nitrophenyl-derivatized oligosaccharides demonstrated that the ligands with the highest affinity for Wisteria japonica lectin were GalNAcβ1-3GlcNAc and GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, with Ka values of 9.5 × 104 and 1.4 × 105 M-1, respectively. In addition, when binding was assessed in a variety of cell lines, Wisteria japonica lectin bound specifically to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells while other Wisteria lectins bound equally to all of the cell lines tested. Wisteria japonica lectin binding to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells was dramatically decreased in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose, mannose, or N-acetylglucosamine, and was completely abrogated by β-hexosaminidase-digestion of these cells. These results clearly demonstrate that Wisteria japonica lectin binds to terminal N-acetylgalactosamine but not galactose. In addition, histochemical analysis of human squamous cell carcinoma tissue sections demonstrated that Wisteria japonica lectin specifically bound to differentiated cancer tissues but not normal tissue. This novel binding characteristic of Wisteria japonica lectin has the potential to become a powerful tool for clinical applications. PMID:24349556

  13. First occurrence of the non-native bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ryland, John S; Holt, Rohan; Loxton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Schizoporella japonica Ortmann was described from Japan but was subsequently introduced on Pacific oysters to the Pacific coast of North America, where it is now well established. In this paper we record it for the first time in European waters. The initial discovery was in a marina at Holyhead, North Wales, in July 2010 but S. japonica has since been observed abundantly in the Orkney Islands (from May 2011) and, subsequently, at other localities in northern Scotland. Introduction seems most likely to have been on an ocean-going vessel. The British material is here fully described and illustrated with SEMs and colour photographs; some unusual characters are discussed. Unlike other recently introduced bryozoans, S. japonica is a cold-water species and its breeding season in Britain extends through the winter. Extensive confusion between this and other species of Schizoporella on the west coast of Canada and the USA led us to make thorough morphometric comparisons between the species concerned (Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood), Schizoporella errata (Waters) and Schizoporella pseudoerrata Soule, Soule and Chaney). Zooid size in cheilostomate bryozoans is variable and often an unreliable character for species separation but shape (and therefore ratios between variables, which are independent of size) are often valuable: S. japonica zooids have a much greater length:width ratio than the other species. Density of frontal pseudopores provides a useful discriminatory character. Schizoporella unicornis, repeatedly reported in error from the Pacific coast of North America, does not occur there; it is a European species. Full comparisons are made between S. japonica and S. unicornis for European identification and between S. japonica, S. errata and S. pseudoerrata (which are also illustrated) for North American localities. PMID:24871847

  14. Characterization of Venom and Oviduct Components of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Matsumura, Takashi; Hirata, Makiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagata, Noriyo; Kataoka, Michiyo; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    During natural parasitization, Asobara japonica wasps introduce lateral oviduct (LO) components into their Drosophila hosts soon after the venom injection to neutralize its strong toxicity; otherwise, the host will die. Although the orchestrated relationship between the venom and LO components necessary for successful parasitism has attracted the attention of many researchers in this field, the molecular natures of both factors remain ambiguous. We here showed that precipitation of the venom components by ultracentrifugation yielded a toxic fraction that was inactivated by ultraviolet light irradiation, boiling, and sonication, suggesting that it is a virus-like entity. Morphological observation of the precipitate after ultracentrifugation showed small spherical heterogeneous virus-like particles 20–40 nm in diameter. The venom’s detrimental effect on D. melanogaster larvae was not directly neutralized by the LO components but blocked by a hemolymphal neutralizing factor activated by the LO factor. Furthermore, we found that A. japonica venom and LO components acted similarly on the larvae of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura: the venom injection caused mortality but coinjection of the LO factor protected S. litura larvae from the venom’s toxicity. In contrast, D. ficusphila and D. bipectinata, which are closely related to D. melanogaster but non-habitual host species of A. japonica, were not negatively affected by A. japonica venom due to an intrinsic neutralizing activity in their hemolymph, indicating that these species must have acquired a neutralizer of A. japonica venom during evolution. These results give new insights into the characteristics of both the venom and LO components: A. japonica females have utilized the virus-like toxic venom factor to exploit a wider range of host species after the evolutionary process enabled them to use the LO factor for activation of the host hemolymph neutralizer precursor, although the non-habitual host Drosophila

  15. Characterization of Venom and Oviduct Components of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Matsumura, Takashi; Hirata, Makiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagata, Noriyo; Kataoka, Michiyo; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    During natural parasitization, Asobara japonica wasps introduce lateral oviduct (LO) components into their Drosophila hosts soon after the venom injection to neutralize its strong toxicity; otherwise, the host will die. Although the orchestrated relationship between the venom and LO components necessary for successful parasitism has attracted the attention of many researchers in this field, the molecular natures of both factors remain ambiguous. We here showed that precipitation of the venom components by ultracentrifugation yielded a toxic fraction that was inactivated by ultraviolet light irradiation, boiling, and sonication, suggesting that it is a virus-like entity. Morphological observation of the precipitate after ultracentrifugation showed small spherical heterogeneous virus-like particles 20-40 nm in diameter. The venom's detrimental effect on D. melanogaster larvae was not directly neutralized by the LO components but blocked by a hemolymphal neutralizing factor activated by the LO factor. Furthermore, we found that A. japonica venom and LO components acted similarly on the larvae of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura: the venom injection caused mortality but coinjection of the LO factor protected S. litura larvae from the venom's toxicity. In contrast, D. ficusphila and D. bipectinata, which are closely related to D. melanogaster but non-habitual host species of A. japonica, were not negatively affected by A. japonica venom due to an intrinsic neutralizing activity in their hemolymph, indicating that these species must have acquired a neutralizer of A. japonica venom during evolution. These results give new insights into the characteristics of both the venom and LO components: A. japonica females have utilized the virus-like toxic venom factor to exploit a wider range of host species after the evolutionary process enabled them to use the LO factor for activation of the host hemolymph neutralizer precursor, although the non-habitual host Drosophila

  16. Sympatric spawning of Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica in the western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, M; Aoyama, J; Miller, M J; Yoshinaga, T; Shinoda, A; Hagihara, S; Tsukamoto, K

    2009-06-01

    Extensive collections were made of the larvae of the temperate Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and the tropical giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata in an overlapping area of the North Equatorial Current region of the western North Pacific Ocean. Collections of 189 A. marmorata and > 2500 A. japonica larvae during nine surveys from 1991 to 2007 showed that these two anguillid eels have similar spawning areas just west of the southern West Mariana Ridge. In July to August 2006 and August 2007, morphologically and genetically identified A. marmorata preleptocephali were mainly collected between 14.5-15 degrees N and 142-142.5 degrees E, where A. japonica preleptocephali were also caught in some of the same net tows. Fewer A. marmorata preleptocephali, however, were collected (n = 31) compared to those of A. japonica (n = c. 165), and fewer small larvae of A. marmorata were collected per tow than A. japonica (n = 1-10 and 1-294, respectively), suggesting relatively smaller spawning aggregations of A. marmorata. The distribution of preleptocephali and small larvae was wider in longitude in A. marmorata (131- 143 degrees E) than in A. japonica (137-143 degrees E), while the latitudinal range was almost the same (12-17 degrees N). Although spawning by these two species overlaps both spatially and temporally, the tropical eels of the North Pacific population of A. marmorata probably have a much longer spawning season with fewer spawners, at least in summer, and recruit to a much wider latitudinal range of growth habitats. PMID:20735676

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity. PMID:21851599

  18. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the perennial herb Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in the vulnerable plant Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae) to investigate its genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow. Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.043 to 0.855. Eleven markers were successfully amplified in the cultivar ‘Mego’ from Japan. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of H. nobilis var. japonica. PMID:25798342

  19. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  20. Genetic differentiation and evolutionary adaptation in Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Kimura, Megumi K; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko

    2014-12-01

    Local adaptation of plant species is a central issue for survival during global climate change, especially for long-lived forest trees, with their lengthy regeneration time and spatially limited gene flow. Identification of loci and/or genomic regions associated with local adaptation is necessary for knowledge of both evolution and molecular breeding for climate change. Cryptomeria japonica is an important species for forestry in Japan; it has a broad natural distribution and can survive in a range of different environments. The genetic structure of 14 natural populations of this species was investigated using 3930 SNP markers. Populations on the Pacific Ocean side of Japan are clearly different from those on the Japan Sea side, as discussed in previous studies. Structure analysis and population network trees show that peripheral populations, including the most northerly and southerly ones, have unique features. We found that the genetic differentiation coefficient is low, FST = 0.05, although it must account for the presence of important genes associated with adaptation to specific environments. In total, 208 outlier loci were detected, of which 43 were associated with environmental variables. Four clumped regions of outlier loci were detected in the genome by linkage analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was quite high in these clumps of outlier loci, which were found in linkage groups (LGs) 2, 7, 10, and 11, especially between populations of two varieties, and when interchromosomal LD was also detected. The LG7 region is characteristic of the Yakushima population, which is a large, isolated, peripheral population occupying a specific environment resulting from isolation combined with volcanic activity in the region. The detected LD may provide strong evidence for selection between varieties. PMID:25320072

  1. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (= Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, F; Mathis, A; Lang, S; Veronesi, E

    2016-09-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (= Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container-breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16-24-h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a TrueBeam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. PMID:27091384

  2. Combined effects of Laminaria japonica and transglutaminase on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of semi-dried chicken sausages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-08-01

    The effects of Laminaria japonica, Transglutaminase (TGase) and their combinations were investigated based on the physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of semi-dried chicken sausages. The moisture content, ash content, and water activity of the semi-dried chicken sausage containing a combination of Laminaria japonica and TGase were higher than the control (P < 0.05). The semi-dried chicken sausage with 1.0% Laminaria japonica and 1.0% TGase (T3) had less cooking loss compared to the control and other treatments (P < 0.05). The protein content and fat content, pH of batters and sausages, springiness, and cohesiveness of the semi-dried chicken sausages were not significantly different between the control and treatments with a combination of Laminaria japonica and TGase (P > 0.05). Among the sensory traits, color score was highest in the control and in the treatment with 2.0% TGase (T5) (P < 0.05). The flavor score was highest in the control, while the treatments with 1.0% Laminaria japonica combined with 1.0% TGase (T3) had the highest tenderness and juiciness scores (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of Laminaria japonica and TGase successfully improved textural properties and sensory characteristics of the semi-dried chicken sausages, and the combination of 1.0% Laminaria japonica and 1.0% TGase improved quality of the semi-dried chicken sausages the most. PMID:27252369

  3. Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially amplified tandem repeats as a major genome component of Northern Europe's oldest Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Heitkam, Tony; Petrasch, Stefan; Zakrzewski, Falk; Kögler, Anja; Wenke, Torsten; Wanke, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads. We performed graph-based read clustering implemented in the RepeatExplorer pipeline to estimate the C. japonica repeat fraction of 73 %. This enabled us to identify and characterize the most prominent satellite DNAs, Camellia japonica satellite 1-4 (CajaSat1-CajaSat4), and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by bioinformatics, fluorescent in situ and Southern hybridization. Within the Camellia genus, satellite spreading, array expansion and formation of higher-order structures highlight different modes of repeat evolution. The CajaSat satellites localize at prominent chromosomal sites, including (peri)centromeres and subtelomeres of all chromosomes, thus serving as chromosomal landmarks for their identification. This work provides an insight into the C. japonica chromosome organization and significantly expands the Camellia genomic knowledge, also with respect to the tea plant Camellia sinensis. PMID:26582634

  4. Exploiting genes and functional diversity of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera japonica and their substitutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-25

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species. PMID:23085319

  5. Temperature trumps light: Teasing apart interactive factors controlling non-indigenous Zostera japonica growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...

  6. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  7. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  8. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern. PMID:25569852

  9. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  10. Status of insecticide resistance and selection for imidacloprid resistance in the ladybird beetle Propylaea japonica (Thunberg).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Qiu, Bao-Li; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Ren, Shun-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Field populations or strains of Propylaea japonica collected from four places in southern China (Guangzhou, Nanning, Guilin, and Yuxi) were tested for susceptibility to four insecticides (abamectin, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) by the Petri-dish Potter tower method and compared with an insecticide-susceptible strain. Concentrations that proved lethal for 50% of the tested individuals (LC50) were estimated by probit analysis, and resistance factors (RF) were calculated at the LC50 level, which ranged from 1.6 to 10.1, depending on the insecticide. In addition, the Guangzhou strain formed the original population for imidacloprid resistance selection. After selection for 20 generations, the resistance had increased 39.3-fold. Fitness analysis in terms of such traits as fecundity, days to maturity, and survival showed that although both resistant and susceptible populations developed at comparable rates, the resistant strain was less fecund (it laid fewer eggs and a smaller proportion of those eggs hatched and resulted in adults), attaining a fitness score of only 0.56 relative to the susceptible strain. These observations suggest that it is possible to detect strains of P. japonica highly resistant to insecticides under laboratory conditions, and that resistance to imidacloprid carries considerable fitness costs to P. japonica. The study served to expand our understanding of the impact of imidacloprid resistance on biological parameters of P. japonica in more detail and to facilitate the deployment of natural enemies resistant to insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:26267056

  11. First report of Pilidium concavum causing leaf necrosis on Fallopia japonica in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. (= Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.; Japanese knotweed) is an invasive perennial forb in the Polygonaceae. It has been identified as a target for biological control in many parts of the world, including the USA. Plants with an unknown disease were collect...

  12. Development of Japonica mapping populations to validate GWAS in the rice diversity panel 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to validate associations identified in the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) between SNP markers and 34 phenotypic traits, four bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica accessions that were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. ...

  13. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 57°03′ N/153°00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific right whale follow:...

  14. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 57°03′ N/153°00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific right whale follow:...

  15. Stem volume Models and Validation for Cryptomeria japonica in Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, YeonOk; Jung, Sung Cheol; Lumbres, Roscinto Ian; Jeon, Chul Hyun; Kim, Chan Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out to fit different volume equations for Cryptomeria japonica trees in Jeju Experimental Forests, Jeju Island, Korea. A total of 120 Cryptomeria japonica trees were measured and were randomly split into two dataset One is for initial model development (80% of the dataset) and the other is for model validation (20% of the dataset). The two dataset were then combined for the final model development. Coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean difference (MD), absolute mean difference (AMD) were used as evaluation statistics to evaluate the performance of the different models. Results showed that volume models with two independent variables (DBH and total height) had a better performance as compared to models with only one (DBH). The result of model evaluation and validation showed that model 6 (V=aDbHc) was considered best based on the rank analysis among the candidate models. It is hope that the result of this study could help forests managers to easily predict the total volume of Cryptomeria japonica which is important in Carbon stock assessment of the different Cryptomeria japonica forests in Jeju Island, Korea.

  16. [Study on standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on GAP of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-nan; Li, Yong; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-liang; Wang, Pin-shu; Ding, Wan-long

    2015-09-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a method of residue analysis for thiamethoxam and to study its degradation dynamic and final residue and its standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on Lonicera japonica. Samples extracted with methanol by ultrasonication were purified with dichloromethane by liquid-liquid extraction and SPE column and analysed by HPLC-UV. The results showed that average rate was 84.91%-94.44% and RSD 1.74%-4.96% with addition of thiamethoxam in respectively diverse concentration, which meets inspection requirement of pesticide residue. Two kinds of dosages of thiamethoxam were treated- varying from recommended dosage (90 g x hm(-2)) to high dosage (135 g x hm(-2)), Results of two years test showed that thiamethoxam was degraded more than 90% seven days after application and the half - life period of thiamethoxam was 1.54-1.66 d. The digestion rate of thiamethoxam was fast in the L. japonica. The recommended MRL of thiamethoxam in the L. japonica is 0.1 mg x kg(-1), the dosage of 25% thiamethoxam WDG from 90-135 g x hm(-2) is sprayed less than three times a year on L. japonica and 14 days is proposed for the safety interval of the last pesticide application's and harvest's date. PMID:26983196

  17. Antioxidant responses of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) exposed to high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shize; Fu, Wenyan; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors, and is responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms. Induced thermal stress is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to oxidative damage. The ladybeetle, Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is considered a successful natural enemy because of its tolerance to high temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, we investigated the effect of high temperatures (35, 37, 39, 41 and 43 °C) on the survival and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in P. japonica adults. The results indicated that P. japonica adults could not survive at 43 °C. CAT, GST and TAC were significantly increased when compared to the control (25 °C), and this played an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. SOD and POD activity, as well as MDA, did not differ significantly at 35 and 37 °C compared to the control; however, there were increased levels of SOD, POD and MDA when the temperature was above 37 °C. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in P. japonica adults. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense system in predaceous coccinellids (the third trophic level). The findings provide useful information for predicting population dynamics and understanding the potential for P. japonica as a natural enemy to control pest insects under varied environmental conditions. PMID:25614965

  18. The High-throughput sequencing of Sillago japonica mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic position within the genus Sillago.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sufang; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Sillago japonica was determined through high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The circular mtDNA molecule was 16 645 bp in size and encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and content identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The identity analysis revealed that the mitogenome sequence of S. japonica shared a relatively high sequence identity to S. asiatica (81.5%) compared with S. aeolus (77.5%), S. indica (77.1%), and S. sihama (76.3%). The neighbor-joining tree of complete mitogenome sequence showed that S. japonica firstly clustered together with S. asiatica, then grouped with S. indica and S. sihama, and finally gathered with S. aeolus. Taken together, the results absolutely supported the evolutionary position of S. japonica and provided new insights into phylogenetic relationships of Sillago. PMID:26403888

  19. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  20. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  1. Growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-06-01

    The seagrass Zostera japonica occurs mainly in the intertidal zone and is thus exposed to widely varying environmental conditions affecting its growth and distribution compared to subtidal seagrasses. The growth dynamics of Z. japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone were investigated in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea to examine the environmental stresses and limiting factors on the growth of intertidal seagrasses. The shoot density and morphology, biomass, and leaf productivity of Z. japonica were measured in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors at its upper and lower distributional limits and in an intermediate zone of the intertidal area. The mean exposure time to the atmosphere during low tide in the upper intertidal zone was approximately 1.5- and 1.9-fold longer than that in the intermediate and lower intertidal zones, respectively. Shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in the intermediate zone than at the upper and lower distributional limits. Longer emersion leading to a various of environmental stresses appeared to reduce Z. japonica growth in the upper intertidal zone, whereas interspecific competitive interactions related to irradiance seemed to affect Z. japonica growth in the lower intertidal zone. Shoot size, density, biomass, and leaf productivity were lower in the upper than in the lower zone, implying that emersion-associated stresses in the upper zone had a greater detrimental effect on Z. japonica growth than did stresses occurring in the lower zone. The productivity of Z. japonica showed strong positive correlations with air and water temperature, suggesting enhancement of Z. japonica production at higher temperatures. Thus, the predicted increases in air and water temperature associated with global climate change might have positive effects on the growth and extension in distributional range of this species.

  2. Dioscorea japonica extract down-regulates prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Tanaka, Sayuri; Tsukayama, Izumi; Takafuji, Miki; Hanada, Takae; Arakawa, Toshiya; Kawakami, Yuki; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 plays a role in an array of pathophysiological responses, including inflammation, carcinogenesis and so on. Prostaglandin E2 is synthesized from arachidonic acid by the enzymes cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E synthase. In some pathological conditions, the isozymes cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 are transiently induced, leading to prostaglandin E2 overproduction. The present study showed that Dioscorea japonica extract suppresses mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effects of Dioscorea japonica extract on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 were confirmed by Western blotting, cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin E2 production. Dioscorea japonica extract induced the translocation of nuclear factor-κB from the nucleus to the cytosol and inhibited the activity of the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter. Furthermore Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 and enhanced apoptotic terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive intensity in A549 cells. These results suggest that Dioscorea japonica extract suppresses the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, with the regulation of the transcriptional activity of cyclooxygenase-2, and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Thus, Dioscorea japonica may contribute to the prevention of prostaglandin E2-mediated pathophysiological responses such as carcinogenesis and inflammation. PMID:25411520

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds. PMID:26573373

  4. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  5. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  6. Detection of Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus in Anguilla japonica elvers

    PubMed Central

    OKAZAKI, Sachiko; YASUMOTO, Shinya; KOYAMA, Satoshi; TSUCHIAKA, Shinobu; NAOI, Yuki; OMATSU, Tsutomu; ONO, Shin-ichi; MIZUTANI, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers. PMID:26672624

  7. Detection of Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus in Anguilla japonica elvers.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Yasumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Satoshi; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Naoi, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers. PMID:26672624

  8. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles. PMID:26996003

  9. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction. PMID:26084157

  10. New 3,4-seco-Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lang; Li, Yanping; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Dan; Li, Rongtao

    2016-01-01

    Three new 3,4-seco-grayanane diterpenoids, neopierisoids D-F (2-4), and a new natural one, neopierisoid C (1), were isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one and two dimensional (1- and 2D)-NMR, as well as high resolution-electron ionization (HR-EI)-MS. PMID:27477663

  11. Quantitative determination of triterpenoid glycosides in Fatsia japonica Decne. & Planch. using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuewei; Yu, Siran; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2014-01-01

    Fatsia japonica Decne. & Planch. is a triterpenoid glycoside-rich herb with anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A method for quantitative analysis of the complex triterpenoid glycosides in this medicinal plant has not been established so far. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous qualification of 11 glycosides in F. japonica. The analysis was performed on an ODS-2 Hypersil column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with a binary gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile. The established HPLC method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, stability, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Results showed that this method had good linearity with R(2) at 0.99992-0.99999 in the test range of 0.04-9.00μg/μL. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the standard compounds were 0.013-0.020μg/μL and 0.040-0.060μg/μL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) of run variations were 0.83-1.40% for intra-day and 0.84-3.59% for inter-day. The analyzed compounds in the samples were stable for at least 36h, and the spike recoveries of the detected glycosides were 99.67-103.11%. The developed HPLC method was successfully applied for the measurements of the contents of 11 triterpenoid glycoside in different parts of F. japonica. Taken together, the HPLC method newly developed in this study could be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in F. japonica and its products. PMID:24176752

  12. [Influence of different processing methods on Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base in Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Yong; Shen, Juan; Zhou, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zheng-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2014-07-01

    To study the impact of five different origin processing methods, namely natural drying, drying in baking shop, drying by microwave heating, drying in drum and drying with sulphur fumigation, on the quality of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base in Jiangsu Province, with the contents of chlorogenic acid and galuteolin and the similarity in HPLC fingerprints as the evaluation indicators. The results showed that different origin processing methods had significant impact on the content of chlorogenic acid and the similarity in HPLC fingerprints, but with no significant difference on the content of galuteolin. By means of drying by microwave heating and drying in drum, the samples showed higher contents of chlorogenic acid, respectively 3.67% and 3.39%. The similarities of HPLC fingerprints were 0.815 and 0.793, respectively. By means of the drying in baking shop and the drying with sulphur fumigation, the contents of chlorogenic acid in the samples were 2. 87% and 2. 53% , respectively. The similarities of HPLC fingerprints were 0.964 and 0.765, respectively. The lowest content of chlorogenic acid in naturally dried samples was 1.92%. The similarity of HPLC fingerprints was 0.940. According to the findings as well as the internal control standards for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos herbs of Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd. , the optimum processing method for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base was the drying in baking shop. This study provided a theoretical basis for determining the processing method for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base of Jiangsu Province. PMID:25272492

  13. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity. PMID:12506982

  14. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry. PMID:25835570

  15. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 56° 45′ N/153° 00′ W 57° 03′ N/153° 00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific...

  16. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 56° 45′ N/153° 00′ W 57° 03′ N/153° 00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific...

  17. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 56° 45′ N/153° 00′ W 57° 03′ N/153° 00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific...

  18. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Profile of Estrogen Receptor in Common Chinese Cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Li-Qin; Wang, Tian-Ming; Shi, Hui-Lai; Ping, Hong-Ling; Chi, Chang-Feng; Yang, Jing-Wen; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues. The deduced ER protein consisted of six nuclear receptor characteristic domains. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the ER DNA-binding domain and ligand-binding domain are highly conserved compared to other mollusc ERs. Highest aa identities were found for sjER with common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ER (89%) and pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ER (61%). Tissue expression analysis confirmed that sjER was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain, liver, gonad (testis and ovary), and other accessory sexual gland (nidamental gland). The ER expression was temporally upregulated in the brain, liver, and ovary during the early sexual maturation period in S. japonica, which is coincident with the fluctuation of ovary estradiol content. These suggest that sjER may be involved in regulating the reproductive cycle of S. japonica. A fusion protein transient transfections assay showed that sjER was mainly located in the nucleus, suggesting a possible orthodox working mechanism of S. japonica ER in the nucleus through a ligand-dependent activation of specific gene transcription. PMID:27076436

  19. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, T.

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  20. Rhodochlanis suaedicola sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae) associated with Suaeda japonica (Amaranthaceae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geonho; Burckhardt, Daniel; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-01

    A new psyllid species, Rhodochlanis suaedicola sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Korea based on adults and fifth instar immatures. Rhodochlanis is reported for the first time from Korea. The new species is associated with Suaeda japonica (Amaranthaceae) growing in saline habitats. Salt marshes in Korea are threatened by sea side developments. It is suggested that these habitats should be protected to ensure the survival of R. suaedicola. PMID:26624316

  1. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells. PMID:26973288

  2. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi; Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) in starfish is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin responsible for final gamete maturation. In this study, a new ortholog RGP was identified from Aphelasterias japonica. The DNA sequence encoding A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP) consists of 342 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 113 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26aa), B-chain (20aa), C-peptide (42aa), and A-chain (25aa). AjaRGP is a heterodimeric peptide with disulfide cross-linkages. Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and 58% for the A-chain and 90% and 68% for the B-chain, respectively. This suggests that AjaRGP is closer to AmaRGP rather than PpeRGP. Although chemical synthetic AjaRGP can induce gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. japonica, the ovary of P. pectinifera fails to respond to AjaRGP. This suggests that AjaRGP acts species-specifically. PMID:26944483

  3. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  4. Identification of Lonicera japonica and its related species using the DNA barcoding method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiying; Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Shi, Linchun; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    To choose a suitable DNA marker to authenticate the botanical origins of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Flos Lonicerae, seven candidate DNA bar codes (i.e., RBCL, MATK, PSBA-TRNH, ITS2, ITS, TRNL intron, and TRNL-F intergenic spacer) were tested on forty-four samples of LONICERA JAPONICA and its closely related species using the DNA barcoding method. We found that all seven candidate bar codes yielded 100 % PCR amplification efficiency and that the sequencing efficiency of the five other candidate bar codes was 100%, with the exception of ITS and ITS2. The highest interspecific divergence was provided by the PSBA-TRNH intergenic spacer, followed by the TRNL-F intergenic spacer based on six parameters and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Through the inspection of the histograms of the barcoding gap, the distribution of the PSBA-TRNH intergenic spacer was well separated; and only this candidate DNA bar code possessed the highest species identification efficiency at 100 % by BLAST1 method. In conclusion, using the PSBA-TRNH intergenic spacer as a DNA bar code is suitable for the identification of the botanical origins of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Flos Lonicerae. This study may provide an important example for the authentication of the botanical origin of medicinal herbs listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:20862638

  5. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies.

    PubMed

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells. PMID:26973288

  6. Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lian; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhouli; Huang, Yanqing; Yu, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate possible hormetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced a significant increase in plant growth, leaf water content and content of photosynthetic pigments in L. japonica, but decreased them at high concentrations, displayed inverted U-shaped dose response curves, confirming a typical biphasic hormetic response. The U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in leaves at low doses of Cd, indicating reduce oxidative stress and toxic effect. The increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, indicative of increase in anti-oxidative capacity that ensures redox homeostasis is maintained. After 28 days exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and leaf Cd concentrations reached 502.96 ± 28.90 and 103.22 ± 5.62 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had high bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF'). Moreover, the maximum TF value was found at 2.5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment, implying that low Cd treatment improved the ability to transfer Cd from medium via roots to aerial structures. Taking together, L. japonica could be considered as a new plant to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormesis and Cd tolerance. Our results suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23359063

  7. Effects of road dust on the growth characteristics of Sophora japonica L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bao, Le; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Lin, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Road dust is one of the most common pollutants and causes a series of negative effects on plant physiology. Dust's impacts on plants can be regarded as a combination of load, composition and grain size impacts on plants; however, there is a lack of integrated dust effect studies involving these three aspects. In our study, Sophora japonica seedlings were artificially dusted with road dust collected from the road surface of Beijing so that we could study the impacts of this dust on nitrogen/carbon allocation, biomass allocation and photosynthetic pigments from the three aspects of composition, load and grain size. The results showed that the growth characteristics of S. japonica seedlings were mostly influenced by dust composition and load. Leaf N, root-shoot ratio and chlorophyll a/b were significantly affected by dust composition and load; leaf C/N, shoot biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid were significantly affected by dust load; stem N and stem C/N were significantly affected by dust composition; while the dust grain size alone did not affect any of the growth characteristics. Road dust did influence the growth characteristics more extensively than loam. Therefore, a higher dust load could increase the differences between road dust and loam treatments. The elements in dust are well correlated to the shoot N, shoot C/N, and root-shoot ratio of S. japonica seedlings. This knowledge could benefit the management of urban green spaces. PMID:27521946

  8. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  9. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  10. In vitro fermentation of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu

    2016-10-01

    In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects. PMID:27316763

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the polychaete, Goniada japonica (Phyllodocida, Goniadidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinghan; Li, Mingming; Liu, Heping; Li, Bo; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2016-07-01

    The study determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the polychaete, Goniada japonica, which was first reported in the family of Goniadidae. A total of 7162 reads were generated by Illumina HiSeq2500 platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) with an average depth of 58.41×. The mitogenome of G. japonica was 15,327 bp in size and consists of 37 typical genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and a putative control region. All the 37 genes were encoded on the heavy strand whose nucleotide compositions were 35.08% of A, 33.69% of T, 11.66% of G, and 19.57% of C, showing a lower content of G + C (31.23%). The gene order of 15 major coding genes was identical to that of the Nereididae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that G. japonica has a closer relationship with Tylorrhynchus heterochaetus of Nereididae. PMID:26119121

  12. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from a full-length enriched cDNA library of Cryptomeria japonica male strobili

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Norihiro; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Igasaki, Tomohiro; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Seki, Motoaki; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Mari, Adriano; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinohara, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Background Cryptomeria japonica D. Don is one of the most commercially important conifers in Japan. However, the allergic disease caused by its pollen is a severe public health problem in Japan. Since large-scale analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the male strobili of C. japonica should help us to clarify the overall expression of genes during the process of pollen development, we constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library that was derived from male strobili at various developmental stages. Results We obtained 36,011 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from either one or both ends of 19,437 clones derived from the cDNA library of C. japonica male strobili at various developmental stages. The 19,437 cDNA clones corresponded to 10,463 transcripts. Approximately 80% of the transcripts resembled ESTs from Pinus and Picea, while approximately 75% had homologs in Arabidopsis. An analysis of homologies between ESTs from C. japonica male strobili and known pollen allergens in the Allergome Database revealed that products of 180 transcripts exhibited significant homology. Approximately 2% of the transcripts appeared to encode transcription factors. We identified twelve genes for MADS-box proteins among these transcription factors. The twelve MADS-box genes were classified as DEF/GLO/GGM13-, AG-, AGL6-, TM3- and TM8-like MIKCC genes and type I MADS-box genes. Conclusion Our full-length enriched cDNA library derived from C. japonica male strobili provides information on expression of genes during the development of male reproductive organs. We provided potential allergens in C. japonica. We also provided new information about transcription factors including MADS-box genes expressed in male strobili of C. japonica. Large-scale gene discovery using full-length cDNAs is a valuable tool for studies of gymnosperm species. PMID:18691438

  13. Use of a pollen-based diet to expose the ladybird beetle Propylea japonica to insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F. PMID:24409328

  14. [Anti-radical activity of products of processing of holothurian Cucumaria japonica and their practical application for lipid stabilization].

    PubMed

    Tabakaeva, O V; Kalenik, T K; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Products of technological and biotechnological modification (acid and enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts) of the holothurian Cucumariajaponica from the Far East region are the complex multicomponent systems containing biologically active agents of a sea origin that has to provide them biological activity. The research objective consisted in quantitative studying of anti-radical properties of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from soft fabrics of a holothurian from the Far East region (Cucumaria japonica) and their influence on oxidation of lipids in fat emulsion products. The reaction with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used as a model system. Radical relating activity of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica varied over a wide range from 48 to 78%. The maximum radical binding activity was noted for acid hydrolyzates. The activity of the hydrolyzate from a nimbus and feelers of Cucumaria japonica was comparable with activity of ionol. It has been defined that levels of manifestation of anti-radical activity depended on a way of technological and biotechnological processing of raw materials. Studying of fractional composition of melanoidins of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica established that they can be divided into fractions--with molecular masses about 10,000 and 1000 Da. The maximum content of melanoidins has been defined in fraction weighing about 1000 Da. Introduction of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in the composition of oil-fat emulsion systems allowed to slow down processes of lipid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in mayonnaise. Introduction of hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in an oil-fat emulsion product allowed to reduce peroxide value by 22-45%, acid value by 12-35% on the 90th days of storage. Acid hydrolysates of Cucumaria Japonica most significantly reduce the rate of

  15. Comparative analysis of the 100 kb region containing the Pi-k(h) locus between indica and japonica rice lines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S P; Dalai, V; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2007-02-01

    We have recently cloned a pathogen inducible blast resistance gene Pi-k(h) from the indica rice line Tetep using a positional cloning approach. In this study, we carried out structural organization analysis of the Pi-k(h) locus in both indica and japonica rice lines. A 100 kb region containing 50 kb upstream and 50 kb downstream sequences flanking to the Pi-k(h) locus was selected for the investigation. A total of 16 genes in indica and 15 genes in japonica were predicted and annotated in this region. The average GC content of indica and japonica genes in this region was 53.15% and 49.3%, respectively. Both indica and japonica sequences were polymorphic for simple sequence repeats having mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotides. Sequence analysis of the specific blast resistant Pi-k(h) allele of Tetep and the susceptible Pi-k(h) allele of the japonica rice line Nipponbare showed differences in the number and distribution of motifs involved in phosphorylation, resulting in the resistance phenotype in Tetep. PMID:17572362

  16. Characterization of genome-wide microsatellites of Saccharina japonica based on a preliminary assembly of Illumina sequencing reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Cui, Cuiju; Sun, Juan; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) function widely and locate dependently in genome. However, their characteristics are often ignored due to the lack of genomic sequences of most species. Kelp ( Saccharina japonica), a brown macroalga, is extensively cultured in China. In this study, the genome of S. japonica was surveyed using an Illumina sequencing platform, and its microsatellites were characterized. The preliminarily assembled genome was 469.4 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 20529 bp. Among the 128370 identified microsatellites, 90671, 25726 and 11973 were found in intergenic regions, introns and exons, averaging 339.3, 178.8 and 205.4 microsatellites per Mb, respectively. These microsatellites distributed unevenly in S. japonica genome. Mononucleotide motifs were the most abundant in the genome, while trinucleotide ones were the most prevalent in exons. The microsatellite abundance decreased significantly with the increase of motif repeat numbers, and the microsatellites with a small number of repeats accounted for a higher proportion of the exons than those of the intergenic regions and introns. C/G-rich motifs were more common in exons than in intergenic regions and introns. These characteristics of microsatellites in S. japonica genome may associate with their functions, and ultimately their adaptation and evolution. Among the 120140 pairs of designed microsatellite primers, approximately 75% were predicted to be able to amplify S. japonica DNA. These microsatellite markers will be extremely useful for the genetic breeding and population evolution studies of kelp.

  17. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  18. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  19. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  20. EFFECTS OF THE INVASIVE, NONINDIGENOUS SEAGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA ON NUTRIENT FLUXES BETWEEN THE WATER COLUMN AND BENTHOS IN A NE PACIFIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its introduction in the early to mid-20th century, the Asian seagrass Zostera japonica has become established in marine and mesohaline portions of many estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. Z. japonica forms dense patches from 0.3-2.4m above mean lower low water, a zone that...

  1. Insecticides evaluated as potential regulatory immersion treatments to eliminate larval Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), from small diameter field-grown nursery plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, are a quarantine issue for nursery shipments to certain U.S. states. The Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP) allows balled and burlapped (B&B) root ball immersion in chlorpyrifos or bifenthrin for P. japonica certification. Study objective...

  2. Sexual Differences in Chemical Composition and Aroma-active Compounds of Essential Oil from Flower Buds of Eurya japonica.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system. PMID:26972466

  3. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited. PMID:15339729

  4. Complete Biosynthetic Pathway of the C50 Carotenoid Bacterioruberin from Lycopene in the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Ando, Ai; Miyoko, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Toshiaki; Takaichi, Shinichi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon that requires high concentrations of NaCl for growth, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). By homology analysis, a gene cluster, including c0507, c0506, and c0505, was found and predicted to be involved in the synthesis of bacterioruberin. To elucidate the function of the encoded enzymes, we constructed Ha. japonica mutants of these genes and analyzed carotenoids produced by the mutants. Our research showed that c0507, c0506, and c0505 encoded a carotenoid 3,4-desaturase (CrtD), a bifunctional lycopene elongase and 1,2-hydratase (LyeJ), and a C50 carotenoid 2″,3″-hydratase (CruF), respectively. The above three carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes catalyze the reactions that convert lycopene to bacterioruberin in Ha. japonica. This is the first identification of functional CrtD and CruF in archaea and elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of bacterioruberin from lycopene. IMPORTANCE Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). In this study, we have identified three BR biosynthetic enzymes and have elucidated their functions. Among them, two enzymes were found in an archaeon for the first time. Our results revealed the biosynthetic pathway responsible for production of BR in Ha. japonica and provide a basis for investigating carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in other extremely halophilic archaea. Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in Ha. japonica may also prove useful for producing the C50 carotenoid BR efficiently by employing genetically modified haloarchaeal strains. PMID:25712483

  5. The ecological importance of the dwarf seagrass Zostera japonica in intertidal areas on the southern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Kun-Seop; Li, Wen-Tao; Park, Sang Rul

    2016-03-01

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica, which is distributed in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, is exposed to nutrients from over-enriched land-based discharge and storm water runoff before they can be washed out to sea. Despite its ecological importance, only a few studies have examined the ecology and physiology of Z. japonica in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the productivity and tissue nutrient contents of above- and below-ground tissues to evaluate the potential role of Z. japonica in carbon capture and as a nutrient sink. The average total, above-, and below-ground productivity per shoot was 0.56, 0.34, and 0.21 mg DW shoot-1 day-1, respectively. Annual leaf production was 1.5 times higher than annual below-ground production. Estimated annual whole-plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus incorporation based on shoot production and tissue nutrient contents was 312.8 g C m-2 y-1, 25.7 g N m-2 y-1, and 1.6 g P m-2 y-1, respectively. These values were equivalent to 7.8 × 103 kg C y-1, 6.4 × 102 kg N y-1, and 40 kg P y-1 for all Z. japonica beds in Geoje Bay. This suggests that Z. japonica meadows can incorporate a considerable amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the intertidal zone. High N:P ratios of above- and below-ground tissues suggest that Z. japonica growth is probably limited by phosphorus availability in the study area.

  6. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  7. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Eid, Safaa Yehia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Ashour, Mohamed Lotfy; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR). Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plants (N = 16) for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ) (Polygonaceae) shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81%) compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy. PMID:26346937

  8. Comparison of transcriptome under red and blue light culture of Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Wang, Fei-Jiu; Sun, Xiu-Tao; Liu, Fu-Li; Liang, Zhou-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Saccharina japonica is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Several aspects such as photosynthesis in Saccharina lives are affected by blue light, the predominant light spectrum in the habitat. In this study, transcriptome profiling of S. japonica by next generation sequencing technology generated 55,102 qualified transcripts and 40.5 % transcripts were assigned to functional annotation. Expression of a large proportion of genes has been previously reported to be regulated by blue light, taking dark as control. However, by comparison among white, blue and red light, the significantly differentially expressed gene tags (DEGs) accounted for only 6.75 % of the identified sequences. It indicated that light-regulated gene expression in kelps is not a specific blue-light response. Unexpectedly, red light had more extensive effects on the transcriptomic activity than blue light did, since the most (68.4 %) DEGs were red light-regulated and only 17.5 % were specifically regulated by blue light. Some of the DEGs with the highest mRNA levels under blue light are not blue light-upregulated but red light-downregulated. The extensive regulation on gene expression under red light together with the abundant presence of phytochrome-like protein gene tags in S. japonica indicated their significant roles in the lives of brown algae. By highlighting the photosynthetic metabolism, blue light is more efficient than red light in triggering the pigment biosynthesis, light reaction and carbon fixation, revealing a molecular basis for rapid growth of kelps, since most of the time blue light is predominant in their habitat. PMID:23277166

  9. Differences and Variations among Anguilla japonica, Muraenesox cinereus and Conger myriaster from the Yellow Sea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong-Man

    2015-01-01

    Genomic DNAs were extracted from the muscle of twenty-one specimens of three eel species collected in Anguilla japonica (AJ), Muraenesox cinereus (MC) and Conger myriaster (CM) from the Yellow Sea, respectively. In the present study, 7 oligonucleotides primers generated 191 specific loci in the AJ species, 226 in the (MC) species and 181 in the CM species, respectively. The primer BION-02 generated the most loci (a total of 83), with an average of 11.86 in the AJ species. The specific loci generated by oligonucleotides primers exhibited inter-individual-specific characteristics, thus revealing DNA polymorphisms. With regard to average bandsharing value (BS) results, individuals from Conger myriaster species (0.808) exhibited higher bandsharing values than did individuals from Muraenesox cinereus species (0.729) (p<0.05). The longest genetic distance (0.430) displaying significant molecular difference was also between individual no. 01 within Anguilla japonica eel species and individual no. 04 within Anguilla japonica species. In this study, the dendrogram resulted from reliable seven oligonucleotides primers, indicating three genetic clusters composed of group I (ANGUILLA 01~ANGUILLA 07), group II (MURAENESOX 08~MURAENESOX 14) and group III (CONGER 15~CONGER 21). The existence of species differentiation and DNA polymorphisms among three eel species were detected by PCR analysis. As mentioned above, a dendrogram revealed close relationships between individual identities within three eel species. High levels of a significant genetic distance among three eel species showed this PCR approach is one of the most suitable tools for individuals and/or species biological DNA studies. PMID:27004273

  10. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Safaa Yehia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Ashour, Mohamed Lotfy; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR). Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plants (N = 16) for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ) (Polygonaceae) shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81%) compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy. PMID:26346937

  11. Anti-photoaging capability of antioxidant extract from Camellia japonica leaf.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Taeko; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the Camellia japonica leaf exhibits antioxidant activity because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds. Thus, the extract prepared from mature leaves of C. japonica (CJML) has been widely used as an anti-ageing material in foods and cosmetics. Concerning the process of growing C. japonica, it is expected that the extract from green leaves (CJGL) has superior effects compared with that from mature leaves. However, there are few reports that discuss the difference between green and mature leaves. In this study, both CJML and CJGL were extracted with 50% 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG) and used for investigations. In a chemical examination, we compared both extracts in terms of scavenging activities against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and hydroxyl radicals. CJGL exhibited higher scavenging activities against both types of ROSs compared with CJML. In addition, CJGL reduced the carbonylation of tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC) after UVB irradiation. In a biological study, the intra-cellular ROS level of HaCaT keratinocytes precultured with CJGL for 24 h was significantly lower than that of the control cells. Furthermore, cell damage induced by H2 O2 exposure was attenuated by 24 h precultivation with CJGL but not by 2 h precultivation. The results of examinations indicate that CJGL possess properties that reduce oxidative stress. In addition, the result of 2 h precultivation with CJGL suggests that CJGL might affect the status of intra-cellular antioxidants. PMID:25234832

  12. Symbiotic Associations in the Phenotypically-Diverse Brown Alga Saccharina japonica

    PubMed Central

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S.; Krupnova, Tatiana N.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    The brown alga Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is a highly polymorphic representative of the family Laminariaceae, inhabiting the northwest Pacific region. We have obtained 16S rRNA sequence data in symbiont microorganisms of the typical form (TYP) of S. japonica and its common morphological varieties, known as “longipes” (LON) and “shallow-water” (SHA), which show contrasting bathymetric distribution and sharp morphological, life history traits, and ecological differences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences shows that the microbial communities are significantly different in the three forms studied and consist of mosaic sets of common and form-specific bacterial lineages. The divergence in bacterial composition is substantial between the TYP and LON forms in spite of their high genetic similarity. The symbiont distribution in the S. japonica forms and in three other laminarialean species is not related to the depth or locality of the algae settlements. Combined with our previous results on symbiont associations in sea urchins and taking into account the highly specific character of bacteria-algae associations, we propose that the TYP and LON forms may represent incipient species passing through initial steps of reproductive isolation. We suggest that phenotype differences between genetically similar forms may be caused by host-symbiont interactions that may be a general feature of evolution in algae and other eukaryote organisms. Bacterial symbionts could serve as sensitive markers to distinguish genetically similar algae forms and also as possible growth-promoting inductors to increase algae productivity. PMID:22745792

  13. Two distinct roles of the yorkie/yap gene during homeostasis in the planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byulnim; An, Yang; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Adult planarians possess somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts that give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration and homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator family plays an important role in the regulation of tissue growth during development and regeneration, and therefore we investigated the role of a planarian yki-related gene (termed Djyki) during regeneration and homeostasis of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica. We found that knockdown of the function of Djyki by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated neoblast proliferation and caused regeneration defects after amputation. In addition, Djyki RNAi caused edema during homeostasis. These seemingly distinct defects induced by Djyki RNAi were rescued by simultaneous RNAi of a planarian mats-related gene (termed Djmats), suggesting an important role of Djmats in the negative regulation of Djyki, in accordance with the conservation of the functional relationship of these two genes during the course of evolution. Interestingly, Djyki RNAi did not prevent normal protonephridial structure, suggesting that Djyki RNAi induced the edema phenotype without affecting the excretory system. Further analyses revealed that increased expression of the D. japonica gene DjaquaporinA (DjaqpA), which belongs to a large gene family that encodes a water channel protein for the regulation of transcellular water flow, promoted the induction of edema, but not defects in neoblast dynamics, in Djyki(RNAi) animals. Thus, we conclude that Djyki plays two distinct roles in the regulation of active proliferation of stem cells and in osmotic water transport across the body surface in D. japonica. PMID:25708270

  14. Evidence for cryptic northern refugia in the last glacial period in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Megumi K.; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Nakao, Katsuhiro; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; San Jose-Maldia, Lerma; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Distribution shifts and natural selection during past climatic changes are important factors in determining the genetic structure of forest species. In particular, climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary appear to have caused changes in the distribution ranges of plants, and thus strongly affected their genetic structure. This study was undertaken to identify the responses of the conifer Cryptomeria japonica, endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, to past climatic changes using a combination of phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) methods. Specifically, this study focused on the locations of refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Methods Genetic diversity and structure were examined using 20 microsatellite markers in 37 populations of C. japonica. The locations of glacial refugia were assessed using STRUCTURE analysis, and potential habitats under current and past climate conditions were predicted using SDM. The process of genetic divergence was also examined using the approximate Bayesian computation procedure (ABC) in DIY ABC to test the divergence time between the gene pools detected by the STRUCTURE analysis. Key Results STRUCTURE analysis identified four gene pools: northern Tohoku district; from Chubu to Chugoku district; from Tohoku to Shikoku district on the Pacific Ocean side of the Archipelago; and Yakushima Island. DIY ABC analysis indicated that the four gene pools diverged at the same time before the LGM. SDM also indicated potential northern cryptic refugia. Conclusions The combined evidence from microsatellites and SDM clearly indicates that climatic changes have shaped the genetic structure of C. japonica. The gene pool detected in northern Tohoku district is likely to have been established by cryptic northern refugia on the coast of the Japan Sea to the west of the Archipelago. The gene pool in Yakushima Island can probably be explained simply by long-term isolation from the other gene pools since

  15. Impact of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin on Ivory Shell (Babylonia japonica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241

  16. A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside from Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhao-Bao; Wang, Guang-Li; Huang, Lan-Zhi; Heng, Lin-Sen; Li, Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside (1), named glaucocalyxin G, has been isolated from the n-butanol-soluble fraction of the dried whole plants of Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx along with two known compounds, namely arjunglucoside (2) and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments and comparison with the literature data. PMID:23614395

  17. Polarization Analysis of Light Scattered by Pollen Grains of Cryptomeria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Pollinosis to airborne pollen grains is a severe problem that concerns the whole world. Almost spring allergies in Japan are caused by pollen grains of Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) during the period of pollination from February to May. One of the key technologies in a pollen monitoring and forecast system is a pollen sensor. The pollen grain of Japan cedar is identified by introducing the degree of polarization to the optical sensor based on the scattered intensity. The detectability and discriminability in identifying the pollen grains of Japan cedar from the polystyrene spherical particles and the Kanto loam grains are achieved up to 95 and 86%, respectively.

  18. A new lignan glycoside from the stem bark of Styrax japonica S. et Z.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ran; Moon, Hyun Teak; Lee, Dong Gun; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2007-04-01

    A new lignan glycoside was isolated from the stem bark of Styrax japonica (Styracaceae). This lignan glycoside, named styraxjaponoside C (1), was identified by spectroscopic methods. In addition, six known compounds, arctiin (2), pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), matairesinoside (4), methylsyringin (5), syringin (6), and egonol (7) were isolated from this plant. The structures of 1-7 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical data. Compounds 2 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:17489357

  19. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Fenghui; Yan, Kun; Tao, Dali

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L(-1) Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L(-1), the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49+/-0.71 and 286.12+/-9.38 microg g(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator. PMID:19380199

  20. Isolation and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Evaluation of Bio-Active Compounds from Eriobotrya Japonica Stems

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Khaled Nabih; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Eriobotrya japonica stems as well investigation of its chemical composition. Methods: Methanol 80% extract of Eriobotrya japonica stems was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. Results: The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited significantly the growth of Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections, and it showed no effect on the other bacterial and fungal strains, the extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, while it showed a low value of polyphenol content. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenes, tannins and flavonoids, further phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation and identification of three triterpenic acids, oleanolic, ursolic and corosolic acids and four flavonoids, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside. Conclusion: These results may help to discover new chemical classes of natural antimicrobial antioxidant substances. PMID:24409413

  1. [Effects of spacing on the yields and canopy structure of japonica rice at full heading stage].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-peng; Wang, Shu; Huang, Yuan-cai; Jia, Bao-yan; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Qun-yun

    2015-11-01

    With three panicle types of rice varieties and hybrids in Liaoning as entries, the effects of spacing of Japonica rice on light interception capacity, population light distribution, light conversion efficiency at full heading stage and yield were studied. The results showed that the leaf area indices at full heading stage, closely related to light interception, increased first and then decreased with the decrease of transplanting density. The extinction coefficient in one day increased first and then decreased, and the K value increased with the increase of planting density. Yield was positively correlated with canopy extinction coefficient and inclinations of the upper three leaves. In terms of energy efficiency, the yields were positively correlated to flag leaf stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate. At the configuration of high (15 cm x 25 cm) and low (20 cm x 30 cm and 20 cm x 35 cm) densities, Japonica rice could increase light interception capability and optical conversion efficiency, but could not obtain high and stable yields due to limitation by lodging and panicles of per unit area, respectively. At the configurations of 15 cm x 30 cm and 20 cm x 25 cm, it was easy to get adequate panicles, optimize the structure of the canopy, reduce lodging risk, and obtain high yield. PMID:26915187

  2. Flavonoids from Machilus japonica stems and their inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

    2014-01-01

    Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (-)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3-6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

  3. Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

    2014-01-01

    Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (−)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

  4. Eriobotrya japonica seed biocomposite efficiency for copper adsorption: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mehwish; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove pollutants from wastewater; however, composites are gaining more importance due to their excellent adsorption properties. Bentonite composite with Eriobotrya japonica seed was prepared and used for the adsorption of copper (Cu) metal from aqueous media. The process variables such as pH, Cu(II) ions initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were optimized for maximum Cu(II) adsorption. At pH 5, adsorbent dose 0.1 g, contact time 45 min, Cu(II) ions initial concentration 75 mg/L and temperature 45 °C, maximum Cu(II) adsorption was achieved. Desorption studies revealed that biocomposite is recyclable. Langmuir, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura isotherms as well as pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) suggest that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the adsorption data. Results showed that biocomposite was more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption in comparison to individuals native Eriobotrya japonica seed biomass and Na-bentonite. PMID:27039361

  5. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica's fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze-thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  6. Effect of temperature on continuous fermentative hydrogen production from Laminaria japonica by anaerobic mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueqing; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Hang-Sik; Jung, Kyung-Won

    2013-09-01

    The temperature effect on continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production from non-pretreated Laminaria japonica was investigated in the present study. In a preliminary step, the fermentors were continuously operated as an inoculation process at three different temperatures, 35, 50 and 65°C, to respectively represent mesophilic, thermophilic, and hyperthermophilic conditions. An optimization process was subsequently conducted with a range of organic loading rate (OLR) and cultivation pH. Among the various operation conditions, the maximum H2 yield, 61.3±2.0 mL H2/g TS, was observed under a mesophilic condition at OLR of 3.4 g COD/L/d and pH 5.5. From a PCR-DGGE analysis, it was found that an increase of temperature can reduce the microbial diversity and change the predominant species. Finally, total cellulase activity was measured, to investigate the effect of temperature on hydrolysis of L. japonica. The highest cellulase activity was 0.19±0.02 FPU/mL, observed at 35°C, coinciding with the maximum H2 yield. PMID:23871924

  7. Development and characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Komaki, Shohei; Igawa, Takeshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Lin, Si-Min; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Buergeria japonica is a common frog species distributed throughout almost all islands in Ryukyu Archipelago. Because of their exceptionally wide distribution and higher physiological tolerance comparing to the other anurans, their demographic history and formation of distribution are intrinsic topics in the herpetological fauna of Ryukyu. Microsatellite marker is ideal genetic marker for such studies at inter- and intra-population level. We therefore developed microsatellite markers of B. japonica utilizing Ion PGM™ sequencing. As a result of the screening, we developed a total of 14 polymorphic markers. To test availabilities of these markers, we genotyped four island populations. The total number of alleles and expected hetelozygosities per locus ranged from 4 to 21 and 0.00 to 0.864, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the four populations based on the genetic distances of these markers was congruent with general divergence pattern of amphibians and reptiles in Ryukyu area. These markers developed in this study are considered to be useful for future studies about phylogeography and demography of this species. PMID:24817760

  8. Effects of CO2 and seawater acidification on the early stages of Saccharina japonica development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Bin; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao W; Ye, Nai H; Wang, Yitao; Mou, Shanli; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, we demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) had significant negative effects on the microscopic development of Saccharina japonica in a short-term exposure experiment under a range of light conditions. Under elevated CO2, the alga showed a significant reduction in meiospore germination, fecundity, and reproductive success. Larger female and male gametophytes were noted to occur under high CO2 conditions and high light magnified these positive effects. Under conditions of low light combined with high PCO2, the differentiation of gametophytes was delayed until the end of the experiment. In contrast, gametophytes were able to survive after having been subjected to a long-term acclimation period, of 105 days. Although the elevated PCO2 resulted in a significant increase in sporophyte length, the biomass abundance (expressed as individual density attached to the seed fiber) was reduced significantly. Further stress resistance experiments showed that, although the acidified samples had lower resistance to high light and high temperature conditions, they displayed higher acclimation to CO2-saturated seawater conditions compared with the control groups. These combined results indicate that OA has a severe negative effect on S. japonica, which may result in future shifts in species dominance and community structure. PMID:25695307

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in cordate gametophytes of two ferns, Angiopteris lygodiifolia and Osmunda japonica.

    PubMed

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Sakoda, Aki; Ebihara, Atsushi; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is common among land plants including pteridophytes (monilophytes and lycophytes). In pteridophytes with diplohaplontic life cycle, mycorrhizal formations were mostly reported for sporophytes, but very few for gametophytes. To clarify the mycorrhizal association of photosynthetic gametophytes, field-collected gametophytes of Angiopteris lygodiifolia (Marattiaceae, n = 52) and Osmunda japonica (Osmundaceae, n = 45) were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Collected gametophytes were mostly cut into two pieces. One piece was used for light and scanning microscopic observations, and the other for molecular identification of plant species (chloroplast rbcL sequences) and mycorrhizal fungi (small subunit rDNA sequences). Microscopic observations showed that 96 % (50/52) of Angiopteris and 95 % (41/43) of Osmunda gametophytes contained intracellular hyphae with arbuscules and/or vesicles and fungal colonization was limited to the inner tissue of the thick midribs (cushion). Fungal DNA analyses showed that 92 % (48/52) of Angiopteris and 92 % (35/38) of Osmunda have sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which were highly divergent but all belonged to Glomus group A. These results suggest that A. lygodiifolia and O. japonica gametophytes consistently form arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal formation in wild fern gametophytes, based on large-scale sampling with molecular identification of host plant species, was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:22806582

  10. Responses of Soil Fungal Populations and Communities to the Thinning of Cryptomeria Japonica Forests.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Wang, Pi-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Winder, Richard Scott

    2016-03-26

    Forest management activities, such as tree thinning, alter forest ecology, including key components of forest ecosystems, including fungal communities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of forest thinning intensity on the populations and structures of fungal soil communities in the Cryptomeria japonica forests of central Taiwan as well as the dynamics of soil fungi communities in these forests after a thinning disturbance. Although the populations of soil fungi significantly increased in the first 6 months after thinning, these increases had subsided by 9 months. This pulse was attributed to a transient increase in the populations of rapid colonizers. A multiple regression analysis positively correlated fungal populations with organic matter content and cellulase activity. Thinning initially provided large amounts of fresh leaves and roots as nutrient-rich substrates for soil fungi. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles indicated that soil fungal communities significantly differed among plots with 0% (control), 25%, and 50% tree thinning in the first 21 months post-thinning, with no significant differences being observed after 21 months. The fungal communities of these forest soils also changed with the seasons, and an interactive relationship was detected between seasons and treatments. Seasonal variations in fungal communities were the most pronounced after 50% tree thinning. The results of the present study demonstrate that the soil fungi of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time. PMID:26903369

  11. Effects of mercuric chloride on antioxidant system and DNA integrity of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Xu, Chaoqun

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the commonly encountered heavy metals, which is widespread in inshore sediments of China. In order to investigate the toxicity of Hg on marine invertebrates, we studied the effects of the divalent mercuricion (Hg2+) (at two final concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.0050 mg L-1, prepared with HgCl2) on metallothionein (MT) content, DNA integrity (DNA strand breaks) and catalase (CAT) in the gills and hepatopancreas, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the hemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas of the portunid crab Charybdis japonica for an experiment period up to 15 d. The results indicated that MT was significantly induced after 3 d, with a positive correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the hepatopancreas and a negative correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the gills. While CAT in the hemolymph was not detected, it increased in the hepatopancreas during the entire experiment; SOD and GPx in the three tissues were stimulated after 12 h, both attained peak value and then reduced during the experimental period. Meanwhile, DNA strand breaks were all induced significantly after 12 h. These results suggested the detoxification strategies against Hg2+ in three tissues of C. japonica.

  12. Structural, antioxidant, and emulsifying activities of fucoidan from Saccharina japonica using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Saravana, Periaswamy Sivagnanam; Cho, Yeon-Jin; Park, Yong-Beom; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2016-11-20

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was utilized to extract sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Saccharina japonica. Various conditions of temperature (80-200°C), pressure (5-100bar), and solvents (water, 0.1% sodium hydroxide, 0.1% formic acid, 70% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and 25% ethanol) were assessed; the best crude fucoidan (CF) yield was 8.23%, obtained from 140°C and 50bar (sodium hydroxide). Compositional analysis, FT-IR, molecular weight, monosaccharides, TGA, UV-vis, XRD, and elemental analysis confirm that extracted polysaccharides revealed the features of fucoidan. Fucose was the main monosaccharide present in CF obtained by various solvent systems. All CF showed antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH radical and ABTS(+) radical scavenging. CF demonstrates good emulsion-stabilizing capacities, especially with vegetable oils. This study demonstrates that PLE is an efficacious method for enhancing the yield of polysaccharides from S. japonica and that it could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers. PMID:27561524

  13. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  14. Responses of Soil Fungal Populations and Communities to the Thinning of Cryptomeria Japonica Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Wang, Pi-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Winder, Richard Scott

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities, such as tree thinning, alter forest ecology, including key components of forest ecosystems, including fungal communities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of forest thinning intensity on the populations and structures of fungal soil communities in the Cryptomeria japonica forests of central Taiwan as well as the dynamics of soil fungi communities in these forests after a thinning disturbance. Although the populations of soil fungi significantly increased in the first 6 months after thinning, these increases had subsided by 9 months. This pulse was attributed to a transient increase in the populations of rapid colonizers. A multiple regression analysis positively correlated fungal populations with organic matter content and cellulase activity. Thinning initially provided large amounts of fresh leaves and roots as nutrient-rich substrates for soil fungi. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles indicated that soil fungal communities significantly differed among plots with 0% (control), 25%, and 50% tree thinning in the first 21 months post-thinning, with no significant differences being observed after 21 months. The fungal communities of these forest soils also changed with the seasons, and an interactive relationship was detected between seasons and treatments. Seasonal variations in fungal communities were the most pronounced after 50% tree thinning. The results of the present study demonstrate that the soil fungi of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time. PMID:26903369

  15. Zoonotic filariasis caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica in a resident of Hiroshima Prefecture, Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Boda, Tomoyuki; Daisaku, Koichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fukuda, Masako; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Bain, Odile

    2010-09-01

    A female of Onchocerca sp. was found to be the probable causative agent of a subcutaneous nodule in the left knee of a 70-year-old man in a rural area of Hiroshima Prefecture, Honshu, the main island of Japan. We compared the characteristics of the agent with the features of the four previously suspected species found in cattle and horses in various parts of the world, as well as O. lupi and O. jakutensis that were suspected or proved, respectively, in zoonotic cases in Europe. In addition, the morphologic characteristics of this parasite were compared with those of the four Onchocerca species found in wild animals in Japan. Based on such characteristics as the large triangle ridges, the considerable distance between any two adjacent ridges, and the absence of inner cuticular striae in the longitudinal sections, we found the causative agent in the present case to be identical to the female of Onchocerca dewittei japonica. All five previous cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan had been found in Oita, Kyushu, the main southern island. This human case caused by O. dewittei japonica suggests that zoonotic onchocerciasis is liable to occur in rural areas in Japan where wild boar, Simulium vectors, and humans overlap. PMID:20561913

  16. Identification of small non-coding RNAs in the planarian Dugesia japonica via deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Jin-Mei; Bao, Zhen-Xia; Zhu, Zhao-Yu; Mai, Jia; Huang, Yi-Bo; Li, Jian-Biao; Chen, Ge; Lu, Ping; Chen, San-Jun; Su, Lin-Lin; Fang, Hui-Min; Lu, Ji-Ke; Zhang, Yi-Zhe; Zhang, Shou-Tao

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater planarian flatworm possesses an extraordinary ability to regenerate lost body parts after amputation; it is perfect organism model in regeneration and stem cell biology. Recently, small RNAs have been an increasing concern and studied in many aspects, including regeneration and stem cell biology, among others. In the current study, the large-scale cloning and sequencing of sRNAs from the intact and regenerative planarian Dugesia japonica are reported. Sequence analysis shows that sRNAs between 18nt and 40nt are mainly microRNAs and piRNAs. In addition, 209 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs are identified. Especially, a better screening target method, negative-correlation relationship of miRNAs and mRNA, is adopted to improve target prediction accuracy. Similar to miRNAs, a diverse population of piRNAs and changes in the two samples are also listed. The present study is the first to report on the important role of sRNAs during planarian Dugesia japonica regeneration. PMID:22425900

  17. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and cellular localization of an LFRFamide gene in the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zi-Hao; Sun, Lian-Lian; Chi, Chang-Feng; Liu, Hui-Hui; Zhou, Li-Qing; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes in metazoans, such as feeding, reproduction, and heart activities. In this study, an LFRFamide gene was identified from the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (designated as SjLFRFamide). The full-length sequence of SjLFRFamide cDNA has 841bp, and the open reading frame contains 567bp encoding 188 amino acids, which shared high similarity with precursor SOFaRP2 from Sepia officinalis. The deduced SjLFRFamdie precursor protein contains a signal peptide and four different FLPs (FMRFamide-like peptides): one pentapeptide (TIFRFamide), two hexapeptides (NSLFRFamide and GNLFRFamide) and one heptapeptide (PHTPFRFamide). Multiple sequence alignment showed that SjLFRFamide contains rather conserved mature peptides, which all ended in FRF. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that SjLFRFamide belongs to the LFRFamide subfamily. The tissue distribution analysis through quantitative real-time PCR method showed that SjLFRFamide mRNA is significantly expressed in the brain, and slight trace are detected in female nidamental gland and accessory nidamental gland. In situ hybridization assay of the brain indicated that SjLFRFamide is transcribed in several different functional lobes, suggesting SjLFRFamide might associate with multiple physiological regulations, such as feeding, chromatophore regulation and reproduction. This is the first study describing LFRFamide in S. japonica, which might have great importance for cuttlefish artificial breeding. PMID:26494614

  18. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  19. Characterization of berberine transport into Coptis japonica cells and the involvement of ABC protein.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kyoko; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Fumihiko; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2002-09-01

    Cultured Coptis japonica cells are able to take up berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, from the medium and transport it exclusively into the vacuoles. Uptake activity depends on the growth phase of the cultured cells whereas the culture medium had no effect on uptake. Treatment with several inhibitors suggested that berberine uptake depended on the ATP level. Some inhibitors of P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter involved in multiple drug resistance in cancer cells, strongly inhibited berberine uptake, whereas a specific inhibitor for glutathione biosynthesis and vacuolar ATPase, bafilomycin A1, had little effect. Vanadate-induced ATP trap experiments to detect ABC proteins expressed in C. japonica cells showed that three membrane proteins of between 120 and 150 kDa were photolabelled with 8-azido-[alpha-32P] ATP. Two revealed the same photoaffinity-labelling pattern as P-glycoprotein, and the interaction of these proteins with berberine was also demonstrated. These results suggest that ABC proteins of the MDR-type are involved in the uptake of berberine from the medium. PMID:12177126

  20. Phenotypic and genetic evidence for ecological speciation of Aquilegia japonica and A. oxysepala.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Feng; Wang, Hua-Ying; Pang, Di; Liu, Ying; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Natural selection is thought to be a driving force that can cause the evolution of reproductive isolation. The genus Aquilegia is a model system to address how natural selection promotes the process of speciation. Morphological differences between A. oxysepala, A. japonica and their hybrids were quantified for two vegetative (plant height and leaf area) and three floral morphological (sepal area, corolla length and diameter) traits. We also evaluated the genetic variability of the two species and their hybrids based on two chloroplast (1225 bp), four nuclear (5811 bp) genes and 15 microsatellites. Our results revealed that differentiation of A. japonica and A. oxysepala at the ecological and morphological levels also involved divergence at the genetic level. In addition, the analysis of nucleotide variation patterns showed that the two species possessed numerous fixation sites at nuclear genes gAA4, gA7 and gAA12. Furthermore, we found that all of the phenotypic hybrids also showed a genetically admixed ancestry. These findings suggest that natural selection has indeed facilitated the formation of distinct genetic variation patterns in the two Aquilegia species and habitat adaptation has been driving the ecologically based evolution of reproductive isolation. PMID:25117915

  1. Structural elucidation of a pectin from flowers of Lonicera japonica and its antipancreatic cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyan; Wang, Peipei; Du, Zhenyun; Wang, Wucheng; Cong, Qifei; Zheng, Changping; Jin, Can; Ding, Kan; Shao, Chenghao

    2016-07-01

    To investigate polysaccharide structure from Lonicera japonica, and study its effects on behavior of pancreatic cells, a homogenous polysaccharide, LJ-02-1, was extracted and purified from flowers of L. japonica by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200HR column. The molecular weight was estimated to be 54kDa. Monosaccharide composition was determined to be rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in the molar ratio of 10.77:7.88:15.45:65.89 by analyzing the PMP derivatives of the monosaccharides from 2M trifluoracetic acid hydrolysis via HPLC. Based on methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, and NMR spectra, the polysaccharide was elucidated to be a rhamnogalacturonan backbone and substituted partly at C-4 of rhamnose. The branches were determined to be T- and 1,4,6-linked β-d-Galp, T- and 1,5-linked α-l-Araf. The polysaccharide might inhibit BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth at the concentration of 1mg/mL with inhibitory ratio of 66.7% and 52.1%, respectively. PMID:27000440

  2. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  3. Modulation effects of sweroside isolated from the Lonicera japonica on melanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-08-01

    In the course of screening for the melanogenesis inhibitors, sweroside was isolated from Lonicera japonica. Its chemical structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Sweroside inhibited potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300μM without cytotoxicity. Also, sweroside decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells. To identify the signaling pathway of sweroside, the ability of sweroside to influence Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation was investigated. Sweroside induced Akt and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the specific inhibition of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways were studied by specific inhibitor LY294002 and U0126, respectively and it was causing the increased melanin synthesis. Furthermore, sweroside presented inhibition of the body pigmentation and tyrosinase activity in zebrafish in vivo model. These results suggest that sweroside isolated from L. japonica may be an effective skin-whitening agent through the regulates the expression of MAP kinase and melanogenic enzymes. PMID:26051519

  4. Immunomodulatory Properties of Cucumariosides from the Edible Far-Eastern Holothurian Cucumaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Aminin, D. L.; Agafonova, I. G.; Berdyshev, E. V.; Isachenko, E. G.; Avilov, S. A.; Stonik, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Holothurian triterpene glycosides (cucumariosides) are known to possess multiple biological activities. Here we show that cucumariosides from the Far Eastern edible holothurian (sea cucumber), Cucumaria japonica, and their semisynthetic derivatives possess potent immunomodulatory properties. Intraperitoneal injection of cucumariosides (0.2-20 ng per mouse) induced macrophage lysosomal activity in a dose-dependent manner (up to 250% of control). The stimulatory effect was related to the chemical structure of cucumariosides and was especially influenced by the number and position of sulfate groups in the carbohydrate moiety of the molecules. In vitro, an inhibitory rather than a stimulatory effect of cucumariosides on phagocytosis and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was found. Virtually all cucumariosides inhibited latex bead phagocytosis by human peripheral blood granulocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production by immune cells in human blood diluted with RPMI-1640 was decreased, without a clear relation to the structure and dose of the compounds. The data are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory properties of triterpene glycosides from C. japonica. PMID:12639406

  5. Morphology, taxonomic status and distribution of the opisthobranch mollusc Coryphella (s.l.) japonica from the central deep water basin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Alexander V.

    2013-02-01

    The opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the deep sea basins of the Sea of Japan is reviewed. A detailed description of the most common deep sea nudibranch species Coryphella japonicaVolodchenko, 1941 is given based on materials from various expeditions (including R/V "Vityaz" cruises and SoJaBio project). Distinct morphological features of C. japonica are discussed and its valid taxonomic status is confirmed. The considerable radular variability of C. japonica for the first time is documented using a scanning electron microscope. Unique features of the bathymetric distribution of C. japonica ranging from shelf to the abyssal depths are discussed in connection with the "pseudabyssal area" concept. C. japonica was compared to its assumed synonym C. salmonacea, and to similar C. athadona. Material from all these species, including types of C. japonica, was examined externally, anatomically via dissection, and SEM. C. salmonacea is restricted to North Atlantic and Arctic only, whereas C. japonica inhabits NE Pacific including deep water basins of the Sea of Japan.

  6. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  7. Identity and Specificity of Rhizoctonia-Like Fungi from Different Populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rui; Chen, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Qu, Bo; Duan, Ru; Xu, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation. PMID:25140872

  8. Rottlerin Inhibits Lonicera japonica-Induced Photokilling in Human Lung Cancer Cells through Cytoskeleton-Related Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    You, Bang-Jau; Wu, Yang-Chang; Bao, Bo-Ying; Wu, Chi-Yu; Yang, Ya-Win; Chang, Yu-Hao; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that many apoptotic signaling pathways, such as Rho family, PKC family, MAP kinase family, and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, were triggered by Lonicera japonica extracts and irradiation in CH27 cells. Rottlerin, a PKCδ -selective inhibitor, reversed the photoactivated Lonicera japonica extract-induced decrease in PKCδ protein expression and change in cell morphology in this study. In addition, rottlerin inhibited the photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced decrease in protein expression of Ras, ERK, p38, PKCα, and PKCε, which are the kinases of prosurvival signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that pretreatment with rottlerin prevented actin microfilaments and microtubules from damage during the photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell death. Furthermore, the promotion of the cytoskeleton-related signaling cascade following rottlerin by upregulation of cytoskeleton-related mediators (p38, HSP27, FAK, paxillin, and tubulin) and molecules of downstream of F-actin (mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway) reduces CH27 cell death, indicating that cytoskeleton is the potential target in the photoactivated Lonicera japonicaextract-induced photokilling of CH27 cells. PMID:21331326

  9. A new diterpenoid and a new triterpenoid glucosyl ester from the leaves of Callicarpa japonica Thunb. var. luxurians Rehd.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Chikuba, Tomoyo; Mishima, Kenji; Yamasaki, Toru; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2009-07-01

    A new abietane-type diterpenoid and a new oleanane-type triterpenoid glucosyl ester were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa japonica Thunb. var. luxurians Rehd. (Verbenaceae) along with 11 known compounds, comprising seven triterpenoids, two sterols, a flavonoid, and an aliphatic glycoside. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. PMID:19184273

  10. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  11. The anticancer effects of Saccharina japonica on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hyung Rak; Kim, Gun Do

    2012-11-01

    Saccharina japonica (S. japonica), a brown macro-alga, has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea for thousands of years. In this study, the potential anticancer effects of S. japonica were evaluated on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells. The exposure of cells to the extract induced inhibition of cell growth by increasing the number of apoptotic cells with cell shrinkage and inhibition of cell cycle progression. The effects of the extract on the cells were assessed by studying the cleavage of caspases and the target proteins of caspases. The increased expression of various cleaved caspases and changed expression of other proteins related in the apoptosis pathway were observed. 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and immunofluorescence staining showed the cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis induced changes in the expression of proteins involved in a variety of signaling pathways such as endocellular reticulum (ER) stress, death receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-FoxO-mediated pathways. The data suggest that the extract (n-hexane sub-fraction) of S. japonica, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells, and has potential as a complementary agent for cancer prevention. PMID:22941421

  12. Performance of Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis flower dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemalatha, K. V.; Karthick, S. N.; Justin Raj, C.; Hong, N.-Y.; Kim, S.-K.; Kim, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    The natural dyes carotenoid and anthocyanin were extracted from Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis, respectively, using a simple extraction technique without any further purification. They were then used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and their characteristics were studied. The ranges of short-circuit current (JSC) from 0.559 to 0.801 (mA/cm2), open-circuit voltage (VOC) from 0.537 to 0.584 V, and fill factor from 0.676 to 0.705 were obtained for the DSSCs made using the extracted dyes. Sugar molecules were added externally to the dye for stabilization and to increase the conversion efficiency. The efficiencies of the K. japonica and R. chinensis dyes were 0.22% and 0.29%, respectively; after the addition of sugar, the efficiency increased to 0.29% for K. japonica and decreased to 0.27% for R. chinensis. Thus, the addition of sugar molecules increased the conversion efficiency slightly with the carotenoid dye of K. japonica, while there was no considerable change with the anthocyanin of R. chinensis. This paper briefly discusses the simple extraction technique of these natural dyes and their performance in DSSCs.

  13. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  14. Performance of Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis flower dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, K V; Karthick, S N; Justin Raj, C; Hong, N-Y; Kim, S-K; Kim, H-J

    2012-10-01

    The natural dyes carotenoid and anthocyanin were extracted from Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis, respectively, using a simple extraction technique without any further purification. They were then used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and their characteristics were studied. The ranges of short-circuit current (J(SC)) from 0.559 to 0.801(mA/cm(2)), open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) from 0.537 to 0.584 V, and fill factor from 0.676 to 0.705 were obtained for the DSSCs made using the extracted dyes. Sugar molecules were added externally to the dye for stabilization and to increase the conversion efficiency. The efficiencies of the K. japonica and R. chinensis dyes were 0.22% and 0.29%, respectively; after the addition of sugar, the efficiency increased to 0.29% for K. japonica and decreased to 0.27% for R. chinensis. Thus, the addition of sugar molecules increased the conversion efficiency slightly with the carotenoid dye of K. japonica, while there was no considerable change with the anthocyanin of R. chinensis. This paper briefly discusses the simple extraction technique of these natural dyes and their performance in DSSCs. PMID:22698848

  15. PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF THE NON-INDIGENOUS SEAGRASS, DWARF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA JAPONICA ASCHER. & GRAEB.), IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb. (dwarf eelgrass) was first identified in central Oregon (USA) estuaries about 30 years ago. The autecology of this species is poorly described at the southern end of its non-native range although several process orien...

  16. Identification of SNPs in closely-related temperate japonica rice cultivars using restriction enzyme-phased sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very low polymorphism in the germplasm typically used by breeding programs poses a significant bottleneck with regarding to molecular breeding and the exploitation of breeding materials for quantitative trait analyses. California rice varieties, derived from a very small base of temperate japonica g...

  17. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar "Zenith" root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected "Zenith" roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of "Zenith" root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of "Zenith" root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain. PMID:27242730

  18. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar “Zenith” root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected “Zenith” roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of “Zenith” root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of “Zenith” root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain

  19. Poblaciones de los niveles atómicos en condiciones de no equilibrio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es encontrar la distribución de los átomos en los diferentes niveles de energía. Con el propósito de encontrar resultados generales y de amplia aplicación, hemos planteado las ecuaciones de equilibrio estadístico como función del número atómico del elemento a considerar y de las condiciones físicas del medio (temperatura y densidad). Así también se ha intentado tener en cuenta todos los niveles atómicos considerando explícitamente aquellos con un número cuántico principal menor que un cierto valor n y calculando una expresión aproximada para estimar la influencia de los demás.

  20. Diversity of floral regulatory genes of japonica rice cultivated at northern latitudes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice is considered a short day plant. Originally from tropical regions rice has been progressively adapted to temperate climates and long day conditions in part by modulating its sensitivity to day length. Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) that code for florigens, are known as major regulatory genes of floral transition in rice. Both Hd3a and RFT1 are regulated by Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Days to heading on chromosome 2 (DTH2) while Heading date 1 (Hd1) also governs Hd3a expression. To investigate the mechanism of rice adaptation to temperate climates we have analyzed the natural variation of these five genes in a collection of japonica rice representing the genetic diversity of long day cultivated rice. Results We have investigated polymorphisms of Hd3a, RFT1, Ehd1, Hd1 and DTH2 in a collection of 57 japonica varieties. Hd3a and RFT1 were highly conserved, displaying one major allele. Expression analysis suggested that RFT1 rather than Hd3a could be the pivotal gene controlling flowering under long day conditions. While few alleles were found in the Ehd1 promoter and DTH2 coding region, a high degree of variation in Hd1, including non-functional alleles, was observed. Correlation analysis between gene expression levels and flowering periods suggested the occurrence of other factors, additionally to Ehd1, affecting RFT1 regulation in long day adapted cultivars. Conclusions During domestication, rice expansion was accompanied by changes in the regulatory mechanism of flowering. The existence of non-functional Hd1 alleles and the lack of correlation of their presence with flowering times in plants grown under long day conditions, indicate a minor role of this branch in this process and the existence of an alternative regulatory pathway in northern latitudes. Expression analysis data and a high degree of conservation of RFT1 suggested that this gene could be the main factor regulating flowering among japonica cultivars

  1. NIR spectral-kinetic analysis for thermally degraded Sugi ( Cryptomeria japonica) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Tetsuya; Matsuo, Miyuki; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Kinetic analysis was conducted on principal component scores calculated from second-derivative near-infrared (NIR) spectra of thermally treated Sugi ( Cryptomeria japonica) wood samples. NIR reflectance spectra were measured for wood samples thermally treated at 90, 120, 150 and 180 °C in an air-circulating oven for periods ranging from 5 min to approximately 1.4 years. The Arrhenius approach, which involves the time-temperature superposition method, is used to understand the change in the principal component score. The master curve corresponded well with the change in principal component scores at each temperature and yielded a determination coefficient between the measured and estimated data of 0.99 for second principal component score. This report shows that kinetic analysis is useful to understand changes in the principal component score calculated from NIR spectra of wood subjected to thermal treatment.

  2. Photoinduced changes in subcellular structures of the retinal pigment epithelium from the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Zak, P P; Serezhnikova, N B; Pogodina, L S; Trofimova, N N; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A

    2015-06-01

    Fifteen-week-old sexually mature female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) grown under various lighting conditions were used in the study. It was found that the number of mitochondria and phagosomes was increased by 1.5-fold in the retinal pigment epithelium from birds reared for 95 days under blue light (440-470 nm) vs. reduced blue light component conditions. Also, it was found that egg production was increased by 15% in birds reared under blue light compared to other lightning conditions. Thus, we concluded that blue light conditions resulted in elevating metabolic activity and accelerating pace of life in Japanese quails. It is assumed that the blue light-induced effects are probably due to inhibition of melatonin synthesis. PMID:26531024

  3. Effect of oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica-incorporated pullulan coatings on preservation of cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-15

    Laminaria japonica-derived oligosaccharides (LJOs) exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and pullulan is a food thickener that can form impermeable films. The ability of pullulan coatings with various LJO concentrations (1% pullulan+0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% LJOs) to preserve cherry tomatoes during storage at room temperature was investigated. The LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings were found to effectively reduce respiratory intensity, vitamin C loss, weight loss and softening, as well as to increase the amount of titratable acid and the overall likeness of fruit compared with the control. These effects were observed to be dose-dependent. Therefore, using LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings can extend the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. PMID:26775974

  4. Diterpene alkaloids and diterpenes from Spiraea japonica and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; Mao, Xin-Ying; Huang, Lie-Jun; Fan, Yi-Min; Gu, Wei; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Five new naturally occurring natural products, including two atisine-type diterpene alkaloids (1 and 2), two atisane-type diterpenes (3 and 4), and a new natural product spiramine C2 (5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Spiraea japonica var. acuminata Franch. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities of all the compounds were evaluated by the conventional half-leaf method. Six compounds (2, 3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) exhibited moderate activities at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates in the range of 69.4-92.9%, which were higher than that of the positive control, ningnanmycin. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed. PMID:26625838

  5. Extraction and separation of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica by size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    A large number of studies have suggested that polysaccharides, such as fucoidan and laminarin, in various seaweeds have significant biological properties. A different distribution of molecular weights is a prominent sign of many polysaccharides. Therefore, a simple, fast and reliable high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method was proposed to separate fucoidan and laminarin from Laminaria japonica. After evaluating the different separation conditions for HPSEC, such as the type of mobile phase and flow rate, an acid extraction method was established and optimized by a systematic investigation of the influencing factors. Under the optimal conditions, 169.2 and 383.8 mg g(-1) of fucoidan and laminarin, respectively, were extracted. This method is suitable for the extraction and separation of polysaccharides with good reproducibility of the retention time, acceptable linearity, small relative standard deviation and low detection limits. PMID:25013027

  6. L-lactate production from seaweed hydrolysate of Laminaria japonica using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Suman; Bang, Junho; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Renewable and carbon neutral, marine algal biomass could be an attractive alternative substrate for the production of biofuel and various biorefinery products. Thus, the feasibility of brown seaweed (Laminaria japonica) hydrolysate as a carbon source was investigated here for L-lactate production. This work reports the homofermentative route for L-lactate production by introducing Streptococcus bovis/equinus L-lactate dehydrogenase in an engineered Escherichia coli strain where synthesis of the competing by-product was blocked. The engineered strain utilized both glucose and mannitol present in the hydrolysate under microaerobic condition and produced 37.7 g/L of high optical purity L-lactate at 80 % of the maximum theoretical value. The result shown in this study implies that algal biomass would be as competitive with lignocellulosic biomass in terms of lactic acid production and that brown seaweed can be used as a feedstock for the industrial production of other chemicals. PMID:24297185

  7. Trace metals in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in relation to ecological migratory types and growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Dung Quang; Chino, Naoko; Shirai, Kotaro; Arai, Takaomi

    2010-04-01

    In order to understand the metal concentrations in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, nine elements were analyzed in the livers of different migratory types of eels collected from Tokushima region (south Japan). Migratory types were defined by examining the Sr:Ca ratio in otoliths. The results showed that there were significant differences in V, Cr, Cd, and Pb concentrations among the migratory types. Mature-sea-eels show a higher risk of metal accumulation than other migratory types of eels, and the concentrations of Mn, Cu, and Zn in mature eels were significantly higher than those in immature eels. The study suggests that the eel liver is a valuable bioindicator for trace metals; however, when using the eel as a bioindicator to reveal the pollutants in aquatic systems, life history analysis should be carried out for accurate interpretation of the results.

  8. Glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Zhibo; Song, Weixia; Yang, Yongchun; Li, Yuhuan; Jiang, Jiandong; Shi, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Three new glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid isomers (1–3), along with six known compounds, have been isolated from an aqueous extract of the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (−)-4-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (1), (−)-3-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (2), and (−)-5-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (3), respectively. In the preliminary in vitro assays, two known compounds methyl caffeate and 2ʹ-O-methyladenosine showed inhibitory activity against Coxsackie virus B3 with IC50 values of 3.70 μmol/L and 6.41 μmol/L and SI values of 7.8 and 12.1, respectively. PMID:26579448

  9. Effect of Lonicera japonica extract on Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Müştak, H K; Torun, E; Özen, D; Yücel, G; Akan, M; Diker, K S

    2015-01-01

    1. In this study, the effect of chlorogenic acid extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections and the performance of broiler flocks was investigated. 2. A total of 360 Ross-308 broiler chicks taken from M. gallisepticum seropositive flocks were divided equally into three groups designated as control (nothing administered), antibiotic (Tylosin tartrate given for the first 3 d and d 20-22) and test group (chlorogenic acid extract given twice a day on d 16 and 22). 3. Broiler performance analysis, serological tests (slide agglutination), molecular identification (polymerase chain reaction) and histopathological examination were performed to detect M. gallisepticum. 4. The results show that chlorogenic acid not only increases live body weight but is also an alternative treatment option in M. gallisepticum-infected broiler flocks. PMID:25731588

  10. Micro-PIXE study of whole otolith of Anguilla japonica at elver stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Guo, H.; Wei, K.; Tang, W.; Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Takano, K.; Kamiya, T.; Shen, H.; Yang, M.; Mi, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Strontium and calcium contents, within the otolith of Anguilla japonica, were measured by external micro-PIXE. According to the measured metamorphic checks, each otolith was divided into three stages. Comparing with the Sr:Ca ratios in stage 2, the ratios in stage 1 had two different trends. Among these fish, it may reflect their maternal condition was not the same. The ratios in stage 3 which was corresponding to the estuarine habitat were smaller than that in any other stage which was corresponding to the ocean habitat in each otolith. Suggested by our results, the eels from the spawning site may separate into two groups when they are near to the south of Taiwan, and then move to the different estuaries in China. It could be proposed that, in general, the migration direction is from south to north along the east coast in China.

  11. Separation and recovery of cellulose from Zoysia japonica by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zun; Ju, Mei-Ting; Wang, Yan-Nan; Liu, Le; Jiang, Yang

    2013-01-30

    We investigated the use of ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) for extracting cellulose from Zoysia japonica by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis to analyze the IL and its effects on cellulose extraction. After water pretreatment at 121 °C for several minutes, cellulose extraction rate was 71% under optimized conditions, and the yield of cellulose was >99% by AMIMCl. The effectiveness of AMIMCl as an extraction agent can be attributed to the prevalence of intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding in cellulose. By contrast, hemicelluloses were not recovered by AMIMCl because hemicelluloses in plant cell walls are connected to lignin by covalent bonding. Results also showed that the regenerated cellulose was exactly the same as untreated cellulose, except for the degree of crystallinity. PMID:23218288

  12. Isolation and characterization of a fucoidan-degrading bacterium from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Piao, Meizi

    2013-11-01

    Fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing abundant fucose and sulfate ester group, was prepared from Laminaria japonica. In order to obtain fucoidan-degrading enzyme, bacteria capable of degrading fucoidan were screened from kelp. A bacterial strain named RC2-3 was obtained, which degraded fucoidan by the maximum extent of 54% ± 1.3%, the highest among all bacterial isolates. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the molecular weight of fucoidan was gradually reduced by RC2-3 with culturing time, suggesting the production of fucoidan-degrading enzyme by RC2-3. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence showed that RC2-3 belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, it showed different physiological and biochemical characteristics from the known Flavobacteriaceae members producing fucoidan-degrading enzyme, thus RC2-3 was proposed to be a new member of this family.

  13. Purification and characterization of vitellin in mature ovary of marine crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Song; Guo, Chengxiu; Liu, Fengsong; Liang, Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Vitellin of mature female marine crab Charybdis japonica was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, DEAE-cellulose-16 anion exchange column). The apparent molecular mass of the vitellin is 546 ku based on the data of native-PAGE. Under denatured condition (SDS-PAGE), it was found that vitellin was composed of four polypeptides each at 120, 100, 65, and 55 ku. One disulfide bond was detected in the binding of polypeptide subunits. The purified vitellin, contained 4.47% phosphor and 10.6% polysaccharides, and was identified as glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein, according to the PAGE staining data. The purified vitellin can be used as antigen to raise polyclonal antisera in further application.

  14. Glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Zhibo; Song, Weixia; Yang, Yongchun; Li, Yuhuan; Jiang, Jiandong; Shi, Jiangong

    2015-05-01

    Three new glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid isomers (1-3), along with six known compounds, have been isolated from an aqueous extract of the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (-)-4-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (1), (-)-3-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (2), and (-)-5-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (3), respectively. In the preliminary in vitro assays, two known compounds methyl caffeate and 2'-O-methyladenosine showed inhibitory activity against Coxsackie virus B3 with IC50 values of 3.70 μmol/L and 6.41 μmol/L and SI values of 7.8 and 12.1, respectively. PMID:26579448

  15. A genome-wide microsatellite polymorphism database for the indica and japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Deng, Yajun; Tan, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Xue, Qingzhong

    2007-02-28

    Microsatellite (MS) polymorphism is an important source of genetic diversity, providing support for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. We have developed a new database that contains 52 845 polymorphic MS loci between indica and japonica, composed of ample Class II MS markers, and integrated 18 828 MS loci from IRGSP and genetic markers from RGP. Based on genetic marker positions on the rice genome (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/rice2/index.jsp ), we determined the approximate genetic distances of these MS loci and validated 100 randomly selected markers experimentally with 90% success rate. In addition, we recorded polymorphic MS positions in indica cv. 9311 that is the most important paternal parent of the two-line hybrid rice in China. Our database will undoubtedly facilitate the application of MS markers in genetic researches and marker-assisted breeding. The data set is freely available from www.wigs.zju.edu.cn/achievment/polySSR. PMID:17452422

  16. Molecular weight controllable degradation of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides and its antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Zhao, Bing; Ouyang, Jie; Mo, Jianling; Chen, Jinjin; Cao, Lili; Zhang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    In this study, molecular weight controllable degradation of algal Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LPS) was investigated by ultrasound combined with hydrogen peroxide. Three main factors, i.e., ultrasonic power (A), ultrasonic time (B), and H2O2 concentration (C) were chosen for optimizing parameters by employing three-factors, three-levels BBD. The influence of degradation on structure change and antioxidant activities was also investigated. A second-order polynomial equation including molecular weight (Y) of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides and each variable parameter, i.e., ultrasonic power (A), ultrasonic time (B), and H2O2 concentration (C), was established: Y=20718.67-4273.13 A-4000.38 B-1438.75 C+2333.25 AB+1511.00 AC+873.00 BC+2838.29 A 2 + 2490.79 B 2+873.04 C 2. The equation regression coefficient value ( R 2 = 0.969) indicated that this equation was valid. The value of the adjusted determination coefficient (adjusted R 2 = 0.914) also confirmed that the model was highly significant. The results of selected experimental degradation conditions matched with the predicted value. FT-IR spectra revealed that the structures of LPS before and after degradation were not significantly changed. Antioxidant activities of LPS revealed that low Mws possessed stronger inhibitory than the original polysaccharides. The scavenging effects on superoxide radicals was the highest when IC50 of crude LPS was 4.92 mg mL-1 and IC50 of Mw 18.576 KDa was 1.02 mg mL-1, which was fourfold higher than initial polysaccharide.

  17. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases. PMID:26616010

  18. Monitoring the dynamic emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from Cryptomeria japonica by enclosure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Tzu-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-12-01

    Research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from trees is essential in the world since these BVOCs play an important role in the atmospheric process which may further influence on the air quality. However, little is known about BVOCs emitted from trees in the field in Taiwan. Hence, this study intends to establish an enclosure technique coupled with in situ sampling to facilitate the collection of BVOCs emitted from Cryptomeria japonica leaves. Furthermore, the emission model derived from the relationship between emission rate and temperature was applied to estimate the emission of BVOCs in the field. Results from GC-MS showed that the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves contain 14 monoterpenoids and 4 sesquiterpenoid. The emission rate of the major constituent, sabinene, was 0.42 μg h-1 g-1 around noon on September 11, 2013. Sabinene varies with the changing temperature inside the bag. These findings indicated that the enclosure technique can collect the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves and monitor the dynamic changes in emission. Two determinants, basal emission rate (at 30 °C) and β coefficient, of sabinene were further measured, and they were 1.29 μg h-1 g-1 and 0.18 °C-1, respectively. By using these two determinants and data of meteorology and forest resource, the emission of monoterpenes from C. japonica stand was estimated to be 1.13 mg m-2 h-1 in July in Xitou area. Taken together, the results provide valuable information for estimation of BVOCs from tree species in Taiwan for the first time.

  19. Evaluating the effect of a novel molluscicide in the endemic schistosomiasis japonica area of China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

  20. Essential oil characterization of two Azorean Cryptomeria japonica populations and their biological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Moiteiro, Cristina; Esteves, Teresa; Ramalho, Luís; Rojas, Rosario; Alvarez, Sandra; Zacchino, Susana; Bragança, Helena

    2013-12-01

    Essential oils from foliage, bark and heartwood of Cryptomeriajaponica D. Don from Azores Archipelago (Portugal) were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Two populations, of black and reddish heartwood color, were studied. The main compounds found in the foliage of both populations were alpha-pinene (9.6-29.5%), (+)-phyllocladene (3.5-26.5%), ent-kaur-16-ene (0.2-20.6%), sabinene (0.5-19.9%) and limonene (1.4-11.5%), with a large variation in individual compounds from each population. Heartwood oils were characterized by a high content of cubebol (2.8-39.9%) and epi-cubebol (4.1-26.9%) isomers, which were absent in the foliage. Elemol and eudesmol isomers were found in the foliage and heartwood oils, while (+)-phyllocladene was absent in heartwood. Black and reddish bark oils were composed of the diterpenes dehydroferruginol (1.9-5.1%) and ferruginol (2.6-11.5%), along with the sesquiterpenes delta-cadinene (10.4-15.9%), alpha-muurolene (3.3-5.4%), epi-zonarene (4.0-5.0%), cubenol (9.3-14.0%), tau-muurolol (4.8-10.7%), beta-eudesmol (3.0-9.9%), gamma-eudesmol (1.9-7.0%) and hedycariol (1.4-6.2%). Azorean C. japonica oils exhibited significant chemical differences compared with native plants from Asia. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans and human pathogenic bacteria (especially against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils may be attributed to compounds such as ent-kaur-16-ene, (+)-phyllocladene, ferruginol and elemol, which are present in different proportions within the complex oil mixture. These results suggest a potential use for C. japonica oils obtained from wood industry leftovers. PMID:24555299

  1. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xingjian; Wei, Fenghua; Li, Guiling; Liu, Min; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rujuan; Zhou, Zhengping; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas. PMID:25310539

  2. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  3. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  4. Evaluation of Medicinal Categorization of Atractylodes japonica Koidz. by Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequencing Analysis and HPLC Fingerprinting Combined with Statistical Tools

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Doh, Eui-Jeong; Lee, Guemsan

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodes rhizomes have been used as the herbal medicine “Changchul” or “Baekchul,” according to their clinical purpose, in Korea, China, and Japan. Among the Atractylodes species, the medicinal use of Atractylodes japonica has been controversial, as it is categorized as both Changchul and Baekchul in those countries, and, moreover, parts of the rhizome have been differently used, depending on age of the plant, in Korea. Chromatographic fingerprinting by using HPLC combined with chemometric analyses and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analysis were conducted to classify and identify 34 crude drugs derived from Atractylodes rhizomes. The identification of the samples, authenticated by their morphological features as A. japonica Koidz. (Changchul and Baekchul), A. chinensis Koidz., and A. macrocephala Koidz., was confirmed as A. japonica, A. chinensis, and A. macrocephala by ITS sequencing. The results from chemometric analyses showed that the chemical components of the crude drugs from A. japonica were significantly different from those from A. macrocephala but were similar to those from A. chinensis. The analyses also suggested that the categorization by age of A. japonica as Changchul or Baekchul is not recommended. The results indicate that A. japonica should be categorized as “Changchul” and should not be further categorized by age. PMID:27190530

  5. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  6. Isolation and identification of mosquito bite deterrent terpenoids from leaves of American (Callicarpa americana) and Japanese (Callicarpa japonica) beautyberry.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, C L; Klun, J A; Bryson, C T; Kobaisy, M; Duke, S O

    2005-07-27

    Essential oil extracts from Callicarpa americana and Callicarpa japonica were investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation of C. americana extracts using the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, led to the isolation of alpha-humulene, humulene epoxide II, and intermedeol and a newly isolated terpenoid (callicarpenal). Similar work involving C. japonica resulted in the isolation of an additional compound, spathulenol, as well as the four compounds isolated from C. americana. Structure elucidation was performed on all isolated compounds using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-electron ionization, high-resolution liquid chromatography-MS-electrospray ionization, and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Heretofore, 13,14,15,16-tetranorclerodane, callicarpenal, has never been identified from natural sources. Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR assignment data are provided for this compound. In bite deterrent studies, spathulenol, intermedeol, and callicarpenal showed significant repellent activity against A. aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. PMID:16028979

  7. Development of novel SCAR markers for genetic characterization of Lonicera japonica from high GC-RAMP-PCR and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Li, J; Qiu, Y M; Wei, C L; Yang, L Q; Fu, J J

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were further developed from high-GC primer RAMP-PCR-amplified fragments from Lonicera japonica DNA by molecular cloning. The four DNA fragments from three high-GC primers (FY-27, FY-28, and FY-29) were successfully cloned into a pGM-T vector. The positive clones were sequenced; their names, sizes, and GenBank numbers were JYHGC1-1, 345 bp, KJ620024; YJHGC2-1, 388 bp, KJ620025; JYHGC7-2, 1036 bp, KJ620026; and JYHGC6-2, 715 bp, KJ620027, respectively. Four novel SCAR markers were developed by designing specific primers, optimizing conditions, and PCR validation. The developed SCAR markers were used for the genetic authentication of L. japonica from its substitutes. This technique provides another means of developing DNA markers for the characterization and authentication of various organisms including medicinal plants and their substitutes. PMID:27173286

  8. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  9. Predicting the Function of 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase (LJ4CL1) in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Shulin; Yu, Jun; Zhan, Zhilai; Li, Minhui; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    4-Coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) are a group of essential enzymes involved in the pathway of phenylpropanoid-derived compound metabolisms; however it is still difficult to identify orthologs and paralogs of these important enzymes just based on sequence similarity of the conserved domains. Using sequence data of 20 plant species from the public databases and sequences from Lonicera japonica, we define 1252 adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent synthetase/ligase sequences and classify them into three phylogenetic clades. 4CLs are in one of the four subgroups, according to their partitioning, with known proteins characterized in A. thaliana and Oryza sativa. We also defined 184 non-redundant sequences that encode proteins containing the GEICIRG motif and the taxonomic distribution of these GEICIRG-containing proteins suggests unique catalytic activities in plants. We further analyzed their transcription levels in L. japonica and L. japonica. var. chinensis flowers and chose the highest expressed genes representing the subgroups for structure and binding site predictions. Coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the L. japonica flowers, the structural study on putative substrate binding amino acid residues, ferulate, and 4-coumaric acid of the conserved binding-site of LJ4CL1 leads to a conclusion that this highly expressed protein group in the flowers may process 4-coumarate that represents 90% of the known phenylpropanoid-derived compounds. The activity of purified crude LJ4CL1 protein was analyzed using 4-coumarate as template and high activity indicating that 4-coumarate is one of the substrates of LJ4CL1. PMID:24518682

  10. A comparative study on bioactive constituents in different parts of Lonicera japonica determined by HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Dan; He, Yi; Dai, Zhong; Kang, Shuai; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in most East Asian countries. In China, the flower bud and stem of this plant are used for various clinical therapies, while the leaf is not officially recognized as an active part. Due to the similarities in their chemical constituents but great differences in their commercial values, the flower bud has been found to be adulterated with leaf and/or stem during the production of formulations by some drug manufactures. In order to identify adulteration in products and enable quality control, it is necessary to chemically discriminate these three parts of L. japonica. In the current study, an HPLC-ESI-MS(n) method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of 18 bioactive compounds: 7 organic acids, 6 iridoids, and 5 flavonoids, in batches of flower bud, stem, and leaf samples. Subsequently, chemometric analyses, such as one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis, were performed based on the quantitative data. The results indicated that there were remarkable differences in the distribution of the investigated compounds among the three parts of L. japonica, and that they could be straightforwardly and reliably distinguished according to their chemical profiles. Twelve compounds were selected as potential differential metabolites, which would be useful for quality control of L. japonica. As the content of caffeic acid was low in the flower bud but much higher in the stem and leaf, it could be used as a chemical marker to identify adulteration. PMID:27477009

  11. Whole-Genome Analysis Revealed the Positively Selected Genes during the Differentiation of indica and Temperate japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinli; Jia, Qi; Guo, Yuchun; Zheng, Xiujuan; Liang, Kangjing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the selective pressures acting on the protein-coding genes during the differentiation of indica and japonica, all of the possible orthologous genes between the Nipponbare and 93–11 genomes were identified and compared with each other. Among these genes, 8,530 pairs had identical sequences, and 27,384 pairs shared more than 90% sequence identity. Only 2,678 pairs of genes displaying a Ka/Ks ratio significantly greater than one were revealed, and most of these genes contained only nonsynonymous sites. The genes without synonymous site were further analyzed with the SNP data of 1529 O. sativa and O. rufipogon accessions, and 1068 genes were identified to be under positive selection during the differentiation of indica and temperate japonica. The positively selected genes (PSGs) are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes, and the proteins encoded by the PSGs are dominant with binding, transferase and hydrolase activities, and especially enriched in the plant responses to stimuli, biological regulations, and transport processes. Meanwhile, the most PSGs of the known function and/or expression were involved in the regulation of biotic/abiotic stresses. The evidence of pervasive positive selection suggested that many factors drove the differentiation of indica and japonica, which has already started in wild rice but is much lower than in cultivated rice. Lower differentiation and less PSGs revealed between the Or-It and Or-IIIt wild rice groups implied that artificial selection provides greater contribution on the differentiation than natural selection. In addition, the phylogenetic tree constructed with positively selected sites showed that the japonica varieties exhibited more diversity than indica on differentiation, and Or-III of O. rufipogon exhibited more than Or-I. PMID:25774680

  12. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  13. Heavy metal spatial variation, bioaccumulation, and risk assessment of Zostera japonica habitat in the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Xue, Sufeng; Jiang, Xiangli

    2016-01-15

    Globally, seagrass habitats are decreasing due to both natural and environmental contaminations by human activities, including heavy metal pollution. To expand the global seagrass detection network, this study reports the spatial distributions of Zostera japonica seagrass habitats in the Yellow River Estuary, China. In addition, heavy metal concentrations of Z. japonica tissue, sediment, and surface seawater were analyzed to determine the bioaccumulation and consequent ecological risk to Z. japonica habitats due to the effects of heavy metals. It was found that concentrations of heavy metals were 1.00-2.03 times higher in seagrass-rooted sediment than in adjacent non-seagrass sediment, except for Mn (with a factor of 0.99). Pb and Hg concentrations in sediments exceeded background values more than the other heavy metals, by factors of 1.74 and 1.24, respectively. Metal concentrations in the surrounding seawater were 2.60-4.63 times higher at seagrass sites than at non-seagrass sites, except for Hg (factor of 0.97). Metal concentrations were much higher in seagrass tissues than in the sediment (e.g., bioconcentration factor of Cd is 30.95). Pb concentrations in water may cause the greatest adverse reactions among aquatic organisms, while As, Cr, Hg, Mn and Cu in sediments may occasionally cause negative ecological effects. Z. japonica showed higher bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in the above-ground tissues. Among other recent studies of seagrasses from other parts of the world, Cd concentrations are similar to the results of the present study, but Pb concentration in present study is higher than in other studies. In conclusion, Pb and As in the surrounding environment present potential risks to the seagrass habitats of the Yellow River Estuary, China. PMID:26410718

  14. Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from sponge Halichondria japonica and tunicate Halocynthia roretzi and their phylogenetic positions

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Masami; Takemura, Shosuke

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from sponge Halichondria japonica and tunicate Halocynthia roretzi were determined by chemical and enzymatic gel methods. Their phylogenetic positions among metazoans were derived from the 5S rRNA sequences by a computer analysis based on the maximum parsimony principle. It was suggested that the sponge is closely related to several invertebrates and the tunicate has affinity to vertebrates rather than invertebrates. PMID:6835845

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) and phylogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zehui; Chai, Xuejun; Wang, Yuebin; Zhu, Yunhai; Zhu, Dongfa

    2016-09-01

    The giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) is an important economic fish distributing in the East China Sea, South China Sea, and Japan southern coast. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. japonica was firstly determined. It is 16 496 bp-length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that N. japonica, A. amoyensis, and other seven fish first clustered into the Argyrosominae clade. It is consistent with the taxonomic status. Then, the Argyrosominae, Pseudosciaeninae, and Sciaeniae formed the sister group, while the Johniinae became a separate clade, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the researches of single gene and taxionomic might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phyogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae and the natural resources conservation. PMID:26369837

  16. Demonstration of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Markers for Wood Property and Male Strobili Traits in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica. PMID:24260312

  17. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  18. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. PMID:27287861

  19. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  20. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  1. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi--Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26892768

  2. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi−Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26892768

  3. Larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Youngia japonica aerial parts and its constituents against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Youngia japonica aerial parts against the larvae of Aedes albopictus and to isolate any active compounds from the oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with menthol (23.53%), α-asarone (21.54%), 1,8-cineole (5.36%), and caryophyllene (4.45%) as the major constituents. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the oil led to the isolation of menthol and α-asarone as active compounds. The essential oil of Y. japonica exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus with an LC₅₀ value of 32.45 μg/mL. α-Asarone and menthol possessed larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC₅₀ values of 24.56 μg/mL and 77.97 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oil of Y. japonica aerial parts and the two constituents can be potential sources of natural larvicides. PMID:25854838

  4. Variations in insecticidal activity and chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica at different ages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chua, Meng-Thong; Chang, Ed-Haun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal effects of the essential oils extracted from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica at different ages (58, 42, and 26 years old) against 2 mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, were studied. The analysis of major constituents of these essential oils was also investigated. Results obtained from the larvicidal tests, using essential oil from the leaves of 58-year-old C. japonica was found to be most effective against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae, indicating tree age has significant influence on mosquito larvicidal activity. In addition, the eleven pure constituents from C. japonica leaf essential oil were also tested individually against the two mosquito larvae. Among them, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, 3-carene, terpinolene, and beta-myrcene shows strong larvicidal effect against the two mosquito larvae. Among these pure constituents, 3-carene exhibits the best larvicidal effect against A. aegypti and terpinolene shows an excellent inhibitory action against A. albopictus larvae. The results of this study show that the leaf essential oil and its effective constituents might be considered as a potent source for the production of fine natural larvicides. PMID:18178080

  5. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of salinity stressed japonica and indica rice genotypes during panicle initiation stage

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Clyde; Zeng, Linghe; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Condamine, Pascal; Close, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Rice yield is most sensitive to salinity stress imposed during the panicle initiation (PI) stage. In this study, we have focused on physiological and transcriptional responses of four rice genotypes exposed to salinity stress during PI. The genotypes selected included a pair of indicas (IR63731 and IR29) and a pair of japonica (Agami and M103) rice subspecies with contrasting salt tolerance. Physiological characterization showed that tolerant genotypes maintained a much lower shoot Na+ concentration relative to sensitive genotypes under salinity stress. Global gene expression analysis revealed a strikingly large number of genes which are induced by salinity stress in sensitive genotypes, IR29 and M103 relative to tolerant lines. We found 19 probe sets to be commonly induced in all four genotypes. We found several salinity modulated, ion homeostasis related genes from our analysis. We also studied the expression of SKC1, a cation transporter reported by others as a major source of variation in salt tolerance in rice. The transcript abundance of SKC1 did not change in response to salinity stress at PI stage in the shoot tissue of all four genotypes. However, we found the transcript abundance of SKC1 to be significantly higher in tolerant japonica Agami relative to sensitive japonica M103 under control and stressed conditions during PI stage. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-006-9112-0 and is accessible for authorized users. PMID:17160619

  6. [Fertility and Embryonic Mortality Level of the Japanese Mitten Crab Eriocheir japonica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae) in Primorye].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, M V

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive biology of the Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica (de Haan, 1835) was studied in the northern part of its habitat. It was revealed that E. japonica from the water bodies of Primorye, in contrast to crabs in the central part of the habitat on the Japanese Islands, lays fewer eggs in the first clutch, does not have direct dependence between the size-weight characteristics of females and the number of eggs in the third clutch, and shows higher level of embryonic mortality. The loss of eggs during the embryonic period in each of three sequentially laid clutches was 16, 34, and 52%, respectively (28% in total during the period of reproduction). Fecundity was approximately 43%. It was registered that the specifics of reproductive biology of E. japonica (monocyclicity, prolonged period of reproduction, portion spawning, indirect embryonic development, high fertility, relatively small and yolk enriched eggs, pelagic planktotrophic larva, high level of energy costs on reproduction, egg bearing on the pleopods, high level of embryonic mortality), an intermediate strategist, is in a good agreement with its life strategy, thereby enabling this species to realize its reproductive potential in the northern part of the habitat. PMID:26859967

  7. A hypothesis on the origin of genetic heterozygosity in diploids and triploids in Japanese Cayratia japonica species complex (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of triploid strains in Japanese populations of Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. Interestingly, the triploid and most diploid strains had variably reduced pollen fertility. Two questions emerged from this earlier work: (1) How do triploids arise, and are they allotriploids or autotriploids? and (2) Why is there low pollen fertility in some diploid plants? We used a molecular genetic approach to determine the phylogenetic origins of triploids in C. japonica and the closely related species Cayratia tenuifolia (Wight & Arn.) Gagnep. In our analysis, we compared the sequences of the nuclear single-copy genes LEAFY and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1. As a result, most triploids and diploids were heterozygous for the loci examined; the triploid genome shared an allele with the diploid genome, but other alleles differed between the ploidies. Therefore, Japanese populations of C. japonica and C. tenuifolia almost certainly arose from repeated hybridization events among genetically differentiated strains. Using our sequence data, we discuss possible scenarios accounting for the occurrence of triploids in the two species of Cayratia. PMID:22200910

  8. [Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

    2012-06-01

    By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean. PMID:22937663

  9. Isolation, expression, and characterization of blue light receptor AUREOCHROME gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunyan; Yao, Jianting; Fu, Gang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2014-04-01

    Photosynthetic stramenopile have chloroplasts of secondary endosymbiotic origin and are significant as aquatic primary productivity and biomass production. In marine environments, many photosynthetic stramenopiles utilize blue light to regulate growth, development, and organelle movement. Aureochrome (AUREO) is a new type blue light photoreceptor specific in photosynthetic stramenopiles. Previously, several AUREO orthologs were reported in genomes of stramenopile members, but the full-length cDNA sequences were completed only in Vaucheria frigida (Xanthophyceae), Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae), and Ochromonas danica (Chrysophyceae). In this study, the full-length cDNA of AUREO from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjAUREO) was isolated based on homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It characterized by the full length of 1,013 bp with an open reading frame of 612 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 203 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 23.08 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.63. The deduced amino acid sequence of SjAUREO contained one N-terminal basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription regulation domain and a single light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain near the C-terminus. Homologous analysis showed that SjAUREO shared 40-92 % similarities with those of other photosynthetic stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close phylogenetic affinity between SjAUREO and AUREO4 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Real-time PCR detection revealed that the SjAUREO transcription was markedly increased under BL exposure and dramatically upregulated in the 1-month juvenile sporophyte than those in the 2 and 3-month materials, which indirectly reflected the SjAUREO associated with the BL-mediated photomorphogenesis during the growth and early development of juvenile sporophytes. In vitro expression showed one distinct band existed at ∼27 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was

  10. Differences in organotin accumulation among ecological migratory types of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2006-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwater, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds, and their breakdown products, were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica having sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and fresh waters. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized 'sea eels' (spent most of their life in the sea and did not enter freshwater), 'estuarine eels' (inhabited estuaries or switched between different habitats), and 'river eels' (entered and remained in freshwater river habitats after arrival in the estuary) according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in A. japonica. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than those in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT and TPT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were

  11. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those fed with untreated L. japonica feedstuff (mean weight gain of 1.31 g). At the same time, they also showed significantly higher levels of amylase, protease, and alginate lyase activities than the other groups. These individuals and those fed with the commercial feedstuff or heat-inactivated but B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonicas feedstuff showed enhanced levels of activities for the immune enzymes nitric oxide synthase, lysozyme, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase, compared to those fed with nontreated L. japonica feedstuff. Furthermore, A. japonicus individuals fed with B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonica feedstuff exhibited greater resistance to disease following Vibrio splendidus challenge, as shown by the much lower cumulative symptom (10 %) compared to the rest, which showed as much as 73 % in the case of individuals fed with the untreated L. japonica feedstuff. Analysis of their intestinal tract revealed a much lower number of total Vibrio sp. These results demonstrated that L. japonica in which the algin

  12. Slipping through the Cracks: The Taxonomic Impediment Conceals the Origin and Dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an Invasive Species with Impacts to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A. E.; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species. PMID:24098588

  13. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing of an 88-Year-Old Specimen of the Poorly Known Species Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) Supports the Recognition of Otohimella gen. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ootsuki, Ryo; Kurihara, Akira; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kitayama, Taiju; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Liagora japonica is a red algal species distributed in temperate regions of Japan. This species has not been collected from its type locality on the Pacific coast of Japan since 1927 and seems to have become extinct in this area. For molecular characterization of L. japonica, we extracted DNA from the topotype material of L. japonica collected in 1927, analyzed seven genes using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared these data with sequences from modern samples of similar red algae collected from the Japan Sea coast of Japan. Both morphological and molecular data from modern samples and historical specimens (including the lectotype and topotype) suggest that the specimens from the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts of Japan should be treated as a single species, and that L. japonica is phylogenetically separated from the genus Liagora. Based on the phylogenetic results and examination of reproductive structures, we propose Otohimella japonica gen. et comb. nov., characterized morphologically by diffuse carposporophytes, undivided carposporangia, and involucral filaments initiated only from the cortical cell on the supporting cell. PMID:27388436

  15. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950

  16. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica’s fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze–thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci conferring blast resistance in Bodao, a japonica rice landrace.

    PubMed

    Huan, J; Bao, Y M; Wu, Y Y; Zeng, G Y; He, W W; Dang, L L; Wang, J F; Zhang, H S

    2014-01-01

    Bodao, a japonica landrace from the Taihu Lake region of China, is highly resistant to most Chinese isolates of Magnaporthe oryzea, a form of rice blast. To effectively dissect the influence of genetics on this blast resistance, a population of 155 recombinant inbred lines (F2:8) derived from a cross of Bodao x Suyunuo was inoculated with 12 blast isolates. Using a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach, 13 QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, 11, and 12 were detected from Bodao. Five QTL, including qtl11-1-1, qtl11-3-7, qtl11-4-9, qtl12-1-1, and qtl12-2-3, have not been previously reported. The qtl11-3-7 and qtl11-4-9 may be the two main effective QTL and resistant to 7 and 9 isolates, respectively. The results of the present study will be valuable for the fine mapping and cloning of these two new resistance genes. PMID:25501185

  18. Study on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue

    2012-06-01

    The antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica were compared in order to examine the influence of chemical character on their antithrombotic activity and the possible mechanism. Both LMW fucoidan fractions exhibited favorable antithrombotic activity in an Fecl3-induced arterial thrombosis. The antithrombotic activity of LMW fucoidan was related with decrease of TXB2 and whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. LMW fucoidan showed a correlation between anticoagulant, antiaggregant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. For LMW fucoidan, antithrombotic activity required high dose of 5-10 nmol kg-1, concomitantly with increase in anticoagulant activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Administration of LMW fucoidan significantly promoted the 6-keto-PGF1α content and decreased the TXB2 content, indicating its inhibition of tissue factor pathway and regulation of metabolism of arachidonic acid. By comparison, highly sulfated fucoidan LF2 with Mw 3900 seemed to be a more suitable choice for antithrombotic drug for its antithrombotic activity accompanied with specific inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation, low anticoagulant activity and low hemorrhagic risk in vivo.

  19. Characterization of bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of the Japanese honeybee, Apis cerana japonica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Takaya, Noriko; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaru; Taylor, DeMar; Yoshiyama, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria were isolated from the intestinal tract of the Japanese honeybee, Apis cerana japonica, and investigated for potential application as a probiotic agent against Melissococcus plutonius, the causal agent of European foulbrood (EFB), based on the findings of in vitro inhibition assays. A total of 11 bifidobacteria strains (designated as AcjBF1-AcjBF11) were isolated using a culture-dependent method and their 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed. The AcjBF isolates belonged to three distinct bifidobacterial phylotypes that were similar to those found in the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Although the Japanese and European honeybees are distinct species with different traits and habits, the observation that they share highly similar bifidobacterial phylotypes suggests that bifidobacteria are conserved among honeybee species. Despite having extremely high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the AcjBF isolates had markedly different carbohydrate fermentation profiles. In addition, in vitro growth inhibition assays revealed that the cell-free supernatants of all AcjBF isolates exhibited antagonistic effects on M. plutonius growth. These results indicate that the bifidobacteria isolated from the gut of Japanese honeybee could potentially be employed as a new biological agent to control EFB. PMID:23069130

  20. Broadband Photoreceptors Are Involved in Violet Light Preference in the Parasitoid Fly Exorista Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Tokushima, Yoshiaki; Uehara, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Terumi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kainoh, Yooichi

    2016-01-01

    Phototaxis has been described in many insects, which are often attracted to specific wavelengths of light. However, little is known about phototaxis in parasitoid insect species that are potentially useful for integrated pest management. In this study, we investigated the wavelength dependency of the phototactic behavior of the parasitoid fly Exorista japonica and its possible mechanism. Multiple-choice tests with six monochromatic stimuli revealed that the flies were specifically attracted to violet light peaking at 405 nm, which was unexpected because insects are generally attracted to ultraviolet or green light. We measured the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye, and found that the sensitivity peaked at 340 nm, as in other brachyceran flies. We used statistical modeling and optimization of the process parameters to predict the type of photoreceptor contributing to the violet preference. The analysis revealed that the wavelength preference could be explained by linear models of the quanta received by photoreceptors, including the R1-6 broadband receptors. The broadband receptors appear to contribute positively, whereas the R7-8 narrowband receptors contribute negatively to achieve the violet preference; i.e., spectral opponency might be involved. PMID:27532635

  1. Changes in Physicochemical, Structural, and Sensory Properties of Irradiated Brown Japonica Rice during Storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinji; Jiang, Weixin; Jiang, Zhongqing; Chen, Xia; Cao, Jun; Dong, Wen; Dai, Bingye

    2015-05-01

    Brown japonica rice was treated with (60)Co γ irradiation at doses of 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy immediately after harvesting. The effects of irradiation on physicochemical, structural, and sensory properties during long-term storage (18 months) were investigated. The study revealed that the pasting properties, including peak, through, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities, decrease considerably in a dose-dependent manner and vary differently during 18 months of storage. Irradiation reduced the free fatty acid (FFA) content in comparison with unirradiated brown rice with long-term storage (from 12 to 18 months). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the mean range and shape of starch granules did not vary significantly. However, dark spots developed among starch granules and the narrow cracks became wider with increasing irradiation dose and storage time. During sensory evaluation, extremely low scores for odor and overall acceptability were obtained for medium-dose irradiated rice (1.0 and 2.0 kGy); however, no significant difference was found in acceptability between low-dose irradiated rice (0.2 and 0.5 kGy) and the control rice (0 kGy). Overall, low-dose (0.5 kGy or below) irradiation seems to be a promising alternative treatment to increase brown rice shelf life, without affecting the physicochemical and structural characteristics and sensory acceptability. PMID:25879171

  2. Contrasting photosynthesis and photoinhibition in tetraploid and its autodiploid honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Wu, Congwen; Zhang, Lihua; Chen, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a popular landscape plant. This study was to explore leaf photosynthetic characterization with emphasis on the coordination between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) in tetraploid and its autodiploid honeysuckle (TH and DH) upon salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Leaf photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency in DH and TH were significantly decreased under salt stress, and the decrease was greater in DH. PSII photoinhibition was induced in DH under salt stress, as the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was significantly decreased. PSII photoinhibition declined electron flow to PSI, but did not prevent PSI photoinhibition, as the maximal photochemical capacity of PSI (MR/MR0) was significantly decreased by salt stress. According to the significant decrease in PSI oxidation amplitude in the first 1 s red illumination, PSI photoinhibition was more severe than PSII photoinhibition. As a result, PSII and PSI coordination was destroyed. Comparatively, salt-induced photoinhibition did not occur in TH, as no significant change was observed in Fv/Fm and MR/MR0. Consequently, PSII and PSI coordination was not significantly affected by salt stress. In conclusion, TH maintained normal coordination between PSII and PSI by preventing photoinhibition and exhibited higher leaf photosynthetic activity than DH under salt stress. Compared with DH, lower leaf ionic toxicity due to greater root Na+ extrusion and restriction of Na+ transport to leaf might be responsible for maintaining higher leaf photosynthetic capacity in TH under salt stress. PMID:25914706

  3. [Genetic analysis of blast resistance in japonica rice landrace heikezijing from Taihu region].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Fei; He, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Yi

    2002-09-01

    Japonica rice landrace Heikezijing (HKZJ) from Taihu region is highly resistant to several Chinese and Japanese differential strains of Magnaporthe grisea. The F1, F2 and RIL populations from the cross between the resistant variety Heikezijing and the susceptible variety Lijiangxintuanheigu (LJXTHG) were inoculated by spray with two strains of Ken 54-04 and Hoku 1 in seedling stages. Based on the R:S ratios of segregation in F1, F2 and RIL populations it was showed that there were two independent dominant genes in Heikezijing in responsible for resistance to strain Ken 54-04 and one dominant R gene to strain Hoku 1 which is the same to one of the two genes resistant to Ken 54-04. The allelic test indicated that the gene with resistance to both Hoku 1 and Ken 54-04 is non-allelic to loci of Pi-k, Pi-z, Pi-ta, Pi-b and Pi-t, also neither Pi-i nor Pi-a gene. It is necessary to confirm whether it is an unknown gene. PMID:12561228

  4. Survey of pathogens and parasitoids of Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Petty, B M; Johnson, D T; Steinkraus, D C

    2012-09-15

    The impact of pathogens and parasitoids on the recently established population of Popillia japonica Newman in northwest Arkansas has been unknown. In this study, we quantified the prevalence of natural enemies: Stictospora villani Hays, Ovavesicula popilliae Andreadis and Hanula, Paenibacillus spp. (Dingman), nematodes and parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera in third instar and adult populations in 2010 and 2011. S. villani was found in 38.4% and 35.5% of larvae in 2010 and 2011, respectively. S. villani was not found in adult beetles. Paenibacillus bacteria were not found in either larvae or adults in either year. In 2010, the microsporidian O. popilliae was not found in larvae but was present in 0.2% of adults. In 2011, 2.6% of larvae were infected with O. popilliae, but the microsporidian was not found in adults. A previously unknown Adelina sp. was found infecting 0.4% of adult beetles in 2010 and 1.3% of larvae in 2011. Nematode infections were found in 1.8% of larvae and 0.1% of adults in 2010 and not found in either life stage in 2011. No parasitic Hymenoptera or Diptera were found in either year. Apparently, pathogens and parasitoids currently provide little control of the Japanese beetle population within northwest Arkansas. PMID:22721914

  5. Application of restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) to genetic diversity in Saccharina japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui; Liu, Cui; Li, Wei; Chi, Shan; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) was used, for the first time, to analyze the genetic structure and diversity of four, mainly cultivated, varieties of the brown alga, Saccharina japonica. Eighty-eight samples from varieties " Rongfu ", " Fujian ", " Ailunwan " and " Shengchanzhong " were used for the genetic analyses. One hundred and ninety-eight bands were obtained using eight combinations of primers. One hundred and ninety-one (96.46%) were polymorphic bands. Nei's genetic diversity was 0.360, and the coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.357. No inbreeding-type recession was found in the four brown alga varieties and the results of the " Ailunwan " variety using samples from 2 years showed that the variety was becoming less diverse during the selection inherent in the breeding program. Genetic diversity and cluster analyses results were consistent with these genetic relationships. The results show the RSAP method is suitable for genetic analysis. Continuous inbreeding and selection could reduce the genetic diversity effectively; therefore periodical supervision is required.

  6. Coptis japonica Makino extract suppresses angiogenesis through regulation of cell cycle-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Eok-Cheon; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis, neovascularization from pre-existing vessels, is a key step in tumor growth and metastasis, and anti-angiogenic agents that can interfere with these essential steps of cancer development are a promising strategy for human cancer treatment. In this study, we characterized the anti-angiogenic effects of Coptis japonica Makino extract (CJME) and its mechanism of action. CJME significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CJME suppressed VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting ex vivo. According to our study, CJME blocked VEGF-induced cell cycle transition in G1. CJME decreased expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins, including Cyclin D, Cyclin E, Cdk2, and Cdk4 in response to VEGF. Taken together, the results of our study indicate that CJME suppresses VEGF-induced angiogenic events such as proliferation, migration, and tube formation via cell cycle arrest in G1. PMID:26924430

  7. Identification of genes involved in spontaneous leaf color variation in Pseudosasa japonica.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Xia, X W; Fang, W; Fu, Y; An, M M; Zhou, M B

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous leaf color variation in bamboo provides the opportunity to study the mechanisms of leaf color formation and the breeding of ornamental bamboos. Despite the fact that many genes are known to be involved in leaf color variation in model plants, molecular mechanisms governing natural leaf color variation in bamboo have remained obscure. This study aimed to identify the genes responsible for the occurrence of such phenomena in bamboo using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method between green and albino leaves in Pseudosasa japonica f. A total of 1062 and 1004 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. Subsequently, 59 differentially expressed unigenes with potential roles in leaf color formation, predicted via computational analysis of their functional relevance, were selected for further analysis using qPCR. Ten genes, involved in photosynthesis, plastid development, and cation signal transduction, showed 2-fold changes in expression levels between green and albino leaves. Further expression pattern analyses of these genes at three developmental stages revealed much lower expression abundance of Lhca1-encoded chlorophyll a/b binding protein in the albino leaves than in the green leaves. Our results suggest that, together with the concatenated negative pressure for subsequent photosynthetic processes, the albino phenotype is at least partly attributable to chloroplast inner membrane damage or to the impairment of photosynthetic pigment accumulation, which results from low Lhca1 expression. PMID:26436507

  8. The spatial distribution of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Sara, Stacey A; McCallen, Emily B; Switzer, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  9. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  10. Effects of blue light on gametophyte development of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cuijuan; Kataoka, Hironao; Duan, Delin

    2005-09-01

    Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May, July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol photons/m·s), the unicellular female gametophytes and multi-cellular male gametophytes produced eggs and sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May, July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.

  11. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L−1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant. PMID:26235534

  12. [Chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shi; Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity on the basis of preliminary studies. Target isolation guided by anti-complementary activity test, compounds in the chloroform and n-butanol fractions were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC. The structures were identified by various spectroscopic data including ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. The compounds were evaluated for anti-complementary activity in vitro. Eleven compounds were isolated from the chloroform and n-butanol soluble fractions and identified as stigmasterol (1), stigmas-9 (11) -en-3-ol (2), glaucocalyxin D (3), kamebakaurin (4), maslinic acid (5), corosolic acid (6), minheryins I (7), diosmetin (8), caffeic acid ethylene ester (9), caffeic acid (10) and vitexin (11). Isoquercetrin, rutin, quercetin, 3-methylquercetin, luteolin, 7-methylluteolin, and apigenin which were isolated from the preliminary studies together with compounds 9 and 10 showed inhibition of the complement system by the classical pathway. Compounds 2, 4, 6-9 and 11 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Caffeic acid (10) showed the strongest activity in vitro with a CH50 value of 0.041 g x L(-1). PMID:23672041

  13. Global Expression Profiling of Low Temperature Induced Genes in the Chilling Tolerant Japonica Rice Jumli Marshi

    PubMed Central

    Chawade, Aakash; Lindlöf, Angelica; Olsson, Björn; Olsson, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is a key factor that limits growth and productivity of many important agronomical crops worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is negatively affected already at temperatures below +10°C and is therefore denoted as chilling sensitive. However, chilling tolerant rice cultivars exist and can be commercially cultivated at altitudes up to 3,050 meters with temperatures reaching as low as +4°C. In this work, the global transcriptional response to cold stress (+4°C) was studied in the Nepalese highland variety Jumli Marshi (spp. japonica) and 4,636 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within 24 hours of cold stress. Comparison with previously published microarray data from one chilling tolerant and two sensitive rice cultivars identified 182 genes differentially expressed (DE) upon cold stress in all four rice cultivars and 511 genes DE only in the chilling tolerant rice. Promoter analysis of the 182 genes suggests a complex cross-talk between ABRE and CBF regulons. Promoter analysis of the 511 genes identified over-represented ABRE motifs but not DRE motifs, suggesting a role for ABA signaling in cold tolerance. Moreover, 2,101 genes were DE in Jumli Marshi alone. By chromosomal localization analysis, 473 of these cold responsive genes were located within 13 different QTLs previously identified as cold associated. PMID:24349120

  14. Retrogenes in Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) Exhibit Correlated Expression with Their Source Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene duplication occurs by either DNA- or RNA-based processes; the latter duplicates single genes via retroposition of messenger RNA. The expression of a retroposed gene copy (retrocopy) is expected to be uncorrelated with its source gene because upstream promoter regions are usually not part of the retroposition process. In contrast, DNA-based duplication often encompasses both the coding and the intergenic (promoter) regions; hence, expression is often correlated, at least initially, between DNA-based duplicates. In this study, we identified 150 retrocopies in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica), most of which represent ancient retroposition events. We measured their expression from high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data generated from seven tissues. At least 66% of the retrocopies were expressed but at lower levels than their source genes. However, the tissue specificity of retrogenes was similar to their source genes, and expression between retrocopies and source genes was correlated across tissues. The level of correlation was similar between RNA- and DNA-based duplicates, and they decreased over time at statistically indistinguishable rates. We extended these observations to previously identified retrocopies in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may be general features of the process of retention of plant retrogenes. PMID:22042334

  15. Enhanced antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles-Lonicera Japonica Thunb combo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Qu, Feng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Hengyi; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Silver metals have long been known to possess antimicrobial properties. Recently, even the nanoparticle version of silver (AgNPs) has also been established as antimicrobials. In this study AgNPs were combined with extracts of the medicinal plant Chinese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica Thunb. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs-herb was tested against pathogenic Escherichia coli CMCC44113. Using different AgNPs or herb (honeysuckle water extract or HWE) ratios in the presence of a fixed concentration of E. coli CMCC44113, potencies were found to be proportional with concentrations. The antimicrobial activities of AgNPs-HWE combo were significant enhanced, when compared with solely AgNPs or HWE. Thus, atomic force microscopic and propidium monoazide-PCR were used to probe the damages caused by AgNPs-HWE combo on the cell morphology and cell membrane integrity of E. coli. The mechanism of AgNPs-HWE combo against E. coli may attribute to AgNPs leads to cell wall lysis and damages cell membrane integrity, and thus increases the penetration of HWE into the bacterium, which results in more serious damage to bacterial cells. These findings indicated that AgNPs-herb was more potent than the AgNPs alone and holds promise for the development of nanoparticle enhanced herbal pharmaceuticals. PMID:26766870

  16. Effect of salinity on the toxicity of road dust in an estuarine amphipod Grandidierella japonica.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Kyoshiro; Nakajima, Fumiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Urban runoff can reach coastal aquatic environments; however, little is known about the effect of salinity on road runoff toxicity. The objective of this study is to investigate the toxicity of highway road dust over a salinity gradient from 5 to 35‰, in an estuarine benthic amphipod, Grandidierella japonica. Road dust toxicity was evaluated by assessing mortality after 10 days of exposure and short-term microbead ingestion activity of the amphipod. For all road dust samples considered, amphipod mortality increased with increasing salinity, whereas no significant difference in mortality was observed among test salinities in the reference river sediment. Ingestion activity during exposure to road dust decreased with increasing salinity. In fact, none of the individuals ingested any microbeads at salinity of 35‰. If assumed microbead ingestion is a proxy for feeding activity, high mortality at 35‰ could be attributed to aquatic exposure and not to dietary exposure. These findings suggest that road dust may have considerable impact on benthic organisms at high salinity levels. PMID:26360764

  17. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpinone 3-acetate from Alpinia japonica seeds.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Tomohito; Miyazaki, Aya; Yasukawa, Ken

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the bioactive components of Alpinia japonica as anti-inflammatory compounds using searches of the Alpinia genus, and subsequently demonstrated that alpinone 3-acetate markedly inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ear edema. To assess other bioactivities of alpinone 3-acetate, we performed translatome analyses and compared them with those of hydrocortisone. Polysome-associated mRNAs were prepared from alpinone 3-acetate- or hydrocortisone-treated and control cells from 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in the presence of Escherichia coli O-111 lipopolysaccharide. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed that alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone upregulated and downregulated the same 155 and 41 genes, respectively. Moreover, direct comparisons of translationally regulated genes indicated 5 and 10 gene probes that were upregulated and downregulated by alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone, respectively. In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone. PMID:27137785

  19. Effectiveness of the combinational treatment of Laminaria japonica and Cistanche tubulosa extracts in hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Park, Dongsun; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Yang, Woong-Suk; Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Since scalp hair loss has increased recently even in young people, seriously affecting individual's quality of life, the hair growth-stimulating effects of Laminaria japonica extract (LJE) and Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) were investigated. After confirming anagen phase of follicles under shaving, male C57BL/6 mice were dermally applied with 3% Minoxidil or orally administered with the combinations of LJE and CTE for 21 days. Minoxidil promoted the hair regrowth and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. In addition, Minoxidil up-regulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Co-administration of LJE and CTE at 54 mg/kg LJE plus 162 mg/kg CTE exerted synergistic promoting effects on the hair regrowth, comparable to 3% Minoxidil. LJE preferentially enhanced ALP activity, while CTE increased both γ-GTP and ALP activities as well as EGF and VEGF expressions. In vivo air pouch inflammation model, carrageenan-induced vascular exudation and increased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 concentrations in the exudates were synergistically suppressed by co-administration of LJE and CTE. In addition, inflammatory cell infiltration was substantially inhibited by the combinational treatment. The results suggest that combinational oral treatment with LJE and CTE in appropriate doses and ratios prevent hair loss and improve alopecia, which might be in part mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:25806080

  20. Quantitative resistance traits and suitability of woody plant species for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.

    PubMed

    Keathley, Craig P; Potter, Daniel A

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, has an unusually broad host range among deciduous woody plants, yet it feeds only sparingly, or not at all, on certain species in the field. We evaluated beetles' preference, survival over time and fecundity on eight woody plant species historically rated as susceptible or resistant and, after verifying those ratings, tested whether resistance is correlated with so-called quantitative defense traits including leaf toughness, low nutrient content (water, nitrogen, and sugars), and relatively high amounts of tannins or saponins, traditionally associated with such plants. We further tested whether species unsuitable for Japanese beetles are also rejected by fall webworms, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), the expected outcome if the aforementioned traits serve as broad-based defenses against generalists. Choice tests supported historical resistance ratings for the selected species: tuliptree, lilac, dogwood, and Bradford callery pear were rejected by Japanese beetles, whereas sassafras, cherry plum, Virginia creeper, and littleleaf linden were readily eaten. Rejected species also were unsuitable for survival over time, or egg-laying, indicating beetles' inability to overcome the resistance factors through habituation, compensatory feeding, or detoxification. None of the aforementioned leaf traits was consistently higher or lower in the resistant or susceptible plants, and plant species rejected by Japanese beetles often were not rejected by fall webworms. Specialized secondary chemistry, not quantitative defenses, likely determines the Japanese beetle's dietary range among deciduous woody plant species it may encounter. PMID:19161699

  1. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  2. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  3. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  4. Uptake and elimination of cadmium by Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica, at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.N.; Chen, H.C.

    1996-04-01

    There is no evidence that cadmium is biologically essential, but its toxicity to organisms is well known. The so-called Itai-Itai disease in Japan, characterized by osteomalacia and renal tubular malfunction, has been attributed to cadmium poisoning in irrigation water. The degree of contamination in aquatic environments is frequently assessed by comparing contaminant concentrations in associated biota. Bioaccumulation, however, is influenced by environmental factors other than the degree of contamination, environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and pH. The use of cadmium in the electroplating industry in Taiwan is intensive, but the wastewater used in this industry is seldom treated and has been a serious problem. The Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) is an important freshwater aquacultural fish in Taiwan; thus, it is important to know the accumulation and elimination of cadmium in the Japanese eel due to cadmium-polluted water at various temperatures in order to protect eel resources as well as human health. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [Textual research on the literature sources, its related names and medicinal part of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The "jin yin hua" (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) used in the clinic nowadays is the flower of honeysuckle, excluding its stem, leave, branch, vine or the whole plant. In the early time, the name of "ren dong" (honeysuckle) or "ren dong teng" (Caulis lonicerae) didn't refer exclusively to the flower of honeysuckle. A few early literature, such as Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) recorded briefly the flower, yet only mentions its time of blossom and shape without mentioning the medicinal use of its flower, nor the title of "jin yin hua", as the identification for this plant. Therefore, it cannot be regarded as the primary source of "jin yin hua". This research points out that the first appearance of the name of "jin yin hua" should be in Su shen liang fang (Su-Shen's Effective Prescriptions) of the Song Dynasty, and the first usage of the flower "jin yin hua" as a single drug was in Wai ke jing yao (Essence of External Diseases) of the Song Dynasty. Thus, the conclusion that "jin yin hua" is first seen in Xin xiu ben cao or lv chan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) quoted in the ninth edition of teaching material of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology, and Chinese Materia Medica are all wrong and should be corrected accordingly. PMID:24060026

  6. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract. PMID:25648044

  7. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  8. Navigation in wood ants Formica japonica: context dependent use of landmarks.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Tsukasa; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2004-09-01

    Wood ants Formica japonica can steer their outbound (foraging) and inbound (homing) courses without using celestial compass information, by relying exclusively on landmark cues. This is shown by training ants to run back and forth between the nest and an artificial feeder, and later displacing the trained ants either from the nest (when starting their foraging runs: outbound full-vector ants) or from the feeder (when starting their home runs: inbound full-vector ants) to various nearby release sites. In addition, ants that have already completed their foraging and homing runs are displaced after arrival either at the feeder (outbound zero-vector ants) or at the nest (inbound zero-vector ants), respectively, to the very same release sites. Upon release, the full-vector ants steer their straight courses by referring to panoramic landmark cues, while the zero-vector ants presented with the very same visual scenery immediately search for local landmark cues defining their final goal. Hence, it depends on the context, in this case on the state of the forager's round-trip cycle, what visual cues are picked out from a given set of landmarks and used for navigation. PMID:15326219

  9. Unusually Large Number of Mutations in Asexually Reproducing Clonal Planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We established a laboratory clonal strain of freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica) that was derived from a single individual and that continued to undergo autotomous asexual reproduction for more than 20 years, and we performed large-scale genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis on it. Despite the fact that a completely clonal strain of the planarian was used, an unusually large number of mutations were detected. To enable quantitative genetic analysis of such a unique organism, we developed a new model called the Reference Gene Model, and used it to conduct large-scale transcriptome analysis. The results revealed large numbers of mutations not only outside but also inside gene-coding regions. Non-synonymous SNPs were detected in 74% of the genes for which valid ORFs were predicted. Interestingly, the high-mutation genes, such as metabolism- and defense-related genes, were correlated with genes that were previously identified as diverse genes among different planarian species. Although a large number of amino acid substitutions were apparently accumulated during asexual reproduction over this long period of time, the planarian maintained normal body-shape, behaviors, and physiological functions. The results of the present study reveal a unique aspect of asexual reproduction. PMID:26588467

  10. Identification and expression analysis of a Spsb gene in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zimei; Cheng, Fangfang; Yuwen, Yanqing; Chen, Jing; Li, Xiaoyan; Dou, He; Zhang, Haixia; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Dezeng

    2015-06-15

    The SPSB family is comprised of four highly conserved proteins, each containing a C-terminal SOCS box motif and a central SPRY domain. Presently, Spsb genes have been found in mammals and in a few invertebrates, however, the specific functions of these genes are still unknown. In this study, we identified a Spsb gene from the planarian Dugesia japonica and termed it DjSpsb. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of DjSpsb were examined in both intact and regenerative animals, and expression levels were also quantified in response to various stressors. The results show that (1) DjSpsb is highly conserved in evolutionary history in metazoans and is at closer relationship to Spsb1, Spsb2 and Spsb4; (2) DjSpsb mRNA is mainly expressed in the head and also throughout head regeneration processes, particularly, its expression up-regulated observably on day 5 after amputation; (3) DjSpsb is also expressed in the testes and yolk glands; (4) DjSpsb expression is induced by high temperature and ethanol but inhibited by high doses of ionic liquids. The date suggests that the DjSpsb gene might be active in central nervous system (CNS) formation and functional recovery during head regeneration, and it is also involved in the development of germ cells and stress responses in the planarians. PMID:25827717

  11. Heterogeneity of chromatoid bodies in adult pluripotent stem cells of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Makoto; Kumagai, Nobuyoshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito

    2016-02-01

    The robust regenerative ability of planarians is known to be dependent on adult pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts. One of the morphological features of neoblasts is cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granules (chromatoid bodies: CBs), which resemble germ granules present in germline cells in other animals. Previously, we showed by immuno-electron microscopic analysis that DjCBC-1, a planarian Me31B/Dhh1/DDX6 homologue, which is a component of ribonucleoprotein granules, was localized in CBs in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Also, recently it was reported using another planarian species that Y12 antibody recognizing symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) specifically binds to CBs in which histone mRNA is co-localized. Here, we showed by double immunostaining and RNA interference (RNAi) that DjCBC-1-containing CBs and Y12-immunoreactive CBs are distinct structures, suggesting that CBs are composed of heterogeneous populations. We also found that the Y12-immunoreactive CBs specifically contained a cytoplasmic type of planarian PIWI protein (DjPiwiC). We revealed by RNAi experiments that Y12-immunoreactive CBs may have anti-transposable element activity involving the DjPiwiC protein in the neoblasts. PMID:26857694

  12. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xian; Xu, Lei; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhou, Sha; Zhu, Jifeng; Jin, Xin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Gengxin; Su, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis. PMID:26284362

  13. Effects of 2 G hypergravity exposure on Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.

  14. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides.

  15. Hormonal induction of all stages of spermatogenesis in vitro in the male Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed Central

    Miura, T; Yamauchi, K; Takahashi, H; Nagahama, Y

    1991-01-01

    The importance of gonadotropins and androgens for spermatogenesis is generally accepted in vertebrates, but the role played by specific hormones has not been clarified. Under cultivation conditions, male Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) have immature testes containing only premitotic spermatogonia, type A and early-type B spermatogonia. In the present study, a recently developed organ-culture system for eel testes was used to determine in vitro effects of various steroid hormones on spermatogenesis. After 9 days of culture in serum-free, chemically defined medium containing 11-ketotestosterone (10 ng/ml), a major androgen in male eels, type A and early-type B spermatogonia began mitosis, producing late-type B spermatogonia. After 18 days, zygotene spermatocytes with synaptonemal complexes appeared, indicating that meiosis had already started by this time. In testis fragments cultured for 21 days, round spermatids and spermatozoa were observed with spermatogenic cells at all stages of development. Addition of 11-ketotestosterone to the culture medium also caused a marked cytological activation of Sertoli cells. No other steroid hormones tested had such stimulatory effects. These results, together with our earlier observations, suggest the following sequence for the hormonal induction of spermatogenesis in eel testes; gonadotropin stimulates the Leydig cells to produce 11-ketotestosterone, which, in turn, activates the Sertoli cells leading to the completion of spermatogenesis. This is, thus, an example of an animal system in which all stages of spermatogenesis have been induced by hormonal manipulation in vitro. Images PMID:2062857

  16. Structural-functional insights and studies on saccharide binding of Sophora japonica seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priya; Shahane, Ganesh; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Sengupta, Durba; Gaikwad, Sushama

    2016-10-01

    Functional and conformational transitions of the Sophora japonica seed lectin (SJL) were studied in detail using bioinformatics and biophysical tools. Homology model of the lectin displayed all the characteristics of the legume lectin monomer and the experimental observations correlated well with the structural information. In silico studies were performed by protein-ligand docking, calculating the respective binding energies and the residues involved in the interactions were derived from LigPlot(+) analysis. Fluorescence titrations showed three times higher affinity of T-antigen disaccharide than N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) towards SJL indicating extended sugar binding site of the lectin. Thermodynamic parameters of T-antigen binding to SJL indicated the process to be endothermic and entropically driven while those of GalNAc showed biphasic process. SDS-PAGE showed post-translationally modified homotetrameric species of the lectin under native conditions. In presence of guanidine hydrochloride (0.5-5.0M), the tetramer first dissociated into dimers followed by unfolding of the protein as indicated by size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. Different structural rearrangements were observed during thermal denaturation of SJL at physiological pH 7.2, native pH 8.5 and molten globule inducing pH 1.0. Topological information revealed by solute quenching studies at respective pH indicated differential hydrophobic environment and charge density around tryptophan residues. PMID:27185070

  17. Impact of single and dual modifications on physicochemical properties of japonica and indica rice starches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Jin; Hong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Eun-Jung; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-05-20

    The japonica (JR) and indica (IR) rice starches were modified by acetylation, hydroxypropylation, cross-linking, and dual modification (cross-linked acetylation and cross-linked hydroxypropylation) and the effects of single and dual chemical modifications of JR and WR on the physicochemical properties were investigated. The JR had a greater substitution degree of acetyl or hydroxypropyl groups than IR. The dual-modified JR showed broader gelatinization temperature range than corresponding single-modified starches, but narrower it in IR. The dual-modified JR and IR showed higher pasting temperature and lower breakdown than their corresponding single-modified starches. The dual modification with JR and IR induced significant increase in gel hardness as compared to the corresponding unmodified and single-modified starches. The dual-modified JR had a greater hardness, gumminess, and chewiness than the dual-modified IR. The different impact of single and dual modification with JR and IR on the physicochemical properties could be due to the differences in the location and distribution of substituent groups on the starch molecules. PMID:25817645

  18. Invasion of the Red Seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica Spans Biogeographic Provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic. PMID:23638018

  19. Characterization of Vacuolar Transport of the Endogenous Alkaloid Berberine in Coptis japonica1

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Mihoko; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sakai, Kyoko; Martinoia, Enrico; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2005-01-01

    Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Many of them exhibit strong biological activities, and, in most cases, they are accumulated in the central vacuole of alkaloid-producing plants after synthesis. However, the mechanisms involved in alkaloid transport across the tonoplast are only poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the vacuolar transport mechanism of an isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine, which is produced and accumulated in the vacuole of cultured cells of Coptis japonica. The characterization of berberine transport using intact vacuoles and a tonoplast vesicle system showed that berberine uptake was stimulated by Mg/ATP, as well as GTP, CTP, UTP, and Mg/pyrophosphate. Berberine uptake was strongly inhibited by NH4+ and bafilomycin A1, while vanadate, which is commonly used to inhibit ATP-binding cassette transporters, had only a slight effect, which suggests the presence of a typical secondary transport mechanism. This is contrary to the situation in the plasma membrane of this plant cell, where the ATP-binding cassette transporter is involved in berberine transport. Model experiments with liposomes demonstrated that an ion-trap mechanism was hardly implicated in berberine transport. Further studies suggested that berberine was transported across the tonoplast via an H+/berberine antiporter, which has a Km value of 43.7 μm for berberine. Competition experiments using various berberine analogs, as well as other classes of alkaloids, revealed that this transporter is fairly specific, but not exclusive, for berberine. PMID:16024684

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a chlorophyll degradation regulatory gene (ZjSGR) from Zoysia japonica.

    PubMed

    Teng, K; Chang, Z H; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Xu, L X; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    The stay-green gene (SGR) is a key regulatory factor for chlorophyll degradation and senescence. However, to date, little is known about SGR in Zoysia japonica. In this study, ZjSGR was cloned, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The target sequence is 831 bp in length, corresponding to 276 amino acids. Protein BLAST results showed that ZjSGR belongs to the stay-green superfamily. A phylogenetic analysis implied that ZjSGR is most closely related to ZmSGR1. The subcellular localization of ZjSGR was investigated, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results demonstrated that ZjSGR protein is localized in the chloroplasts. Quantitative real time PCR was carried out to investigate the expression characteristics of ZjSGR. The expression level of ZjSGR was found to be highest in leaves, and could be strongly induced by natural senescence, darkness, abscisic acid (ABA), and methyl jasmonate treatment. Moreover, an in vivo function analysis indicated that transient overexpression of ZjSGR could accelerate chlorophyll degradation, up-regulate the expression of SAG113, and activate ABA biosynthesis. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ZjSGR could play an important regulatory role in leaf chlorophyll degradation and senescence in plants at the molecular level. PMID:27173268

  1. Effectiveness of the combinational treatment of Laminaria japonica and Cistanche tubulosa extracts in hair growth.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Park, Dongsun; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Yang, Woong-Suk; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-03-01

    Since scalp hair loss has increased recently even in young people, seriously affecting individual's quality of life, the hair growth-stimulating effects of Laminaria japonica extract (LJE) and Cistanche tubulosa extract (CTE) were investigated. After confirming anagen phase of follicles under shaving, male C57BL/6 mice were dermally applied with 3% Minoxidil or orally administered with the combinations of LJE and CTE for 21 days. Minoxidil promoted the hair regrowth and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. In addition, Minoxidil up-regulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Co-administration of LJE and CTE at 54 mg/kg LJE plus 162 mg/kg CTE exerted synergistic promoting effects on the hair regrowth, comparable to 3% Minoxidil. LJE preferentially enhanced ALP activity, while CTE increased both γ-GTP and ALP activities as well as EGF and VEGF expressions. In vivo air pouch inflammation model, carrageenan-induced vascular exudation and increased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 concentrations in the exudates were synergistically suppressed by co-administration of LJE and CTE. In addition, inflammatory cell infiltration was substantially inhibited by the combinational treatment. The results suggest that combinational oral treatment with LJE and CTE in appropriate doses and ratios prevent hair loss and improve alopecia, which might be in part mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:25806080

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded. PMID:26393620

  3. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

  4. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  5. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides. PMID:26754912

  6. Unusually Large Number of Mutations in Asexually Reproducing Clonal Planarian Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Inoue, Takeshi; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We established a laboratory clonal strain of freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica) that was derived from a single individual and that continued to undergo autotomous asexual reproduction for more than 20 years, and we performed large-scale genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis on it. Despite the fact that a completely clonal strain of the planarian was used, an unusually large number of mutations were detected. To enable quantitative genetic analysis of such a unique organism, we developed a new model called the Reference Gene Model, and used it to conduct large-scale transcriptome analysis. The results revealed large numbers of mutations not only outside but also inside gene-coding regions. Non-synonymous SNPs were detected in 74% of the genes for which valid ORFs were predicted. Interestingly, the high-mutation genes, such as metabolism- and defense-related genes, were correlated with genes that were previously identified as diverse genes among different planarian species. Although a large number of amino acid substitutions were apparently accumulated during asexual reproduction over this long period of time, the planarian maintained normal body-shape, behaviors, and physiological functions. The results of the present study reveal a unique aspect of asexual reproduction. PMID:26588467

  7. [Induction of pond-cultivated Anguilla japonica gonadial development by controlling temperature in high temperature season].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangjun; Xie, Jun; Yu, Deguang; Zhu, Hongyo

    2005-11-01

    In this study, the pond-cultivated Anguilla japonica was induced to mature by artificially controlling temperature at 18 +/- 2 degrees C in high temperature season (from June to September), with injection of hCG and CPE. The results showed that both the male and the female eel could be induced to mature, and the artificial maturation induction rate was 73.33% and 67.77%, while under non-controlling temperature 25 approximately 32 degrees C, the maturation induction rate was 0 and 33.33%, respectively. In an ovulation induction test, the matured female eels were induced, with a spawning inducement rate of 70%, and a fertilization rate of 32%, which approached or reached the levels in low temperature season (with an average of 62.1% and 34.2%, respectively), and the zygote developed normally. At the temperature 22 and 24 degrees C, the zygote hatched to fry in about 39 h 15 min and 34 h 9 min. The experiment proved that it was possible to induce the eel to mature by controlling temperature in high temperature season, which provided some theoretical foundations for the techniques of artificially breeding eel in whole year. PMID:16471368

  8. Impact of long-term habitat loss on the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Ze; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Han, Yu-San

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the loss of temperate-zone anguillid eels, particularly Anguilla anguilla, Anguilla rostrata, and Anguilla japonica, has exceeded 90% based on estimates of glass eel recruitment. The cause of this decline has not been conclusively determined, although many factors have been proposed. In East Asia, the consequences of long-term habitat loss and deterioration of habitat quality on the sustainability of Japanese eel resources are important. Impacts have already occurred and are expected to increase because hundreds of millions of people live near estuaries and rivers that have undergone, and further, are expected to continue to undergo, substantial changes in land use. Driven by economic growth, these landscape changes have resulted in, and may continue to produce, the large-scale destruction of eel habitats. We used chronological Landsat imagery to measure Japanese eel habitat reduction from human activities in 16 rivers in East Asia, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. On average, 76.8% of the effective habitat area (Ae) was lost in these 16 rivers from the 1970s-2010s. Taiwan and China had the highest percentages of Ae loss, with declines of 49.3% and 81.5%, respectively. Extensive habitat loss may play an important role, together with regional climate phenomena such as the ENSO and overfishing, in the decline of the Japanese eel in East Asia. Measures targeting habitat restoration and protection may need to be integrated into management planning for Japanese eel resources in an international rather than regional context.

  9. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides. PMID:26754912

  10. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L(-1) K2SiO3 · nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na(+) concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K(+)/Na(+) ratio was obtained after K2SiO3 · nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3 · nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3 · nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant. PMID:26235534

  11. [Studies on chemical constituents of aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Song, Wei-xia; Guo, Qing-lan; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Su-juan; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-09-01

    From an aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds, sixteen compounds were isolated by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over macroporous resin, MCI gel, silica gel, and sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis as 6'-O-acetylvogeloside (1), 6'-O-acetylsecoxyloganin (2), dichlorogelignate (3), guanosinyl-(3' --> 5')-adenosine monophosphate(GpA,4) , 5'-O-methyladenosine (5), 2'-O-methyladenosine (6), adenosine (7), syringin (8), methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeate (9), (-)-dihydrophaseic acid 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), ketologanin (11), 7α-morroniside (12), 7β-morroniside (13), kingiside (14), cryptochlorogenic acid methyl ester (15), and 6-hydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol (16). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time, compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds, 3 and 5 are new natural products, and 4 is the first example of dinucleoside monophosphate isolated from a plant extract. PMID:26978994

  12. The social environment affects mate guarding behavior in Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Yoriko; Kruse, Kipp C.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the social environment on post-copulatory mate guarding duration in Japanese beetles, (Popillia japonica Newman), was examined in a laboratory experiment. The mate guarding durations of beetles in different sex ratios and densities were observed for 10 hours. Guarding duration was longer when females were larger, suggesting the presence of ‘cryptic’ male mate choice. Densities, but not sex ratio, affected the duration of guarding bouts, with males guarding for longer at higher densities. This result implies that males increase their guarding duration under conditions in which their female may be likely to be encountered by other males. The lack of a sex ratio effect on the duration of guarding bouts is consistent with other studies on this species that indicate males have difficulty distinguishing females from males. Consequently, because the sex ratio on food plants is typically male-biased, a paired male may react just to density, treating surrounding individuals as if they were mostly males. The total amount of time males spent guarding was lower at lower densities and at male-biased sex ratios; this suggests that after ceasing to guard one female, males were less able to find a subsequent mate under these conditions. PMID:16341250

  13. Visual control of host pursuit in the parasitoid fly Exorista japonica.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Kainoh, Yooichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    The tachinid fly Exorista japonica is a parasitoid of many kinds of lepidopterous larvae. After encountering a suitable host, the fly pursues the crawling larva on foot using visual cues to guide it. To investigate the visual control of host pursuit, we observed and videotaped pursuits of a host, the common armyworm Mythimna separata, for frame-by-frame analysis. Observation was performed in sunlight and under illumination from a fluorescent lamp. The fly pursued hosts discontinuously with a repeated stop-and-run motion. During a run, its movements consisted of rotation, forward translation and sideways translation. Rotation during a run was positively correlated with the angular position of the host's head. The direction of translation depended on the angular position of the host's head. Forward translation was negatively correlated with the visual angle subtended by the host. These results suggest that the fly orients and walks towards the leading edge of a moving target. There was little difference in the results between sunlight and illumination from a fluorescent lamp. PMID:11893762

  14. Contrasting photosynthesis and photoinhibition in tetraploid and its autodiploid honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun; Wu, Congwen; Zhang, Lihua; Chen, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a popular landscape plant. This study was to explore leaf photosynthetic characterization with emphasis on the coordination between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) in tetraploid and its autodiploid honeysuckle (TH and DH) upon salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Leaf photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency in DH and TH were significantly decreased under salt stress, and the decrease was greater in DH. PSII photoinhibition was induced in DH under salt stress, as the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was significantly decreased. PSII photoinhibition declined electron flow to PSI, but did not prevent PSI photoinhibition, as the maximal photochemical capacity of PSI (MR/MR0) was significantly decreased by salt stress. According to the significant decrease in PSI oxidation amplitude in the first 1 s red illumination, PSI photoinhibition was more severe than PSII photoinhibition. As a result, PSII and PSI coordination was destroyed. Comparatively, salt-induced photoinhibition did not occur in TH, as no significant change was observed in Fv/Fm and MR/MR0. Consequently, PSII and PSI coordination was not significantly affected by salt stress. In conclusion, TH maintained normal coordination between PSII and PSI by preventing photoinhibition and exhibited higher leaf photosynthetic activity than DH under salt stress. Compared with DH, lower leaf ionic toxicity due to greater root Na(+) extrusion and restriction of Na(+) transport to leaf might be responsible for maintaining higher leaf photosynthetic capacity in TH under salt stress. PMID:25914706

  15. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  16. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  17. Variabilidad de la Estación de Crecimiento en la Región Sur de Tamaulipas en condiciones climaticas actuales y futuras.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Barrios, M.; Conde-Alvarez, C.; Gay-Garcia, C.

    2007-05-01

    El impacto de la variabilidad y cambio climáticos, afectan el potencial agrícola de la Región Sur de Tamaulipas. Además de los cambios estacionales, bajos rendimientos agrícolas, el manejo de los cultivos y las políticas locales de producción, existe la incertidumbre del mercado regional para los pequeños y grandes productores. La diversificación agrícola ha sido una alternativa para enfrentar las condiciones imperantes en esta región. Pero ésta ha provocado la fragmentación territorial, por lo que sólo algunos productores logran competir en un mercado nacional. Existe una preocupación generalizada por buscar soluciones que permitan que la población que es afectada por la inseguridad de la producción agrícola y económica, pueda adaptarse a las variaciones climáticas que afectan el proceso productivo. La seguridad alimentaría queda sujeta a la fluctuación de las importaciones para los sectores básicos y a las estrategias mercantiles de empresas trasnacionales. La percepción local sugiere un número creciente de eventos climatológicos extremos, constantes y severos en los últimos 20 años, con el aumento creciente de pérdidas económicas. El análisis se centra en la disponibilidad de agua, agregándose un aspecto de capital importancia como es la variabilidad interanual de la lluvia, que condiciona muy fuertemente el riesgo agrícola en el trópico seco, siendo ésta la que determina el momento de inicio de la estación favorable para el crecimiento y su duración. En este trabajo se han obtenido modelos de la distribución espacial de la precipitación y temperaturas, para el escenario base 1961-1990, el escenario actual 1971-2000, para algunos años El Niño y La Niña, así como para los escenarios de Cambio Climático HADLEY, ECHAM y GFDL, con escenarios A2 y B2, para las décadas de los 20s y 50s, para establecer el inicio y duración de la Estación de Crecimiento, utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica (ArcView). Estos

  18. Differentiation of Isodon japonica and Adulterants Based on Identification and Quantitation 14 Diterpenoids Using LC-MS-MS Library Search Approach and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiran; Tian, Tingting; Ma, Yinghua; Liu, Minyan; Xie, Weiwei; Wang, Xin; Xu, Huijun; Du, Yingfeng

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical differences between genunine Isodon japonica and its adulterants. A linear ion trap liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analytical method has been developed for the identification and quantification of 14 major diterpenoids in I. japonica. Data acquisition was multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode followed by an information-dependent acquisition using the enhanced product ion (EPI) scan in a single run. The target compounds were further identified and confirmed using an EPI spectral library. Overall validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantification. The results demonstrated that the method was selective, sensitive and reliable. The determination results of 21 batches of I. japonica and adulterants were then analyzed and differentiated by hierarchical clustering analysis. PMID:26489434

  19. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae. PMID:26477438

  20. An assemblage of mollusks associated with the high latitude scleractinian coral Alveopora japonica (Eguchi 1968) in Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jeung, Hee-Do; Ju, Se-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bin; Jung, Sukgeun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Corals reefs and communities support a wide range of flora and fauna. The complete richness and abundance of faunal communities in either coral reefs or communities is not fully understood. This is especially true for high-latitude coral communities. In this work, we carried out an analysis of an Alveopora japonica associated mollusk assemblage, in Jeju Island, Korea. A. japonica is one of the major coral species present in high abundance (88-155 colonies m-2), with a high recruitment rate (7.8 juvenile corals m-2 yr-1) in Jeju Island, and may serve as a habitat for other benthic organisms. In 2012, a total number of 579 A. japonica colonies with sizes ranging between 15.1-346.7 cm2 in the surface area were collected from a 1m× 10m quadrat installed at a depth of 10 m at Keumneung, on the northwest coast of Jeju Island. Numerous benthic invertebrates were found to be associated with A. japonica colonies. Twenty-seven bivalves and gastropods were identified, including a boring mytilid, Lithophaga curta, and an arcid, Barbatia stearnsi. A zonalgeographical examination of the distribution ranges of these mollusks revealed a majority of warmer water species. Our observations also showed that A. japonica may be providing a habitat to grazing gastropod, Turbo cornutus, and encrusting Spondylidae and Chamidae bivalves. A. japonica forms a coral carpet with a distinct assemblage of bivalves. It is thought that the presence of these mollusks species in the coral indicates its use as a nursery for juvenile species, a ready food supply of organic detritus, and a refuge from predators.

  1. Two distinct roles of the yorkie/yap gene during homeostasis in the planarian Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byulnim; An, Yang; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Adult planarians possess somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts that give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration and homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator family plays an important role in the regulation of tissue growth during development and regeneration, and therefore we investigated the role of a planarian yki-related gene (termed Djyki) during regeneration and homeostasis of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica. We found that knockdown of the function of Djyki by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated neoblast proliferation and caused regeneration defects after amputation. In addition, Djyki RNAi caused edema during homeostasis. These seemingly distinct defects induced by Djyki RNAi were rescued by simultaneous RNAi of a planarian mats-related gene (termed Djmats), suggesting an important role of Djmats in the negative regulation of Djyki, in accordance with the conservation of the functional relationship of these two genes during the course of evolution. Interestingly, Djyki RNAi did not prevent normal protonephridial structure, suggesting that Djyki RNAi induced the edema phenotype without affecting the excretory system. Further analyses revealed that increased expression of the D. japonica gene DjaquaporinA (DjaqpA), which belongs to a large gene family that encodes a water channel protein for the regulation of transcellular water flow, promoted the induction of edema, but not defects in neoblast dynamics, in Djyki(RNAi) animals. Thus, we conclude that Djyki plays two distinct roles in the regulation of active proliferation of stem cells and in osmotic water transport across the body surface in D. japonica. PMID:25708270

  2. Optimization and evaluation of microencapsulated artificial diet for mass rearing the predatory ladybird Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan

    2015-02-01

    Artificial diet optimization is a key aspect in mass rearing of natural enemies since it influences the quality and feeding effectiveness, and thus the success of the biological control program. Here, we introduced the microencapsulation method to package liquid artificial diet for feeding of the ladybird Propylea japonica. An orthogonal test of the quality of microencapsulated artificial diets (ADMs) was performed on key variables in production; Ca-alginate concentration, chitosan concentration and weight ratio of wall material to inner diet. We compared the development and reproduction of P. japonica fed on the ADMs under different cold-stored periods with those fed on fresh aphids and liquid artificial diets, in addition to a comparison of respiration, locomotion and predation. Our results indicated that chitosan concentration and ratio of shell to core significantly influence the quality of ADMs. The optimal recipe is 1.0% Ca-alginate, 1.6% chitosan and shell : core = 1 : 2. Insects reared on fresh optimized ADMs were similar to those fed on fresh prey in all developmental and reproductive characteristics except for survival ratio and female fertility. ADMs appeared more beneficial than using a liquid artificial diet, although this may decrease with the prolonging of the cold-storage period. P. japonica fed either on fresh ADMs or fresh prey showed improved respiration and predation abilities compared to where liquid artificial diet was used. Our study indicates advantages of microencapsulation in the production of artificial diet for predatory ladybird rearing. A microencapsulated diet can directly increase the efficiency and stability of mass rearing. PMID:24376183

  3. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide from the marine bacterium Rheinheimera japonica KMM 9513(T), containing N-glycosidic bond between monosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kokoulin, Maxim S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Tomshich, Svetlana V; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Komandrova, Nadezhda A

    2016-06-01

    The O-specific polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of type strain Rheinheimera japonica KMM 9513(T) and studied by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy including (1)H,(1)H-TOCSY, (1)H,(1)H-COSY, (1)H,(1)H-ROESY, (1)H,(13)C-HSQC, (1)H,(13)C-HMBC, (1)H,(13)C-H2BC and (1)H,(13)C-HSQC-TOCSY experiments. The new structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of R. japonica KMM 9513(T) containing N-glycosidic bond was established. PMID:27077821

  4. Complete genome sequence of the actinobacterium Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17(T) (=DSM 44213T) producing (S,S)-N,N'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, Evi; Albersmeier, Andreas; Spohn, Marius; Gert, Helena; Weber, Tilmann; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2014-11-10

    We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17(T) (=DSM 44213(T)) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17(T) consists of two replicons: the chromosome (8,961,318 bp, 68.89% G+C content) and the plasmid pAmyja1 (92,539 bp, 68.23% G+C content), encoding a total of 8422 protein coding genes. Analysis of the sequence data revealed 30 clusters encoding the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:25193710

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Cryptomeria japonica D. Don. chloroplast genome and comparative chloroplast genomics: diversified genomic structure of coniferous species

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Tomonori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kurita, Manabu; Kondo, Teiji; Takata, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas taitungensis, Pinus thunbergii, and Pinus koraiensis have been established. The lack of information regarding the gene content and genomic structure of gymnosperm cp genomes may severely hamper further progress of plant and cp genome evolutionary studies. To address this need, we report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the cp genome of Cryptomeria japonica, the first in the Cupressaceae sensu lato of gymnosperms, and provide a comparative analysis of their gene content and genomic structure that illustrates the unique genomic features of gymnosperms. Results The C. japonica cp genome is 131,810 bp in length, with 112 single copy genes and two duplicated (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG) genes that give a total of 116 genes. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the C. japonica cp has lost one of the relevant large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperms, such as Cycas and Gingko, and additionally has completely lost its trnR-CCG, partially lost its trnT-GGU, and shows diversification of accD. The genomic structure of the C. japonica cp genome also differs significantly from those of other plant species. For example, we estimate that a minimum of 15 inversions would be required to transform the gene organization of the Pinus thunbergii cp genome into that of C. japonica. In the C. japonica cp genome, direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences are observed at the inversion and translocation endpoints, and these sequences may be associated with the genomic rearrangements. Conclusion The observed differences in genomic structure between C. japonica and other land plants, including

  6. Sesquiterpenes from Inula japonica with Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qinghao; Lee, Jin Woo; Jang, Hari; Choi, Ji Eun; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2016-06-24

    Eight new sesquiterpenes (1-8), along with seven known sesquiterpenes (9-15), were isolated from a methanol extract of the flowers of Inula japonica. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All of isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, with their IC50 values ranging from 1.9 to 15.4 μM. PMID:27276091

  7. The non-indigenous Paranthura japonica Richardson, 1909 (Isopoda: Anthuroidea: Paranthuridae) from the Mar Piccolo lagoon, Taranto (Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Lorenti, Maurizio; Keppel, Erica; Petrocelli, Antonella; Sigovini, Marco; Tagliapietra, Davide

    2016-07-01

    Several individuals of Paranthura japonica, a non-indigenous isopod species, recently recorded on Italian coasts, have been collected from the Mar Piccolo basin, Taranto (Italy). This finding extends the distributional range of the species southwards in the Mediterranean, including a semi-enclosed coastal basin, which is considered the second Italian hotspot for the introduction of alien species. The characteristics of the place reinforce the hypothesis that its introduction is linked to shellfish trade and farming. Remarks on the morphology and ecology are included. PMID:26174984

  8. A new hexacyclic triterpene acid from the roots of Euscaphis japonica and its inhibitory activity on triglyceride accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ci; Tian, Ke; Sun, Li-Juan; Long, Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Wu, Zheng-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    A new taraxerene-type hexacyclic triterpene acid named (12R,13S)-3-methoxy-12,13-cyclo-taraxerene-2,14-diene-1-one-28-oic acid (1), together with a known compound 3,7-dihydroxy-5-octanolide (2), was isolated from the roots of Euscaphis japonica. The structure of new compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of NMR, HR-ESIMS and X-ray diffraction analysis. It showed promising inhibitory activity on oleic acid induced triglyceride accumulation on HepG2 cells. PMID:26828452

  9. Diet and predatory behavior of the Asian ant-eating spider, Asceua (formerly Doosia) japonica (Araneae: Zodariidae).

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Several spider taxa are specialized to prey on ants. Some species of Zodariidae are known to use specialized tactics to capture ants. In this study, I assessed the diet difference and predatory behavior of the Japanese zodariid Asceua japonica. In a series of surveys, all observed individuals in the field preyed on tiny arboreal ants representing several subfamilies. In addition, the species used tactics similar to those of its European relatives for preying on ants. This is the first observation of myrmecophagy of Zodariidae in East Asia. PMID:27247874

  10. Effects of 4-tert-Octylphenol on the incubation of eggs in Japanese brown frogs (Rana japonica).

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Umekita, Yoshihisa; Souda, Masakazu; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    4-tert-Octylphenol (OP), is an endocrine disruptor or surfactant widely used in herbicides. Its effects (0, 1 and 10 mg/l) on the incubation of eggs were examined using wild Japanese brown frogs (Rana japonica). In 10 mg/l OP, all the eggs were corrupted and no eggs developed. In 1 mg/l OP, 9.8% eggs developed and systemic edema, malformations such as crooked vertebrae and atrophy of the systemic muscles were observed in all the surviving tadpoles. These results suggested that OP use in paddy fields may affect the survival rate of wild frogs and induce malformation. PMID:18396791

  11. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman)

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C.; Rogg, Helmuth W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007–2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3–7 days for beetles trapped from 2012–2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  12. Floral affinity and benefits of dietary mixing with flowers for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2004-07-01

    Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits. PMID:15146324

  13. Basic characterization of avian β-defensin genes in the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Ishige, Taichiro; Hara, Hiromi; Hirano, Takashi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we identified a cluster of 14 avian β-defensins (AvBD; approximately 66 kbp) in the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Except for AvBD12 (CjAvBD12) and -13, the CjAvBDs coding sequences exhibited greater than 78.0% similarity to the respective orthologous chicken AvBD genes (GgAvBD). The putative amino acid sequence encoded by each CjAvBD contained six cysteine residues and the GXC (X1-2) motif considered essential for the β-defensin family. Each CjAvBDs also formed a sub-group with the respective orthologous genes of various bird species in a phylogenetic tree analysis. Synteny between the CjAvBD cluster and GgAvBD cluster was confirmed. The CjAvBD cluster was mapped on the long-arm end of chromosome 3 by linkage analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CjAvBD1 and CjAvBD12 (approximately 46 kbp), as well as GgAvBD cluster. We also confirmed that CjAvBD1, -4, -5, -9, and -10 are transcribed in 20 tissues, including immune and digestive tissues. However, our experimental data indicated that the CjAvBD cluster lacks the AvBD3 and -7 loci, whereas the CjAvBD101α, -101β, and -101θ loci arose from gene duplication of the AvBD6 orthologous locus in the CjAvBD cluster after differentiation between Coturnix - Gallus. PMID:26338292

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Root Traits in a Japonica Rice Panel

    PubMed Central

    Courtois, Brigitte; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Roques, Sandrine; Ghneim- Herrera, Thaura; Droc, Gaëtan; Frouin, Julien; Rouan, Lauriane; Gozé, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; Ahmadi, Nourollah; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rice is a crop prone to drought stress in upland and rainfed lowland ecosystems. A deep root system is recognized as the best drought avoidance mechanism. Genome-wide association mapping offers higher resolution for locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) than QTL mapping in biparental populations. We performed an association mapping study for root traits using a panel of 167 japonica accessions, mostly of tropical origin. The panel was genotyped at an average density of one marker per 22.5 kb using genotyping by sequencing technology. The linkage disequilibrium in the panel was high (r2>0.6, on average, for 20 kb mean distances between markers). The plants were grown in transparent 50 cm × 20 cm × 2 cm Plexiglas nailboard sandwiches filled with 1.5 mm glass beads through which a nutrient solution was circulated. Root system architecture and biomass traits were measured in 30-day-old plants. The panel showed a moderate to high diversity in the various traits, particularly for deep (below 30 cm depth) root mass and the number of deep roots. Association analyses were conducted using a mixed model involving both population structure and kinship to control for false positives. Nineteen associations were significant at P<1e-05, and 78 were significant at P<1e-04. The greatest numbers of significant associations were detected for deep root mass and the number of deep roots, whereas no significant associations were found for total root biomass or deep root proportion. Because several QTLs for different traits were co-localized, 51 unique loci were detected; several co-localized with meta-QTLs for root traits, but none co-localized with rice genes known to be involved in root growth. Several likely candidate genes were found in close proximity to these loci. Additional work is necessary to assess whether these markers are relevant in other backgrounds and whether the genes identified are robust candidates. PMID:24223758

  15. Biomass and morphology of fine roots of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) after 3 years of nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nagakura, Junko; Kaneko, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition may affect carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. To better understand the effects of N deposition, we need to improve our knowledge of N effects on fine roots (roots <2 mm in diameter), as they are a key factor in carbon and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we fertilized 1 × 2 m plots in a sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) stand (336 kg ha-1 y-1) for 3 years and evaluated the responses of the fine roots to high N load. After fertilization, the concentration of NO3–N in the soil of N-fertilized (NF) plots was five-times as large as that in the control plots and the effect was more remarkable in the subsurface soil than in the surface soil. The biomass of fine roots <2 mm in diameter appeared to be greater in the NF plots (88 ± 19 g m-2) than in the control plots (56 ± 14 g m-2), but this difference was not statistically significant. In both plots, 76% of the biomass was accounted for by fine roots that were <1 mm in diameter. In the surface soil, the specific root length of fine roots <1 mm in diameter was significantly greater, and the diameter of those fine roots was marginally smaller, in the NF plots than in the control plots. In addition, the concentration of N in fine roots <1 mm in diameter was marginally greater in the NF plots than in the control plots. There may have been increased production of thinner fine roots or increased root branching in the NF plots. This study suggests that, in general, high N load is likely to have positive effects on sugi in terms of fine root characteristics and the effects on fine-root morphology are more evident than the effects on fine-root biomass. PMID:24027575

  16. Spatio-temporal Transmission and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Sun, Liqian; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica still remains of public health and economic significance in China, especially in the lake and marshland areas along the Yangtze River Basin, where the control of transmission has proven difficult. In the study, we investigated spatio-temporal variations of S. japonicum infection risk in Anhui Province and assessed the associations of the disease with key environmental factors with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the disease and seeking clues to effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection data of schistosomiasis from annual conventional surveys were obtained at the village level in Anhui Province, China, from 2000 to 2010 and used in combination with environmental data. The spatio-temporal kriging model was used to assess how these environmental factors affected the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Our results suggested that seasonal variation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), seasonal variation of land surface temperature at daytime (LSTD), and distance to the Yangtze River were negatively significantly associated with risk of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps showed that schistosomiasis prevalence remained at a low level and schistosomiasis risk mainly evolved along the Yangtze River. Schistosomiasis risk also followed a focal spatial pattern, fluctuating temporally with a peak (the largest spatial extent) in 2005 and then contracting gradually but with a scattered distribution until 2010. Conclusion The fitted spatio-temporal kriging model can capture variations of schistosomiasis risk over space and time. Combined with techniques of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS), this approach facilitates and enriches risk modeling of schistosomiasis, which in turn helps to identify prior areas for effective and sustainable control of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province and perhaps elsewhere in China. PMID:25659112

  17. Molecular characterization of three crustin genes in the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, MeeSun; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Young Mog; Lee, Dae Sung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Crustins are among the most important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in decapod crustaceans. They are small cationic AMPs (5-7 kDa) characterized by a proline-rich amino-terminal domain and a cysteine-rich carboxyl-terminal domain. Here, the first 3 crustin-like cDNAs (Pj-crus Ia, Ib, and II) were identified from the morotoge shrimp, Pandalopsis japonica. The full-length cDNAs of Pj-crus Ia, Ib, and II consisted of 1135, 580, and 700 nucleotides and encoded putative proteins containing 109, 119, and 186 amino acids residues, respectively. All 3 identified Pj-crus sequences exhibited the conserved domain organization for crustins, including a signal sequence, a cysteine-containing region, a glycine-rich region, and a whey-acidic protein (WAP) domain. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Pj-crus Ia and Ib belong to type I crustins (e.g., carcinin), which have been mostly identified from Brachyura and Astacidea, whereas Pj-crus II was classified as belonging to the type II crustins, which are mainly found in Dendrobranchiata. An analysis of the organization of these 3 Pj-crus genes revealed that the splicing site within the WAP domain may be an important key for classifying types I and II crustin family members. The tissue distribution profile results showed that the Pj-crus I genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner but that the Pj-crus II gene was expressed ubiquitously, suggesting that these crustins may play different roles in various tissues or under different physiological conditions. The bacterial challenge results suggested that the Pj-crus genes may be transcriptionally influenced by different bacterial types. This comparative study of various crustin family members will help extend the knowledge on the crustacean innate immune response, which will provide important basic information for controlling shrimp immunity against various pathogens. PMID:22613817

  18. Vaccination of bovines against Schistosomiasis japonica with highly irradiated schistosomula in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.Y.; Xu, S.T.; He, Y.X.; Shi, F.H.; Shen, W.; Hsue, H.F.; Osborne, J.W.; Clarke, W.R.

    1984-09-01

    Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial in the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group.

  19. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  20. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  1. Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-09-15

    It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27185736

  2. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Mapping of Salt Tolerance Traits in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hailin; Ding, Wanwen; Chen, Jingbo; Chen, Xuan; Zheng, Yiqi; Wang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianxiu

    2014-01-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd.) is an important warm season turfgrass that is grown in many parts of the world. Salt tolerance is an important trait in zoysiagrass breeding programs. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers based on an F1 population comprising 120 progeny derived from a cross between Zoysia japonica Z105 (salt-tolerant accession) and Z061 (salt-sensitive accession). The linkage map covered 1211 cM with an average marker distance of 5.0 cM and contained 24 linkage groups with 242 marker loci (217 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and 25 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers). Quantitative trait loci affecting the salt tolerance of zoysiagrass were identified using the constructed genetic linkage map. Two significant quantitative trait loci (qLF-1 and qLF-2) for leaf firing percentage were detected; qLF-1 at 36.3 cM on linkage group LG4 with a logarithm of odds value of 3.27, which explained 13.1% of the total variation of leaf firing and qLF-2 at 42.3 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 2.88, which explained 29.7% of the total variation of leaf firing. A significant quantitative trait locus (qSCW-1) for reduced percentage of dry shoot clipping weight was detected at 44.1 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 4.0, which explained 65.6% of the total variation. This study provides important information for further functional analysis of salt-tolerance genes in zoysiagrass. Molecular markers linked with quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance will be useful in zoysiagrass breeding programs using marker-assisted selection. PMID:25203715

  3. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman).

    PubMed

    Hungate, Bruce A; Kearns, Diana N; Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C; Rogg, Helmuth W

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007-2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3-7 days for beetles trapped from 2012-2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  4. Characterisation of the fibrinogenolytic properties of the buccal gland secretion from Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Li, Qing-Wei; Perrett, Sarah; He, Rong-Qiao

    2007-03-01

    Lampetra japonica is representative of the ancient cyclostomota class of animals, and its buccal gland secretion (called lamphredin) is known to act as an anticoagulant. In this study, it was observed by both native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE that the secretion mainly contained two protein bands, buccal gland secretion protein-1 (BGSP-1, 159,909 Da) and buccal gland secretion protein-2 (BGSP-2, 25,660 Da). The N-terminal amino acids of BGSP-1 (EAESF QNLKT RICGG LNGLG) and BGSP-2 (TSVND WKLLD TKLSA NRKVI) were sequenced. Using a Sephadex G-75 column, we isolated BGSP-1, BGSP-2 and small peptides from the buccal gland secretion, but found only BGSP-1 showed fibrinogenolytic activity. BGSP-1 and lamphredin were found to rapidly degrade the alpha chain of human fibrinogen, slowly degrade the beta chain and hardly degrade the gamma chain. BGSP-1 and lamphredin showed a similar map by SDS-PAGE for the degradation of fibrinogen by cleavage at Ala(10)-Glu(11) and His(368)-Ser(369). BGSP-1 was also found to hydrolyze neuronal protein tau at Glu(12)-Asp(13) and Gln(244)-Thr(245). Further study showed that lamphredin and BGSP-1 were inactivated in the presence of a metal chelating agent EDTA. However, addition of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) but not Zn(2+) restored the fibrinogenolytic activity. This suggests that BGSP-1 acts in the buccal gland as a metalloproteinase with a broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, the secretion showed cytolytic properties towards human SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells in culture, and lamphredin at a 50-fold dilution induced cell death. PMID:17029742

  5. Nicotine Induces a Conditioned Place Preference in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, B. Levi; Cornett, Heather L.; Barnes, Amanda F.; Gill, Karin E.; Akins, Chana K.

    2012-01-01

    Visual stimuli may play an important role in the development and maintenance of addiction in humans. Research with a visually oriented animal model such as Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) may provide insight into how visual cues contribute to the addiction process. The aim of the current study was to investigate the rewarding properties of nicotine in male Japanese quail using a biased conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Adult male quail (N = 30) were allowed to freely explore the entire CPP apparatus during a place preference pre-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. During nicotine conditioning sessions, quail were administered nicotine (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg) or saline and were then confined to their initially least preferred chamber. On alternating days, all quail received saline and were confined to their initially preferred chamber. Locomotor activity was assessed in both chambers. The conditioning chambers had yellow or green walls to enhance the visual salience of each context. Following 8 conditioning sessions (4 nicotine; 4 saline), quail were allowed to explore the entire apparatus during a CPP post-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. The results indicated that quail treated with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg nicotine significantly increased the amount of time they spent in the nicotine-paired chamber compared to saline controls, suggesting that nicotine produced a CPP. Furthermore, quail treated with 0.5 mg/kg nicotine showed a significant increase in locomotor activity with repeated treatments. The current findings suggest that nicotine may have a rewarding effect in quail and may tentatively suggest that the neuropharmacological mechanisms that mediate CPP for nicotine are conserved in birds. PMID:22939765

  6. Plasma and Tissue Disposition of Moxifloxacin in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ).

    PubMed

    Goudah, Ayman; Hasabelnaby, Sherifa

    2016-06-01

    Plasma disposition and depletion of moxifloxacin were investigated in Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) after single intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of 5 mg/kg and after intramuscular and oral administration of 5 mg/kg q24h for 5 consecutive days, respectively. Drug concentrations in plasma and tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. After intravenous injection, plasma drug concentration-time curves were best described by a 2-compartment open model. The decline in plasma drug concentration was biexponential with half-lives of 0.3 hours and 2.18 hours for distribution and elimination phases, respectively. Steady-state volume of distribution and total body clearance after intravenous administration were estimated to be 1.12 L/kg and 0.41 L/h per kilogram, respectively. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin at the same dose, the peak plasma concentrations were 2.14 and 1.94 μg/mL and were obtained at 1.4 and 1.87 hours, respectively, and the elimination half-lives were 2.56 and 1.97 hours, respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities were 92.48% and 87.94%, respectively. Tissue levels after intramuscular and oral administration were highest in liver and kidneys, respectively, and decreased in the following order: plasma, lungs, and muscle. Moxifloxacin concentrations after intramuscular and oral administration were below the detection limit of the assay in tissues and plasma after 120 hours. PMID:27315376

  7. Involvement of Multiple Types of Dehydrins in the Freezing Response in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongxia; Yang, Yong; Xie, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Feng, Chao; Chen, Junwei; Xu, Changjie

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs) are a family of plant proteins typically induced in response to stress conditions that cause cellular dehydration, such as low temperatures, high salinity, and drought. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a perennial fruit crop that blossoms during winter. Loquat fruitlets are frequently injured by freezing. To evaluate the role of the EjDHNs in freezing resistance in loquat fruitlets, two cultivars of loquat, the freezing-sensitive ‘Ninghaibai’ (FS-NHB) and the freezing-tolerant ‘Jiajiao’ (FT-JJ), were analyzed under induced freezing stress. Freezing stress led to obvious accumulation of reactive oxygen species and considerable lipid peroxidation in membranes during the treatment period. Both these phenomena were more pronounced in ‘FS-NHB’ than in ‘FS-JJ.’ Immunogold labeling of dehydrin protein was performed. DHN proteins were found to be concentrated mainly in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, and the density of the immunogold labeling was significantly higher after freezing treatment, especially in the more freezing-tolerant cultivar ‘FT-JJ.’ Seven DHNs, showing four different structure types, were obtained from loquat fruitlets and used to study the characteristics of different EjDHN proteins. These DHN proteins are all highly hydrophilic, but they differ significantly in size, ranging from 188 to 475 amino acids, and in biochemical properties, such as theoretical pI, aliphatic index, and instability index. Freezing treatment resulted in up-regulation of the expression levels of all seven EjDHNs, regardless of structure type. The accumulation of the transcripts of these EjDHN genes was much more pronounced in ‘FT-JJ’ than in ‘FS-NHB.’ Altogether, this study provides evidence that EjDHNs are involved in the cryoprotection of the plasma membrane during freeze-induced dehydration in loquat fruitlets. PMID:24498141

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  9. Radiocesium distribution in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) in eastern Japan: translocation from needles to pollen.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Sugiura, Yuki; Takenaka, Chisato; Hijii, Naoki; Umemura, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the radiocesium contamination of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) forests in eastern Japan from November 2012 to February 2013, including 80 sites in Fukushima and 35 sites in other regions (Tohoku and Kanto-Koshinetsu), by measuring the (137)Cs concentrations in needles of different ages, male flowers, and pollen. Over a wide geographic area, needles that were present at the time of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident contained much higher (137)Cs concentrations than needles that emerged after the accident. This result, together with visual analysis of (137)Cs distribution using autoradiography, indicated that some of the (137)Cs derived from direct fallout remained on the surface of the older needles. Since we also detected (137)Cs in younger needles and male flowers, we concluded that (137)Cs was translocated toward the tips of sugi needles. The (137)Cs concentration in male flowers was higher than and positively correlated with that in the currently growing (2012) needles. Also, a positive relationship was observed between the (137)Cs concentration of male flowers and pollen, and they were found to be nearly identical (137)Cs concentration. These results indicate the occurrence of acropetal translocation of (137)Cs from old needles to young needles, male flowers and pollen. However, the results as related to (137)Cs concentration in the needles of three different ages differed from the results of similar studies conducted more than 4 y after the Chernobyl accident. This suggests that, 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of (137)Cs in the sugi forests has not yet reached a steady state. PMID:25042076

  10. Sphingobium endophyticus sp. nov., isolated from the root of Hylomecon japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingfang; Xin, Kaiyun; Chen, Chaoqiong; Li, Changfu; Si, Meiru; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Xu; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Xihui

    2015-04-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain GZGR-4(T), was isolated from the root of Hylomecon japonica (Thunb.) Prantl et Kündig collected from Taibai Mountain in Shaanxi Province, north-west China. Cells of strain GZGR-4(T) were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, non-endospore-forming and non-motile. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GZGR-4(T) is a member of the genus Sphingobium, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Sphingobium aromaticiconvertens DSM 12677(T) (97.3 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain GZGR-4(T) and the type strains of other Sphingobium species with validly published names ranged from 93.4-96.5 %. The predominant respiratory quinone of strain GZGR-4(T) was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) and the major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), C16:0 and C14:0 2-OH. Spermidine was the major polyamine. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, one unidentified phosphoglycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content was 63.6 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness for strain GZGR-4(T) with respect to its closest phylogenetic relative S. aromaticiconvertens DSM 12677(T) was 22.6 ± 5.3 %. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data presented, strain GZGR-4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingobium, for which the name Sphingobium endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GZGR-4(T) (=CCTCC AB 2013305(T) = KCTC 32447(T)). PMID:25623892

  11. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. PMID:26949140

  12. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  13. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of GnRH-like peptides in the nerve ganglion of the chiton, Acanthopleura japonica.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Takehiko; Amiya, Noriko; Hotta, Mineka; Takakusaki, Yoko; Kado, Ryusuke; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-12-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide is present in the nerve ganglion of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoas-say (TR-FIA) analysis, and immunohistochemistry. An extract of the chiton head region showed a similar retention time to that of synthetic lamprey GnRH-II on rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis using a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against chicken GnRH-II (aCII6). Cell bodies immunostained with LRH13 (a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of vertebrate GnRH) were detected in the cerebrobuccal ring (CBR). Cell bodies immunostained with aCII6 were not only observed in the CBR but also in the lateral nerve cord (LCo). Fibers immunostained with LRH13 and aCII6 were widely distributed throughout the central nervous system in the CBR, subradular ganglion (SubRG), pedal nerve cord (PCo), pedal commissure (P/PCom), lateropedal commissure (L/PCom), and from the LCo to the suprarectal commissure (SupRecCom). The cell bodies and fibers immunostained with these two antisera were distinguishable by dual-label immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides are present in the nerve ganglion of the chiton Acanthopleura japonica. PMID:21110718

  14. Protective effect of edible marine algae, Laminaria japonica and Porphyra haitanensis, on subchronic toxicity in rats induced by inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhua; Wang, Lianzhu; Yao, Lin; Liu, Zhantao; Gao, Hua

    2013-09-01

    Arsenic, a potent environmental toxic agent, causes various hazardous effects on human health. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of edible marine algae, Laminaria japonica and Porphyra haitanensis, on subchronic stress of rats induced by arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The co-treatment of marine algae could slightly increase the growth rates of body weights compared to the As2O3-treated group. The marine algae application restored liver and renal function by preventing the increment in the activities of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, and the levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. The increase in the contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease in the contents of high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in algae co-treated groups which indicated that marine algae could reverse the abnormal lipid metabolisms induced by arsenic. Moreover, these algae could protect the rats from lipid peroxidation by restoring the depletion of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and sulfhydryl group contents, and lowering the enhanced malondialdehyde contents. Therefore, evidences indicate that L. japonica and P. haitanensis can serve as an effective regimen for treating arsenic poisoning. PMID:23842700

  15. Differences in female reproductive success between female and hermaphrodite individuals in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Theaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Matsushita, M; Tomaru, N; Nakagawa, M

    2015-01-01

    Subdioecy is thought to occupy a transitional position in the gynodioecy-dioecy pathway, explaining one of the evolutionary routes from hermaphroditism to dioecy. Quantifying any female reproductive advantage of females versus hermaphrodites is fundamental to examining the spectrum between subdioecy and dioecy; however, this is challenging, as multiple interacting factors, such as pollen limitation and resource availability, affect plant reproduction. We compared the female reproductive success of females and hermaphrodites via a field experiment in which we hand-pollinated individuals of the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica of similar size growing under similar light conditions. Effects of pollen limitation and seed quality were also evaluated through comparing the results of hand- and natural-pollination treatments and performing additional laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Overall, females had higher fruit set and produced heavier fruit and more seeds than hermaphrodites, and these results were more pronounced for hand-pollinated than for natural-pollinated plants of both sexes. We also found that seeds naturally produced by females had a higher mean germination rate. These results indicate that females had a pronounced advantage in female reproductive success under conditions of no pollen limitation. The sexual difference in the degree of pollen limitation suggests a pollinator-mediated interaction, whereas the higher female reproductive success of females even under natural conditions implies that E. japonica is a good model species for elucidating the later stages of the gynodioecy-dioecy pathway. PMID:24841823

  16. Elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from formerly endemic areas in mountainous regions of southern China using a praziquantel regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Dong, Guo-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Gao, Jian-Xing; Shi, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Guo; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lu, Ke; Cheng, Guo-feng; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Domestic animals play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. To better understand the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals in the mountainous areas of China, we performed a 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis in cattle and horses in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2013. We also performed a concurrent drug-based intervention study in three settlement groups in Yunnan Province aimed at developing an effective means of controlling transmission in this region. The prevalence of infection in cattle fluctuated between 1.67% and 3.05% from 2009 to 2011, and monthly treatments of schistosome-positive animals reduced the prevalence to 0% (P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013. Prior to the intervention, we found that schistosomiasis was prevalent from May to October, with the highest prevalence observed in June (10.00%). We surveyed for environmental schistosome contamination, and 94.29% of the miracidia found were from cattle. Our study showed that it is possible to eliminate schistosomiasis in domestic animals in the mountainous regions of China by monthly treating cattle and horses from schistosome-positive households from May to October. PMID:25591407

  17. Differential expression of skin mucus C-type lectin in two freshwater eel species, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Komiya, Kaoru; Yamashita, Hiroka; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Two types of lactose-specific lectins, galectin (AJL-1) and C-type lectin (AJL-2), were previously identified in the mucus of adult Anguilla japonica. Here, we compared the expression profiles of these two homologous lectins at the adult and juvenile stages between the tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and the temperate eel A. japonica. Only one lectin, predicted to be an orthologue of AJL-1 by LC-MS/MS, was detected in the mucus of adult A. marmorata. We also found that an orthologous gene to AJL-2 was expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in the skin of adult A. marmorata. However, we detected the gene expression of an AJL-2-orthologue in the skin of juvenile A. marmorata, and a specific antibody also detected the lectin in the juvenile fish epidermis. These findings suggest that expression profiles of mucosal lectins vary during development as well as between species in the Anguilla genus. PMID:27026508

  18. Styrax japonica supplementation diet enhances the innate immune response in Epinephelus bruneus against bacterial and protozoan infections.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus, fed for 30 days with 0% (control), 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of Styrax japonica supplementation diets, led to reductions in mortality after being challenged with a bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) and a ciliate protozoan (Uronema marinum). The enriched diets significantly increased the survival rate as compared to the controls. The phagocytic and respiratory activities were significantly increased in kelp groupers given 1.0% and 2.0% enriched diets. The complement activity, lysozyme activity, serum bactericidal activity, and total protein level significantly increased with any enriched diet against the pathogens; however antiprotease activity and myeloperoxidase levels significantly increased only with 1.0% and 2.0% enriched diets while the α2-macroglobulin level was significantly enhanced with 1.0% enriched diet. The study suggests that incorporation of S. japonica at 1.0% and 2.0% level in the diet significantly enhances the immune responses in the kelp grouper E. bruneus against V. harveyi and U. marinum. PMID:21824474

  19. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  20. Determination of male strobilus developmental stages by cytological and gene expression analyses in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

    PubMed

    Tsubomura, Miyoko; Kurita, Manabu; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms that control male strobilus development in conifers are largely unknown because the developmental stages and related genes have not yet been characterized. The determination of male strobilus developmental stages will contribute to genetic research and reproductive biology in conifers. Our objectives in this study were to determine the developmental stages of male strobili by cytological and transcriptome analysis, and to determine the stages at which aberrant morphology is observed in a male-sterile mutant of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control male strobilus and pollen development. Male strobilus development was observed for 8 months, from initiation to pollen dispersal. A set of 19,209 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) collected from a male reproductive library and a pollen library was used for microarray analysis. We divided male strobilus development into 10 stages by cytological and transcriptome analysis. Eight clusters (7324 ESTs) exhibited major changes in transcriptome profiles during male strobili and pollen development in C. japonica Two clusters showed a gradual increase and decline in transcript abundance, respectively, while the other six clusters exhibited stage-specific changes. The stages at which the male sterility trait of Sosyun was expressed were identified using information on male strobilus and pollen developmental stages and gene expression profiles. Aberrant morphology was observed cytologically at Stage 6 (microspore stage), and differences in expression patterns compared with wild type were observed at Stage 4 (tetrad stage). PMID:26917703

  1. A consensus linkage map for sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) from two pedigrees, based on microsatellites and expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Naoki; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Mukai, Yuzuru; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Murai, Masafumi; Nagasaka, Kazutoshi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    A consensus map for sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) was constructed by integrating linkage data from two unrelated third-generation pedigrees, one derived from a full-sib cross and the other by self-pollination of F1 individuals. The progeny segregation data of the first pedigree were derived from cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences, microsatellites, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The data of the second pedigree were derived from cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences, isozyme markers, morphological traits, random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Linkage analyses were done for the first pedigree with JoinMap 3.0, using its parameter set for progeny derived by cross-pollination, and for the second pedigree with the parameter set for progeny derived from selfing of F1 individuals. The 11 chromosomes of C. japonica are represented in the consensus map. A total of 438 markers were assigned to 11 large linkage groups, 1 small linkage group, and 1 nonintegrated linkage group from the second pedigree; their total length was 1372.2 cM. On average, the consensus map showed 1 marker every 3.0 cM. PCR-based codominant DNA markers such as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences and microsatellite markers were distributed in all linkage groups and occupied about half of mapped loci. These markers are very useful for integration of different linkage maps, QTL mapping, and comparative mapping for evolutional study, especially for species with a large genome size such as conifers. PMID:14668402

  2. Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov., a marine bacterium that is the causative agent of red spot disease of Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, T; Makino, H; Tatsumi, M; Nakano, K; Tajima, K; Iqbal, M M; Yumoto, I; Ezura, Y; Christen, R

    1998-07-01

    An aerobic, polarly flagellated marine bacterium that produces a prodigiosin-like pigment was isolated from the red-spotted culture beds of Laminaria japonica. Five isolates had unique bacteriolytic activity for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which had never been observed among Alteromonas or related species. The isolates were identified as the causative agent of red spot disease of L. japonica seeds. The phenotypic features of the isolates were similar to these of Pseudoalteromonas rubra ATCC 29570T, but they could be differentiated using 10 traits (growth at 37 degrees C, requirement for organic growth factors, bacteriolytic activity, utilization of sucrose, N-acetylglucosamine, fumarate, succinate, D-galactose, L-proline and acetate). The G+C content of DNAs from the isolates was 44-46 mol%. The isolates constitute a new species, distinct from the other Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas species, as shown by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phylogenetic clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov. (type strain = IAM 14595T) is proposed. A set of phenotypic features which differentiate this new species from closely related Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas species is provided. PMID:9734030

  3. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for luteoloside detection in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Nan, Tiegui; Zhan, Zhilai; Kang, Liping; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Baomin; Huang, Luqi

    2016-09-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), the flower bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological activities. Luteoloside is a major active compound and a quality control marker of FLJ. Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (LG), an analog of luteoloside, was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to create the immunogen and coating antigen, respectively. A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as mAb3A4, was generated with LG-BSA. To screen the authenticity and quality of FLJ, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established. The concentration of luteoloside producing 50 % inhibition and the working range of the icELISA were 42.3 and 9.1-258.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The icELISA showed cross-reactivity values of 2414, 402, 230, and <1 % for LG, baicalin, scutellarin, and other analogs of luteoloside, respectively. The average recovery of luteoloside in the FLJ samples as determined by icELISA ranged from 83.0 to 112.5 %. The luteoloside content was determined for different Lonicera herbal samples with icELISA, and the results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, this icELISA is suitable for the quality assurance of FLJ samples. Graphical abstract Specific monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for luteoloside. PMID:26892641

  4. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat? - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  5. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  6. Transmission ratio distortion of molecular markers in a doubled haploid population originated from a natural hybrid between Osmunda japonica and O. lancea.

    PubMed

    Yatabe-Kakugawa, Yoko; Tsutsumi, Chie; Hirayama, Yumiko; Tsuneki, Shizuka; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    In ferns, intra-gametophytic selfing occurs as a mode of reproduction where two gametes from the same gametophyte form a completely homozygous sporophyte. Intra-gametophytic selfing is considered to be prevented by lethal or deleterious recessive genes in several diploid species. In order to investigate the modes and tempo of selection acting different developmental stages, doubled haploids obtained from intra-gametophytic selfing within isolated gametophytes of a putative F1 hybrid between Osmunda japonica and O. lancea were analyzed with EST_derived molecular markers, and the distribution pattern of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) along linkage map was clarified. As the results, the markers with skewness were clustered in two linkage groups. For the two highly distorted regions, gametophytes and F2 population were also examined. The markers skewed towards O. japonica on a linkage group (LG_2) showed skewness also in gametophytes, and the TRD was generated in the process of spore formation or growth of gametophytes. Also, selection appeared to be operating in the gametophytic stage. The markers on other linkage group (LG_11) showed highest skewness towards O. lancea in doubled haploids, and it was suggested that the segregation of LG_11 were influenced by zygotic lethality or genotypic evaluation and that some deleterious recessive genes exist in LG_11 and reduce the viability of homozygotes with O. japonica alleles. It is very likely that a region of LG_11were responsible for the low frequencies of intra-gametophytic selfing in O. japonica. PMID:23224293

  7. Comparison of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) and native eelgrass (Z. marina) distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary: 1997-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed the following question: In a coastal estuary of the northeastern Pacific Ocean with a relatively large areal extent of the native eelgrass Zostera marina, is an expanding distribution of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica accompanied by a measurab...

  8. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697138

  9. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697138

  10. A loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 associated with high cadmium accumulation in shoots and grain of Japonica rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiali; Wang, Peitong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Meng; Lian, Xingming; Tang, Zhong; Huang, Chao-Feng; Salt, David E; Zhao, Fang Jie

    2016-09-01

    Excessive cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice poses a risk to food safety. OsHMA3 plays an important role in restricting Cd translocation from roots to shoots. A non-functional allele of OsHMA3 has been reported in some Indica rice cultivars with high Cd accumulation, but it is not known if OsHMA3 allelic variation is associated with Cd accumulation in Japonica cultivars. In this study, we identified a Japonica cultivar with consistently high Cd accumulation in shoots and grain in both field and greenhouse experiments. The cultivar possesses an OsHMA3 allele with a predicted amino acid mutation at the 380(th) position from Ser to Arg. The haplotype had no Cd transport activity when the gene was expressed in yeast, and the allele did not complement a known nonfunctional allele of OsHMA3 in F1 test. The allele is present only in temperate Japonica cultivars among diversity panels of 1483 rice cultivars. Different cultivars possessing this allele showed greatly increased root-to-shoot Cd translocation and a shift in root Cd speciation from Cd-S to Cd-O bonding determined by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our study has identified a new loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 in Japonica rice cultivars leading to high Cd accumulation in shoots and grain. PMID:27038090

  11. [Preliminary analysis on spectrum-efficient correlation model for anti-influenza virus of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by partial least squares method].

    PubMed

    Mi, Hui-juan; Wang, Young-xiang; Meng, Jin; Wang, Xiu-hai; Tao, Yong-hua; Wang, Zhen-zhon

    2015-12-01

    Forty batches of Lonicerae Japonica Fse i collected extensively and prepared as the test solution. Their chromatographic fingerprints and anti-influenza virus IC50 value (half maximal inhibitory concentration) were determined respectively. Then Unscrambler software was used, and spectrum-efficient correlation analysis was done for chromatographic fingerprints data and IC50 data by partial least squares regression method, to establish spectrum-efficient correlation model for anti-influenza virus of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Then the other 10 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were used to verify the model and explore the adaptability of this spectrum-efficient correlation model based on partial least squares regression method. The mathematical model obtained R2 of 0.969489 and RM-SEC of 0.070691 for calibration set; R2 of 0.959042 and RMSECV of 0.084005 for cross validation set. The verification experiment results showed that the relative error between the predicted values and measured values was within 10% in all 10 hatches, and within 5% in 80% of them. The results showed that the established spectrum-efficient correlation model could be used to evaluate the biological activity of anti-influenza virus of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by determining its HPLC fingerprints. PMID:27141678

  12. Effects of salinity on photosynthesis and respiration of the seagrass Zostera japonica: A comparison of two established populations in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-native seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America that is distributed from Northern California, USA to British Columbia, Canada. Recent observations indicate that the species is expanding both latitudinally and into areas of lower salinity. Ther...

  13. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against α-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of

  14. Discovery and functional characterization of leptin and its receptors in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an important endocrine regulation factor of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals; however, the existence of a poultry leptin gene (LEP) is still debated. Here, for the first time, we report the cloning of a partial exon 3 sequence of LEP (qLEP) and four different leptin receptor splicing variants, including a long receptor (qLEPRl) and three soluble receptors (qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The qLEP gene had high GC content (64%), which is similar to other reported avian leptin genes. The encoded qLEP protein possessed the conserved pair of cysteine residues that are required to form a lasso knot for full biological activity, but shared relatively low identities with LEPs of other vertebrates. The translated qLEPRl protein contained 1143 amino acids and shared high amino acid sequence identity with a chicken homolog (89% identity). qLEPRl also contained all the motifs, domains, and basic tyrosine residues that are conserved in the LEPRl proteins of other vertebrates. qRT-PCR analysis showed that LEP and the four LEPR variants were expressed extensively in all tissues examined; the expression levels of LEP were relatively high in hypothalamus, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, while the expression levels of the LEPRs were highest in the pituitary. Compared with the expression levels of juvenile qLEP and total qLEPR (including all LEPR variants), the expression levels of mature qLEP and total qLEPR were up-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and down-regulated in the ovary. The expressions of LEP/LEPR increased when fasting and decreased when refeeding in the brain and peripheral tissues of juvenile quail, which suggested that the LEP/LEPR system modulated food intake and energy expenditure, although, unlike in mammals, LEP may actually act to inhibit food intake during fasting, at least in juvenile quail. The results indicate that qLEP and qLEPR have unique expression patterns and that the encoded

  15. Identification of QTL in soybean underlying resistance to herbivory by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica, Newman).

    PubMed

    Yesudas, C R; Sharma, H; Lightfoot, D A

    2010-07-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was one of the most important legume crops in the world in 2010. Japanese beetles (JB; Popillia japonica, Newman) in the US were an introduced and potentially damaging insect pest for soybean. JBs are likely to spread across the US if global warming occurs. Resistance to JB in soybean was previously reported only in plant introductions. The aims here were to identify loci underlying resistance to JB herbivory in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Essex x Forrest cultivars (EF94) and to correlate those with loci with factors that confer insect resistance in soybean cultivars. The RIL population was used to map 413 markers, 238 satellite markers and 177 other DNA markers. Field data were from two environments over 2 years. Pest severity (PS) measured defoliation on a 0-9 scale. Pest incidence (PI) was the percentage of plants within each RIL with beetles on them. Antibiosis and antixenosis data were from feeding assays with detached leaves in petri plates. Five QTL were detected for the mean PS field trait (16% < R (2) < 27%). The loci were within the intervals Satt632-A2D8 on linkage group (LG) A2 (chromosome 8); Satt583-Satt415 on LG B1 (11); Satt009-Satt530 on LG N (3); and close to two markers OB02_140 (LG E; 20 cM from Satt572) and OZ15_150 LG (19 cM from Satt291 C2). Two QTL were detected for the mean PI field trait (16% < R (2) < 18%) close to Satt385 on LG A1 and Satt440 on LG I. The no choice feeding studies detected three QTL that were significant; two for antixenosis (22% < R (2) < 24%) between Satt632-A2D8 on LG A2 (8) and Sat_039-Satt160 on LG F (13); and a major locus effect (R (2) = 54%) for antibiosis on LG D2 (17) between Satt464-Satt488. Therefore, loci underlying resistance to JB herbivory were a mixture of major and minor gene effects. Some loci were within regions underlying resistance to soybean cyst nematode (LGs A2 and I) and root knot nematode (LG F) but not other major loci underlying

  16. Homing in wood ants, Formica japonica: use of the skyline panorama.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, T

    2001-06-01

    Homeward orientation was studied in wood ants Formica japonica that, while foraging, shuttled back and forth along a 7.9m route between the nest and a feeding site located on a wide terrace platform surrounded by a conspicuous landmark panorama. The return runs of the ants were amazingly straight, not only in the controls (starting at the feeding site) but also in ants displaced for various distances to the left and right of the feeding site. These courses, however, were oriented neither parallel to the predisplacement courses nor directly towards the nest. This result excludes the use of chemical cues and celestial compass cues. Furthermore, the nest itself, or some object close to it, could not have served as a beacon. The extensions of the homeward paths taken by ants that had been displaced to various release sites up to 11m sideways from the training route intersected at a point far (approximately 13m) behind the nest. This result suggests that the ants used distant landmarks seen by them in their frontal fields of view. To test this hypothesis, the distant landmark panorama was concealed by an opaque sheet mounted at right angles to the normal return route of the ants and extending up to different elevations. Shielding the lower part of the landmark panorama had no effect on the homeward paths. However, when the screen was mounted in such a way that the ants could only see the top skyline, represented by the upper edges of a line of trees, for part of their return run, it was only during these parts that their path was oriented in the homeward direction. When, during the course of displacement experiments, the ants were deprived of their familiar skyline panorama, they moved in their home direction only for an extremely short distance (0.1-0.4m rather than the usual 7.9m) and then started a systematic search programme. Hence, in the present context, skylight information is not used, at least not extensively. Instead, ants use the distant skyline as a

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Immune Related Genes and the RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in the Freshwater Planarian (Dugesia japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Hongkuan; Zhang, Yichao; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhu, Guangzhong; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Bosheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica (D. japonica) possesses extraordinary ability to regenerate lost organs or body parts. Interestingly, in the process of regeneration, there is little wound infection, suggesting that D. japonica has a formidable innate immune system. The importance of immune system prompted us to search for immune-related genes and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathways. Results Transcriptome sequencing of D. japonica was performed on an IlluminaHiSeq2000 platform. A total of 27,180 transcripts were obtained by Trinity assembler. CEGMA analysis and mapping of all trimmed reads back to the assembly result showed that our transcriptome assembly covered most of the whole transcriptome. 23,888 out of 27,180 transcripts contained ORF (open reading fragment), and were highly similar to those in Schistosoma mansoni using BLASTX analysis. 8,079 transcripts (29.7%) and 8,668 (31.9%) were annotated by Blast2GO and KEGG respectively. A DYNLRB-like gene was cloned to verify its roles in the immune response. Finally, the expression patterns of 4 genes (RIG-I, TRAF3, TRAF6, P38) in the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway were detected, and the results showed they are very likely to be involved in planarian immune response. Conclusion RNA-Seq analysis based on the next-generation sequencing technology was an efficient approach to discover critical genes and to understand their corresponding biological functions. Through GO and KEGG analysis, several critical and conserved signaling pathways and genes related to RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway were identified. Four candidate genes were selected to identify their expression dynamics in the process of pathogen stimulation. These annotated transcripts of D. japonica provide a useful resource for subsequent investigation of other important pathways. PMID:26986572

  18. F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica is a novel inducer of galectin-9 and exhibits anti-allergic activity.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Yuka; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ojima, Takao; Mizuno, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide from brown sea algae. In the present study, it was demonstrated that oral administration of F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica possessed anti-allergic effects using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, but not by intraperitoneal administration. The inhibitory mechanism was dependent on galectin-9, which belongs to a soluble lectin family that recognizes β-galactoside and prevents IgE binding to mast cells. The anti-allergy properties of F-fucoidan were cancelled by an intravenous dose of anti-galectin-9 antibody or lactose, which bind competitively with galectin-9 before the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. F-fucoidan increased the expression level of galectin-9 mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells and serum galectin-9 levels. Oral treatment with F-fucoidan suppressed allergic symptoms through the induction of galectin-9. This is the first report that F-fucoidan can induce the secretion of galectin-9. PMID:27499575

  19. Female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) mated with males that harassed them are unlikely to lay fertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Kamini N; Galef, Bennett G

    2005-11-01

    Results of previous studies of courtship and mating in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) suggest that females avoid conspecific males because, while courting and mating, males engage in behaviors that are potentially injurious to females. However, prior experiments provided no direct evidence that females avoided harassing males. Here the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner and an unfamiliar male avoids the former if he engaged in relatively many potentially injurious acts while courting and mating, (Experiments 1 and 2) and that males behaving aggressively toward mates are less likely than are gentler males to fertilize the females' eggs (Experiment 3). Male sexual harassment appears to be a tactic both aversive to female quail and relatively ineffective in fertilizing them. PMID:16366777

  20. F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica is a novel inducer of galectin-9 and exhibits anti-allergic activity

    PubMed Central

    Tanino, Yuka; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ojima, Takao; Mizuno, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide from brown sea algae. In the present study, it was demonstrated that oral administration of F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica possessed anti-allergic effects using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, but not by intraperitoneal administration. The inhibitory mechanism was dependent on galectin-9, which belongs to a soluble lectin family that recognizes β-galactoside and prevents IgE binding to mast cells. The anti-allergy properties of F-fucoidan were cancelled by an intravenous dose of anti-galectin-9 antibody or lactose, which bind competitively with galectin-9 before the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. F-fucoidan increased the expression level of galectin-9 mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells and serum galectin-9 levels. Oral treatment with F-fucoidan suppressed allergic symptoms through the induction of galectin-9. This is the first report that F-fucoidan can induce the secretion of galectin-9. PMID:27499575

  1. Antiproliferative constituents from umbelliferae plants. V. A new furanocoumarin and falcarindiol furanocoumarin ethers from the root of Angelica japonica.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, T; Furumi, K; Fujii, H; Okabe, H; Mihashi, K; Nakano, Y; Matsunaga, H; Katano, M; Mori, M

    1999-01-01

    The CHCl3 extract of the root of Angelica japonica showed high inhibitory activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1) cell growth. From this extract, a new furanocoumarin named japoangelone and four furanocoumarin ethers of falcarindiol, named japoangelols A-D, were isolated together with caffeic acid methyl ester, four polyacetylenic compounds (panaxynol, falcarindiol, 8-O-acetylfalcarindiol, and (9Z)-1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol), eight coumarins (osthol, isoimperatorin, scopoletin, byakangelicin, xanthotoxin, bergapten, oxypeucedanin methanolate, and oxypeucedanin hydrate), and two chromones (3'-O-acetylhamaudol, and hamaudol). The structures of the new isolates were determined based on spectral evidence. The ED50 of isolates against MK-1, HeLa, and B16F10 cell lines are reported. PMID:9987830

  2. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  3. Secondary metabolites from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica and their in vitro anti-diabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiang; Cheng, Zhuoyang; He, Qingjun; Lin, Bin; Gao, Pinyi; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Qingbo; Song, Shaojiang

    2016-04-01

    Four new compounds (1, 2, 7 and 8) and twenty known compounds were isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR and HR-ESIMS spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 are a pair of diastereoisomers possessing a rare chemical structure, and their absolute configurations were determined by comparing their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Furthermore, all the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), especially 1 and 2, which displayed both significant inhibitions. In addition, the possible action mechanism of the active compounds was also explored by using molecular docking studies. PMID:26915302

  4. Photosynthesis enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in high-yield rice varieties (Oryza sativa var. japonica L.) in the field.

    PubMed

    Wei, X D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand varietal differences in photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capability, and yield of japonica rice varieties. Nanjing 44, Oryza sativa var. japonica (average yield of 12.7 t/ha), Nanjing 46, and Nanjing 5055 (average yields of 11.3 and 11.5 t/ha) were included as "super" and high-yield varieties, respectively, whereas Wuyunjing 7 (average yield of 10.2 t/ha) was included as a control variety. These varieties were grown under field conditions in Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010-2012. Different organs (panicle, grain, etc.) were measured, before and after flowering, to identify differences of dry matter accumulation and transformation properties. Photosynthesis, the chlorophyll content, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the flag leaf in the days after flowering (DAF) were also investigated. The results showed that, compared with the other three rice varieties, Nanjing 44 had the highest plant dry weight and number of grains per panicle. It also had a relatively high net flag leaf photosynthetic rate and showed the least inhibition of photosynthesis at noon in DAF, which probably explains the higher yield in this variety. Furthermore, Nanjing 44 also had the highest stem export and conversion rate from stem to grain, exhibiting a strong ability to convert and distribute photosynthetic products. After DAF 42, Nanjing 44 still maintained a high-soluble protein content and a high antioxidant ability in the leaves to clear peroxidation products, which could protect the photosynthetic apparatus of the flag leaves, and maintain the grain-filling activity for longer. The high-yield capability of Nanjing 44 was attributed to its photosynthetic advantages in the leaves during the late developmental stage. PMID:27525885

  5. Evidence for divergence of response in Indica, Japonica, and wild rice to high CO2 × temperature interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Diane R; Bunce, James A; Tomecek, Martha B; Gealy, David; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan R; Ziska, Lewis H

    2016-07-01

    High CO2 and high temperature have an antagonistic interaction effect on rice yield potential and present a unique challenge to adapting rice to projected future climates. Understanding how the differences in response to these two abiotic variables are partitioned across rice germplasm accessions may be key to identifying potentially useful sources of resilient alleles for adapting rice to climate change. In this study, we evaluated eleven globally diverse rice accessions under controlled conditions at two carbon dioxide concentrations (400 and 600 ppm) and four temperature environments (29 °C day/21 °C night; 29 °C day/21 °C night with additional heat stress at anthesis; 34 °C day/26 °C night; and 34 °C day/26 °C night with additional heat stress at anthesis) for a suite of traits including five yield components, five growth characteristics, one phenological trait, and four photosynthesis-related measurements. Multivariate analyses of mean trait data from these eight treatments divide our rice panel into two primary groups consistent with the genetic classification of INDICA/INDICA-like and JAPONICA populations. Overall, we find that the productivity of plants grown under elevated [CO2 ] was more sensitive (negative response) to high temperature stress compared with that of plants grown under ambient [CO2 ] across this diversity panel. We report differential response to CO2 × temperature interaction for INDICA/INDICA-like and JAPONICA rice accessions and find preliminary evidence for the beneficial introduction of exotic alleles into cultivated rice genomic background. Overall, these results support the idea of using wild or currently unadapted gene pools in rice to enhance breeding efforts to secure future climate change adaptation. PMID:26959982

  6. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  7. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woong Sun; Choung, Se Young

    2013-01-01

    Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE) and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2) and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:23365609

  8. Immunolocalization of beta-1-4-galactan and its relationship with lignin distribution in developing compression wood of Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sik; Awano, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2010-06-01

    Compression wood (CW) contains higher quantities of beta-1-4-galactan than does normal wood (NW). However, the physiological roles and ultrastructural distribution of beta-1-4-galactan during CW formation are still not well understood. The present work investigated deposition of beta-1-4-galactan in differentiating tracheids of Cryptomeria japonica during CW formation using an immunological probe (LM5) combined with immunomicroscopy. Our immunolabeling studies clearly showed that differences in the distribution of beta-1-4-galactan between NW (and opposite wood, OW) and CW are initiated during the formation of the S(1) layer. At this stage, CW was strongly labeled in the S(1) layer, whereas no label was observed in the S(1) layer of NW and OW. Immunogold labeling showed that beta-1-4-galactan in the S(1) layer of CW tracheids significantly decreased during the formation of the S(2) layer. Most beta-1-4-galactan labeling was present in the outer S(2) region in mature CW tracheids, and was absent in the inner S(2) layer that contained helical cavities in the cell wall. In addition, delignified CW tracheids showed significantly more labeling of beta-1-4-galactan in the secondary cell wall, suggesting that lignin is likely to mask beta-1-4-galactan epitopes. The study clearly showed that beta-1-4-galactan in CW was mainly deposited in the outer portion of the secondary cell wall, indicating that its distribution may be spatially consistent with lignin distribution in CW tracheids of Cryptomeria japonica. PMID:20376677

  9. Transmission Risks of Schistosomiasis Japonica: Extraction from Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Jia, Tia-Wu; Huang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Chen, Mei; Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Shu-Jing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Background The transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in a local setting is still poorly understood in the lake regions of the People's Republic of China (P. R. China), and its transmission patterns are closely related to human, social and economic factors. Methodology/Principal Findings We aimed to apply the integrated approach of artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China. By using the back-propagation (BP) of the ANN model, 16 factors out of 27 factors were screened, and the top five factors ranked by the absolute value of mean impact value (MIV) were mainly related to human behavior, i.e. integration of water contact history and infection history, family with past infection, history of water contact, infection history, and infection times. The top five factors screened by the logistic regression model were mainly related to the social economics, i.e. village level, economic conditions of family, age group, education level, and infection times. The risk of human infection with S. japonicum is higher in the population who are at age 15 or younger, or with lower education, or with the higher infection rate of the village, or with poor family, and in the population with more than one time to be infected. Conclusion/Significance Both BP artificial neural network and logistic regression model established in a small scale suggested that individual behavior and socioeconomic status are the most important risk factors in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica. It was reviewed that the young population (≤15) in higher-risk areas was the main target to be intervened for the disease transmission control. PMID:23556015

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26147582

  11. A p60v-src-related tyrosine kinase in the acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes of Narke japonica: association and dissociation of phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Y; Owada, M K; Sumi, M; Hayashi, F

    1986-09-14

    We have isolated a tyrosine-specific protein kinase from the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-rich membranes of the electric ray Narke japonica. The enzyme is immunologically related to p60v-src, the product of the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus. A substantial phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was associated with this enzyme when it was purified through tyrosine-agarose affinity chromatography used previously for the purification of p60v-src. However, by subsequent chromatography on casein-agarose, most of the associated PI kinase activity was separated from the tyrosine kinase activity. The results suggest that the tyrosine-specific protein kinase in the AChR-rich membranes of N. japonica has no intrinsic PI kinase activity. PMID:3094516

  12. Isolation of isochlorogenic acid isomers in flower buds of Lonicera japonica by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Liang; Gao, Yan; Zhao, Bonian; Wang, Daijie; Duan, Wenjuan; Yu, Zongyuan

    2015-02-15

    An efficient method was established by HSCCC combined with prep-HPLC for separating isochlorogenic acid isomers from flower buds of Lonicera japonica. The partially purified sample from the methanol extract of flower buds of L. japonica by silica gel column was separated by HSCCC to result in a fraction containing two isochlorogenic acid isomers. The fraction was further isolated by prep-HPLC to yield isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C with purities of 98% and 96%, and the total recoveries at 80.1% and 79.8%, respectively. The chemical structures of isochlorogenic acid isomers were confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). PMID:25596381

  13. The occurrence and distribution of Tuckerella japonica (Acari: Tuckerellidae) on tea bushes, Camellia sinensis and C. assamica, in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ebert, Timothy A; Rogers, Michael E; Shepard, Merle

    2016-08-01

    Adults, immatures and eggs of Tuckerella japonica (Ehara) were collected from unknown clones or varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze tea bushes in the Clemson University Farm, Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, South Carolina; from Assam hybrids in The Caw Caw Nature Preserve in Ravenel, SC; from C. sinensis and C. assamica (Masters) in the Charleston Tea Plantation on Wadmalaw Island, SC; C. sinensis in the Fairhope Tea Plantation in Fairhope, Alabama; and from C. sinensis 'Rosea' and a C. sinensis and C. assamica hybrid in Savannah and Ellabell, Georgia, between 1994 and 2015. This mite was consistently collected from 1-, 2- and 3+-year-old wood of tea plants with significantly greater numbers collected from 2-year-old wood. All stages of the mite were found within longitudinally split areas of the wood where underlying green bark tissues were exposed. As 1-year-old wood matured, there was increased splitting of the bark with increased mite presence. Mature green fruit (= developing seed pods) of tea were also frequented by T. japonica between June-July and October and their numbers were no greater than those on 1- or 3+-year wood. When the fruit were small (March-May) or as they hardened in late fall, they were not suitable feeding sites for this mite. Very few T. japonica were collected from 50 mature, inner or outer leaf samples with none usually found. Tuckerella japonica has multiple, overlapping generations and occurs on tea throughout the year in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA. PMID:27294360

  14. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  15. Changes in the localization and levels of starch and lipids in cambium and phloem during cambial reactivation by artificial heating of main stems of Cryptomeria japonica trees

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahanara; Nakaba, Satoshi; Oribe, Yuichiro; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Cambial reactivation in trees occurs from late winter to early spring when photosynthesis is minimal or almost non-existent. Reserve materials might be important for wood formation in trees. The localization and approximate levels of starch and lipids (as droplets) and number of starch granules in cambium and phloem were examined from cambial dormancy to the start of xylem differentiation in locally heated stems of Cryptomeria japonica trees in winter. Methods Electric heating tape was wrapped on one side of the stem of Cryptomeria japonica trees at breast height in winter. The localization and approximate levels of starch and lipids (as droplets) and number of starch granules were determined by image analysis of optical digital images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Key Results Localized heating induced earlier cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in stems of Cryptomeria japonica, as compared with non-heated stems. There were clear changes in the respective localizations and levels of starch and lipids (as droplets) determined in terms of relative areas on images, from cambial dormancy to the start of xylem differentiation in heated stems. In heated stems, the levels and number of starch granules fell from cambial reactivation to the start of xylem differentiation. There was a significant decrease in the relative area occupied by lipid droplets in the cambium from cambial reactivation to the start of xylem differentiation in heated stems. Conclusions The results showed clearly that the levels and number of storage starch granules in cambium and phloem cells and levels of lipids (as droplets) in the cambium decreased from cambial reactivation to the start of xylem differentiation in heated stems during the winter. The observations suggest that starch and lipid droplets might be needed as sources of energy for the initiation of cambial cell division and the differentiation of xylem in Cryptomeria japonica. PMID:21037242

  16. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm2 ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm2 ± 20.08, p < 0.05). In addition, we found a statistically significant increase in hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p < 0.05). There were also significant outcomes regarding the investigator's visual assessment and patient's subjective score of dandruff and scalp inflammation in the test group compared to those in control group. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) are promising substances for promoting health of the scalp and hair. PMID:25954733

  17. Cucumarioside E from the Far Eastern Sea Cucumber Cucumaria japonica (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida), New Minor Monosulfated Holostane Triterpene Pentaoside with Glucose as the Second Monosaccharide Residue.

    PubMed

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Mazeika, Andrey N; Vorobieva, Natalia S; Sanina, Nina M; Kostetsky, Edward Y

    2015-06-01

    New minor triterpene glycoside, cucumarioside E (1) has been isolated from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica. The structure of the glycoside was elucidated by 2D-NMR specroscopy and mass-spectrometry. The glycoside has glucose instead of quinovose as the second monosaccharide residue and xylose as third monosaccharide residue that is unique structural feature for triterpene glycosides carbohydrate chains from sea cucumbers belonging to the genus Cucumaria. PMID:26197506

  18. Functional traits contributed to the superior performance of the exotic species Robinia pseudoacacia: a comparison with the native tree Sophora japonica.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yujie; Yuan, Yifu; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Du, Ning; Guo, Weihua

    2016-03-01

    Functional traits determine the ecological strategies of plants and therefore are widely considered to feature in the success of invasive species. By comparing a widespread exotic invasive species Robinia pseudoacacia L. with a related native one Sophora japonica L., this research aimed to study strategies of R. pseudoacacia for superior performance from the perspective of functional traits. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which seedlings of R. pseudoacacia and S. japonica were grown separately under a factorial combination of two light regimes and three levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, including a control and two levels intended to represent ambient and future levels of N deposition in Chinese forests. After 90 days of treatment, performance and functional traits were determined for the two species, the former referred to as the total biomass (TB) that directly affected fitness. Trait plasticity and integration (the pattern and extent of functional covariance among different plant traits) were analyzed and compared. We found that the two species showed significantly different plastic responses to light increase: in the low-light regime, they were similar in performance and functional traits, while in the high-light regime, R. pseudoacacia achieved a significantly higher TB and a suite of divergent but advantageous functional traits versus S. japonica, such as significantly greater photosynthetic capacity and leaf N concentration, and lower carbon-to-N ratio and root-to-shoot ratio, which conferred it the greater performance. Moreover, across the light gradient, R. pseudoacacia showed higher correlations between photosynthetic capacity and other functional traits than S. japonica. In contrast, N deposition showed little impact on our experiment. Our results suggested that across light regimes, three aspects of functional traits contributed to the superior performance of R. pseudoacacia: functional trait divergence, significantly different plasticity of

  19. WITHDRAWN: Erythrodiol-3-acetate isolated from Styrax japonica elicits the inhibition of UV-induced gelatinases B in cultured human keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyungin; Jung, Jae-Chul

    2007-02-26

    Methanol and aqueous extracts of Styrax japonica Sieb. et Zucc used traditionally for the treatments of skin elastic materials were screened in vitro for the gelatinases B inhibitor actions. Erythrodiol-3-acetate (E) from the stem barks of S. japonica showed significant gelatinase B inhibition in human keratinocyte cells caused by ultraviolet irradiation. Here we investigated the effect of E, which was isolated from S. japonica on UV-induced premature skin aging. We studied the effect of E on UV-induced gelatinase B expression in an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line, in vitro. Acute UV irradiation induced gelatinase B expression at the protein levels and E suppressed this UV-induced gelatinase B expression in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results show that E can prevent the harmful effects of UV that lead to skin aging or skin cancer. Therefore, we suggest that E should be viewed as a potential therapeutic agent for preventing and/or treating premature skin aging. PMID:17329089

  20. Evolutionary rate variation in two conifer species, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. var. distichum (baldcypress) and Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don (Sugi, Japanese cedar).

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Junko; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Tachida, Hidenori

    2016-03-23

    With the advance of sequencing technologies, large-scale data of expressed sequence tags and full-length cDNA sequences have been reported for several conifer species. Comparative analyses of evolutionary rates among diverse taxa provide insights into taxon-specific molecular evolutionary features and into the origin of variation in evolutionary rates within genomes and between species. Here, we estimated evolutionary rates in two conifer species, Taxodium distichum and Cryptomeria japonica, to illuminate the molecular evolutionary features of these species, using hundreds of genes and employing Chamaecyparis obtusa as an outgroup. Our results show that the mutation rates based on synonymous substitution rates (dS) of T. distichum and C. japonica are approximately 0.67 × 10(-9) and 0.59 × 10(-9)/site/year, respectively, which are 15-25 times lower than those of annual angiosperms. We found a significant positive correlation between dS and GC3. This implies that a local mutation bias, such as context dependency of the mutation bias, exists within the genomes of T. distichum and C. japonica, and/or that selection acts on synonymous sites in these species. In addition, the means of the ratios of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitution rate in the two species are almost the same, suggesting that the average intensity of functional constraint is constant between the lineages. Finally, we tested the possibility of positive selection based on the site model, and detected one candidate gene for positive selection. PMID:26687861

  1. Cloning and characterization of Lonicera japonica p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase which is involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Pu, Gaobin; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Bingqian; Liu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Fengning

    2013-01-01

    Lonicera japonica is used in Chinese medicine as a source of antioxidants, primarily flavonoids, and a phenolic acid chlorogenic acid (CGA). Here we report the isolation and characterization of the full-length cDNA of LjC3H, a gene encoding p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in CGA synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that is protein belongs to the CYP98A subfamily, and homology modeling revealed that its structure resembles that of other cytochrome P450 family proteins. Southern blot analysis indicated that more than one copy of sequences homologous to LjC3H is present in the L. japonica genome. Heterologous expression of LjC3H cDNA in Escherichia coli allowed an in vitro assay of LjC3H to be performed. This experiment revealed that the enzyme favors p-coumaroylshikimate over p-coumaroylquinate as substrate. LjC3H transcript abundance was increased both by treatment of the leaves with methyl jasmonate and by exposure to UV-B radiation. The CGA levels in the leaves of L. japonica were positively correlated with LjC3H transcript abundance. PMID:23832359

  2. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Amrah; Shafaghatlonbar, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The constituents of essential oils and organic extracts from peel and kernels of Citrus japonica were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The content of essential oil in peel and kernel was 1.1 and 0.8% based on dry weight. The essential oil of C. japonica peel and kernel was characterised by a higher amount of limonene (51.0 and 47.1%) and germacrene D (12.1 and 6.3%), and the hexane extracts of its peel and kernel were characterised by a higher amount of dodecanol-1(12.9 and 20.8%) and linolenic acid (13.1 and 16.3%), respectively. The antioxidant activities of oils were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results indicate that both oils from different parts of C. japonica possess considerable antioxidant activity. The fruit peel and kernel essential oil could thus be useful in the industries, chiefly in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26500054

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of CYP719, a methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzyme that belongs to a novel P450 family, from cultured Coptis japonica cells.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masaru; Nagayoshi, Masanori; Shinkyo, Raku; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Inouye, Kuniyo; Sato, Fumihiko

    2003-10-01

    Two cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNAs involved in the biosynthesis of berberine, an antimicrobial benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, were isolated from cultured Coptis japonica cells and characterized. A sequence analysis showed that one C. japonica P450 (designated CYP719) belonged to a novel P450 family. Further, heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that it had the same activity as a methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzyme (canadine synthase), which catalyzes the conversion of (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine ((S)-THC) to (S)-tetrahydroberberine ((S)-THB, (S)-canadine). The other P450 (designated CYP80B2) showed high homology to California poppy (S)-N-methylcoclaurine-3'-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), which converts (S)-N-methylcoclaurine to (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine. Recombinant CYP719 showed typical P450 properties as well as high substrate affinity and specificity for (S)-THC. (S)Scoulerine was not a substrate of CYP719, indicating that some other P450, e.g. (S)-cheilanthifoline synthase, is needed in (S)-stylopine biosynthesis. All of the berberine biosynthetic genes, including CYP719 and CYP80B2, were highly expressed in selected cultured C. japonica cells and moderately expressed in root, which suggests coordinated regulation of the expression of biosynthetic genes. PMID:12732624

  4. Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica

    PubMed Central

    Shitan, Nobukazu; Bazin, Ingrid; Dan, Kazuyuki; Obata, Kazuaki; Kigawa, Koji; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Fumihiko; Forestier, Cyrille; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2003-01-01

    Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome. PMID:12524452

  5. Overexpression of Coptis japonica norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase overcomes the rate-limiting step in Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in cultured Eschscholzia californica.

    PubMed

    Inui, Takayuki; Tamura, Ken-Ichi; Fujii, Nanae; Morishige, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko

    2007-02-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are one of the most important secondary metabolite groups, and include the economically important analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent berberine. To improve the production of these alkaloids, we investigated the effect of the overexpression of putative rate-limiting step enzymes in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. We introduced two O-methyltransferase [Coptis japonica norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT) and 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase (4'OMT)] expression vectors into cultured California poppy cells to avoid the gene silencing effect of endogenous genes. We established 20 independent lines for 6OMT transformants and 15 independent lines for 4'OMT transformants. HPLC/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis revealed that the overexpression of C. japonica 6OMT was associated with an average alkaloid content 7.5 times greater than that in the wild type, whereas the overexpression of C. japonica 4'OMT had only a marginal effect. Further characterization of 6OMT in California poppy cells indicated that a 6OMT-specific gene is missing and 4OMT catalyzes the 6OMT reaction with low activity in California poppy, which supports the notion that the 6OMT reaction is important for alkaloid biosynthesis in this plant species. We discuss the importance of 6OMT in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis and the potential for using a rate-limiting step gene to improve alkaloid production. PMID:17189286

  6. The effects of seasonal and interannual variability of oceanic structure in the western Pacific North Equatorial Current on larval transport of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Zenimoto, K; Kitagawa, T; Miyazaki, S; Sasai, Y; Sasaki, H; Kimura, S

    2009-06-01

    As the North Equatorial Current (NEC)-bifurcation is known to be related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, the influence of the position of the NEC bifurcation on transport success of the larval Japanese eel Anguilla japonica was investigated. Using a Lagrangian modelling approach, larval transport was simulated and the relative influence of El Niño and La Niña events and the NEC-bifurcation position on the success of particle transport analysed. The number of particles transported from the NEC to the Kuroshio tended to be lowest during El Niño years, and differences between La Niña and regular years were small. The transport success observed in simulations showed some relationships to annual A. japonica glass eel recruitment to Tanegashima Island over 1993 to 2001, but not in 2002. The study shows that particle tracking simulations can be used to improve knowledge of the oceanic migration of A. japonica but further studies are required, including comparisons with the effects on larval survival of fluctuations in temperature and food availability. PMID:20735678

  7. Estimation of Carbon Balance in Young and Mature Stands of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Sode, N.; Koizumi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Two-thirds of Japan is covered by forests, and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations occupy approximately 45% of the plantation areas or 20% of total forested area in Japan. Since the 1950s, cedar plantation has been encouraged and managed for timber production. Therefore, it is important to study quantitatively and synthetically the balance of carbon in cedar plantation ecosystems according to forest development. The ecological process-based approach provides a detailed assessment of belowground compartment as one of the major compartment of carbon balance. Carbon net balance (NEP: net ecosystem production) in ecosystems by this approach is determined by the balance between net primary production (NPP) of vegetation and heterotrophic respiration (HR) of soil (NEP= NPP-HR). HR is the difference between total soil respiration (SR) and root respiration (RR) (HR= SR-RR). To estimate the NPP, we used to biometric method by allometric relationships and litter traps. To estimate the SR, we used a chamber system with automatic open and closing for measuring continuous CO2 efflux from soil surface based on an open-flow method (AOCC) and a portable system for measuring leaf photosynthesis attached to a soil chamber (LI-6400). Our object is to examine balance of carbon in ca. 7 y old (young) and 45 y old (mature) stands of Japanese cedar. Our goal of this study is to investigate carbon cycling on a regional scale using ecological process, remote sensing, and climate observation and modeling analysis as part of the 21st COE program {Satellite Ecology}. This presents the initial results obtained by a process-based measurement since 2004. The study region refers to a cool temperate zone, Asia monsoon climate (36° 08'N, 137° 22'E). In the mature stand, Japanese cedar plantation located in about 10km east of Takayama city, central Japan. The ecological-process research plot was established on the middle of a slope (30m×50m) in November 2004. The slope

  8. Optimization of the microwave-assisted extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch and evaluation of the inhibitory effects of phlorotannin-containing extracts on HepG2 cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhizhou; Chen, Yongshun; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Haohuai; Yuan, Guanfu; Fan, Yaming; Chen, Kun

    2013-09-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch ( S. japonica) has been evaluated with particular emphasis on the influential parameters, including the ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature, and microwave power. The MAE procedure was optimized using single-factor design and orthogonal array design (OAD). The content of total phlorotannins in S. japonica was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. A maximum total phlorotannin content of 0.644 mg of phloroglucinol equivalent per gram of dry weight plant (mg PGE/g DW) was obtained using the optimized model, which included an ethanol concentration of 55%, solid/liquid ratio of 1:8, extraction time of 25 min, irradiation power of 400 W, and temperature of 60°C. Under similar conditions, the application of a conventional extraction method led to a lower phlorotannin yield of 0.585 mg PGE/g WD. These results demonstrated that the MAE approach provided better results for the extraction of phlorotannins from S. japonica and was a promising technique for the extraction of phenolic compounds from S. japonica and other materials. In addition, screening tests for the inhibitory activity showed that the phlorotannin-containing extracts significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by inducing their apoptosis. The morphological changes that occurred during cell apoptosis were characterized using Hoechst33258 staining.

  9. Ampelopsis japonica Makino Extract Inhibits the Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns in Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Duck; Kim, Sue Jeong; Kim, Dong-Il; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratinocytes are the major cells in epidermis, providing barrier components such as cornified cells through the sophisticated differentiation process. In addition, keratinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. It has been known that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including double-strand RNA and nucleotides can provoke inflammatory reaction in keratinocytes. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ampelopsis japonica Makino extract (AE) on PAMPs-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes. Methods The effects of AE were determined using poly (I:C)-induced inflammation and imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis models. Results In cultured keratinocytes, AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced release of caspase-1 active form (p20), and down-regulated nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. In imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis model, topical application of AE resulted in significant reduction of epidermal hyperplasia. Conclusion These results suggest that AE may be a potential candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation. PMID:27274634

  10. Structural understanding of the recycling of oxidized ascorbate by dehydroascorbate reductase (OsDHAR) from Oryza sativa L. japonica

    PubMed Central

    Do, Hackwon; Kim, Il-Sup; Jeon, Byoung Wook; Lee, Chang Woo; Park, Ae Kyung; Wi, Ah Ram; Shin, Seung Chul; Park, Hyun; Kim, Young-Saeng; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Han-Woo; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme involved in the recycling of ascorbate, which catalyses the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of oxidized ascorbate (dehydroascorbate, DHA). As a result, DHAR regenerates a pool of reduced ascorbate and detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS). In previous experiments involving transgenic rice, we observed that overexpression of DHAR enhanced grain yield and biomass. Since the structure of DHAR is not available, the enzymatic mechanism is not well-understood and remains poorly characterized. To elucidate the molecular basis of DHAR catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of DHAR from Oryza sativa L. japonica (OsDHAR) in the native, ascorbate-bound, and GSH-bound forms and refined their resolutions to 1.9, 1.7, and 1.7 Å, respectively. These complex structures provide the first information regarding the location of the ascorbate and GSH binding sites and their interacting residues. The location of the ascorbate-binding site overlaps with the GSH-binding site, suggesting a ping-pong kinetic mechanism for electron transfer at the common Cys20 active site. Our structural information and mutagenesis data provide useful insights into the reaction mechanism of OsDHAR against ROS-induced oxidative stress in rice. PMID:26775680

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) from Oryza sativa L. japonica

    PubMed Central

    Do, Hackwon; Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Shin, Sun-Young; Kim, Jin-Ju; Mok, Ji-Eun; Park, Seong-Im; Wi, Ah Ram; Park, Hyun; Kim, Han-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase from Oryza sativa L. japonica (OsDHAR), a key enzyme in the regeneration of vitamin C, maintains reduced pools of ascorbic acid to detoxify reactive oxygen species. In previous studies, the overexpression of OsDHAR in transgenic rice increased grain yield and biomass as well as the amount of ascorbate, suggesting that ascorbate levels are directly associated with crop production in rice. Hence, it has been speculated that the increased level of antioxidants generated by OsDHAR protects rice from oxidative damage and increases the yield of rice grains. However, the crystal structure and detailed mechanisms of this important enzyme need to be further elucidated. In this study, recombinant OsDHAR protein was purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at pH 8.0 and 298 K. Plate-shaped crystals were obtained using 0.15 M potassium bromide, 30%(w/v) PEG MME 2000 as a precipitant, and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å on beamline 5C at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the crystal contained one OsDHAR molecule in the asymmetric unit and belonged to space group P21 with unit-cell parameters a = 47.03, b = 48.38, c = 51.83 Å, β = 107.41°. PMID:24915093

  12. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  13. Characterization of the antioxidant fraction of Trapa japonica pericarp and its hepatic protective effects in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Seo, Il-Bok; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Son, Sangkeun; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2016-03-01

    The ethanolic extract of Trapa japonica pericarp (TJP) and its various fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant potential. The ethyl acetate fraction (EF) from TJP exhibited significant antioxidant and protective effects against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experimental results showed that the EF suppressed t-BHP-induced damage in Chang cells by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the EF effectively inhibited t-BHP-induced apoptosis by suppressing caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9. In the in vivo study, the EF significantly prevented serum increases in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase and hepatic malondialdehyde levels caused by t-BHP. Furthermore, the EF markedly increased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione levels. Histopathological examinations further confirmed that the EF could protect the liver from t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. These findings indicate that the EF could be developed as a therapy or to prevent hepatic injury. PMID:26956465

  14. Dynamic changes in the accumulation of metabolites in brackish water clam Corbicula japonica associated with alternation of salinity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Seiji; Watanabe, Naoki; Hoshino, Naoshige; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Yasumoto, Ko; Watabe, Shugo

    2015-03-01

    The brackish water clam Corbicula japonica inhabits rivers and brackish waters throughout Japan where the major fishing grounds in the Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, are located at the Hinuma Lake and Hinuma River. Water salinity in the Lake Hinuma is low and stable due to the long distance from the Pacific Ocean, whereas that in the downstream of the river varies daily due to a strong effect of tidal waters. In the present study, we dissected the gill and foot muscle of brackish water clam collected from these areas, and subjected them to metabolome analysis by capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 200 metabolites including free amino acids, peptides and organic acids were identified, and their amounts from the foot muscle tend to be higher than those from the gill. The principal component analysis revealed that the amount of each metabolite was different among sampling areas and between the gill and foot muscle, whereas no apparent differences were observed between male and female specimens. When the metabolites in the female clam at high salinity were compared with those at low salinity, concentrations of β-alanine, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, ornithine and glycine betaine were found to be changed in association with salinity. We also compared various metabolites in relation to metabolic pathways, suggesting that many enzymes were involved in their changes depending on salinity. PMID:25455471

  15. The characteristics of vasa gene from Japanese sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas) and its response to the external hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Meili; Wen, Haishen; Ni, Meng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Senhao

    2015-08-01

    The RNA helicase Vasa is an important regulator of primordial germ cell development. Its function in mature fish, especially the hormone-related differences in maturing male fish has seldom been documented. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of the vasa gene was cloned from Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas, and it was named jsb-vasa. Homology analysis showed that jsb-vasa was closely related to its teleost homologs. The spatial distribution of jsb-vasa indicated that it was only highly expressed in testis, showing its germ cell-specific expression pattern. During the testicular development cycle, jsb-vasa was highly expressed during early period of spermatogenesis, and reduced when spermatogenesis advanced. In addition, the jsb-vasa gene expression was significantly inhibited at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after injecting hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and GnRHa (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue), indicating that jsb-vasa gene may play an important role in spermatogenesis of Japanese sea bass, and be under the regulation of external sex hormones.

  16. Phytochemical content, antioxidants and cell wall metabolism of two loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) cultivars under different storage regimes.

    PubMed

    Goulas, V; Minas, I S; Kourdoulas, P M; Vicente, A R; Manganaris, G A

    2014-07-15

    Changes in quality, phytochemical content and cell wall metabolism of two loquat cultivars (Eriobotrya japonica cvs. 'Morphitiki', 'Karantoki') under different storage regimes were studied. The fruit were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 11 days maintenance at room temperature (RT, ∼ 20°C) or after cold storage (14 days at 4°C) and additional ripening at RT for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Compositional analysis revealed substantial cultivar differences; the 'Morphitiki' fruit was more acidic and showed higher contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid-derivatives as well as greater antioxidant potency. Although firmness did not change markedly during storage, the cell wall exhibited extensive remodeling. Greater changes were observed in the pectin backbones than in polyuronide side chains and cross-linking glycans. Polygalacturonase (PG) showed better association with cell wall solubilization at RT than the enzymes involved in arabinan or galactan disassembly. During postharvest ripening after harvest, 'Karantoki' showed more extensive pectin solubilization than 'Morphitiki'. Interestingly, cold storage inhibited the cell wall disassembly in 'Karantoki' but not in 'Morphitiki', suggesting that the cultivars may differ in their susceptibility to chilling-related wall disorders. Low temperature-induced alterations in wall disassembly may impact juice and phytochemical release upon consumption. PMID:24594179

  17. Fine mapping of a gene for low-tiller number, Ltn, in japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety Aikawa 1.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daisuke; Ebron, Leodegario A; Araki, Etsuko; Kato, Hiroshi; Khush, Gurdev S; Sheehy, John E; Lafarge, Tanguy; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2010-04-01

    Tillering is one of the most important agronomic traits related to grain production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). A japonica-type variety, Aikawa 1, is known to have low-tiller number. The detailed location of a low-tillering gene, Ltn, which has been localized on chromosome 8 in Aikawa 1, was confirmed by molecular mapping. Using BC5F2 individuals derived from a cross between IR64 and Aikawa 1, the low-tillering gene was mapped to an interval defined by SSR markers ssr5816-3 and A4765. This was designated as Ltn because there was no reported gene for tillering in the region of chromosome 8. Through high-resolution linkage analysis, the candidate region of Ltn was located between DNA markers ssr6049-23 and ind6049-1 corresponding to 38.6 kbp on the Nipponbare genome sequence. These DNA markers, which were tightly linked to Ltn, are useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding studies. PMID:20062964

  18. Common, unsightly and until now undescribed: Fumiglobus pieridicola sp. nov., a sooty mold infesting Pieris japonica from western North America.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tanay; Reynolds, Don R; Berbee, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Sooty molds (Capnodiaceae) are saprotrophs on the surfaces of leaves, and they take their nutrients from honeydew exuded by sap-sucking insects. We describe and illustrate the sooty mold Fumiglobus pieridicola sp. nov., which, to the dismay of gardeners, forms a thick black mycelial coating on the leaves and twigs of ornamental Japanese andromeda (Pieris japonica) in western North America. As a mitosporic species with a pycnidium that lacks an elongated neck and has at most a rudimentary stalk, the species belongs in the genus Fumiglobus. Although locally common, we found no specimens identified under Fumiglobus or its synonyms in regional herbaria and no record of any similar fungus in host indices. Our species differs from others in Fumiglobus in having smaller pycnidia and conidia and in having intercalary as well as apical pycnidia. We determined partial 18S and 28S ribosomal gene sequences for F. pieridicola, the first for any Fumiglobus species. Sequence analysis provides strong bootstrap support for including Fumiglobus within Capnodiaceae. We also determined 18S and 28S sequences for the type species of the mitosporic genus Conidiocarpus, also in Capnodiaceae. We confirm that Conidiocarpus is the anamorph of Phragmocapnias. Following the rules of nomenclatural priority, we propose the new combinations Conidiocarpus asiaticus, Conidiocarpus betle, Conidiocarpus callitris, Conidiocarpus fuliginodes, Conidiocarpus heliconiae, Conidiocarpus imperspicuus and Conidiocarpus siamensis. We hope that describing the mystery fungus from our region and providing sequences for its molecular identification will lead to new studies on its biology and distribution. PMID:24891416

  19. Ambient temperature and nutritional stress influence fatty acid composition of structural and fuel lipids in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2013-10-01

    In birds, fatty acids (FA) serve as the primary metabolic fuel during exercise and fasting, and their composition affects metabolic rate and thus energy requirements. To ascertain the relationship between FAs and metabolic rate, a distinction should be made between structural and fuel lipids. Indeed, increased unsaturation of structural lipid FAs brings about increased cell metabolism, and changes in the FA composition of fuel lipids affects metabolic rate through selective mobilization and increasing availability of specific FAs. We examined the effects of acclimation to a low ambient temperature (Ta: 12.7±3.0°C) and nutritional status (fed or unfed) on the FA composition of four tissues in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Differentiating between neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) lipids, we tested the hypothesis that both acclimation to low Ta and nutritional status modify FA composition of triglycerides and phospholipids. We found that both factors affect FA composition of triglycerides, but not the composition of phospholipids. We also found changes in liver triacylglyceride FA composition in the low-Ta acclimated quail, namely, the two FAs that differed, oleic acid (18:1) and arachidonic acid (20:4), were associated with thermoregulation. In addition, the FAs that changed with nutritional status were all reported to be involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, and thus we suggest that they also play a role in the response to fasting. PMID:23796822

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail. PMID:23772453

  1. Protective effects of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanol extracts of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara (RJ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible underlying mechanisms of action. The mice were orally administrated with RJ extract (16, 32 or 64 mg(kg(-1)) daily for consecutive7 days before LPS challenge. The ung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for histopathological examinations and biochemical analyses. Pretreatment with RJ significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced the wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and protein leakage, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice with ALI, in a dose-dependent manner. RJ reduced complement deposition and significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI by reducing productions of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The results demonstrated that RJ may attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and reducing complement deposition and radicals. PMID:26481377

  2. Cryopreservation of gametophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quansheng; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Luo, Shiju; Yang, Guanpin

    2008-02-01

    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10°C and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10°C and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40°C or -60°C for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40°C seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaCl 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  3. Quality assessment of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) grown on Prince Edward Island as a source of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaguo; Tuck, Tina; Ji, Xiuhong; Zhou, Xin; Kelly, Glen; Cuerrier, Alain; Zhang, Junzeng

    2013-07-01

    Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica , also known as Polygonum cuspidatum) is a common invasive plant species on Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, whereas it has been used in Chinese medicine and more recently as a raw material for extracting resveratrol. This paper reports on the quantification of resveratrol, polydatin, emodin, and physcion in roots, stems, and leaves of Japanese knotweed samples from PEI and British Columbia (BC), Canada, and nine provinces of China, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The results showed that the root contains a much higher level of resveratrol than the stem and leaf, and it is accumulated in its highest level in October. PEI-grown knotweed contains similar levels of resveratrol and polydatin compared to Chinese samples collected in the month of October, but the contents of the other anthraquinones (emodin and physcion) are different. As such, Japanese knotweed grown in PEI could be a commercially viable source of raw material for resveratrol production; however, caution has to be taken in harvesting the right plant species. PMID:23742076

  4. Effects of hypertonic stimuli and arginine vasotocin (AVT) on water absorption response in Japanese treefrog, Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Sho; Yamada, Toshiki; Hamada, Takayuki; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2008-06-01

    Anuran amphibians do not drink orally but absorb water osmotically through the highly permeable ventral skin. In this cutaneous water absorption, roles of the putative cerebral osmoreceptors and functions of arginine vasotocin (AVT) were examined in the central nervous system of the Japanese treefrog, Hyla japonica. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intralymphatic sac (ILS) administration of various hypertonic solutions (NaCl, mannitol and urea) significantly extended the residence time in water in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting facilitation of water absorption in frogs. ICV injection of AVT also increased significantly the residence time in a dose-dependent manner. The water absorption effect of AVT was significantly inhibited by pretreatment of ICV OPC-21268, a vasopressin V(1) receptor antagonist. But pre-ICV injection of OPC-31260, a vasopressin V(2) receptor antagonist, did not block the water absorption effect of AVT. Extension of the residence time induced by hyperosmotic NaCl (1000 mOsm) ICV injection was significantly inhibited by pretreatment of ICV OPC-21268. The present results showed that increases of osmotic pressure in plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid stimulate water absorption response, suggesting that osmoreceptors are certainly present in the central nervous system and AVT may directly stimulate water absorption in the treefrog. It is also suggested that AVT activates cellular mechanisms via V(1)-like but not V(2)-like receptors in the central nervous system and facilitates water absorption response in the treefrog. PMID:18555070

  5. Occurrence and metabolism of 4-substituted glutamic acids in the seedlings of various species of legumes. [Sophora japonica

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, H.C.; Dekker, E.E.

    1987-04-01

    The authors measured the levels of 4-methyleneglutamic acid (Meglu), 4-methyleneglutamine (Megln), erythro-4-methylglutamic acid (e-Mglu), and threo-4-methylglutamic acid (t-Mglu) in seedlings of various species of legumes by HPLC and ion exchange chromatography. High levels of e-Mglu and Megln but no t-Mglu or Meglu are present in Sophora japonica. Peanut seedling contain both e-Mglu and t-Mglu at 20-50% and 5%, resp., of the level of Meglu whereas only traces of Meglu and Mglu occur in soybean seedlings. Excised peanut embryos germinated on Linsmaier and Skoog medium + (U-/sup 14/C)-leucine incorporated isotope into e-Mglu, Meglu, and Megln; (U-/sup 14/C)-proline or glycine was not so incorporated. Soybean embryos rapidly converted added (2-/sup 14/C)-Meglu to a variety of non-amino acid products; peanut embryos, in contrast, retain 25% of added Meglu unchanged and 50% as Megln. These results suggest that in a variety of legumes leucine may serve as a precursor of Mglu and Meglu during germination; also, whereas Meglu remains as such or as Megln in some species, it is rapidly metabolized in others.

  6. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition. PMID:23709486

  7. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

    Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

  8. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the ultrastructural and topochemical features of compression wood in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

    PubMed

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products. PMID:27426470

  9. Suppression of neuronal excitability by the secretion of the lamprey (Lampetra japonica) provides a mechanism for its evolutionary stability.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shaopeng; Xiao, Rong; Li, Qingwei; Zhou, Liwei; He, Rongqiao; Qi, Zhi

    2009-07-01

    Lampreys are one of the most primitive vertebrates still living today. They attach themselves to the body surface of the host fish through their sucker-like mouths and suck blood of the host for days. Recent fossil evidence has indicated that morphology of lampreys in the late Devonian period, over 360 million years ago, already possessed the present day major characteristics, suggesting the evolutionary stability of a highly specialized parasitic feeding habit. Obviously, nociceptive responses and hemostasis of the host are two major barriers to long-term feeding of the parasitic lamprey. It has been found, to counteract hemostasis of the host, that paired buccal glands of lampreys secrete antihemostatic compounds to prevent blood of the host from coagulation. However, it is not known how lampreys make the host lose nociceptive responses. Here, we prepared components of the crude extract from the buccal glands of the lampreys (Lampetra japonica). Then, we show that crude extract and one of its purified components reduce the firing frequency of neuronal action potentials probably through inhibiting the voltage-dependent Na(+) channels. As the voltage-gated Na(+) channels are highly conserved throughout evolution, we argue that the secretion of the lampreys could exert the similar effect on the Na(+) channels of their host fish as well. Therefore, together with its antihemostatic effect, the secretion due to its inhibitory effect on neuronal excitability might provide a mechanism for the parasitic lampreys to keep their evolutionary stability. PMID:19198874

  10. Litsea japonica extract inhibits neuronal apoptosis and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the diabetic mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JUNGHYUN; KIM, CHAN-SIK; LEE, YUN MI; SOHN, EUNJIN; JO, KYUHYUNG; KIM, JIN SOOK

    2015-01-01

    The retinal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a condition, which is found in diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) and to elucidate its underlying protective mechanism in model diabetic db/db mice. Male, 7 -week-old db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 or 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. The expression levels of AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) were subsequently assessed by immunohistochemistry. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and southwestern histochemistry were used to detect activated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that LJE significantly reduced the expression levels of the AGEs and RAGE in the neural retinas of the db/db mice. LJE markedly inhibited the apop-tosis of retinal ganglion cells. In addition, LJE suppressed the activation of NF-κB. These results suggested that LJE may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes-induced retinal neurodegeneration, and the ability of LJE to attenuate retinal ganglion cell loss may be mediated by inhibition of the accumulation of AGEs. PMID:25815519

  11. LSCHL4 from Japonica Cultivar, which is allelic to NAL1, increases yield of indica super rice 93-11.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Heng; Li, Shu-Yu; Wang, Li; Ye, Wei-Jun; Zeng, Da-Li; Rao, Yu-Chun; Peng, You-Lin; Hu, Jiang; Yang, Yao-Long; Xu, Jie; Ren, De-Yong; Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhu, Li; Dong, Guo-Jun; Hu, Xing-Ming; Yan, Mei-Xian; Guo, Long-Biao; Li, Chuan-You; Qian, Qian

    2014-08-01

    The basic premise of high yield in rice is to improve leaf photosynthetic efficiency and coordinate the source-sink relationship in rice plants. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to morphological traits and chlorophyll content of rice leaves were detected at the stages of heading to maturity, and a major QTL (qLSCHL4) related to flag leaf shape and chlorophyll content was detected at both stages in recombinant inbred lines constructed using the indica rice cultivar 93-11 and the japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Map-based cloning and expression analysis showed that LSCHL4 is allelic to NAL1, a gene previously reported in narrow leaf mutant of rice. Overexpression lines transformed with vector carrying LSCHL4 from Nipponbare and a near-isogenic line of 93-11 (NIL-9311) had significantly increased leaf chlorophyll content, enlarged flag leaf size, and improved panicle type. The average yield of NIL-9311 was 18.70% higher than that of 93-11. These results indicate that LSCHL4 had a pleiotropic function. Exploring and pyramiding more high-yield alleles resembling LSCHL4 for super rice breeding provides an effective way to achieve new breakthroughs in raising rice yield and generate new ideas for solving the problem of global food safety. PMID:24795339

  12. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the ultrastructural and topochemical features of compression wood in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products. PMID:27426470

  13. Scierai ectasia associated with hereditary retinal dysplasia in a mutant strain of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Nunoya, T; Tajima, M; Mizutani, M

    1997-01-01

    Ocular defects and age-related lesions in mutant (GUB strain) Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), phenotypically characterised by silver plumage, are described. Grossly, a circular area of hypopigmentation in the posterior retina with thinning of the subjacent sciera was observed in all GUB quails. As the birds matured, the thinned sciera progressed to scierai ectasia. Histologically, the sciera at the ectatic area consisted of an outer fibrous layer and was devoid of the inner cartilaginous shell. Atypical differentiation and duplication of the retina with absence of the choroid was common at the ectatic area. The retina, choroid, ciliary body and iris were all poorly pigmented. With increasing age, the ectatic area became cystic, and the duplicated retina degenerated and atrophied. In addition, there were mononuclear cell infiltration in the stroma of the iris and ciliary body, anterior and posterior synechiae, cataract and/or glaucoma in aged GUB quails. These findings suggest that posterior scierai ectasia in the GUB strain of Japanese quails may have developed secondarily to a congenital structural defect of the posterior portion of sciera associating with general ocular defects. PMID:18483890

  14. Measurement of the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (taxodiaceae) by imaging with a photoacoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hoshimiya, Tsutomu

    2006-03-01

    A photoacoustic microscope (PAM), which includes a condenser microphone and a pair of linear-motor-driven pulse stages, was specially designed for spectroscopic applications. The PAM was applied to measure the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (CJ), which is known for its allergic function against eyes and nose. The advantage of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is both its high sensitivity and its counting ability up to high concentrations of the specimen. The CJ pollen particles were fixed on a piece of adhesive tape or on albumen (egg white) on a glass slide set in a PA cell. The PA image showed the ability of this method to count CJ pollen from the several-hundred-milligram region to even a single particle. The PA signal obtained was integrated over the specimen surface. The dependence of the PA signal on the amount or number of the pollen particles was measured. The resulting coefficients of correlation of the calibration curves for the amount and the number of pollen particles were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. PMID:16555767

  15. Selective LXR{alpha} inhibitory effects observed in plant extracts of MEH184 (Parthenocissua tricuspidata) and MEH185 (Euscaphis japonica)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kang Ho; Choi, Seung Hyun; Lee, Thomas S.; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Dong Sun; Kim, Jae Bum . E-mail: jaebkim@snu.ac.kr

    2006-10-20

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors that behave as lipid sensors of cellular cholesterol and fatty acid. Although LXR activation can alleviate hypercholesterolemia by inducing cholesterol efflux, it also results in undesirable effects of fatty acid synthesis, resulting in hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. Therefore, it is critical to identify LXR{alpha} inhibitory agents that would repress fatty acid synthesis and hepatic lipid accumulation. In current study, screening of plant extracts used for traditional oriental medicine resulted in the identification of two candidates demonstrating selective LXR{alpha} inhibitory activity. These were whole leaf methanol extracts of Parthenocissua tricuspidata (MEH184) and Euscaphis japonica (MEH185). Both MEH184 and MEH185 decreased transcriptional activity of LXR{alpha} and the expression of LXR{alpha} target genes, such as FAS and ADD1/SREBP1c. Additionally, MEH184 and MEH184 significantly reduced lipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation. Together, the data imply that MEH184 and MEH185 possess selective antagonistic properties on LXR{alpha} to downregulate lipogenesis.

  16. Purification, characterization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of monodehydroascorbate reductase from Oryza sativa L. japonica

    PubMed Central

    Do, Hackwon; Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Shin, Sun-Young; Kim, Jin-Ju; Mok, Ji-Eun; Park, Seong-Im; Wi, Ah Ram; Park, Hyun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Han-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is a key enzyme in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification system of plants. The participation of MDHAR in ascorbate (AsA) recycling in the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is important in the acquired tolerance of crop plants to abiotic environmental stresses. Thus, MDHAR represents a strategic target protein for the improvement of crop yields. Although physiological studies have intensively characterized MDHAR, a structure-based functional analysis is not available. Here, a cytosolic MDHAR (OsMDHAR) derived from Oryza sativa L. japonica was expressed using Escherichia coli strain NiCo21 (DE3) and purified. The purified OsMDHAR showed specific enzyme activity (approximately 380 U per milligram of protein) and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at pH 8.0 and 298 K. The crystal diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit (the Matthews coefficient V M is 1.98 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to a solvent content of 38.06%) in space group P41212 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.89, c = 120.4 Å. The phase of the OsMDHAR structure was resolved by the molecular-replacement method using a ferredoxin reductase from Acidovorax sp. strain KKS102 (PDB entry 4h4q) as a model. PMID:25195901

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Responsible for Tissue-Specific Pigmentation in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jong Hwa; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Seungill; Soh, Hye Yeon; Shin, Hosub; Jang, Hosung; Ryu, Ju Hyun; Kim, Ahyeong; Yun, Kil-Young; Kim, Shinje; Kim, Ki Sun; Choi, Doil; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is commonly found in temperate climate regions and widely used for lawns, in part, owing to its uniform green color. However, some zoysiagrass cultivars accumulate red to purple pigments in their spike and stolon tissues, thereby decreasing the aesthetic value. Here we analyzed the anthocyanin contents of two zoysiagrass cultivars ‘Anyang-jungji’ (AJ) and ‘Greenzoa’ (GZ) that produce spikes and stolons with purple and green colors, respectively, and revealed that cyanidin and petunidin were primarily accumulated in the pigmented tissues. In parallel, we performed a de novo transcriptome assembly and identified differentially expressed genes between the two cultivars. We found that two anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were preferentially upregulated in the purple AJ spike upon pigmentation. Both ANS and DFR genes were also highly expressed in other zoysiagrass cultivars with purple spikes and stolons, but their expression levels were significantly low in the cultivars with green tissues. We observed that recombinant ZjDFR1 and ZjANS1 proteins successfully catalyze the conversions of dihydroflavonols into leucoanthocyanidins and leucoanthocyanidins into anthocyanidins, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that upregulation of ANS and DFR is responsible for tissue-specific anthocyanin biosynthesis and differential pigmentation in zoysiagrass. The present study also demonstrates the feasibility of a de novo transcriptome analysis to identify the key genes associated with specific traits, even in the absence of reference genome information. PMID:25905914

  18. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from Phasianus colchicus, Meleagris gallopavo, and Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Won; Kim, Jin-Kyoo; Seo, Hee Won; Cho, Byung Wook; Song, Gwonhwa; Han, Jae Yong

    2010-08-15

    To date, immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have only been fully characterized in a small number of aves, which pose a major obstacle to understanding Ig evolution. Thus, we cloned the cDNAs of three immunoglobulin classes, IgA, IgM, and IgY, from Phasianus colchicus, Coturnix japonica, and Meleagris gallopavo. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the highest degree of sequence homology in all Ig classes was observed between pheasant and turkey whereas the degree of homology between the galliforms and non-galliforms was relatively low compared to that among the galliforms. When the constant region domains of the four human Ig classes were compared with the corresponding regions in aves, the average percent homology between human CH2 and avian CH3, and between human CH3 and avian CH4, was greater than between identical domains in IgA and IgY, which are in partial agreement with the hypothesis that the avian CH2 domain evolved to form the mammalian hinge via domain condensation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the galliform Ig heavy chain constant regions were divided into quail and the common ancestor of chicken, turkey, and pheasant, and that chicken was separated from turkey and pheasant, which were grouped together. These results add to our knowledge of galliform Igs and the diversification of these genes. PMID:20398946

  19. Radioprotective properties of Cumaside, a complex of triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Zaporozhets, Tatiana S; Adryjashchenko, Pelageya V; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Stonik, Valentin A

    2011-05-01

    The radioprotective activity has been studied of a new immunomodulatory lead material, Cumaside, which is a complex of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from the edible sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica and cholesterol. Female CD-1 strain mice administered with prophylactic doses of Cumaside were irradiated using a Gamma-therapeutic device with a 60Co source (exposure dose 6.5 Gy, dose rate 1.14 Gy/min) and the average life span of the mice was determined. The animals administrated with Cumaside and irradiated were killed by pervisceral dislocation on days 4 and 9. Peripheral blood cell composition indexes, blood forming function and cell number in blood-forming organs and the number of pluripotent blood-forming stem cells were determined using standard procedures and the results compared with those of non-treated irradiated mice. The survivability percentage and average life span of the irradiated mice that were not treated with Cumaside were decreased in comparison with the Cumaside-treated groups. Especially, the leukocyte and neutrophil numbers in the blood (bone marrow from hip), and the weight and cell number of lymphoid organs were higher in the Cumaside-treated groups compared with the non-treated irradiated mice. It was concluded that at low prophylactic doses Cumaside possesses moderate radioprotective properties. PMID:21615013

  20. Variation along ITS markers across strains of Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) suggests hybridisation events and recent range expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Wiebe H. C. F.; de Boer, M. Karin; Vrieling, Engel G.; Connell, Laurie B.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2001-12-01

    The flagellate micro-alga Fibrocapsa japonica can form harmful algal blooms along all temperate coastal regions of the world. The species was first observed in coastal waters of Japan and the western US in the 1970s; it has been reported regularly worldwide since. To unravel whether this apparent range expansion can be tracked, we assessed genetic variation among nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences, obtained from sixteen global strains collected over the course of three decades. Ten sequence positions showed polymorphism across the strains. Nine out of these revealed ambiguities in several or most sequences sampled. The oldest strain collected (LB-2161) was the only one without such intra-individual polymorphism. In the others, the proportion of ambiguities at variable sites increased with more recent collection date. The pattern does not result from loss of variation due to sexual reproduction and random drift in culture because sister cultures CS-332 and NIES-136 showed virtually the same ITS-pattern after seven years of separation. Neither are the patterns explained by recent range expansion of a single genotype, because in that case one would expect lowest genetic diversity in the recently invaded North Sea; instead, polymorphism is highest there. Recent ballast-water-mediated mixing of formerly isolated populations and subsequent ongoing sexual reproduction among them can explain the increase in ambiguities. The species' capacity to form harmful blooms may well have been enhanced through increased genetic diversity of regional populations.

  1. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  2. GC/MS analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fractions from Sophora flavescens and Torilis japonica extracts and their in vitro anti-neosporal effects on Neospora caninum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hun-Su; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Dae-Yong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against Neospora (N.) caninum. To identify the chemical components of Sophora (S.) flavescens and Torilis (T.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro activity of the fractions against N. caninum was then assessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal molecules in the herbal extracts. Almost all HPLC fractions of S. flavescens and T. japonica had higher levels of anti-neosporal activity compared to the not treated control. Active constituents of the extracts were sophoridane, furosardonin A, and tetraisopropylidene-cyclobutane in S. flavescens; 5,17-β-dihydroxy-de-A-estra-5,7,9,14-tetraene, furanodiene, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(CAS,1) in T. japonica. PMID:23820198

  3. Trait evaluation and trial cultivation of Dongfang No. 2, the hybrid of a male gametophyte clone of Laminaria longissima (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) and a female one of L. japonica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Cong, Yizhou; Shi, Yuanyuan; Qu, Shancun; Li, Zhiling; Wang, Guowen; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Luo, Shiju; Dai, Hongliang; Xie, Jianzu; Jiang, Guangliang; Liu, Jialiang; Wang, Tongyong

    2006-01-01

    Direct cultivation of the first filial generation of gametophyte clones from different Laminaria species is a highly effective way of utilizing kelp heterozygous vigor (heterosis). A male gametophyte clone of L. longissima Miyabe and a female one of L. japonica Areschoug were hybridized, generating Dongfang No. 2 hybrid kelp. This hybrid kelp was used directly in trial cultivation, and its agronomical traits were evaluated. L. longissima and L. japonica are obviously different and complement each other in their morphological characteristics and ecological performances. The hybrid of their gametophyte clones, Dongfang No. 2, showed 56.8% heterozygous vigor in yield. It also showed increased yields of 41.0 and 76.4% compared to the widely used commercial kelps Variety 1 and Variety 2, respectively. In large-scale cultivation trials at different locations and in different years, Dongfang No. 2 attained significantly higher yields than Varieties 1 and 2, increasing yield by 26.4% on average over Variety 1 and by 65.0% over the other. Dongfang No. 2 has a robust holdfast and a wide, long and deep-brown uniform blade, which shows a distinct middle groove. In addition to yield, Dongfang No. 2 also demonstrates obvious heterozygous vigor in other agronomic traits. It is resistant to strong irradiance, as the two commercial varieties are, has an appropriate vegetative maturation time, and adapts well to a range of different culture conditions. The parentage analysis using AFLP of total DNA and SNP of the ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit showed that Dongfang No. 2 is the real hybrid of L. japonica and L. longissima. PMID:19396352

  4. De novo sequencing-based transcriptome and digital gene expression analysis reveals insecticide resistance-relevant genes in Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Wang, Xing-Min; Jin, Feng-Liang; Qiu, Bao-Li; Wu, Jian-Hui; Ren, Shun-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The ladybird Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) is one of most important natural enemies of aphids in China. This species is threatened by the extensive use of insecticides but genomics-based information on the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance is limited. Hence, we analyzed the transcriptome and expression profile data of P. japonica in order to gain a deeper understanding of insecticide resistance in ladybirds. We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology and short reads. A total of 27,243,552 reads were generated. These were assembled into 81,458 contigs and 33,647 unigenes (6,862 clusters and 26,785 singletons). Of the unigenes, 23,965 (71.22%) have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, using BLASTX, with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). We examined COG, GO and KEGG annotations to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles between two insecticide resistant strains. When compared with an insecticide susceptible profile, a total of 4,692 genes were significantly up- or down- regulated in a moderately resistant strain. Among these genes, 125 putative insecticide resistance genes were identified. To confirm the DGE results, 16 selected genes were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study is the first to report genetic information on P. japonica and has greatly enriched the sequence data for ladybirds. The large number of gene sequences produced from the transcriptome and DGE sequencing will greatly improve our understanding of this important insect, at the molecular level, and could contribute to the in-depth research into insecticide resistance mechanisms. PMID:24959827

  5. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26073341

  6. A Long-Lived Porphyry Ore Deposit and Associated Upper Crustal Silicic Magma Body, Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. C.; Allen, C. M.; Reiners, P. W.; Dunlap, W. J.; Cooke, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.; White, N. C.

    2004-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits form within and adjacent to small porphyritic intrusions that are apophyses to larger silicic magma bodies that reside in the upper parts of the Earth's crusts. Centred on these intrusions are hydrothermal systems of exsolved magmatic fluid with a carapace of convectively circulating meteoric water. We have applied several different dating techniques to assess the longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to define the cooling history of porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Argentina. The closure temperatures of these techniques range from 800oC (zircon U-Pb) to ~70oC (apatite (U-Th)/He; Fig. 1). The resulting cooling history indicates that the magmatic-hydrothermal system cooled to ca. 200oC by ~1.5 m.y. after the last porphyry intrusion (i.e., 6.96±0.09 Ma; U-Pb zircon age). Based on (U-Th)/He apatite data (closure temperature ~60-70oC), exposure and cessation of the system occurred before 4 Ma. The longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system indicated by these results is inconsistent with accepted mechanisms for porphyry Cu deposit formation. Depending on wallrock permeability, depth and cooling method, a 2 km wide by 3 km high intrusion has been predicted to cool between 0.01 to 0.1 m.y. (marked as the grey interval; Cathles et al., 1997 Economic Geology). We have obtained numerous age determinations younger than the U-Pb zircon age of the last known intrusion at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These imply that simple cooling of the small, mineralized porphyries did not happen. For the magmatic-hydrothermal system to have been sustained for longer than 0.1 m.y., either 1) younger small intrusions have been episodically emplaced below the youngest known intrusions, thus prolonging heat flow, or 2) fluids derived from a deeper and larger parental intrusion have been episodically discharged through the ore deposit long after the porphyry intrusion had lost its available heat. In either case, the longevity of

  7. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  8. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  9. [Effects of different ecological conditions on grain quality and RVA profile of japonica rice from Yunnan of China and Korea].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-hua; Kim, Ki-young; Yuan, Ping-rong; Zhao, Guo-zhen; Su, Zhen-xi; Liao, Xin-hua; Yang, Sea-jun; Dai, Lu-yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taking sixteen japonica rice varieties from Yunnan of China and Korea growing at three locations with different altitudes in Yunnan Plateau as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different ecological conditions on their grain quality, including brown rice length (BRL), brown rice width (BRW), length-width ratio (L/W), chalky rate (CR), whiteness (WH), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and alkali digestion value (ADV), and their starch RVA profile, including peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosity (HTV), final viscosity (FLV), breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistence viscosity( CTV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT). Of all the test parameters, SBV had the largest coefficient of variation. The coefficients of variation of BRL, CR, AC, PC, ADV, FLV, SBV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties were higher than those of Korean varieties, while the BRW, L/W, WH, PKV, HTV, BDV, CTV, and PaT of Korean varieties had higher coefficients of variation than those of Yunnan varieties. With increasing altitude, the BRL, BRW, L/W, WH, AC, ADV, FLV, and CTV of Yunnan varieties, and the BRL, BRW, WH, PC, PKV, HTV and BDV of Korean varieties decreased significantly, while the CR, PC, HTV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties, and the L/W, AC, ADV, SBV and CTV of Korean varieties increased significantly. The CR of Korean varieties had no obvious change. The PKV, BDV, and PaT of Yunnan varieties and the PaT of Korean varieties increased after an initial decrease, whereas the SBV of Yunnan varieties and the FLV and PeT of Korean varieties were in reverse. PMID:20353061

  10. Comparative cytogenomics of poultry: mapping of single gene and repeat loci in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marla C; Robinson, Charmaine M; Gehlen, Lida P; Delany, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage chromosomes of the three species for the purpose of high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The genes and complexes studied included telomerase RNA (TR), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), 5S rDNA, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA (i.e., nucleolus organizer region (NOR)), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The telomeric profile of Japanese quail was investigated through the use of FISH with a TTAGGG-PNA probe. A range of telomeric array sizes were confirmed as found for the other poultry species. Three NOR loci were identified in Japanese quail, and single loci each for TR, TERT, 5S rDNA and the MHC-B. The MHC-B and one NOR locus were linked on a microchromosome in Japanese quail. We confirmed physical linkage of 5S rDNA and the TR gene on an intermediate-sized chromosome in quail, similar to both chicken and turkey. TERT localized to CJA 2 in quail and the orthologous chromosome region in chicken (GGA 2) and in turkey (MGA 3). The cytogenetic profile of Japanese quail was further developed by this study and synteny was identified among the three poultry species. PMID:24604153

  11. Dietary Korean mistletoe enhances cellular non-specific immune responses and survival of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Ha; Yoon, Taek-Joon; Kim, Jong-Bae; Jang, Yong-Suk; Choe, Chung Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunostimulatory effects of Korean mistletoe extract (KM-110; Viscum album Coloratum) on the non-specific immune response and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Eels were fed under 4 regimes, 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% KM-110 mixed diet. On day 14 after feeding, 15 fish from each group were injected i.p. with live A. hydrophila (3 x 10(6)CFU) and the remaining unchallenged fish from each group were used to study the innate immune response. On 14 days post-infection, the total survival rates were 26.6% in control, and 33.3%, 66.6% and 80% in 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% KM-110-treated groups, respectively. The maximum lysozyme activity was observed in the 1% KM-110-treated group. There was no significant difference of lysozyme activity between 0.1% and 0.5% KM-110 group. Superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production was significantly (p<0.05) augmented in the 0.5% and 1% KM-110 groups compared to the control and 0.1% KM-110 group. No significant difference of (O(2)(-) production was found between 0.5% and 1% KM-110 group. Likewise, there was a significant increase in phagocytic activity in the 0.5% KM-110 group compared with the 0.1% group (p<0.05), but no significant difference between the 0.5% and the 1% KM-110 group indicating that 0.5% KM-110 concentration is suitable for stimulating maximum phagocytic activity resulting in a high amount of ROI production. Considering the present results, KM-110 could be utilized as a promising immunostimulating substance for a diet in aquaculture. PMID:18023593

  12. Classification of rice (oryza sativa l. japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (fkbps, cyps) and expression patterns under water stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. In particular, a number of IMMs relate to environmental stresses. Results FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. 29 FKBP and 27 CYP genes can putatively be identified in rice; among them, a number of genes can be putatively classified as orthologs of Arabidopsis IMMs. However, some genes were novel, did not match with those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and several genes were paralogs by genetic duplication. Among 56 IMMs in rice, a significant number are regulated by salt and/or desiccation stress. In addition, their expression levels responding to the water-stress have been analyzed in different tissues, and some subcellular IMMs located by means of tagging with GFP protein. Conclusion Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice. PMID:21087465

  13. Support for a photoprotective function of winter leaf reddening in nitrogen-deficient individuals of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kaylyn L; Keidel, Timothy S; Pihl, Melissa C; Hughes, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    Plants growing in high-light environments during winter often exhibit leaf reddening due to synthesis of anthocyanin pigments, which are thought to alleviate photooxidative stress associated with low-temperature photoinhibition through light attenuation and/or antioxidant activity. Seasonal high-light stress can be further exacerbated by a limited photosynthetic capacity, such as nitrogen-deficiency. In the present study, we test the following hypotheses using three populations of the semi-evergreen vine Lonicera japonica: (1) nitrogen deficiency corresponds with reduced photosynthetic capacity; (2) individuals with reduced photosynthetic capacity synthesize anthocyanin pigments in leaves during winter; and (3) anthocyanin pigments help alleviate high-light stress by attenuating green light. All populations featured co-occurring winter-green and winter-red leafed individuals on fully-exposed (high-light), south-facing slopes in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Consistent with our hypotheses, red leaves consistently exhibited significantly lower foliar nitrogen than green leaves, as well as lower total chlorophyll, quantum yield efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, and photosynthesis at saturating irradiance (Asat). Light-response curves measured using ambient sunlight versus red-blue LED (i.e., lacking green wavelengths) demonstrated significantly reduced quantum yield efficiency and a higher light compensation point under sunlight relative to red-blue LED in red leaves, but not in green leaves, consistent with a (green) light-attenuating function of anthocyanin pigments. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that intraspecific anthocyanin synthesis corresponds with nitrogen deficiency and reduced photosynthetic capacity within populations, and support a light-attenuating function of anthocyanin pigments. PMID:25372396

  14. Impact and cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive Schistosomiasis japonica control program in the Poyang Lake region of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Zhao, Geng-Ming; Hong, Xian-Lin; Lutz, Eric A; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public-health problem in China. This study evaluated cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive schistosomiasis control program (2003-2006). The comprehensive control program was implemented in Zhangjia and Jianwu (cases); while standard interventions continued in Koutou and Xiajia (controls). Incurred costs were documented and the schistosomiasis comprehensive impact index (SCI) and cost-effectiveness ratio (Comprehensive Control Program Cost/SCI) were applied. In 2003, prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection was 11.3% (Zhangjia), 6.7% (Jianwu), 6.5% (Koutou), and 8.0% (Xiajia). In 2006, the comprehensive control program in Zhangjia and Jianwu reduced infection to 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively; while Koutou and Xiajia had a schistosomiasis prevalence of 3.2% and 13.0%, respectively. The year-by-year SCIs in Zhangjia were 0.28, 105.25, and 47.58, with an overall increase in cost-effectiveness ratio of 374.9%-544.8%. The SCIs in Jianwu were 16.21, 52.95, and 149.58, with increase in cost-effectiveness of 226.7%-1,149.4%. Investment in Koutou and Xiajia remained static (US$10,000 unit cost). The comprehensive control program implemented in the two case villages reduced median prevalence of schistosomiasis 8.5-fold. Further, the cost effectiveness ratio demonstrated that the comprehensive control program was 170% (Zhangjia) and 922.7% (Jianwu) more cost-effective. This work clearly shows the improvements in both cost and disease prevention effectiveness that a comprehensive control program-approach has on schistosomiasis infection prevalence. PMID:24287861

  15. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Schistosomiasis japonica Control Program in the Poyang Lake Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Zhao, Geng-Ming; Hong, Xian-Lin; Lutz, Eric A.; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public-health problem in China. This study evaluated cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive schistosomiasis control program (2003–2006). The comprehensive control program was implemented in Zhangjia and Jianwu (cases); while standard interventions continued in Koutou and Xiajia (controls). Incurred costs were documented and the schistosomiasis comprehensive impact index (SCI) and cost-effectiveness ratio (Comprehensive Control Program Cost/SCI) were applied. In 2003, prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection was 11.3% (Zhangjia), 6.7% (Jianwu), 6.5% (Koutou), and 8.0% (Xiajia). In 2006, the comprehensive control program in Zhangjia and Jianwu reduced infection to 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively; while Koutou and Xiajia had a schistosomiasis prevalence of 3.2% and 13.0%, respectively. The year-by-year SCIs in Zhangjia were 0.28, 105.25, and 47.58, with an overall increase in cost-effectiveness ratio of 374.9%–544.8%. The SCIs in Jianwu were 16.21, 52.95, and 149.58, with increase in cost-effectiveness of 226.7%–1,149.4%. Investment in Koutou and Xiajia remained static (US$10,000 unit cost). The comprehensive control program implemented in the two case villages reduced median prevalence of schistosomiasis 8.5-fold. Further, the cost effectiveness ratio demonstrated that the comprehensive control program was 170% (Zhangjia) and 922.7% (Jianwu) more cost-effective. This work clearly shows the improvements in both cost and disease prevention effectiveness that a comprehensive control program-approach has on schistosomiasis infection prevalence. PMID:24287861

  16. Effects of suspended culture of the seaweed Laminaria japonica aresch on the flow structure and sedimentation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zehua; Huang, Haijun; Liu, Yanxia; Yan, Liwen; Bi, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    The culture of suspended kelp, such as Laminaria japonica Aresch, has arisen in nearshore areas for approximately 30 years since the 1980s. This long-term activity has significant impact on the regional hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments. In this study the impact was investigated, based on synchronized multi-station data from continuous observations made within and around the culture area. In total, three current velocity profiles were identified inside and on the landward side of the culture area. Based on the current velocity profiles we calculated the boundary layer parameters, the fluxes of erosion/deposition, and the rate of sediment transport in different times at each observation site. Comparison between culture and non-culture periods showed that the presence of suspended kelp caused the reduction in the average flow velocity by approximately 49.5%, the bottom friction velocity by 24.8%, the seabed roughness length by 62.7%, and the shear stress and the flux of resuspended sediment by approximately 50%. From analyses in combination with the corresponding vertical variation of the suspended sediment distribution, it is revealed that the lifted sediments by resuspension is mixed with the upper suspended material, which will modify the regional distribution of suspended sediment. These changes in flow structure and sediment movement will accelerate seabed siltation, which corresponds to the changes in seabed erosion/deposition. However, under the influences of the seasonal changes in kelp growth the magnitude of change with the seabed siltation was not obvious inside the culture area, but a fundamental change was apparent around the culture area.

  17. A novel homolog of protein tyrosine kinase Fyn identified in Lampetra japonica with roles in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Song, Xueying; Su, Peng; Li, Ranran; Liu, Chang; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    The non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (nrPTK) Fyn, a member of the avian sarcoma virus transforming gene (Src) kinase family, plays a very significant role in cell growth, survival, apoptosis, tumor formation and immune response. In this study, a homolog of nrPTK Fyn was identified for the first time in the lamprey, Lampetra japonica and was named "Lja-Fyn". The cDNA fragment of lamprey lja-fyn contains a 1611-bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 537 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment analysis showed that it shares four conserved domains (Src homology (SH) 4, SH3, SH2 and protein kinases catalytic domains) and a variable unique domain with vertebrates Fyn molecules. Though Lja-Fyn has high sequence similarity with typical Fyn and Yes molecules of jawed vertebrates, the identities among Lja-Fyn and typical Fyn molecules in unique domain are relatively higher than that among Lja-Fyn and typical Yes molecules. The result indicates that Lja-Fyn is a homolog of Fyn rather than Yes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Fyn, Yes and Src molecules are grouped into three distinct phylogenetic clusters, and Lja-Fyn is grouped as a single branch in Fyn cluster. The real-time quantitative PCR assay revealed the wide distribution of the lja-fyn mRNA in lamprey immune related tissues. After stimulation with mixed antigens, the levels of lja-fyn mRNA were obviously up-regulated in the gill and lymphocyte-like cells, and the similar results were got by western blot analysis of Lja-Fyn protein expression. These results indicated that nrPTK Lja-Fyn was likely to be involved in immune response. Furthermore, our present findings also provide the necessary information for understanding the distinction between lamprey Lja-Fyn and other members of jawed vertebrates in Src family. PMID:26743129

  18. [Genetic basis of immune response of lymphocyte-like cells in the mucosal immune system of Lampetra japonica].

    PubMed

    Xin, Liu; Xueying, Song; Xiaoping, Zhang; Yinglun, Han; Ting, Zhu; Rong, Xiao; Qingwei, Li

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the antigen recognition mechanism based on variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) was found in agnathan lamprey. To illuminate the genetic basis of immune response of lymphocyte-like cells in the mucosal immune system of lamprey and explore the evolutionary relationship of adaptive immune responses between the jawless and jawed vertebrates, we constructed cDNA libraries of lamprey (Lampetra japonica) gills before and after stimulation, and then performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and analysis. Through functional annotation of 88 525 assembled unigenes, 21 704 and 9769 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, respectively. Among 999 unigenes involved in multiple pathways of immune system, 184 unigenes were highly homologous to 51 TCR (T cell receptor) and BCR (B cell receptor) signalling molecules in higher vertebrates, indicating that molecules involved in adaptive immune signalling pathways in higher vertebrates also exist in lampreys. In addition, identification of five VLRA, seven VLRB and four VLRC molecules suggest that at least three types of lymphocyte subsets are distributed in lamprey gill mucosal immune tissues. The results of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that the expression levels of Lck, Fyn and Zap70 were up-regulated after immune stimulation while those of Syk, Btk and Blnk were not changed significantly, indicating the activation of TCR-like signal transduction pathway after antigen stimulation in lamprey gill tissues. Our studies preliminaryly proved that two parallel adaptive immune systems in jawless and jawed vertebrates have common genetic basis, and also provided valuable clues to the exploration of signalling processes of VLRA⁺, VLRB⁺, and VLRC⁺ lymphocyte-like cells in response to antigens. PMID:26582529

  19. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jung; Park, Chae-Won; Kim, Dong-Wan; Park, Hong-Kyu; Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya; Lee, Nam-Sil; Hong, Sun-Mee; Seo, Mi-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2016-07-01

    We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica that was produced in Escherichia coli. Positive hybridomas (clones eFA-C5, eFA-C10, eFA-C11, eFA-C12, eFA-C13, and eFB-C14) were selected by using the eel FSH antigen in ELISA, and anti-eel FSH mAbs were purified from culture supernatants by performing affinity chromatography. Three of the 6mAbs were characterized and their isotypes were identified as IgG2b (eFA-C5 and eFA-C11) and IgG1 (eFB-C14). In western blotting assays, the mAbs recognized the antigen as a 24.3-kDa band, and further detected bands of 34 and 32kDa in the supernatants of CHO cells transfected with cDNA encoding tethered eel FSHβ/α and LHβ/α, respectively. PNase F-mediated deglycosylation of the recombinant proteins resulted in a drastic reduction in their molecular weight, to 7-9kDa. The mAbs eFA-C5 and eFA-C11 recognized the eel FSHα-subunit that is commonly encoded among glycoprotein hormones, whereas eFB-C14 recognized the eel FSHβ-subunit, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining by these mAbs was specifically localized in the eel pituitary. We also established an ELISA system for detecting rec-tethered FSHβ/α and LHβ/α produced from CHO cell lines. Measurement of biological activities in vitro revealed that only weak activity of rec-FSHβ/α was detected. The activity of rec-LHβ/α was found to be increased in a dose-dependent manner for eel oocyte maturation. PMID:27174750

  20. Toxico-pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hamdullah; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2010-09-01

    Fifty female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) at 40 days were divided into five equal groups. Sodium hypochlorite was added in drinking water to provide 0, 25, 50, 200, 400 mg chlorine/L for 6 weeks. At week 7, the chlorine concentration of 25 and 50 mg groups was increased to 100 mg and further increased to 400, 1600 and 6400 mg at weeks 8, 9 and 10, respectively. At the end the experiment (week 10), all the birds were sacrificed. No clinical signs were observed in quail given 50 mg chlorine/L. Quail given 200-400 mg/L chlorine exhibited decreased feed intake, body weight and egg production. In addition, those given 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine also exhibited depression. Decreased hematocrit, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, leukocytes, plasma proteins and globulin were observed at 200 mg/L chlorine and higher concentration. Gross lesions were not observed in quail offered 200-400 mg/L chlorine for 6 weeks; however, those offered 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine exhibited atrophied pectoral muscles, prominently protruding keel bones, decreased weight of ovary and oviduct and a reduction in an area of the different segments of oviduct. The histopathological picture in mucosa of oviduct consisted of degenerated glandular cells. In some cases, glandular tissue was replaced by cord of cells and fibroblast. The present study suggested that sodium hypochlorite in drinking water yielding 50 mg/L chlorine was not toxic for 6 weeks. However, sodium hypochlorite providing 200 mg/L chlorine or higher concentrations in drinking water was toxic to the quail. PMID:20729259

  1. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression, and characterization of HSP90 gene from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zha, Jie; Zhang, Zhenhua; Huang, Hua; Sun, Hongying; Song, Daxiang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2009-07-01

    HSP90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important in the maturation of a broad spectrum of proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, an HSP90 gene designated as EjsHSP90 was cloned and characterized from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica sinensis. The full-length cDNA of EjsHSP90 is 2,517 bp and contains an open reading frame of 2157 bp which encodes a 718 amino acid polypeptide (82.8 kDa) bearing characteristics of the HSP90 family and an ATP binding domain. Sequence alignment shows that EjsHSP90 shared 79%-96% identity with HSP90 sequences reported in other animals, and it shares identical structural features. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR approach was performed to examine the expression profiles of EjsHSP90 mRNA by testing its relative level in three types of tissues at three different developmental stages, respectively. We found that EjsHSP90 is expressed throughout the three developmental stages but expression levels varied among different body parts of crabs. EjsHSP90 mRNA expression in the abdomen of the first crab stage is consistently higher than that of the other two stages, suggesting that EjsHSP90 gene is involved in the crabs' early developmental process, especially in the crab brachyurization process. Results from quantitative RT-PCR excluded the possibility that the expression of EjsHSP90 mRNA is induced primarily by osmotic stress. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that HSP90 gene is informative and complementary for reconstruction of arthropod phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19166961

  2. Assimilation of terrigenous organic matter via bacterial biomass as a food source for a brackish clam, Corbicula japonica (Mollusca: Bivalva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Mizota, Chitoshi; Maki, Yonosuke; Matsumasa, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    Corbicula japonica collected from the Kitakami River estuary, northeastern Japan, showed lower δ34S values in soft-body parts (+1.7 to +11.0‰) than the ambient seawater sulfate sulfur (+21‰), and this value gradually decreased at successive sites up to 15.8 km upstream from the river mouth. Previous study using carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggests that the bivalve nonselectively assimilates particulate organic matter of marine and terrestrial origin by filter feeding. This pattern in δ34S values may indicate a considerable contribution of a food source derived from terrigenous organic matter, which has low δ34S values close to 0‰, and the bivalve has been reported to have cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Unique fatty acids (iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 acids), both characteristic of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in the salt-free, soft-body parts of the bivalve. The concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, possibly derived from bacteria, was also high. Trace amounts of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:5ω3) specific to dinoflagellates were detected. In Corbicula habitats, reductive sandy layers with ample sulfides that were sporadically intercalated into the oxidative sandy sediment were often observed. The stable isotopic signatures of sediment sulfides (acid-volatile sulfide) and associated pore-water sulfates were -8.9 to +8.6‰ and +22.4 to +26.3‰, respectively, indicating the existence of bacterial sulfate-reducing activity and thiobios biomass. These isotopic signatures of the sediment, with the fatty acid composition of the bivalve, confirm the importance of a food source derived from bacteria belonging to the thiobios in the substrate sediments via pedal feeding, rather than direct digestion of terrigenous organic matter, in this estuarine ecosystem.

  3. The effects of five different glycans on innate immune responses by phagocytes of hybrid tilapia and Japanese eels Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Way-Shyan; Hung, Shao-Wen; Lin, Yu-Hsing; Tu, Ching-Yu; Wong, Min-Liang; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Shieh, Meng-Tong

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune responses in hybrid tilapia (Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus) and Japanese eels Anguilla japonica after treatment with five glycans: barley, krestin, MacroGard, scleroglucan, and zymosan. The effects of the glycans on the innate immune responses of the fish were investigated using the phagocytic index (PI), lysozyme activity, complement opsonization, and activation assay. The results of the lysozyme assay demonstrated that the lysozyme activities increased after treatment with glycans. Moreover, based on the PI, treatment with each of the five glycans resulted in increased phagocytic activities in anterior kidney and peripheral blood phagocytes in both tilapia and Japanese eels. The opsonic effect of complement on phagocytosis in tilapia and Japanese eels were investigated using baker's yeast, which served as the activator in the classical complement pathway (CCP) and in the alternative complement pathway (ACP). Tilapia and Japanese eel sera that were treated with glycans greatly enhanced phagocytosis. The classical pathway--hemolytic complement titer (CH50) of Japanese eels treated with glycans was slightly increased in vitro and in vivo. While glycan treatment enhanced the CCP of both species in vitro and in vivo, the alternative pathway-hemolytic complement titer (ACH50) was only increased in vitro and in vivo in glycan-treated tilapia. Thus, it follows that the ACP must have been activated in tilapia treated with glycans. However, in Japanese eels, the ACH50 of the ACP activation assay was undetected in vitro or in vivo due to possible unknown factors in the Japanese eel serum that caused lysis of the rabbit red blood cells. Our study investigated the effects of glycans used to enhance phagocytosis and activate both of the complement pathways involved in stimulating the innate immune responses of Japanese eels and tilapia. PMID:18236632

  4. Cyclically-arranged, storm-controlled, prograding lithosomes in Messinian terrigenous shelves (Bajo Segura Basin, western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Jesús M.; Giannetti, Alice; Monaco, Paolo; Corbí, Hugo; García-Ramos, Diego; Viseras, César

    2014-08-01

    This work focuses on a Messinian shallow-marine terrigenous unit, termed the La Virgen Formation, which forms part of the sedimentary infill of the Bajo Segura Basin (Betic margin of the western Mediterranean). This formation was deposited during a high sea level phase prior to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Stratigraphically, it comprises a prograding stack of sandstone lithosomes alternating with marly intervals (1st-order cyclicity). These lithosomes are characterized by a homoclinal geometry that tapers distally, and interfinger with pelagic sediments rich in planktonic and benthic microfauna (Torremendo Formation). An analysis of sedimentary facies of each lithosome reveals a repetitive succession of sandy storm beds (tempestites), which are separated by thin marly layers (2nd-order cyclicity). Each storm bed contains internal erosional surfaces (3rd-order cyclicity) that delimit sets of laminae. Two categories of storm beds have been differentiated. The first one includes layers formed below storm wave base (SWB), characterized by traction structures associated to unidirectional flows. The second category consists of layers deposited above the SWB, which display typical high regime oscillatory flow structures. The 1st-order cyclicity recorded in the La Virgen Formation corresponds to sapropel/homogeneous marl precessional cycles formed in a pelagic basin context (Torremendo Formation).

  5. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content and resistant starch content based on the pasting properties measured by RVA of Japonica polished rice and starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Katsura, Junji; Kato, Kiyoko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We searched for the easy and simple method to measure the novel indicators which reflect not only AAC, but also (RS) based on pasting properties using RVA. Novel indexes such as SB/Con and Max/Fin (Maximum viscosity/Minimum viscosity) ratios had a very high correlation with proportion of intermediate and long chains of amylopectin; Fb1+2+3 (DP ≧ 13). In Japonica polished rice, estimation formulae for AAC and RS content were developed using novel indexes based on pasting properties by RVA, and these equations showed determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.80 for calibration and 0.71 and 0.75 for validation test. We developed the estimation formulae for AAC and RS content for Japonica starch samples. These equations showed determination coefficients of 0.86 and 1.00 for calibration and 0.76 and 0.83 for validation test, which showed that these equations can be applied to the unknown rice samples. PMID:26399277

  6. Melanogenesis inhibitory and fibroblast proliferation accelerating effects of noroleanane- and oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides from the flower buds of Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Moriura, Toshitsugu; Park, Sunmi; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoe; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-08-24

    A 28-noroleanane-type triterpene oligoglycoside, camellioside E (4), an oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycoside, camellioside F (5), and the known compounds camelliosides A (1) and D (3) were isolated from a 50% EtOH extract of Camellia japonica flower buds from Korea. The principal constituents (1 and 5) significantly inhibited melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Camellioside B (2), a major constituent of C. japonica grown in Japan, showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis [95.0 ± 1.0% (p < 0.01) at 20 μM]. The inhibitory effects of 1, 2, and 5 were stronger than that of the reference compound, arbutin. We believe the melanogenesis inhibitory effects of 2 and 5 are partly related to the proliferation inhibitory effects in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Conversely, camelliosides tended to enhance proliferation in normal human neonatal skin fibroblasts. Interestingly, camellioside B (2) significantly accelerated fibroblast proliferation. This biological selectivity could make camellioside B useful for treating skin disorders. Herein, we report the first scientific investigation of a triterpene that displays an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, but that also has an enhancing effect on fibroblast proliferation. PMID:22834923

  7. Gene expression profiling of flag leaves at the booting stage in the japonica hybrid rice Huayou14 and its parental lines by microarray.

    PubMed

    Huangwei, Chu; Fuan, Niu; Can, Cheng; Jihua, Zhou; Xinqi, Wang; Xiaojin, Luo; Qin, Yuan; Liming, Cao

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiling using microarray has contributed significantly to heterosis studies. Using the Affymetrix rice genome array, we investigated gene expression profiles in the flag leaves of the japonica hybrid rice Huayou14 and its parental cultivars Shen9A and Fan14 at the booting stage. A total of 2057 genes differentially expressed (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5) between Huayou14 and its parents were identified. Functional classification of the differentially expressed genes by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated the differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in photosynthesis-related cellular component categories (e.g. photosystem Ⅰ, chloroplast membrane and chloroplast envelope), and biological process categories (e.g. chlorophyll catabolic, chlorophyll biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic processes). These results suggest that the changes in the photosynthetic ability of the japonica hybrid rice Huayou14 may be related to heterosis. Metabolic pathway analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in photosynthesis-antenna proteins and starch and sucrose metabolic pathways, instead of photosynthesis and carbon fixation pathways as reported previously. These results suggest that different genes or metabolic pathways might contribute to the heterosis of different hybrid combinations. PMID:26399533

  8. Effect of epicuticular wax crystals on the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron carbon-based aerosols on needles of Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Fukahori, Mie; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Wuled Lenggoro, I; Izuta, Takeshi; Funada, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism of adsorption of particles suspended in the gas-phase (aerosol) to the outer surfaces of leaves provides useful information for understanding the mechanisms of the effect of aerosol particles on the growth and physiological functions of trees. In the present study, we examined the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica, a typical Japanese coniferous tree species, by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The clusters (aggregates) of carbon-based particles were deposited on the needle surface regions where epicuticular wax crystals were sparsely distributed. By contrast, no clusters of the particles were found on the needle surface regions with dense distribution of epicuticular wax crystals. Number of clusters of carbon-based particles per unit area showed statistically significant differences between regions with sparse epicuticular wax crystals and those with dense epicuticular wax crystals. These results suggest that epicuticular wax crystals affect distribution of carbon-based particles on needles. Therefore, densely distributed epicuticular wax crystals might prevent the deposition of sub-micron-sized carbon-based particles on the surfaces of needles of Cryptomeria japonica to retain the function of stomata. PMID:27294967

  9. Effect of an escape vent in accordion-shaped traps on the catch and size of Asian paddle crabs Charybdis japonica in an artificial reef area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Chao; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Xiumei

    2016-02-01

    Accordion-shaped traps are widely used in China to catch the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonica but traps of conventional design often catch juvenile crabs. A new type of accordion-shaped trap with an escape vent (L×W=4.3 cm×3.0 cm) was designed and a comparative study between the newly designed and conventional traps was performed in the artificial reef area of Zhuwang, Laizhou Bay, China from June to August 2012. The mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) of undersized crabs was significantly lower in the vented traps than in the conventional traps (paired t -test, n=30, P<0.001), while the CPUE of marketable crabs was significantly higher in the vented traps (paired t-test, n=30, P<0.001). The mean size of crabs (carapace length) caught in the vented traps was significantly larger than in conventional traps (paired t-test, n=29, P<0.001). The ratio of undersized crabs was 35.05±2.57% in conventional traps and 12.53±0.69% in vented traps (significantly lower, paired t-test, n=29, P<0.001). Therefore, a 4.3 cm×3.0 cm escape vent was considered appropriate for C. japonica fishing in the artificial reef area. This finding will assist the development of more sustainable and efficient crab fishing methods using accordion-shaped traps.

  10. Geographic range and structure of cryptic genetic diversity among Pacific North American populations of the non-native amphipod Grandidierella japonica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilgrim, Erik M.; Blum, Michael J.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry, II; Darling, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the invasion history of aquatic invasive species can enhance understanding of invasion risks by recognizing areas most susceptible to invasion and forecasting future spread based on past patterns of population expansion. Here we reconstruct the invasion history of the Japanese amphipod Grandidierella japonica Stephensen 1938 combining information from historical collection data with molecular genetic data to better understand post-invasion range expansion and anthropogenic connectivity across the Pacific coast of North America. Compilation of collection data from bays and estuaries of the Pacific North American coast show many new localities have been colonized in the last two decades, moving outward from harbors and bays with high commercial traffic into smaller coastal locations dominated by local recreational traffic. DNA barcode sequence data for G. japonica reveals two distinct clades: one found in San Francisco Bay and sites to the north, and one also found in San Francisco Bay and sites to the south. The two clades differ by an average 7.28 % genetic distance, large enough to consider these invasive amphipods two separate species. Both northern and southern clades exhibit low levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a single introduction event for each. The presence of cryptic diversity within this invasive amphipod highlights the need for more extensive study of the invasive and native populations of aquatic invasive invertebrates to address questions of taxonomy, diversity, and invasion history.

  11. Comparison of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin between carnivorous crabs (Telmessus acutidens and Charybdis japonica) and their prey mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in an inshore food chain.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Fujita, Tsuneo; Saito, Ken; Watabe, Shugo; Satomi, Masataka; Yano, Yutaka

    2004-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin in two shore crab species, Telmessus acutidens and Charybdis japonica, were compared with the toxin in the prey mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and causative dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense, all having been collected at Onahama, Fukushima Prefecture, in the northern part of Japan. When the toxicities were detected in mussels by mouse bioassays, 73.7% of the sampled T. acutidens were toxic in the hepatopancreas. T. acutidens has been found to become toxic for three years, therefore, it can be concluded that the crab commonly and repeatedly accumulate the toxins via the food chain at Onahama. C. japonica was also expected to be a possible vector species, because small quantities of the toxins were detected in eight specimens of the crab by HPLC analysis. By the comparison of the toxin profiles in the dinoflagellates, mussels and the crab T. acutidens, reductive conversions of GTX1 and GTX4 were observed when the toxins passed through the three species in the food chain. But increases of STX and neoSTX by further reductive process were not observed in the crab. The absence of the STX group toxins in the crab suggests that the crab eliminates the toxin before such reductive process occur. PMID:15109892

  12. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204

  13. Solubility–insolubility interconversion of sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, regulated by the sugar-specific interaction

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, was the first lectin found to show self-aggregation that is dependent on the sugar concentration accompanying the interconversion between solubility and insolubility [Ueno, Ogawa, Matsumoto and Seno (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3146–3153]. The interconversion is regulated by the concentrations of Ca2+ and specific sugars: mannose, glucose or sucrose. The specific glycotopes for sophoragrin were found in the sophoragrin subunit and an endogenous galactose-specific lectin, B-SJA-I (bark S. japonica agglutinin I), and the lectin subunit that binds to the glycotope was identified by photoaffinity glycan probes. Remarkably, the insoluble polymer of sophoragrin is dissociated by interaction with B-SJA-I into various soluble complexes. Based on these results, self-aggregation of sophoragrin was shown to be a unique homopolymerization due to the sugar-specific interaction. An immunostaining study indicated that sophoragrin localizes mainly in vacuoles of parenchymal cells coincidently with B-SJA-I. These results indicate that sophoragrin can sequester endogenous glycoprotein ligands via sugar-specific interactions, thus providing new insights into the occurrence and significance of the intravacuolar interaction shown by a legume lectin. PMID:15222880

  14. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and phylogenetic analysis of a tetraspanin CD82-like molecule in lamprey Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Song, Xueying; Su, Peng; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2016-03-01

    CD82, a member of the tetraspanins, is originally identified as an accessory molecule in T cell activation, and it participates in the formation of immune synapse both in T cells and antigen-presenting cells of jawed vertebrates. In the present study, a CD82 homologous complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence is identified in the lamprey Lampetra japonica. The open reading frame of this sequence is 801 bp long and encodes a 266-amino acid protein. The multialignment of this sequence with several typical CD82s and CD37s of jawed vertebrates shows that it also possesses their conserved four transmembrane domains and a six-cysteine motif Cys-Cys-Gly…Cys-Ser-Cys…Cys…Cys, which is a characteristic motif of CD82 and CD37 vertebrate tetraspanin sequences. Since it is close to CD82s in sequence similarity, we name it as Lja-CD82-like. From the distribution profile of the conserved motifs of CD82-like, CD82, and CD37 molecules from molluscas to mammals, it seems that the CD82s and CD37s evolved from a common ancestral gene through a gene duplication event to their modern forms by a short insertion or substitution approaches. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that CD82 and CD37 molecules of jawed vertebrates originated from a common ancestral gene which is close to agnathan CD82-like and evolved into two distinct paralogous groups maybe after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. An expression vector with trigger factor (TF) was constructed to ensure that Lja-CD82-like express in prokaryotic expression host. The expressions of Lja-CD82-like messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in immune-related tissues of lamprey were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results showed that the mRNA and the protein levels of Lja-CD82-like were significantly upregulated in lymphocyte-like cells, gills, and supraneural myeloid bodies after stimulation with mixed antigens, respectively. Our data provided a foundation for the further study

  15. Eriobotrya japonica Water Extract Characterization: An Inducer of Interferon-Gamma Production Mainly by the JAK-STAT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Matalka, Khalid Z; Abdulridha, Nada A; Badr, Mujtaba M; Mansoor, Kenza; Qinna, Nidal A; Qadan, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Loquat) (EJ) has been used as a medicinal plant to treat chronic bronchitis, coughs, phlegm, high fever and gastro-enteric disorders. Since the traditional use of EJ is related to modulating inflammation processes, our earlier studies on EJ leaves were performed on the water extract to investigate specific cytokines' modulation. These earlier studies, however, have shown that EJ leaf water extract (WE) and the water phase (WP) induce cytokines' production in in vitro and in vivo models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to specify the group(s) of compounds in EJ leaves that have this immunomodulatory activity and their mechanism of action. WE was obtained from boiling the leaves followed by butanol extraction, yielding a butanol-water phase (WP). WP was then subjected to methanol:acetone fractionation, yielding upper (MAU) and lower (MAL) phases. For further fractionation, MAU was subjected to column chromatography followed by elution with ethanol:water (EW), methanol:ethanol (ME) and, lastly, acetone:water (AW), respectively, to reveal three sub-fractions; MAU-EW, MAU-ME and MAU-AW. MAU-AW significantly increased IFN-γ production from unstimulated and stimulated mouse spleen cells, as well as CD3+ T cells and natural killer cells. Furthermore, the fold increase of IFN-γ production by MAU-AW was concentration dependent, higher than the parent extract or any of the other sub-fractions, and such an IFN-γ increase was reversed by two JAK-STAT inhibitors. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the extracts and sub-fractions showed compounds with molecular weights of >500 Daltons. The MAU-AW sub-fraction contained more polar compounds, such as flavonol and caffeic glycosides. In conclusion, these polar compounds in the EJ extract are responsible for inducing IFN-γ production. Further chemical elucidation is warranted to lead to a specific IFN-γ inducer and an immunomodulator in polarizing immune cells and balancing immune

  16. [Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with rice grain shape based on an indica/japonica backcross population].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang-Jie; Liang, Guo-Hua; Chen, Feng; Li, Xin; Tang, Shu-Zhu; Yi, Chuan-Deng; Tian, Shun; Lu, Ju-Fei; Gu, Ming-Hong

    2003-08-01

    Appearance of rice grain represents a major character of rice quality in many rice-producing areas of the world, especially in hybrid rice production in China. In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of the traits that are determinants of the appearance quality of rice grains, including grain length, grain width and grain shape (measured as grain length to grain width ratio). Two typical indica/japonica varieties Balilla and Nantehao(NTH) were selected to construct Balilla/NTH//Balilla backcross population containing 142 individuals. In the population, grain length, grain width and grain shape all conform to the normal distribution with certain transgressive segregation. It can be deduced that all of three traits were controlled by some quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In order to explore the QTLs effect, number and location, a linkage map consisting of 108 SSR markers based on the backcross population was constructed, and QTLs mapping was carried out for grain length, grain width and grain shape. A QTL, qGL-12, was detected for grain length at the interval RM101-RM270 on chromosome 12, its additive effect was 0.26 mm, and can explain 16.7% genetic variation. As for grain width trait, two QTLs were found, qGW-2 located at RM154-RM211 interval on chromosome 2, and qGW-3 at interval RM257-RM175 on chromosome 3, accounting for 11.5% and 16.6% genetic variation, respectively. The alleles at qGW-2 and qGW-3 from parent Balilla can increase grain width by 0.10 mm and 0.12 mm. For grain shape, 3 QTLs, qLW-2, qLW-6 and qLW-7 were found, located on chromosome 2, 6, and 7, respectively. qLW-2 and qLW-7 had positive effect, and they can explain 12.7% and 18.3% genetic variation, while qLW-6 had negative effect and contributed 11.5% genetic variation to the backcross population. The prospects of application of linkage relationship between SSR marker and QTLs in marker based selection (MAS) in rice breeding, and the improvement of grain shape and

  17. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P < 0.05). The highest total coelomocytes counts in coelomic fluid were found in the treatment with 150 mg/kg of dietary NT (P < 0.05). Compared to those fed with the basal diet, sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P < 0.05). Respiratory burst activities in coelomic fluid significantly increased with increasing dietary NT supplementations up to 700 mg/kg (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the activities of superoxide dismutase, total nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase in coelomic fluid were found among all the treatments (P > 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P < 0.05). Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 375 mg/kg NT is able to enhance both non-specific immune response and growth of sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in

  18. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits. PMID:25236465

  19. Characterization of Grain Quality and Starch Fine Structure of Two Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa) Cultivars with Good Sensory Properties at Different Temperatures during the Filling Stage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Lihui; Zhu, Zhengbin; Lu, Huwen; Zhou, Xingzhong; Qian, Yiting; Li, Qianfeng; Lu, Yan; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2016-05-25

    Temperature during the growing season is a critical factor affecting grain quality. High temperatures at grain filling affect kernel development, resulting in reduced yield, increased chalkiness, reduced amylose content, and poor milling quality. Here, we investigated the grain quality and starch structure of two japonica rice cultivars with good sensory properties grown at different temperatures during the filling stage under natural field conditions. Compared to those grown under normal conditions, rice grains grown under hot conditions showed significantly reduced eating and cooking qualities, including a higher percentage of grains with chalkiness, lower protein and amylose contents, and higher pasting properties. Under hot conditions, rice starch contained reduced long-chain amylose (MW 10(7.1) to 10(7.4)) and significantly fewer short-chain amylopectin (DP 5-12) but more intermediate- (DP 13-34) and long- (DP 45-60) chain amylopectin than under normal conditions, as well as higher crystallinity and gelatinization properties. PMID:27128366

  20. Effect of alliums on total lipid in plasma and tissues of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Girish Kumar, V; Surendranathan, K P; Gayathri Devi, D R; Belwadi, M R Sandhya

    2005-02-01

    Dietary onion and garlic caused an increase in the level of liver and plasma total lipids in Coturnix coturnix japonica. This increase could be due to the effect of an increased feed intake, bile production, digestion and absorption that in turn caused an increased utilisation of dietary fat, increased transfer of dietary lipids to the liver and/or due to increased lipogenesis as such. However, there was no increase in the muscle lipid content. This effect in the muscle could be due to inhibitory effect of onion or garlic on lipoprotein lipase activity. Further, the changes in the tissue total lipid level in the control group due to change in age and sex were also observed. PMID:15782822

  1. Inhibitory effects of quercetagetin 3,4'-dimethyl ether purified from Inula japonica on cellular senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyo Hyun; Zhang, Haiyan; Son, Jong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2015-10-01

    Cellular senescence contributes to tissue and organismal aging, tumor suppression and progress, tissue repair and regeneration, and age-related diseases. Thus, aging intervention might be beneficial for treatment and prevention of diverse age-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether four compounds purified from Inula japonica exert inhibitory activity against cellular senescence induced by adriamycin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among them, compound 4 (quercetagetin 3,4'-dimethyl ether) showed inhibitory activity against cellular senescence, which was confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, p53 and p21 protein levels, and intracellular ROS levels. Compound 4 also reduced SA-β-gal activity in HUVECs under replicative senescence. These results suggest that compound 4 represses cellular senescence in HUVECs and might be useful for the development of dietary supplements or cosmetics that alleviate tissue aging or age-related diseases. PMID:25716429

  2. Phylogeny and Differentiation of Wide-Ranging Ryukyu Kajika Frog Buergeria japonica (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae): Geographic Genetic Pattern Not Simply Explained by Vicariance Through Strait Formation.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Atsushi; Matsui, Masafumi; Eto, Koshiro; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-01

    To investigate geographic genetic structures and taxonomic relationships among isolated populations of Buergeria japonica, occurring very widely in various habitats of the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan, we conducted phylogenetic and demographic analyses among individuals from various localities, representing their entire distributional ranges. Buergeria japonica is genetically greatly differentiated and comprises three major clades (the Southern Taiwan [ST] clade, the Northern Taiwan + Southern Ryukyu [NT/SR] clade, and the Central + Northern Ryukyu [CR/NR] clade), each of which seems to represent independent species. The first divergence in the species is estimated to have occurred in the middle to late Miocene in areas of current Taiwan, then eastern periphery of the Asian continent. Split of the ST and the remaining clades, and subsequent divergence between the NT/SR and the CR/NR clades in the latter, indicate consecutive south to north vicariant diversifications. However, these vicariances are not always associated with formation of significant barriers such as deep straits. Less but still prominently diverged subclades (the Amami + Tokara [AM/TK] and the Okinawa [ON] subclades) in the CR/NR clade were recognized in spite of the absence of an intervening deep strait. Contrariwise, individuals from Amami and Tokara Groups formed the AM/TK subclade in spite of the presence of the intervening Tokara Gap (a long-standing deep tectonic strait). Furthermore, in the AM/TK subclade, low but definite genetic divergence was found between the Northern Amami + Tokara (NAM/TK) lineage and the Southern Amami (SAM) lineage. Estimated divergence time and gene flow rate within the NAM/TK lineage indicate that this species reached northern Tokara from the south by overseas dispersal over the Tokara Gap long after its formation, but not by more recent artificial transportation. This overseas dispersal would have been facilitated by its more frequent occurrence around coastal

  3. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. PMID:26506376

  4. Estimation of whole-tree and stand-level methane emissions from the stems of Alnus japonica in a cool-temperate forested peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazawa, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kenji; Sakata, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Ishizuka, Shigehiro

    2016-04-01

    We measured methane (CH4) fluxes at the stem surfaces of canopy trees in a forested peatland of northern Japan to estimate: 1) the CH4 emission rates from the stems of individual trees and 2) the stem CH4 emission rates at the stand level. The study site was located ca. 1 km south of Lake Tofutsu, a brackish lake in eastern Hokkaido. An experimental plot was established in an area dominated by Alnus japonica trees. For seven A. japonica, the stem CH4 fluxes were measured using a static closed-chamber method. Three of the sample trees were used to estimate the whole-tree stem CH4 emissions. The CH4 flux was measured at six heights (0.15 - 5.15 m above the ground at 1 m intervals) on the stem of each tree, using a scaffold constructed beside the tree. The stand-level stem CH4 emissions were estimated from the CH4 fluxes measured 0.15 m above the ground; the relationship between stem height and CH4 flux and the relationship between diameter at breast height and whole-tree CH4 emissions were determined. Stem CH4 emission rates were highest at the lowest measurement position on the stem (height 0.15 m), and decreased with stem height for all measurements. Nevertheless, significant CH4 emissions were detected 5.15 m above the ground. The relationship between stem height and CH4 emissions fit a power function. The estimated CH4 emission rate from the stem surface of an individual tree was 1.91 ± 1.24 and 0.68 ± 0.18 mg tree‑1 h‑1 for late-August and mid-September, respectively. The estimated stem CH4 emissions at the stand level varied seasonally, with the highest rate of 556 mg ha‑1 h‑1 in September.

  5. De novo assembly of the Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) root transcriptome and identification of candidate unigenes related to early responses under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Niu, Jun; Xu, Xilin; Xu, Lixin; Zhang, Yinbing; Fan, Bo; Liang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yin, Shuxia; Han, Liebao

    2015-01-01

    Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is an important warm-season turfgrass that is able to survive in a range of soils, from infertile sands to clays, and to grow well under saline conditions. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its resistance to salt stress. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the changes in gene expression of Zoysia grass at high NaCl concentrations. We first constructed two sequencing libraries, including control and NaCl-treated samples, and sequenced them using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Approximately 157.20 million paired-end reads with a total length of 68.68 Mb were obtained. Subsequently, 32,849 unigenes with an N50 length of 1781 bp were assembled using Trinity. Furthermore, three public databases, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Swiss-prot, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), were used for gene function analysis and enrichment. The annotated genes included 57 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, 120 KEGG pathways, and 24 COGs. Compared with the control, 1455 genes were significantly different (false discovery rate ≤0.01, |log2Ratio |≥1) in the NaCl-treated samples. These genes were enriched in 10 KEGG pathways and 73 GO terms, and subjected to 25 COG categories. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we built a database as a global transcript resource for Z. japonica Steud. roots. The results of this study will advance our understanding of the early salt response in Japanese lawngrass roots. PMID:26347751

  6. Characterization of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and transcriptional analysis of its related genes in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2014-03-01

    Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.

  7. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. PMID:26506376

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 5M gene in Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas) after bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyang; Zhao, Chao; Fu, Mingjun; Bao, Weiyang; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 5M belongs to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, which plays a crucial role in innate immunity due to its important role in the recognition of bacteria invasion and in the activation of immune related pathways downstream. In the present study, we firstly cloned the full-length cDNAs of TLR 5M (LjTLR 5M) from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). The full-length cDNAs of LjTLR 5M include an open reading frame (ORF) of 2676 bp encoding a polypeptide of 891 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that LiTLR 5M contains LRRs (extracellular leucine rich repeats), transmembrane and TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain. Transcriptional expression analysis indicated that LiTLR 5M mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in wide array of tissues and the peak level was observed in the head-kidney. The expression patterns of LjTLR 5M after Vibro harveyi and Streptococus agalactiae infection were detected by qRT-PCR, and the results showed that LjTLR 5M was significant up-regulated in spleen, liver and head-kidney. Additionally, the expression patterns of LjTLR 5M in infected spleen and head-kidney were further validated by in situ hybridization (ISH). In summary, these findings indicate that LjTLR 5M is significant induced after different bacterial infection and is involved in immune response. Furthermore, this study will provide foundational information for other TLRs research of L. japonicas against different bacterial pathogens invasion. PMID:27417233

  9. Effects of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) on DNA damage of the gills, hemocytes and hepatopancreas of marine crab, Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Na; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Jing; Miao, Jingjing

    2011-06-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of heavy metals on the environment. In this study, comet assay and DNA alkaline unwinding assay were conducted on the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas, and hemocytes) of Charybdis japonica in order to illustrate genotoxicity of three heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) on the marine crabs C. japonica. The crabs were exposed to Cu2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg.L-1), Pb2+ (50, 250, and 500 μg L-1) and Cd2+ (5, 25, and 50 μg L-1), and the tissues were sampled at days 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15. DNA alkaline unwinding assay was used for testing the DNA single strand break in gills and hepatopancreas and comet assay was employed for testing the DNA damage in hemocytes. The results showed that the DNA damage ( F-value) of gills in the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals was decreased gradually during the exposure periods and there was a dose-time response relationship in certain time, suggesting that the levels of DNA single strand break in all the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the controls. Changes of F-value in hepatopancreas of the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals were similar to those in gills except that the peak values were found in the 500 μg L-1 Pb2+ treatment group at day 3 and the 50 μg L-1 Cd2+ treatment group at day 9. The ranks of DNA damage in gills and hepatopancreas induced by the three heavy metal ions (50 μg L-1, day 15) were Cd2+ >Pb2+ >Cu2+ and Pb2+ >Cu2+ >Cd2+. The levels of DNA damage in gills were higher than those in hepatopancreas in the same experimental group. It can be concluded that indices of DNA damage can be used as the potential biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in marine environment.

  10. Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Longfei; Xu, Yajun; Lai, Xin-He; Shan, Changjuan; Deng, Zhenshan; Ji, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four