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  1. Jeddah Historical Building Information Modeling "JHBIM" Old Jeddah - Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, A.; Boehm, J.; Robson, S.

    2013-07-01

    The historic city of Jeddah faces serious issues in the conservation, documentation and recording of its valuable building stock. Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Architectural Photogrammetry have already been used in many Heritage sites in the world. The integration of heritage recording and Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been introduced as HBIM and is now a method to document and manage these buildings. In the last decade many traditional surveying methods were used to record the buildings in Old Jeddah. However, these methods take a long time, can sometimes provide unreliable information and often lack completeness. This paper will look at another approach for heritage recording by using the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling (JHBIM).

  2. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of

  3. MERS-CoV in a healthcare worker in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: an index case investigation.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, S; Abdraboh, S; Palma, R; AlSharif, H; Assiri, N

    2016-07-01

    In September 2015, a confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was diagnosed in a healthcare worker in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Given the absence of confirmed MERS cases in Jeddah at the time, an epidemiological index case investigation took place. The investigation identified a probable source of an index case who had been in hospital in Jordan in August 2015 while there was an ongoing MERS outbreak and who then subsequently sought medical care in Jeddah. PMID:27210272

  4. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  5. Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  6. Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Saud, M.

    2011-12-01

    As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

  7. Development of a coastal information system for the management of Jeddah coastal waters in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerle, R.; Al-Subhi, A.; Fernández Jaramillo, J.; Salama, A.; Bruss, G.; Zubier, K.; Runte, K.; Turki, A.; Hesse, K.; Jastania, H.; Ladwig, N.; Mudarris, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a web-based information system, Jeddah CIS, for assisting decision makers in the management of Jeddah coastal waters, in Saudi Arabia. The system will support coastal planning, management of navigation and tackle pollution due to accidents. The system was developed primarily to nowcast in quasi-real time and to deliver short-term forecasts of water levels, current velocities and waves with high spatial and temporal resolution for the area near Jeddah. Therefor it will hasten response when adverse weather conditions prevail. The Jeddah-CIS integrates sensors transmitting in real time, meteorological, oceanographic and water quality parameters and operational models for flow and waves. It also provides interactive tools using advanced visualization techniques to facilitate dissemination of information. The system relies on open source software and has been designed to facilitate the integration of additional components for enhanced information processing, data evaluation and generation of higher water level, current velocity and wave for the general public. Jeddah-CIS has been operational since 2013. Extensions of the system to speed operations and improving the accuracy of the predictions to the public are currently underway.

  8. Evaluation of Land Cover Features over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. R.; Lim, H. S.; Hassan, Faez M.; Jafri, M. Z. Mat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land cover mapping over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia using ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite image and to determine which classifier is suitable for that area which surrounded by desert terrain. The image was captured on 27 June 2008. Standard supervised classification method which is Maximum Likelihood Classifier was applied to the imageries to extract the spectral information from acquired scene. Besides, the advance classification method which is Neural Network Classification also conducted in this study. Then, the results from both classifiers will be compared and the discussion about it will be done. Training sites were selected using polygon and land cover classes were assigned to each classifier. Accuracy assessment was carried out to compute the probability of error for the classified map. A total of 250 random samples were chosen for accuracy assessment. Finally, land cover map over Jeddah was generated and the best classifier was determined.

  9. Trabasa - Traditional Architecture Recorded by Means of Building Archaeology in Saudi Arabia: Workshop in Jeddah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Aydın, G.

    2013-07-01

    Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

  10. Barriers Facing Primary Health Care Physicians When Dealing with Emergency Cases in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aloufi, Majed A.; Bakarman, Marwan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of emergency cases reporting to Primary Health Care centers (PHC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to explore the barriers facing PHC physicians when dealing with such emergency cases. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study, where all physicians working in the PHC of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Jeddah; were invited to participate (n=247). The study period was from July 2013 till December 2013. Data were collected through two sources. 1- A self-administered questionnaire used to determine the physicians’ perceived competence when dealing with emergency cases. 2- A structured observation sheet used to evaluate availability of equipment, drugs, ambulances and other supporting facilities required to deal with emergency cases. Results: The response rate was 83.4%. The physicians’ age ranged between 25 and 60 years with a mean ±SD of 34.4±7.5 years. Majority of them (83.5%) did not attend ATLS courses at all whereas 60.7% never attended ACLS courses. The majority (97.1%) had however attended BLS courses. Physicians in the age group 36-45 years, non-Saudi, those who had SBFM, those who reported experience in working in emergency departments and physicians who reported more working years in PHCCs (>5 years) had a significant higher score of perceived level of competence in performing emergency skill scale than others (P<0.05). The prevalence of emergency cases attending PHC in Jeddah (2013) was 5.2%. Conclusion: Emergency services at PHC in Jeddah are functioning reasonably well, but require fine tuning of services and an upgrade in their quality. PMID:27045411

  11. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed. PMID:27366765

  12. Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome at Tertiary Care Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Deborah L.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Abdel Aziz, Inas Zakaria A.M.; Alkhaldi, Khulud Z.; Bensadek, Areej T.; Alraddadi, Basem M.; Jokhdar, Hani; Jernigan, John A.; Garout, Mohammed A.; Tomczyk, Sara M.; Oboho, Ikwo K.; Geller, Andrew I.; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    During March–May 2014, a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak occurred in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included many persons who worked or received medical treatment at King Fahd General Hospital. We investigated 78 persons who had laboratory-confirmed MERS during March 2–May 10 and documented contact at this hospital. The 78 persons with MERS comprised 53 patients, 16 healthcare workers, and 9 visitors. Among the 53 patients, the most probable sites of acquisition were the emergency department (22 patients), inpatient areas (17), dialysis unit (11), and outpatient areas (3). Infection control deficiencies included limited separation of suspected MERS patients, patient crowding, and inconsistent use of infection control precautions; aggressive improvements in these deficiencies preceded a decline in cases. MERS coronavirus transmission probably was multifocal, occurring in multiple hospital settings. Continued vigilance and strict application of infection control precautions are necessary to prevent future MERS outbreaks. PMID:27089550

  13. Numerical simulation diagnostics of a flash flood event in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Ahmad

    On 26 January 2011, a severe storm hit the city of Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The storm resulted in heavy rainfall, which produced a flash flood in a short period of time. This event caused at least eleven fatalities and more than 114 injuries. Unfortunately, the observed rainfall data are limited to the weather station at King Abdul Aziz International airport, which is north of the city, while the most extreme precipitation occurred over the southern part of the city. This observation was useful to compare simulation result even though it does not reflect the severity of the event. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) developed at Colorado State University was used to study this storm event. RAMS simulations indicted that a quasi-stationary Mesoscale convective system developed over the city of Jeddah and lasted for several hours. It was the source of the huge amount of rainfall. The model computed a total rainfall of more than 110 mm in the southern part of the city, where the flash flood occurred. This precipitation estimation was confirmed by the actual observation of the weather radar. While the annual rainfall in Jeddah during the winter varies from 50 to 100 mm, the amount of the rainfall resulting from this storm event exceeded the climatological total annual rainfall. The simulation of this event showed that warm sea surface temperature, combined with high humidity in the lower atmosphere and a large amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) provided a favorable environment for convection. It also showed the presence of a cyclonic system over the north and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, and a subtropical anti-cyclone over Northeastern Africa that contributed to cold air advection bringing cold air to the Jeddah area. In addition, an anti-cyclone (blocking) centered over east and southeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Arabian Sea produced a low level jet over the southern

  14. Isolation and Characterization of NDM-Positive Escherichia coli from Municipal Wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Al-Jassim, Nada; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over a 1-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 10(4) to 10(5) copies/m(3) of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of sequence type 101 (ST101), from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater represents a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli strain isolated from a nonnosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia and may set a priority concern for the need to establish improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions. PMID:27324770

  15. Isolation and Characterization of NDM-Positive Escherichia coli from Municipal Wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Al-Jassim, Nada

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over a 1-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies/m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of sequence type 101 (ST101), from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater represents a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli strain isolated from a nonnosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia and may set a priority concern for the need to establish improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions. PMID:27324770

  16. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years) and the oldest age group (40–49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. PMID:26990176

  18. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects. PMID:24568491

  19. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among medical students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Zakai, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage status among medical students during their clinical rotations. Methods: This cross-sectional study detected the prevalence of MRSA among medical students at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using molecular approaches. Nasal swabs were collected from 150 internship and sixth-year medical students between September 2014 and January 2015, and compared with the control group of 32 third-year medical students who were not exposed to clinical work. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening was performed to identify Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nuc gene, and an additional PCR was performed on S. aureus positive samples to detect the presence of mecA gene. Results: Out of 150 students screened, 38 were nasal carriers of S. aureus. The prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) carriers was 18.7% (n=28), whereas 10 students (6.7%) were mecA-positive, representing MRSA carriers. Interns carry MRSA more than 6th year students and students who were not exposed to clinical work (p<0.05), while MSSA is found more in students who were not exposed to clinical work (p<0.01). Conclusion: We found MRSA carriers among medical students at KAU, which showed a possible contribution of this group to transmit infection to hospitalized patients. Medical students must receive sufficient knowledge regarding control measures to avoid spread of this infection in hospitals. PMID:26108584

  20. Learning strategies of medical students in the surgery department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Hasan A; Alzahrani, Owiss H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify medical students’ perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS) of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM), in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify students’ perceptions of their learning in the DOS of the KAU-FoM. A questionnaire was administered to a random group of 549 medical students, to explore student perceptions of their learning strategies including methods of learning and learning resources. Results The majority believed that clinical session attendance is always important compared with lectures (88.9% vs 21.9%). Nevertheless, clinical sessions were selected as the third source of learning after learning from assigned textbooks and previous examination model answers. The majority (74.1%) believed that self-instruction at home is the preferred method of learning. Conclusion Student perspectives should be taken into consideration prior to any future reforms of curriculum. Reforms should adopt a “think globally; act locally” educational strategy based on learner needs. PMID:23762005

  1. Perceptions and knowledge regarding antimicrobial stewardship among clinicians in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harthi, Sameer E.; Khan, Lateef M.; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M.; Alim, Mai A.; Saadah, Omar I.; Almohammadi, Abdulrehman A.; Khan, Faheem M.; Kamel, Fatemah O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the perceptions, attitude, and prescribing practices of clinicians regarding antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: A multidisciplinary cross-sectional study comprising 447 clinicians of university, public, and private hospitals of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was carried out from August to October 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Interestingly, 33% of the general physicians yielded to patient/parent’s demand for the choice of antimicrobials (AMs) as compared with only 13.2% of the residents, and 4.3% of the specialists. In addition, expensive AMs are more often prescribed by the general physician (70.4%) in comparison with 26.4% residents and 30.4% of the specialists. However, no significant differences were observed between the knowledge and perceptions regarding the current scope of AM agents, as well as their use and misuse. Furthermore, dependability of specialist and residents seems to be significantly higher than general physicians on pocketbooks and smartphone for AM education sources. Conclusion: This study revealed that despite a clear concept of AMR, general physicians lacks consistency in prescribing aptitude and use of effective educational resources, while all respondents lacks dedication to follow the guidelines of AM use. This highlights the requirement of AM stewardship with decisive objective of reduction in AMR. PMID:26108585

  2. Total fume and metal concentrations during welding in selected factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder's health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers' welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m(3) (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m(3) (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m(3) (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m(3)-0.477 mg/m(3), 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.080 mg/m(3) and 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.058 mg/m(3) respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems. PMID:20717553

  3. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A.; Aref, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances. PMID:24596500

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome among nurses working in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Al-Bloushy, Randa Ibrahim; Sait, Salma Hani; Al-Azhary, Hatoon Wahid; Al Bar, Nusaybah Hussain; Mirdad, Ghazal A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that can cause disability and economic burden. Nurses are a vital part of the medical team and their well-being is an important issue. Yet, few studies have been done concerning IBS among nurses. Objectives To determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of IBS among nurses working at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 229 nurses who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. They were selected by stratified random sampling during 2014–2015. A validated, confidential, self-administered data collection sheet was used for collection of personal and sociodemographic data. Rome III Criteria, IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were done. A multiple logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictors of IBS. Results The prevalence of IBS among nurses was 14.4%, and IBS-Mixed type was the commonest variety (54.5%). Positive family history of IBS, working in outpatient clinics, having day shift, poor sleep quality, and high anxiety and depression scale scores were significantly associated with IBS. After controlling for confounding factors in regression analysis, the predictors of IBS were food hypersensitivity (aOR=4.52; 95% CI: 1.80−11.33), morbid anxiety (aOR=4.34; 95% CI: 1.49–12.67), and positive family history of IBS (aOR=3.38; 95% CI: 1.12–13.23). Conclusion The prevalence of IBS was 14.4%. Food hypersensitivity, morbid anxiety, and family history were the predictors of IBS. Screening and management of IBS, food hypersensitivity, and psychological problems among nurses are recommended. PMID:27032964

  5. Enabling Factors and Teacher Practices in Using Technology-Assisted Project-Based Learning in Tatweer Schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal, Abdulrahman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher practices of enabling factors in the implementation of technology-assisted PBL, in Tatweer schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study also explored how the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) National Education Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS.T) were used in Tatweer…

  6. Organohalogenated contaminants in type 2 diabetic serum from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadeem; Rajeh, Nisreen; Wang, Wei; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Kumosani, Taha A; Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ismail, Iqbal M I

    2016-06-01

    Most of the organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) have high environmental stability and are lipophilic in nature, thus bioaccumulate through the various routes e.g., inhalation, dermal contact and food intake. Human exposure to these OHCs can induce adverse health effects. Studies on the occurrence of OHCs in human samples from Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at providing preliminary insight on the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in diabetic and non-diabetic donors from KSA. Serum samples were collected from type 2 diabetic patients (n = 40) and control donors (n = 20) to study the impact of OHCs on their health. For the first time we studied the difference of ƩOHCs in type 2 diabetic and control participants. The order of obtained results was ƩOCPs (35-650 ng/g lw)> ƩPCBs (15-90 ng/g lw)> ƩPBDEs (1.5-68 ng/g lw). The major contributors were p,p'-DDE (median 44 ng/g lw), PCB 153 (2.3 ng/g lw), PCB 138 (2.1 ng/g lw), BDE 153 (1.2 ng/g lw) and BDE 47 (0.85 ng/g lw). Exposure to different OHCs between male and female donors was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, ƩPCBs and ƩOHCs were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in diabetic donors than those of control group. We computed significantly positive correlations (p < 0.05) among different OHCs and between OHCs and age factor. The current study highlights the presence of different OHCs in humans from Jeddah, KSA. This is a preliminary study based on small sample size but our results suggested that detailed studies are required to understand the sources of these pollutants and their impact on human health. PMID:26897296

  7. Online Search Service at the King Abdulaziz University Library, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marghalani, Mohammad Amin; Hafez, Abdulrashid A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of the online search service at a university in Saudi Arabia which used personal interviews and questionnaires to evaluate the demand from faculty in different institutions and departments and to discover which subjects were requested the most. Guidelines for improvements to the service are proposed. (Contains seven references.)…

  8. Urinary biomarkers of exposure to 57 xenobiotics and its association with oxidative stress in a population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Xue, Jingchuan; De Carvalho, Bruno Pereira; Iyer, Archana; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Yaghmoor, Soonham Sami; Kumosani, Taha Abdullah; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress arises from excessive free radicals in the body and is a trigger for numerous diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Elevated exposure to environmental chemicals can contribute to oxidative stress. The association between exposure to xenobiotics and oxidative stress, however, has rarely been studied. In this study, urinary concentrations of 57 xenobiotics (antimicrobials, parabens, bisphenols, benzophenones, and phthalates metabolites) were determined in a population from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to delineate association with the oxidative stress biomarker, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHDG). We collected 130 urine samples and analyzed for 57 xenobiotics using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods. The association between unadjusted and creatinine- or specific gravity-adjusted concentrations of xenobiotics and 8OHDG was examined by Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis. High concentrations of mCPP (a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate; DnOP) and mCMHP (a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate; DEHP) were found in urine. In addition, the concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) were higher than those of bisphenol A (BPA). The concentrations of metabolites of DEHP, phthalic acid, BPA, BPS, and methyl-protocatechuic acid were significantly associated with 8OHDG. This is the first biomonitoring study to report exposure of the Saudi population to a wide range of environmental chemicals and provides evidence that environmental chemical exposures contribute to oxidative stress. PMID:26654562

  9. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan) among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5%) reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal) 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal) 80.9%. One third (31.2%) indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2%) of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes. PMID:21831261

  10. The Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Adult Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- A Community-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bahijri, Suhad M.; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Ferns, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. Materials and Methods A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes employing American Diabetes Association criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with T2DM. Results Age and sex standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 9.0% (95% CI 7.5–10.5); 9.4% (7.1–11.8) in men and 8.6% (6.6–10.6) in women. For DM it was 12.1% (10.7–13.5); 12.9% (10.7–13.5) in men and 11.4% (9.5–13.3) in women. The prevalence based on World Population as standard was 18.3% for DM and 11.9% for prediabetes. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes increased with age. Of people aged ≥50 years 46% of men and 44% of women had DM. Prediabetes and DM were associated with various measures of adiposity. DM was also associated with and family history of dyslipidemia in women, cardiovascular disease in men, and with hypertension, dyslipidemia and family history of diabetes in both sexes. Discussion Age was the strongest predictor of DM and prediabetes followed by obesity. Of people aged 50 years or over almost half had DM and another 10–15% had prediabetes leaving only a small proportion of people in this age group with normoglycemia. Since we did not use an oral glucose tolerance test the true prevalence of DM and prediabetes is thus likely to be even higher than reported here. These results demonstrate the urgent need to develop primary prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27035920

  11. Temporal variations of O3 and NOx in the urban background atmosphere of the coastal city Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, M. A.; Khoder, M.; Harrison, Roy M.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Goknil, M. H.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Hämeri, K.

    2014-09-01

    Ozone is a pollutant of major concern because of its well recognized effects upon human health and crop yields. This study analyses in depth a new dataset for ozone from Jeddah, a coastal city in Saudi Arabia within the Middle Eastern region, for which very few ozone data are currently available, collected between March 2012 and February 2013. The measurements presented include NO, NO2 and ozone as well as relevant meteorological variables. The data show a marked seasonal variation in ozone with highest concentrations in the summer months and lowest average concentrations in the winter. Concentrations also show a substantial difference between weekdays and weekends, with higher NO and NO2 on weekdays, but lower concentrations of ozone. Plots of total oxidant versus NOx concentration indicate background concentrations of ozone (at zero NOx) ranging from 38.2 ppb in January to 59 ppb in May consistent with the northern hemisphere spring maximum in ozone concentrations. The slope of total oxidant/NOx varies from 0.13 in March to 0.68 in August. The two summer months of July and August are anomalous with slopes of around double that of other months, suggesting a higher efficiency of ozone production at lower primary pollutant concentrations arising from much reduced daytime traffic. A substantial weekend/weekday difference in ozone which is higher at weekends appears to be attributable to lower daytime traffic activity and hence reduced emissions of NOx to a “NOx-saturated” atmosphere.

  12. Mineralogical variations in the unconsolidated sediments of El Qasr reef, north of Jeddah, west coast of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga Prasada Rao, N. V. N.; Behairy, A. K. A.

    Carbonate mineralogy of El Qasr reef sediments, north of Jeddah on the west coast of Saudi Arabia, was studied by X-ray analysis. Although the mineralogical composition varies only little, there are significant differences in the proportions of aragonite and high Mg-calcite between the environments. Lagoon sediments, which contain relatively more fine-grained material, are characterized by higher aragonite concentrations than the reef flat sediments. Decreasing grain size and increasing aragonite contents towards the centre of the lagoon suggest a transport of aragonitic mud from the shallow reef flat to the lagoon. The amount of fine fraction and occasionally the nature of the coarse fraction rather than the sand-sized skeletal material controls the aragonite concentrations in the reef sediments. Low Mg-calcite, which occurs in minor quantities and is erratically distributed in the reef sediments, is derived from the Pleistocene coral limestone in the coastal plain. Aragonite abundances in the sediments may be considered to delineate lagoon and reef flat environments in a coral reef complex.

  13. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadeem; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Malarvannan, Govindan; Kadi, Mohammad W; Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem; Rehan, Mohammad; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Different flame retardants (FRs) namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging brominated/chlorinated flame retardants (Br/Cl FRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) were analyzed in cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and floor dust of different households from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To the best of our knowledge, this is first study in literature reporting emerging Br/Cl FRs and OPFRs in AC filter dust and also first to report on their occurrence in dust from KSA. Chlorinated alkyl phosphate, penta-BDEs, BDE-209, and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the major chemicals in dust samples from all microenvironments. ΣOPFRs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g dust) of 15,400, 10,500, and 3750 in AC filter, car and house floor dust, respectively. For all analyzed chemicals, relatively lower levels were observed in floor dust than car and AC filter dust. The profiles of FRs in car dust were different from AC filter and floor dust, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticizer in variety of household and commercial products. For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values. PMID:27343946

  14. Using geographical information systems for defining the accessibility to health care facilities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Murad, Abdulkader A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial data play an important role in the planning of health care facilities and their allocation. Today, geographical information systems (GIS) provide useful techniques for capturing, maintaining and analysing health care spatial data; indeed health geoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses innovative geospatial technology to investigate health issues. The purpose of this paper is to define how GIS can be used for assessing the level of accessibility to health care. The paper identifies the advantages of using GIS in health care planning and covers GIS-based international accessibility with a focus on GIS applications for health care facilities in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A geodatabase that includes location of health services, road networks, health care demand and population districts was created using ArcGIS software. The geodatabase produced is based on collected data and covers issues, such as defining the spatial distribution of health care facilities, evaluating health demand types and modelling health service areas based on analysis of driving-time and straight-line distances. PMID:25599637

  15. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PMID:24634602

  16. Measurements of ambient air lead concentrations in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Ahmed, M.; Mousli, K.M.; Erturk, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in six different locations in the Jeddah urban area by atomic absorption spectrometry. Correlations between the air-Pb data and traffic density were investigated. The lead concentration values obtained for the ambient air in Jeddah City ranged from 0.19 {mu}/m{sup 3} to 1.27 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Comparison with ambient air quality standards from other countries indicates that certain areas in this city are approaching these guideline values.

  17. Investigation of anti-middle East respiratory syndrome antibodies in blood donors and slaughterhouse workers in Jeddah and Makkah, Saudi Arabia, fall 2012.

    PubMed

    Aburizaiza, Asad S; Mattes, Frank M; Azhar, Esam I; Hassan, Ahmed M; Memish, Ziad A; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Lattwein, Erik; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel, potentially zoonotic human coronavirus (HCoV). We investigated MERS-CoV antibodies using a staged approach involving an immunofluorescence assay (IFA), a differential recombinant IFA, and a plaque-reduction serum neutralization assay. In 130 blood donors sampled during 2012 in Jeddah and 226 slaughterhouse workers sampled in October 2012 in Jeddah and Makkah, Saudi Arabia, 8 reactive sera were seen in IFA but were resolved to be specific for established HCoVs by discriminative testing. There is no evidence that MERS-CoV circulated widely in the study region in fall 2012, matching an apparent absence of exported disease during the 2012 Hajj. PMID:24218504

  18. Bacteria and Nutrients in the Obhur Recreational Sharm, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Adnan; Mudarris, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution that render waters along the recreational shore unsatisfactory for use by the general public has become a global health problem. This study was carried out to examine the marine waters in sampling stations located at Sharm Obhur (North of Jeddah). These parameters included: total coliform (TC), l fecal coliform (FC) and nutrients (NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P). A comparison of the mean values of nutrients in Sharm Obhur with those of other locations in the Red Sea suggests that the mean levels of nutrients were similar to those of unpolluted areas. TC and FC counts were higher at the north sampling stations than the south ones, and with little variations between their numbers. FC was not recovered at stations to the south. The study shows that TC and FC counts at all sampling stations similar to the levels reported for normal unpolluted sea water. Keywords: Pollution, Nutrients, Coliforms, Sharm Obhur, Red Sea.

  19. Genotoxicity of Air Borne Particulates Assessed by Comet and the Salmonella Mutagenicity Test in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    ElAssouli, Sufian M.; AlQahtani, Mohamed H.; Milaat, Waleed

    2007-01-01

    Fine airborne respirable particulates less than 10 micrometer (PM10) are considered one of the top environmental public health concerns, since they contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air. The objective of this study is to assess the genotoxicity of the ambient PM10 collected at 11 urban sites in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The PM10 extractable organic matter (EOM) was examined for its genotoxicity by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay and the Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames) test. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify 16 PAH compounds in four sites. Samples from oil refinery and heavy diesel vehicles traffic sites showed significant DNA damage causing comet in 20–44% of the cells with tail moments ranging from 0.5–2.0 compared to samples from petrol driven cars and residential area, with comet in less than 2% of the cells and tail moments of < 0.02.In the Ames test, polluted sites showed indirect mutagenic response and caused 20–56 rev/ m3, mean while residential and reference sites caused 2–15 rev /m3. The genotoxicity of the EOM in both tests directly correlated with the amount of organic particulate and the PAHs concentrations in the air samples. The PAHs concentrations ranged between 0.83 ng/m3 in industrial and heavy diesel vehicles traffic sites to 0.18 ng /m3 in the residential area. Benzo(ghi)pyrene was the major PAH components and at one site it represented 65.4 % of the total PAHs. Samples of the oil refinery site were more genotoxic in the SCGE assay than samples from the heavy diesel vehicles traffic site, despite the fact that both sites contain almost similar amount of PAHs. The opposite was true for the mutagenicity in the Ames test. This could be due to the nature of the EOM in both sites. These findings confirm the genotoxic potency of the PM10 organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed. PMID:17911660

  20. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PATIENT's CARE DURING CONSULTATION IN MINISTRY OF HEALTH FACILITIES, JEDDAH CITY, SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Balbaid, Omar M.; Al-Dawood, Kasim M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the factors affecting health care and patient's satisfaction during the consultation. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire form on a random sample of outpatient clinic attendants. Setting: The Outpatient Department clinics at King Fahad and King Abdulaziz Hospital in addition to eleven Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Jeddah. Subjects: A sample of 340 subjects attending clinics of two hospitals and eleven PHCCs. Methods: Direct interviewing of subjects using a structured questionnaire was carried out. Information collected was basic demographic data regarding satisfaction with aspects of outpatient health care. Results: The rate of patients’ satisfaction in all facilities was 76.5% with no significant variation between hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers. The study showed aspects of poor patient care, such as short consultation time and incomplete physical examination of patients. Other factors correlated with mean consultation time and completeness of physical examination were stressed. Conclusion: There was a low rate of patients’ satisfaction in all Ministry of Health (MOH) facilities studied. Aspects related to patient care need to be improved. Practical recommendations on this were stressed PMID:23008565

  1. Difficulties faced by family physicians in primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mumenah, Sahar H.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the difficulties faced by family physicians, and compare how satisfied those working with the Ministry of Health (MOH) are with their counterparts who work at some selected non-MOH hospitals. Methods: An analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC), and 40 MOH primary health care centers across Jeddah. A structured multi-item questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and information on the difficulties family physicians face. The physicians’ level of satisfaction and how it was affected by the difficulties was assessed. Results: Women constituted 71.9% of the sample. Problems with transportation formed one of the main difficulties encountered by physicians. Compared to non-MOH physician, a significantly higher proportion of MOH physicians reported unavailability of radiology technicians (P = 0.011) and radiologists (P < 0.001), absence of the internet and computer access (P < 0.001), unavailability of laboratory services (P = 0.004), reagents (P = 0.001), X-ray equipment (P = 0.027), ultrasound equipment (P < 0.001), an electronic medical records system (P < 0.001), insufficient laboratory tests (P = 0.0001), and poor building maintenance (P < 0.001). Family physicians with the MOH were less satisfied with their jobs compared with non-MOH physicians (P = 0.032). Conclusion: MOH family physicians encountered difficulties relating to staff, services, and infrastructure, which consequently affected their level of satisfaction. PMID:26392794

  2. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

  3. The Effect of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life of Women at Childbearing Age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bakarman, Marwan A; Al-Ghamdi, Sadiah Saeed

    2016-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among women of childbearing age at Maternity and Children's Hospital (MCH), Jeddah, 2012, and to assess its impact on the quality of their life. A cross-sectional analytic approach was carried out among women of childbearing age seen at MCH, Jeddah. Systematic random sampling technique was followed. Each woman fulfilling the inclusion criteria was invited to enroled in the study, the inclusion criteria were women aged 15-50 years, agreed to participate in the study, the exclusion criteria were pregnant women and patients who are seriously ill. Self-administered questionnaire using the King's Health Questionnaire was utilized to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of patients with UI. Out of 1200 patients attending the gynecology clinic in the MCH, 412 (34.3%) were diagnosed as having UI. Their age ranged between 15 and 50 years with a mean of 34.3 ± 7.2 years. Almost 50% indicated that UI affected them badly as wife, mother, their emotions, and their physical and social activities. The most commonly occurring problems were frequent micturition (88.3%), nocturnal enuresis (87.9%). The least occurring, were kidney problems (38.6%) and dripping during sexual activities (40.8%). Increasing age and higher parity were significantly associated with limitations in different life domains. Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing for Saudi women. It adversely impaired their quality of life. PMID:26383213

  4. The Effect of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life of Women at Childbearing Age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bakarman, Marwan A.; Al-Ghamdi, Sadiah Saeed

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among women of childbearing age at Maternity and Children’s Hospital (MCH), Jeddah, 2012, and to assess its impact on the quality of their life. A cross– sectional analytic approach was carried out among women of childbearing age seen at MCH, Jeddah. Systematic random sampling technique was followed. Each woman fulfilling the inclusion criteria was invited to enroled in the study, the inclusion criteria were women aged 15-50 years, agreed to participate in the study, the exclusion criteria were pregnant women and patients who are seriously ill. Self-administered questionnaire using the King’s Health Questionnaire was utilized to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of patients with UI. Out of 1200 patients attending the gynecology clinic in the MCH, 412 (34.3%) were diagnosed as having UI. Their age ranged between 15 and 50 years with a mean of 34.3 + 7.2 years. Almost 50% indicated that UI affected them badly as wife, mother, their emotions, and their physical and social activities. The most commonly occurring problems were frequent micturition (88.3%), nocturnal enuresis (87.9%). The least occurring, were kidney problems (38.6%) and dripping during sexual activities (40.8%). Increasing age and higher parity were significantly associated with limitations in different life domains. Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing for Saudi women. It adversely impaired their quality of life. PMID:26383213

  5. The 3d Documentation of Projected Wooden Windows (the Roshans) in the Old City of Jeddah (saudi Arabia) Using Image-Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alitany, A.; Rebondo, E.; Adas, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Roshan represents one of the most characteristic aspects of traditional architecture in Hejaz (Saudi Arabia) and a frequent feature in most of the Historical Jeddah's heritage buildings. The old city has witnessed continued degradation recently, which has caused the loss its traditional architecture and hundreds of these projected wooden windows. Documentation is a major step towards heritage preservation, whether threatened by man-made or natural factors. However, due to the absence of specialists and experts an architectural database of the Roshans does not exist. Surveying these architectural elements is a very laborious and difficult process when using conventional methodologies including the laser sensors approach mainly due to the onsite limitations. Establishing an architectural database of the Roshans is the main objective in this research paper, based on the continuous development of data capture and modelling methodologies that allows the accurate recording of even the most complex and intricate details and patterns which are typically found in Roshans. Recent advances in image based techniques (digital close-range photogrammetry and computer vision) such as the semi-automated solutions of Dense Stereo Matching (DSM) and 3D modelling software has offered an accurate, inexpensive and practical solution to surveying, documenting and reconstructing these architectural heritage features. In this paper the application of these methods is tested and evaluated on the Roshans in the old city of Jeddah.

  6. Opportunities for Environmental Noise Mapping in Saudi Arabia: A Case of Traffic Noise Annoyance in an Urban Area in Jeddah City.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    As the traffic and other environmental noise generating activities are growing in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), adverse health and other impacts are expected to develop. The management of such problem involves many actions, of which noise mapping has been proven to be a helpful approach. The objective of the current study was to test the adequacy of the available data in KSA municipalities for generating urban noise maps and to verify the applicability of available environmental noise mapping and noise annoyance models for KSA. Therefore, noise maps were produced for Al-Fayha District in Jeddah City, KSA using commercially available noise mapping software and applying the French national computation method "NMPB" for traffic noise. Most of the data required for traffic noise prediction and annoyance analysis were available, either in the Municipality GIS department or in other governmental authorities. The predicted noise levels during the three time periods, i.e., daytime, evening, and nighttime, were found higher than the maximum recommended levels established in KSA environmental noise standards. Annoyance analysis revealed that high percentages of the District inhabitants were highly annoyed, depending on the type of planning zone and period of interest. These results reflect the urgent need to consider environmental noise reduction in KSA national plans. The accuracy of the predicted noise levels and the availability of most of the necessary data should encourage further studies on the use of noise mapping as part of noise reduction plans. PMID:27187438

  7. Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among University students’ and their knowledge and attitude towards risk factors of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Gari, Mamdooh A; Al-Attallah, Haidar G; Al-Jedaani, Khaled S; Mesawa, Amjad TA; Al-Hazmi, Abdulrahman A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among University students’ and their knowledge and attitude towards risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Jeddah,: Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 610 male students were selected for present cross sectional study and their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) was determined, other data was gathered through a questionnaire, and SPSS-16 was used for analyzing data. Results: Out of 610 students, 7.5% were hypertensive (systolic 2.6% and diastolic 6.3%) while the BMI of 51.6% was in the normal range, 29.8% were overweight and 10.7% were moderately obese and 7.9% were severely obese. Majority of the participants considered that smoking, increased fatty food intake, obesity, high BP, and increased LDL-cholesterol level, are the main causes of the CVD. Most of the participants agreed that one should know his BP, blood sugar, serum cholesterol and one should maintain normal body weight and should do regular exercise. They were also aware that healthy lifestyle could prevent CVD. However, majority of the participants were not practicing healthy lifestyle. Conclusion: A huge gap exists in the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding risk factors of CVD among the university students. PMID:26430410

  8. Integration Of Three Dimensional Data From Unkown Origin On the Example Of A Traditional Residential Building In Al-Balad, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, U.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Rasztovits, S.

    2014-05-01

    3D Laser scanning technology gained more and more importance for the recording and documentation of architectural heritage. Especially for the survey of heterogeneous surfaces and complex structures it is a fast and reliable option for survey and so appreciated sources for research in architecture. Therefore the integration of laser scanning as a part of the building survey became a kind of standard procedure for objects of different scale, shape, age and origin. In some cases more than one team records an object with different devices using altering approaches. For example a client provides existing data from a part of the object that can't be accessed anymore, but is important to be integrated into the overall survey. The merging of the datasets may become challenging, especially if one survey is not documented in detail, in particular when it comes to the quality of the result. For a research about the traditional architecture of Saudi Arabia a building in the historic part of Jeddah has been surveyed in detail by a team of researchers of the Vienna University of Technology. Within this frame a workshop for students of the King Abdul Aziz about building archaeological research has been conducted. As part of the results consists of two sets of laserscan data, recorded with different laser scanners. Using these data a possible approach for the registration of scan data from different and/or unknown provenance has been developed which will be outlined in this paper.

  9. The influence of microbial mats on the formation of sand volcanoes and mounds in the Red Sea coastal plain, south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taj, Rushdi J.; Aref, Mahmoud A. M.; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Extensive areas covered by microbial mats have been found in the upper intertidal flats and supratidal pools in the Red Sea coastal plain of south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Numerous microbially controlled sediment-surface morphologies are evident, such as flat cohesive mats that commonly pass into mats with wrinkles, reticulates, and tufts, together with erosion pockets and mat chips. These microbial mats form cohesive surface layers that lead to biostabilization of the sediment surface. Fluidization of the underlying sediments is due to tidal influences and pressurized gas escape from decay and photosynthesis of microbial mats and causes deformation and rupture of the cohesive surface mat layer via vertical and sub-vertical pipes. Extrusion of fluidized sediments and water through these pipes leads to redeposition of sediment grains above the surface mat layer to form sand volcanoes and mounds. Most of the sand volcanoes present in the intertidal flats and supratidal pools show a symmetrical morphology, whereas in tidal channels asymmetrical forms are more common. Extrusion of underlying sediments through several adjacent vents leads to coalescence of sand volcanoes to form sand mounds. In this study sand volcanoes are also compared with other cone-like features from the Red Sea, such as gas domes and crab mounds. This comparison should help in differentiating similar cone-like features associated with microbial mats in the rock record.

  10. Opportunities for Environmental Noise Mapping in Saudi Arabia: A Case of Traffic Noise Annoyance in an Urban Area in Jeddah City

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    As the traffic and other environmental noise generating activities are growing in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), adverse health and other impacts are expected to develop. The management of such problem involves many actions, of which noise mapping has been proven to be a helpful approach. The objective of the current study was to test the adequacy of the available data in KSA municipalities for generating urban noise maps and to verify the applicability of available environmental noise mapping and noise annoyance models for KSA. Therefore, noise maps were produced for Al-Fayha District in Jeddah City, KSA using commercially available noise mapping software and applying the French national computation method “NMPB” for traffic noise. Most of the data required for traffic noise prediction and annoyance analysis were available, either in the Municipality GIS department or in other governmental authorities. The predicted noise levels during the three time periods, i.e., daytime, evening, and nighttime, were found higher than the maximum recommended levels established in KSA environmental noise standards. Annoyance analysis revealed that high percentages of the District inhabitants were highly annoyed, depending on the type of planning zone and period of interest. These results reflect the urgent need to consider environmental noise reduction in KSA national plans. The accuracy of the predicted noise levels and the availability of most of the necessary data should encourage further studies on the use of noise mapping as part of noise reduction plans. PMID:27187438

  11. Prevalence of First Permanent Molar Caries in and Its Relationship to the Dental Knowledge of 9–12-Year Olds from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H. M.; Ahmad, Mohammad Sami

    2012-01-01

    The carious status of the first permanent molar (FPM) was studied in 432 school children (aged 9–12 years) from a randomly selected primary schools from Sharfia area of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 108 children from each age group of 9, 10, 11, and 12 years old. In total, 24.5% had all of their FPMs sound and 6% had all FPMs carious. The prevalence of four sound FPMs varied according to age with the highest (33%) amongst the nine-year olds and the lowest (16.5%) in the oldest children (12 years). Almost one-third (32.5%) of the children, who knew the age of eruption of the FPMs, had all of their molars sound. The children who had received advice regarding oral hygiene from a dentist or parent had more sound FPMs compared to the children who did not receive any advice. The number of carious FPMs increased with age. The prevalence of caries of the FPM was high and increased with increasing age. The level of knowledge had a positive correlation with the caries levels amongst this cohort of scholars. PMID:22461990

  12. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts. PMID:26497939

  13. Dew Incidence: a Field Study (related to Corn) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with Comparisons to a Similar Experiment in Texas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amodi, Ahmad Osman

    An experiment was designed, assembled and carried out at the Hada Al-Sham Experimental station in the dry western part of Saudi Arabia, to procure dew duration data at two different heights in a corn canopy, from the time of emergence (average plant heights about 30 cm) until harvest time (average height about 230 cm). Micrometeorological, together with canopy and additional environmental measurements, were taken to deduce the latent heat flux involved in dew onset and dry-off. The micrometeorological measurements included leaf and air temperatures, relative humidity, net radiation, wind speeds and direction, while other observations included canopy heights, leaf width, leaf area index (LAI), soil temperature, soil moisture, and dew duration. The energy balance approach (Penman-Monteith), along with boundary layer resistance theory around the leaf surface, were used to estimate the latent heat flux involved in the dew process. It was found that at the beginning of the season dew usually started to form on the lower part of the canopy at an average of three hours before it started to form in the upper part. On the other hand, as the canopy reached the mature stage, dew formation on the upper part of the canopy started an average of two hours before it started to form on the lower part. It took averages of one hour and an hour and half after sunrise, for the lower and upper part of the canopy to dry-off respectively. A linear regression analysis of the latent heat and environmental variables showed high correlations with net radiation, leaf and air temperatures, relative humidity, soil temperature at 2cm depth from top of the furrow at both canopy heights for the whole growing season, whereas wind speed showed high correlation for the upper part of the canopy only. It is suggested that many more studies are necessary to increase understanding of the dew process but less comprehensive instrumentation would probably be adequate.

  14. Frequency and risk factors of musculoskeletal pain in nurses at a tertiary centre in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal complaints are an important occupational problem; nevertheless, few studies have targeted nurses in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among nursing personnel at a tertiary centre in Jeddah. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was performed in which full-time registered nurses from four different departments (n = 200) were selected for analysis between September 1, 2011 and February 29, 2012. Musculoskeletal symptoms over the past year were assessed using the Nordic Standardised Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. In addition to demographic questions, the researcher evaluated employment history, physical risk factors at work, and general health status. Results In this study, approximately 85% of the nurses reported experiencing at least one musculoskeletal symptom. Musculoskeletal symptoms occurred most commonly in the lower back (65.7%), ankles and feet (41.5%), and shoulders (29%). Prolonged working hours and being underweight were significantly associated with the development of these symptoms (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.24-10.79, P = 0.018, and OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.37-5.93, P = 0.004, respectively). Working in the surgical department was a greater risk factor for low back pain compared with working in other departments. Conclusions WMSDs are common among our nurses, and back pain is the most common symptom. As prolonged working hours and being underweight were factors that contributed most to WMSDs, decreasing shift durations or offering nutrition educational programmes may be suitable solutions. However, further studies are required to examine the best modality for decreasing the occurrence of WMSDs. PMID:24460669

  15. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education

  16. Degrees of Reciprocity of Peer Acceptance Among High School Students of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. An Occasional Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouj, Abdullah M.; And Others

    Researchers have been interested in studying the correlates and reciprocity of peer acceptance across various cultures. Tenth grade students in a Saudi Arabian suburban high school completed social desirability scales to examine the relationship between the acceptance of class members by individual students and the acceptance of individual…

  17. Aedes mosquito species in western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Masroor; Al Ghamdi, Khalid; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:25373216

  18. Determination of 40K, 232Th and 238U activity concentrations in ambient PM2.5 aerosols and the associated inhalation effective dose to the public in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Aburas, Hani M; Abdulsalam, Mohammed I

    2014-03-01

    Natural radioactivity of soil samples has been studied in many countries of the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia. Radiological indices based on soil radioactivity have been widely used in these studies. However, there are no available data about natural radioactivity of fine aerosol particles in such countries. The objective of this study is to determine the activity concentrations of (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U in airborne PM2.5 and the associated internal inhalation radiation dose to the public in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-four air samples in four locations throughout Jeddah were collected and analyzed for PM2.5 and the associated K, Th and U. The activity concentrations of the isotopes (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were calculated. High atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations (mean: 50.81 ± 34.02 μg/m(3)) were found. The natural radioactivity associated with PM2.5 due to the isotopes (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were 301.8 ± 76.1, 11.8 ± 4.2 and 10.8 ± 3.4 Bq/kg, respectively, and the Raeq was calculated as 44.9 ± 14.0 Bq/kg. The inhalation annual effective radiation dose to the public due to natural isotopes of the airborne PM2.5 was in the range 15.03-58.87 nSv/year, depending on the age group. Although these dose values were associated with the PM2.5 fraction only, they were higher than the world references values in air reported in the UNSCEAR, 2000 report. PMID:24462924

  19. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  20. Update: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

    A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

  1. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... mission will include appointments, briefings and a networking reception in Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia... will reach $173 by 2014, as personal computer (PC) penetration rises to more than 30%. The number of... networking reception. U.S. participants will be counseled before and after the mission by the...

  2. Health Education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  3. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  5. Social Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jabr, Soliman M.

    1990-01-01

    Reveals some cultural aspects of Saudi Arabian Islamic society and the role social studies education plays in it. States that the National Council for the Social Studies in Saudia Arabia stipulates general social studies goals and allows teachers to make specific behavioral goals. Concludes that Saudi Arabian schools are becoming more modern. (GG)

  6. Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871

  7. Sensitivity of a regional climate model on the simulation of high intensity rainfall events over the Arabian Peninsula and around Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour

    2011-05-01

    As a step towards the adoption and use of the regional climate model (RegCM3) for the simulation of intense rainfall events over the Arabian Peninsula, this study examines its sensitivity to domain size, boundary location, forcing fields, and resolution. In the climatological results, RegCM3 performs well in reproducing the annual and the seasonal mean precipitation as well as the contrast between wet and dry years in terms of the amounts and locations of the rainbands. In addition, simulations are performed for two cases of intense rainfall events in the Jeddah area and surroundings using a combination of three domains and two boundary forcings at 50 km. The results show that different combinations of these parameters provide different skills for the regional model. However, RegCM3 performs relatively better when ERA40 (NNRP2) is used at the boundaries in the smaller domain (larger domain), indicating the importance of the stronger (relatively weaker) influence of boundary forcing needed to capture these intense rainfall events around Jeddah. This may be explained by the fact that around that region, RegCM3 produces, in the smaller domain, higher relative humidity and stronger wind vectors closer to the reanalyses when nested within the ERA40, while it shows its best performance with the larger domain when driven by NNRP2. It is also shown that the use of high resolution does not systematically improve the simulation of such events, although some encouraging results were produced.

  8. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kear, Benjamin P; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A; Matari, Adel H; Al-Massari, Abdu M; Nasser, Abdulaziz H; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

  9. First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Halawani, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (∼75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids – this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

  10. Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

  11. Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…

  12. Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

  13. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  14. Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah

    1986-01-01

    The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)

  15. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2016-07-01

    Organ transplantation started in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 1979 with a kidney transplanted from a live donor. The Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation has been established in 1985 as a governmental agency that supervises all national transplant activities in the KSA. Organ transplantation in the KSA has made great strides since 1985. Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation is playing a central role in all aspects of transplantation including education on all levels, allocation, coordination and procurement. A new initiative has started an ambitious program in 2014 to improve the identification and reporting of organ donors aiming at an annual rate of 15 donors per million populations within 3 years in the KSA. PMID:27326805

  16. Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

  17. Health Education in Saudi Arabia: Historical overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-08-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  18. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  19. A cyclone over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Mujumdar, M.; Behera, S. K.; Ohba, R.; Yamagata, T.

    2006-06-01

    A shallow and short-lived subsynoptic cyclone is discussed as one of typical events causing natural disasters over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002 using the Japan Meteorological Agency global analysis dataset. The main cause for its formation was vorticity stretching. On the same day widespread rainfall over Saudi Arabia with enhanced precipitation over the mountainous Jeddah region was also observed using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project dataset. Owing to eastward-moving wintertime synoptic-scale Mediterranean disturbances, this rainfall was associated with frontal activity, modified by the local orography.

  20. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  1. Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

  2. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  3. Promoting health education and public awareness about dengue and its mosquito vector in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Al Thabiani; Al-Shami, Salman A; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-01-01

    Currently, dengue fever is considered as the main health problem in several parts (Mekkah, Jeddah, Jazan and Najran) of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious ineffectiveness in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. Several suggestions and recommendations were highlighted here to ensure effectiveness in the future control and management programs of dengue mosquito vector in KSA. PMID:25403705

  4. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor’s degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor’s degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor’s degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities. PMID:26157276

  5. Precipitation Patterns Observed over the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael

    2010-05-01

    During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.

  6. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

  7. English Language Teaching Profile: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Saudi Arabia are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) English outside the education system; (4) materials support; (5) British support for the teaching of English; and (6) English syllabi at intermediate, secondary, and higher education levels.…

  8. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  9. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

  10. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  11. Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1985-06-01

    Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from

  12. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  13. Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

    1981-07-01

    Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  14. NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Myers, Daryl R. [NREL; Al-Abbadi, Naif [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite; Wilcox, Steve [NREL

    Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

  15. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  16. The epidemiology of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alhaeli, Alaa; Bahkali, Salwa; Ali, Anna; Househ, Mowafa S; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients. PMID:26106040

  17. Awareness regarding childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459

  18. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

  19. Susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tolah, Ahmed M.; Azhar, Esam I.; Hashem, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the sensitivity of circulating influenza viruses in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs); mainly, zanamivir and oseltamivir. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between September 2013 and October 2014. All samples were tested prospectively by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses. Positive samples were then inoculated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and isolated viruses were examined for their sensitivity to NAIs using fluorescent neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: Out of 406 tested samples, 25 samples (6.2%) were positive for influenza A/pdmH1N1 virus, one sample (0.25%) was positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus, and 7 samples (1.7%) were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus. Screening of isolated influenza A and B viruses (9 out of 33) for their sensitivity to NAIs showed no significant resistance to available NAIs. Conclusion: Our results show that circulating influenza viruses in Jeddah are still sensitive to NAIs. PMID:27052292

  20. Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

  1. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  2. Domestic water conservation potential in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.

    1990-03-01

    Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.

  3. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Amoudi, Abdullah S; Albar, Mohammed H; Bokhari, Amjed M; Yahya, Sultan H; Merdad, Anas A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR’s policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients’ dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. PMID:27051329

  4. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for

  5. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to ‘try them’ (51.9%) and ‘to get energy’ (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

  7. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

  8. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  9. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  10. Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althubaiti, Alaa; Alkhazim, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128…

  11. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant. PMID:18754211

  12. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Conclusion: Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers’ awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications. PMID:25737176

  13. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

  14. Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5

  15. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  16. Natural dicrocoeliasis in imported sheep, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abu Zinada, N Y

    1999-08-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a common liver fluke of sheep and other herbivorous animals. Examination of imported sheep showed 40% in Somalian sheep, 26% in Turkish and 2% in native breed sheep. The results were discussed with stress on epidemiology. PMID:10605513

  17. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate. PMID:19032779

  18. Stigmatization of persons with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Abdallah M

    2010-10-01

    Data about the stigmatization of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Recent statistics from Saudi Ministry of Health showed that 77% of HIV-positive Saudis were males. The present study analyzed data from 162 Saudi male college students. The findings suggest that students who knew less about HIV/AIDS were more likely to stigmatize persons living with HIV/AIDS than those who knew more. Neither degree of religiosity nor worry about HIV infection was related to AIDS stigma. However, AIDS-related shame was the best predictor of AIDS stigma. The findings of this study point to important suggestions for AIDS prevention programs in Saudi Arabia. PMID:20592063

  19. Prevalence and socioeconomic determinants of dental sealant use among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Agili, D E; Niazy, H A; Pass, M A

    2012-12-01

    There are no published research reports on the prevalence of dental sealant use in children in Saudi Arabia. This study determined the prevalence and socioeconomic indicators of dental sealant use on the permanent molars of a stratified random sample of schoolchildren in Jeddah. A basic oral screening survey of students was conducted by dentists and a self-administered questionnaire was completed by parents. The prevalence of dental sealant use among 1668 3rd and 8th grade students was 9.0%. Students who attended public schools and those who had fathers with lowerthan high-school education were less likely to have sealants. A stepwise logistic regression model showed that socioeconomic status of school district, family's monthly income, family's type of home, having medical insurance and receiving government financial support were significantly associated with sealant use. Efforts to increase sealant use and to reduce socioeconomic disparities appear warranted in the light of high rates of dental disease. PMID:23301395

  20. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of δ18O and δD are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed δ18O and δD values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of δ-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory

  1. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  2. Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001). Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001). Conclusion Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. PMID:25278788

  3. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with coronary artery disease in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Alsharif, Muath A.; Albanji, Mohammed H.; Baabbad, Murad S.; Almotary, Haneen M.; Alama, Nabil; Mimish, Layth; Alsulami, Adil; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and coronary artery disease (CAD), few studies have investigated this issue in Saudi Arabia. Objectives This study aimed to identify the prevalence of OSA among CAD patients. Subjects and methods This was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from April 2012 to December 2013. All consecutive patients referred to the cardiac catheterization lab for coronary angiography who exhibited evidence of CAD were included in this study. This study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, each participant was interviewed individually. The administered interview collected data pertaining to demographics, comorbidities, and the STOP-BANG questionnaire score. The second stage of this study consisted of a diagnostic overnight polysomnography (PSG) of 50% of the subjects at high risk for OSA according to the STOP-BANG questionnaire. Results Among the patients with CAD (N = 156), 128 (82%) were categorized as high risk for developing OSA. PSG was conducted on 48 patients. The estimated prevalence of OSA in the study sample was 56.4%. Approximately 61% of the documented sleep apnea patients suffered from moderate to severe OSA. Conclusion This local study concurs with reports in the literature indicating that OSA is very common among CAD patients. PMID:26557740

  4. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A. M.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7 % of males and 4.3 % of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6 % and 6.1 % respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90 %), and many eat fish at restaurants (65 % and 48 %, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

  5. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

  6. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  7. Electronic Lab Information Exchange (ELIE) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Saleem, Nouf; El Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Saudi experience in implementing Electronic Lab Information Exchange (ELIE) within healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia. This paper reviews the benefits, challenges and achievements that Saudi Arabia has gone through over the last five years in implementing ELIE. Data sources included academic literature, websites, and informant interviews. Results show that various Saudi healthcare organizations are participating in ELIE and improvements in laboratory department workflow and patient care have been reported. Future work includes projects to be implemented in different laboratories within the Kingdom to link the various laboratory information systems to Electronic Health Records. Various challenges stand in the way of implementing ELIE including weakness of the information infrastructure, staff resistance, recruiting qualified staff to develop and implement ELIE, producing clear policy and procedures to ensure staff compliance with the data entry, ensuring the privacy and integrity of patient data, and the lack of awareness on the importance of ELIE. PMID:25000034

  8. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Background: International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Objective: To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Results: Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Conclusions: Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region. PMID:24454274

  9. Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

    With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

  10. Pharmacy Curriculum and Health Care Needs in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sowaygh, Ibrahim A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Based on recognized health care needs, a curriculum revision was undertaken at the College of Pharmacy at Saudi Arabia's University of Riyadh. The revised curriculum included a unified basic health sciences core program for Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Medical Sciences. (Author/MLW)

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

    2013-01-01

    The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838

  12. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  13. Pre-Vocational Preparation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with few exceptions, occupational specialization programs for male students first become available at the secondary level (grades 10-12). Education is not compulsory, and substantial numbers drop out at all levels. Adolescents who leave school at the primary (elementary) or intermediate (grades 7-9) level must wait…

  14. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  15. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  16. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  17. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  18. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  19. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  20. Guidelines for Prospective EFL Teachers in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Constance Boerner

    Orientation materials for prospective teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries contains information about factors affecting EFL teaching in the classroom. Topics discussed include religion, family, politics, education, English-Arabic language differences, teaching approaches, and the…

  1. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  2. Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

  3. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  4. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  5. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce, International...

  6. Factors that influence women's nutrition knowledge in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A A; Hassan, S A

    1994-01-01

    We studied knowledge of nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation in 150 pregnant Saudi women at three primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used an interview schedule to collect data regarding the women's knowledge and to determine the effects of certain independent variables on the knowledge scores. Green et al.'s (1980) PRECEDE model provided the theoretical framework for the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data. The majority of the women had poor nutrition knowledge scores, with no significant differences among the three centers. A positive relationship was found between knowledge score and educational level. Negative relationships were found between knowledge score and number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and number of living children. The findings have several implications for efforts to improve the health status of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8002417

  7. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. PMID:23966783

  8. Nursing: Attitudes, perceptions and strategies for progress in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C L; Gary, R

    1991-07-01

    Western countries are experiencing a nursing shortage which will impact on future nurse manpower supply in Saudi Arabia because the Kingdom is dependent on expatriate nurses. The young people of Saudi Arabia are the Kingdom's most valuable resources but are reluctant to enter nursing. Therefore, a random survey was administered to 1,131 secondary and university students to determine attitudes and general knowledge of Saudi nationals toward the health care system, perceived role of the nurse and recommendations for improving Saudization of the nursing profession. The majority of those surveyed preferred hospitalization within the Kingdom with Saudi nationals delivering the nursing care rather than expatriates. The nurse was perceived as being a caring person who was responsible for giving more than custodial care. Moreover, the role of the nurse was perceived as an extension of the physician with little or no role in disease detection and prevention. The low image and status of nursing, traditional and social values were identified as major inhibiting factors that affect the Saudi nationals' reluctance to enter nursing. Increasing financial rewards, utilizing the media and segregation of hospitals into male and female were the most frequently cited recommendations to promote Saudization of nursing. Data from this study provided insight into the current perception of nursing as a potential career for Saudi nationals and could provide direction for future concerns in the development of nursing in the Kingdom. PMID:17590766

  9. The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Almalki, Shaia S; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%]) was higher than in women (162 cases [38%]), and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52%) than for women (23%). In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ≥60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths), followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths) and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths). The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%), followed by Medinah (36%) and Najran (33%). MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20%) and high temperature (15°C–35°C). Conclusion MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25187734

  10. Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, Roula

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

  11. Obesity and public health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Erica; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Khwaja, Haider; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are now a global epidemic, with more than one in five people qualifying as obese worldwide. These conditions are accompanied by excessive rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) related to overweight, like type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Saudi Arabia, which has become increasingly westernized over the past few decades now has one of the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity, even in children. This puts the population at great risk for increased rates of NCD mortality. Competing cultures is partly to blame, as the combination of persisting traditional Saudi cultural practices, modern cultural changes, and economic prosperity has created an obesogenic environment that promotes unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyles, and weight gain. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent in Saudi women than in Saudi men. Interventions targeting the environment are needed in order to promote greater health through healthy eating decisions and increased physical activity or exercise (especially for women). PMID:26351801

  12. Challenges in building health surveillance systems in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Saleem, Nouf; Househ, Mowafa; El Metwally, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aiming to briefly discuss the role of health surveillance system in strengthening public health at both the local and global level and the use of health informatics in effectively creating a database of health status for the population of Saudi Arabia. This review will specifically focus on the challenges that face the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in order to effectively implement surveillance programs making use of advances in health information technology. Data collection was performed through a web-based retrieval of reports and articles and via an interview with an epidemiologist in the Saudi Ministry of Health Surveillance unit. Based on the results of this research, it was found that the use of technology has led to an improvement in communication between various stakeholders (e.g. clinicians, epidemiologists, and decision makers) by providing timely and accurate information needed for informed decision making. However, implementing an ideal model of surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia faces many challenges particularly in training healthcare providers to be qualified and competent enough to ensure the successful implementation of a disease surveillance system. PMID:25000066

  13. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    PubMed

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

  14. A needs assessment survey of dental public health graduate education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) is planning to develop a master’s program in dental public health (DPH). To develop a curriculum for this program, a needs assessment was conducted in order to identify the level of DPH expertise that currently exists in Saudi Arabia, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to explore current perceptions regarding this type of program. Methods A competency-based survey instrument was administered to private and government affiliated dental practitioners in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and competencies in DPH were assessed. In addition, questions were submitted that addressed preferred strategies of teaching, curriculum delivery methods, course content, and prerequisites for DPH. These data were combined with data previously collected from dentists holding academic positions at KAU (n = 146) and were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System version 9.3 software. Mean values and frequencies were calculated for the study variables. Proportional odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated to assess differences in educational preferences and DPH competencies according to age, gender, and qualification. Results Most of the participants (95%) reported a need for a DPH graduate program. The respondents had a basic knowledge of DPH and moderate experience in DPH competencies. A variety of preferred educational strategies and methods were identified and differences in educational preferences according to age, gender, and qualification of the respondents were identified. The responses obtained also acknowledged skills and competencies that the participants considered most important for a DPH practice and that would be important for students accepted into a DPH graduate program. Conclusions This needs assessment survey represents a preliminary step in establishing a DPH graduate program that addresses current gaps in knowledge and in the practice of public health

  15. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C

    1987-06-01

    The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099

  16. Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the maximum-likelihood and thresholding statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock-types can be discriminated.

  17. Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

  18. Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

  19. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Molecular epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Results Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. Conclusions This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest

  1. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  2. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S.

    2010-07-07

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  3. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60. Conclusion: University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance. PMID:27279515

  4. Sea level changes in Sharm Abhur Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia, as Revealed from Seismic Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Abd, Yakout; Awad, Morad

    High resolution seismic profiling has been carried out along Sharm Abhur (a tidal creek), north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using a high resolution seismic refraction profiling system. A chronogram illustrating corresponding Holocene relative sea level changes was constructed. Since 16,750 yr. B.P. Sharm Abhur had been subjected to four stages of relative transgressions. The first one started at about 92.5 m below present sea level. A relative stillstand occurred between 12,500-11,000 yr. B.P. about 50 m below present sea level. An anomalous body is observed near the mouth of the Sharm which is believed to be uplifted between 13,250 and 12,500 yr. B.P.

  5. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Nizar, F. Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined. PMID:27052287

  6. Linking Organizational Health in Jeddah Secondary Schools to Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqarni, Saleh Ali Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess organizational health (OH) in secondary schools in Jeddah district in Saudi Arabia. A second aim of the study was to compare the organizational health of these schools according to their rankings on student achievement tests, school type and the nature of the respondents' work. The Organizational Health Inventory (OHI),…

  7. Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

  8. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...

  9. Vocational Education to Meet the Needs of a Changing Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Faced with sizable oil revenues and the need and desire to expand and diversify its industrial potential, Saudi Arabia is improving its vocational training efforts and attempting to involve as many of its citizens in vocational training programs as possible. At present, Saudi Arabia is having to import skilled workers to keep up with necessary…

  10. National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashmi, Mahmud S.

    Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

  11. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Yusuf A.; van der Merwe, Johannes H.; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

  13. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  14. Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Pitkanen, J; Al-Qattan, M M

    2001-06-01

    The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries. PMID:11348747

  15. Patients’ attitudes towards the participation of medical students in clinical examination and care in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljoudi, Sarah B.; Alsolami, Somayah S.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Alsaywid, Basim; Abuznadah, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Patients are essential for the acquisition and development of medical students clinical skills for their tasks. The study aimed to identify factors that influence patients’ attitudes towards the involvement of medical students in clinical examination and care in Western Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire was conducted among Saudi and non-Saudi patients at two university hospitals in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Information sought included demographic characteristics (age, gender, educational level, job, income, and marital status); patients’ attitude and comfort level towards different types of students’ involvement; factors influencing patients’ cooperation with medical students (students’ level of training, manner, skills, and attire. All these were assessed on a five-point Likert scale. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS v 19. Results: Four hundred and seventeen adult patients participated. Fifty-one percent indicated a positive attitude towards involving medical students in clinical examination and care. Female and young patients (<45 years old) were more likely to be negative in their attitude and be less comfortable towards involving medical students in their care. The highest overall mean comfort score was with medical students taking history followed by observations and less invasive examination. Patients’ mean confidence scores regarding students’ attire were the highest for female traditional attire and for scrub suit for males. Conclusion: Of the influential factors that could affect patients’ willingness to cooperate with medical students, clinical skills followed by manner and level of training ranked first. Ensuring that students mastered specific procedures before coming into direct contact with patients using patient simulators, for example, would improve patients’ acceptance of student participation. PMID:27625585

  16. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance. PMID:26984034

  17. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  18. High intestinal lactase concentrations in adult Arbs in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C; al-Torki, M T

    1975-07-19

    The maximum rise in blood glucose after 50 g lactose by mouth was determined in 40 adult Arabs. Out of 30 Bedouin, urban Saudi, and Yemeni and 9 of mixed ancestry (usually partly African), 25 (83%) and 2 (22%) respectively showed an increase of over 1-1 mmol/1 (20 mg/100 ml). In common with most northern Europeans and Hamitic people of northern Africa, Arabs in Saudi Arabia usually have high intestinal lactase concentrations in adult life. This persistence of high levels probably originated in the Arabian peninsula. Its selective advantage may have been associated with the fluid and calorie content of camels' milk, which is important for survival in desert nomads. PMID:1170003

  19. A survey to assess knowledge, practice, and attitude of dentists in the Western region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Jan, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess knowledge regarding the management of odontogenic infections by dentists in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 150 practitioners responded to a 26-item paper-based questionnaire between August and December 2014. The questionnaire evaluated knowledge and current clinical practices in managing odontogenic infections, as well as the attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance in the community. Basic medical knowledge (BMK) and critical knowledge (CK) scores were calculated from the dentists’ response to these questions and were compared according to educational level (bachelor and postgraduate degree holders). Results: The mean BMK score was 1.98 ± 0.4 and CK score was 1.89 ± 0.3. Dentists with bachelor’s degrees had higher BMK scores than those with a postgraduate degree (p=0.005), but CK was not significantly different (p=0.400). Most dentists (77%) would prescribe antibiotics after a routine dental extraction, and would undertake definitive surgical treatment (49.2%) only after a localized space infection developed. Although 82.2% agreed that routine prescription of antibiotics increases bacterial resistance in the community, 71% believe that prescribing an antibiotic after routine oral surgical procedures prevents odontogenic infections. Conclusion: Dentists in Jeddah require further education through lectures and workshops to stay up to date on current concepts in odontogenic infection management. PMID:27052288

  20. Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

    2004-01-01

    Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ± 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of fungal taxa inhabiting Mecca region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; Almaghrabi, Omar A; Sabry, Nevien M; Fuller, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    The data presented contains the sequences of fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and 18S rRNA gene from a metagenome of the Mecca region, Saudi Arabia. Sequences were amplified using fungal specific primers, which amplified the amplicon aligned between the 18S and 28S rRNA genes. A total of 460 fungal species belonging to 133 genera, 58 families, 33 orders, 13 classes and 4 phyla were identified in four contrasting locations. The raw sequencing data used to perform this analysis along with FASTQ file are located in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under accession numbers: SRR3150823, SRR3144873, SRR3150825 and SRR3150846. PMID:27508121

  2. Pentalogy of Cantrell: first case reported in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bagabir, Hala Abubaker; Azhar, Ahmad Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a rare congenital anomaly involving defects in the anterior diaphragm, supraumbilical abdominal wall, diaphragmatic pericardium, and lower sternum, and other congenital intracardiac abnormalities. Here, we report the case of a newborn infant who was born at 32 weeks of gestation and had all 5 features of PC, in addition to absent kidneys and a deformed left hand. Medical intervention would not be able to save the patient, so we allowed her to die in peace. We discuss here the etiology, prenatal diagnosis, and severity of and the mortality associated with this condition. To our knowledge, this was the first reported case of PC in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24658559

  3. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-03-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards. PMID:26984027

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and their urine samples were tested for C. trachomatis infection by real-time PCR assay. Results The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 8.7% in the study population. The ≤25 age group was predominantly affected, with an average prevalence of 16.6%. Two out of five (2/5, 40%) Yamani, (4/33 12.1%) Indonesian, (3/33, 9.1%) Somalian and (2/26, 7.7%) Ethiopian inmates were positive for infection. None of the Saudi inmates (0/14) were positive for infection. Among the studied variables, only age was significantly associated with the infection rate. The other variables (marital status, nationality, religion, employment status, education level, nature of the offense committed, knowledge about protection from STIs, and knowledge about condom use and the purpose of condom use) did not show a significant correlation with Chlamydia infection. Conclusions The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was within the range published by other reports in similar prison settings in developed countries. The results indicate the need for a countrywide screening and treatment program for all inmates at the time of entry into prison. PMID:24649964

  5. Characterization of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons at Three Urban Sites in Western Saudi Arabia, in Lahore (Pakistan), and in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Zeb, J.; Yu, L. E.; Khwaja, H. A.; Farrukh, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Favorable conditions to tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are present over the Persian Gulf Region. Ozone is a well known pollutant affecting human health and natural ecosystems. Among the several factors contributing to the formation of the O3 hot spot over the Middle East, the presence of local emissions of its precursors needs to be considered. We report initial measurements of a suite of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), an important component of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which, coupled with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight, are key chemical precursors of tropospheric O3. We measured 63 speciated C2-C10 NMHCs, in addition to methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) in three cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Mecca, and Madina; October-November 2012 and April 2013) and in the city of Lahore (Pakistan; December 2012). To put these data into perspective, we compare our results to data collected in Singapore (August-November 2012). We observed enhanced levels in all three Saudi Arabian cities compared to the local background and to those measured in Singapore. However, the Saudi levels are much lower than those measured in Lahore, where the sum of quantified NMHCs is about six times higher. For Madina, enhanced levels of the alkenes, ethyne and CO indicated that vehicle exhaust was the dominant source. In Jeddah and Mecca, the most abundant NMHC were the alkanes (47-61% of total measured NMHCs), which are more closely associated with emissions from natural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and gasoline evaporation. In Lahore, the hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, used to evaluate the importance of the different measured species toward ozone production, is three to six times higher than for the Saudi cities, and more than 20 times higher than for Singapore. For all urban areas reported here, among the measured compounds, the alkenes (especially ethene and propene) dominate in terms of OH reactivity because of a combination of their great abundance and

  6. Attitude of Saudi Female Math Teachers toward Integrating E-Learning in Teaching Math at High Schools in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albalawi, Aishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaders in government and education have launched an extensive program to reform general education in Saudi Arabia. This initiative was designed to achieve many goals with a major emphasis being the enhancement of the Saudi curriculum to take advantage of the use of technology to improve education. A goal of this project was for e-learning to be a…

  7. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…

  8. Establishing a National Medical Device Registry in Saudi Arabia: Lessons Learned and Future Work.

    PubMed

    Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa; Almohandis, Essam; Alshagathrh, Fahd

    2015-01-01

    Medical device evaluation presents several unique challenges due to the great diversity and complexity of medical devices and their rapid technological evolution. There has been a variety of work conducted on the development of disease based registries and health surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia. However, the progress of medical device registry systems and post-market medical device surveillance systems remains in its infancy in Saudi Arabia and within the region. In 2007, a royal decree assigned the responsibility for regulating medical devices to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA). Soon afterwards, the SFDA established the Medical Devices National Registry (MDNR) to house medical device information relating to manufacturers, agents, suppliers and end-users. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the Medical Device National Registry (MDNR) in Saudi Arabia and describe the current experience and future work of establishing a comprehensive medical device registry and post-market surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26152943

  9. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  10. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  11. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

  12. Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Amer, M.H.; El-Yazigi, A.; Hannan, M.A.; Mohamed, M.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.

  13. Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

  14. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

  15. Saudi Arabia Today. A Teaching Program on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: (1) Grades 1-3, Our Visit to Saudi Arabia; (2) Grades 4-6, A Modern Kingdom; (3) Junior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; (4) Senior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This package includes materials for students and accompanying teaching guides and posters for teaching about life in contemporary Saudi Arabia for grades 1-8. The student folder for grades 1-3 presents information about the Middle Eastern nation in the form of a boy's letter to a friend back home. In the letter are descriptions of the cities of…

  16. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384

  17. Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Almadi, Majid A; Alhammad, Alwaleed; Al Faleh, Faleh Z

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence. PMID:23613632

  18. Relationship between desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), infestation, environmental factors and control measures in Gazan and Makkah Regions, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ajlan, Abdulaziz M

    2007-10-15

    Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), is one of the most important insect pests in Saudi Arabia. Cultivated crops and the range lands are heavily affected by desert locust in some regions of Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of damage by the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) to the range lands being used for grazing range animals in Gazan and Makkah regions of Saudi Arabia. However, it is very difficult to estimate accurately the total infested areas, which were sprayed with insecticides to control upsurges, outbreaks and plagues over the last five decades. Records of Desert Locust control are kept in the National Desert Locust Control and Research Center in Jeddah. Meteorological data was obtained from the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA), Saudi Arabia. The data shows that the Desert Locust infestation was associated partially with the rainfall intensity in Gazan and Makkah regions. There was found a good relationship between Desert Locust infestation (Solitary phase), temperature and the relative humidity. The locust infestation was heavy during 1986-88, 1992-95 and 1997-98 and about 1.8 million ha were treated with insecticides. Out of the total breeding/infested area, 43% was treated in winter months (October-February) and the remaining 57% was treated in spring season (March-June). The infested area was sprayed with Marshall, Carbosulfan (20%), Malathion (96%, Clorpyrifos; (48%) Fipronil (12.5%), Sumithion (100%) and Decis (12.5%). The study showed an excellent potential to determine the active locust infestation period in relation to the environmental factors for its effective control with insecticide sprays to minimize crop damage. The study highlighted the needs for further investigations in other locust infested areas with different environmental factors for planning future desert locust control programs. PMID:19093456

  19. Web-based Health Educational Program in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Alsaleh, Mahassen; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of a web-based health educational site created by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Sources of data included two interviews with Saudi IT personnel, three health educators, and two medical consultants working at KFSH&RC. The interviews ranged between 45 minutes and 120 minutes. The KFSH&RC website was also searched for the type of health information content posted. Results show that the KFSH&RC web-based health educational site provides health information through a medical encyclopedia, a social networking platform, health educational links, and targeted health information for children, which includes tools such as games and coloring books. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of the KFSH&RC web-based health education site in terms of improving knowledge and changing behavior of Saudi patients. The study recommends that targeted web-based health education strategies should be developed to reach large rural populations which have inadequate computer skills and limited access to the internet. PMID:25000016

  20. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  1. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  2. 75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe...

  3. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  4. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  5. Crohn`s disease. Increasing trend in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Azzam, Nahlah A

    2013-11-01

    We attempted, through systematic review to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of Crohn's disease (CD) with special attention to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We selected articles that contained population-based, epidemiological, and clinical character studies of CD. We collected data concerned with the prevalence, demographic features, and the possible etiology of CD that might explain its emergence in KSA. The prevalence of CD in Western countries ranged between 11-43/100,000 with flawless evidence of CD prevalence emerging in previously low incidence areas like Asia. Prevalence in KSA has markedly increased over the last 3 decades. Combined ileal and colonic involvement was the most frequently affected site. Diet, smoking, drugs, and westernization of life are assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis. There is convincing evidence of CD emerging in Asia, including KSA. Westernization of lifestyle and smoking is probably the major contributing factors. Genetic studies are warranted. PMID:24252887

  6. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  7. Geophysical and geochemical investigations of aerial radiometric anomalies in the Tabuk formation, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitkin, James A.; Huffman, A. Curtis, Jr.; Saudi Arabia. Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources; U.S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabia Mission

    1986-01-01

    An interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabian Mission for the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The work on which this report was based was performed in accordance with a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources.

  8. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  9. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  10. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  11. Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangura, Abdul Karim

    2004-01-01

    The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

  12. Molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alnegheimish, Norah A.; Alshatwi, Razan A.; Alhefdhi, Reem M.; Arafah, Maha M.; AlRikabi, Ammar C.; Husain, Sufia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the distribution of various molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia and to assess the association between these subtypes and age at diagnosis, tumor size, histopathological type, grade, presence of carcinoma in-situ, and lymph node status. Methods: This observational retrospective study, between January 2010 and December 2014, was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We classified 359 breast cancers into 4 molecular subtypes, using immunohistochemistry: luminal A (estrogen receptor [ER], or progesterone receptor [PR] positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2] negative), luminal B (ER and/or PR positive and HER2 positive), HER2-positive (ER and PR negative and HER2 positive), and triple negative (ER, PR, and HER2 negative). We evaluated the relationship between these subtypes and clinicopathological features using Chi square test. Results: The most prevalent subtype was luminal A (58.5%), followed in descending order of frequency by triple negative (14.8%), luminal B (14.5%), and HER2-positive (12.3%). The average age at diagnosis was 49.8 years, and average tumor size at diagnosis was 3.19 cm. Conclusion: Luminal A tumor was the most common molecular subtype and HER2-positive was the least common. Most lobular carcinomas were luminal A tumors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple negative tumors had a higher histologic grade and a larger tumor size at diagnosis, and they were more common in women under 50 years. Carcinoma-in-situ was least common in triple negative tumors. We found no association between lymph node status and molecular subtypes. PMID:27146612

  13. Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Koura, Manal R.; Al-Dossary, Ahlam F.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1020 female students selected from the literature and science colleges by multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation. Data were collected using a self-administered modified WHO Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Results: Results revealed that occurrence of smoking among female college students was 8.6%. It was significantly higher among literature college students (12.1%) than among Science College students (3.4%). The mean age at which smoking started was 16 ± 2.4 years, with a minimum of 11 years. More than half of the students who smoked were cigarette smokers, while 43.2% were shisha smokers. There was a strong relationship between parents who smoked and daughters who smoked. The main motive for smoking was curiosity (44.3%), followed by relief of tension (26.1%). Conclusions: It may be concluded that smoking is increasing among female college students in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive comprehensive health education program on smoking be initiated for females in middle schools, that stricter tobacco control measures be adopted by the government, and that anti-smoking clinics be established in colleges. PMID:21897913

  14. Techno-economic evaluation of waste lube oil re-refining in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, F.M.; Hamdan, A.J.; Rahman, F.

    1995-12-31

    About 80 million gallons of automotive lubricating oils are sold in Saudi Arabia. Much of this oil, after use, is actually contributing to the increased pollution of land because of indiscriminate dumping. Any scheme of secondary use of the waste lube oils would be of interest both for conservation of energy resources and for protection of environment. This paper discusses the secondary use for the used automotive lubricating oils. Process technology of Meinken, Mohawk and KTI were selected for the techno-economic feasibility study for re-refining used oil. Profitability analysis for each process is worked out and the results are compared. In many countries, the re-refining of used oils has become an important industry. The objective of recovering high quality raffinates is attained through the use of widely differing techniques. The processes concerned can be classified according to the chemical or physical method of used-oil pretreatment selected. Meinken process is based on chemical pretreatment, whereas both Mohawk and KTI processes employ physical methods involving distillation and eliminate the use of sulfuric acid, thus providing a facility for safer operation than Meinken. The plant capacity of two existing units in Jeddah are 10,000 TPA and 80,000 TPA re-refining of waste oil. We selected a plant of 50,000 TPA waste oil re-refining for economic study of these three processes. The authors wish to acknowledge the support from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals and King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology for this work.

  15. Diabetes insipidus following neurosurgery at a university hospital in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Qari, Faiza A.; AbuDaood, Elaff A.; Nasser, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestation, course, risk factors, as well as treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI) following neurosurgery of the pituitary gland. Methods: The files of 24 patients that underwent neurosurgery for sellar lesions, or tumor near the hypothalamus or pituitary gland at the Department of Neurosurgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were retrospectively reviewed between January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 24 patients were studied, and were divided into 2 groups namely; DI and non-DI. Patient characteristics were studied using descriptive statistics. The differences in proportion between the 2 groups were found out using Z-test for proportion in 2 populations. The mean differences in the hormonal abnormalities for the 2 groups were assessed using independent t-test. All statistics are considered statistically significant when p<0.05. Results: During hospitalization, 13 (54.2%) out of 24 patient that underwent neurosurgery had manifestations of DI, which was transient in 5 (38.8%) and permanent in 8 (61.2%). The DI subgroup contained higher prevalence of prolactinoma, craniopharyngioma, pre-operative panhypopituitarism, and macroadenoma in MRI imaging and transphenoidal surgery. Furthermore, urine osmolality was significantly lower in the DI group post-operatively with a significant p=0.023. It was recognized that the permanent DI documented more significant numbers than other studies. Conclusion: In our study group, it was recognized that permanent DI meant that our patients needed desmopressin for more than 3 months, which documented a more significant number than other studies. PMID:26837398

  16. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  17. Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848

  18. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor. PMID:21264164

  19. Calculation of sky turbidity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

    The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.

  20. Clinical and genetic features of anoctaminopathy in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bohlega, Saeed; Monies, Dorothy M.; Abulaban, Ahmad A.; Murad, Hatem N.; Alhindi, Hindi N.; Meyer, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Characterization of the phenotypic, pathological, radiological, and genetic findings in 2 Saudi Arabian families with anoctaminopathies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L). Methods: Over a 2-year period from December 2010 to January 2013, the clinical presentations were analyzed and all genes responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) were screened in families seen at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of 66 families with LGMD, we identified 2 families (3.1%) with anoctaminopathy, ANO5 muscular dystrophy. Results: In the first case, a man presented with asymmetrical calves’ muscles weakness and atrophy, which was first noted at age 39. The creatinine kinase (CK) level was >20x normal, muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathic changes, and an MRI of the legs showed fatty-tissue replacement to muscle tissue with volume loss involving the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in an asymmetrical fashion. Minimal disease progression was noted over 18 years of follow up. Exercise induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis was noted over the last 2 years. A novel ANO5 gene mutation (Arg58Trp) was found. In the second family, a male presented at the age of 41 with asymptomatic hyperCkemia and intermittent dyspnea. Over 10 years follow up, he became disabled with muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinurea, and difficulty ambulating. Muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathy and perivascular and interstitial amyloid deposit in skeletal muscle. A homozygous deletion of 11.9 Kb encompassing exon 13 to exon 17 was found in the ANO5 gene. Full cardiac investigations were normal in both patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of LGMD2L is approximately 3.1% in a Saudi Arabian native LGMD cohort. Slowly progressive, late onset, and asymmetrical weakness was the salient features in these 2 families. The genetic findings were novel and will add to the spectrum of ANO5 known mutations

  1. Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J; Yousuf, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint programme for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) whilst attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture. PMID:11012811

  2. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  3. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  4. New Measurements of Shear-wave Splitting in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Suzuki, J.; Zahran, H. M.; El-Hadidy, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) operates a nationwide digital seismic network with more than 160 broadband seismometers that transmit to a central location at the SGS. These seismic data have been used to measure shear-wave splitting in infer anisotropy within and beneath the Arabian plate. We selected for analysis more than 300 teleseismic recordings between January, 2008 and February, 2015. Individual seismometers located on the crystalline rock of the Arabian shield provide 20 to 30 shear-wave splitting results, whereas seismometers located on volcanic rocks provide 2 to 14 reliable measurements. Here we summarize results obtained from the Tertiary volcanic fields ("harrats") of western Saudi Arabia, in particular Harrat Lunayyir and Harrat Rahat. Both of these volcanic fields have been active in historic times. Eighteen seismic stations with an average inter-station spacing of 10 km are located within Harrat Lunayyir. Seismic stations there have consistent shear-wave splitting directions ranging from N2°E to N20°W and delay times from 0.7 s to 1.6 s. This volcanic field is of particular interest because in 2009 it experienced abundant seismic activity and measureable crustal deformation that was associated with a dike intrusion into the upper crust (Pallister et al., 2010, Nature Geoscience). However, our analysis does not reveal any anomalous splitting results beneath this harrat. Fifteen seismic stations with an average inter-station spacing of 30 km are located in or adjacent to Harrat Rahat. These show very similar splitting directions to Harrat Lunayyir, ranging from N1°W to N16°W, with delay times of 1.0 s to 1.4 s. Following previous studies, we assume that these delay times are dominantly due to mantle anisotropy, with crustal anisotropy being secondary. Our results indicate a highly uniform fast-direction of anisotropy oriented approximately N10°W beneath these two volcanic fields. The measured orientation is inconsistent with the N40

  5. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants. PMID:27613289

  6. Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

  7. The 9th Annual Meeting of the Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 3-5 March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro

    2015-01-01

    The 9th Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery (9th SANS) Annual Meeting was held in the Sheraton Dammam Hotel and Towers, Dammam, Saudi Arabia on March 3-5, 2015, organized by the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Dammam with a theme of “Research is the Bridge to the Future.” The meeting was preceded by a Public Awareness Campaign on March 2, 2015 held at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and several pre-conference workshops that were highly beneficial for neurosurgery today. The scientific program was loaded with innovative and interactive presentations from respected and reputable speakers from different parts of the world. Abstracts were carefully selected and reviewed based on their scientific value and relevance to the clinical, surgical, academic, and research aspects of neurosurgery in the Kingdom, and the world.

  8. Correlation between obesity and emotional, social, and behavioral problems associated with physical limitation among children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Al-Ghamdi, Rahma A.; Halabi, Shaimaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on limitation of physical activity and the associated effect on behavioral, school, and social problems among obese children in Western Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional obesity survey was conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected between August 2014 and February 2015 from 281 obese children aged between 2-18 (girls: 130, boys: 151). Participants were selected randomly to represent different economic status, level of education, and family structure. Results: The mean age of participants was 10.5 years for girls and 10.6 years for boys. Higher BMI was associated with physical activity problems in walking (50.6%), running (55.8%), and exercise (44.3%), with school problems in attention (37.4%) and follow-up duties fade (31.3%), and with social problems in doing things other children could do (42.8%), playing with others (46%), and continuing play (33.4%). There was no significant relationship between BMI and emotional problems and school attendance. Conclusion: Higher BMI significantly increased physical limitation, problems maintaining attention in school, and social problems among obese children. However, emotional problems and school attendance did not show a significant correlation with BMI. PMID:26837399

  9. Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bents, E.R.

    1995-05-01

    The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

  10. HIV Transmission at a Saudi Arabia Hemodialysis Unit

    PubMed Central

    Mashragi, Faisal; Bernstein, Robert S.; Al-Mazroa, Mohammad; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Filemban, Sanaa; Assiri, Abdullah; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Hazmi, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Stephens, Gwen; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hemodialysis is associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections but considered a low-risk setting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We investigated 3 hemodialysis unit (HDU) patients with new HIV infections to determine whether transmission was hemodialysis-associated and to correct factors that contributed to transmission. Methods. Each patient was evaluated for HIV risk factors. Blood samples were tested to determine relatedness of HIV strains. Clinical data (gathered over 18 months) was reviewed to identify seroconversions at 12 HDUs. Infection prevention and control practices were evaluated at 14 HDUs. Findings. No other HIV seroconversions were identified during the study. HIV gag, pol, and env gene sequences were consistent with a clonal relationship. HIV and hepatitis C virus prevalence rates at one HDU 1 (5.7% and 6.5%, respectively) were higher than for 11 other HDUs (0% and 0.15%, respectively). Conclusions. Sequencing supports either patient-to-patient or common-source transmission. Infections occurred despite Saudi Arabia's low HIV prevalence and national dialysis policies that emphasize stringent infection prevention and control practices. PMID:24846636

  11. Trends in Ectopic Pregnancies in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaziz Al-Turki, Haifa

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 14.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There were 274 EPs during the study period; the yearly incidence in terms of 24,098 deliveries was 1.19%. The average age was 28.99 Å 5.62 years. During a three-year period (2000–2002), the incidence was 0.92%; from 2003 to 2005, the incidence was 1.01%; from 2006 to 2008, the incidence was 1.51%; and from 2009 to 2011, the incidence was 1.35%. Age-adjusted ectopic pregnancy incidence rates steadily increased from 92.23 per 10,000 women years during the period 2000–2002 to 149.408 during the 2006–2008 period; since then, it has declined to 110.313 per 10,000 women years. Conclusions. Our study reveals that the incidence of EP has decreased from what it had been during the mid-2000s but has remained significantly elevated when compared to the early 2000s. PMID:23533797

  12. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  13. The syphilis problem in Asir province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoroury, A. A.

    1954-01-01

    A combined national and international venereal disease team began activities in Saudi Arabia in November 1952, moving from Mecca to Asir province in May 1953, where it remained for two months examining and treating various groups of the population. A total of 309 cases of syphilis among a population of approximately 3,000 at Abha was given complete clinical and serological examination and treatment with PAM, in doses varying from 2.4 to 6.0 million units. Serological tests were made on 2,359 blood samples. Only one primary lesion was found; but secondary lesions were quite common, amounting to 5.8% of all cases treated, while tertiary lesions represented 12.6% of all cases treated and 67.2% of all clinical cases. Considerable variations in the prevalence of syphilis were noted among the different quarters of the town of Abha and among different tribes and villages. All the age-groups were more or less equally affected, but the females generally showed a higher positivity-rate than the males. All these features—together with the low social, economic, and sanitary standards of the population and many prevalent social habits, such as the use of common eating and drinking implements — would seem to indicate that the syphilis met in Asir, and locally known as “shadjar”, “balash”, “fringi”, “mabrouk”, or “wardi”, should be included with the endemic treponematoses met with elsewhere in the world. PMID:13182591

  14. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  15. Hydrocarbon habitat in main producing areas, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, M.G.; Bilal, M.; Jones, R.W.; Slentz, L.W.; Tartir, M.; Wilson, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    Current hydrocarbon production in Saudi Arabia is from reservoirs of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. Geochemical studies of the sediments and oils suggest that the hydrocarbons were derived from two separate source-rock provinces. Oil production from the large fields in the southern part of the area is from Jurassic carbonate reservoirs. Most of these oils were derived from thermally mature, thinly laminated, organic-rich carbonate rocks of Jurassic age (Callovian-Oxfordian). These source rocks were deposited in an intrashelf basin which is limited to the southern part of the main producing areas. Extensive vertical migration of oils originating in these sediments is prevented by superjacent evaporite seals deposited during the Late Jurassic. Fields in the northern producing areas appear to have derived their hydrocarbons from a source-rock province on the north. Production from Cretaceous clastic and carbonate reservoirs is limited to the northeastern part of the producing areas. This distribution may be explained by limitation of thermally mature Cretaceous source rocks to the northeastern areas or by the local lack of subjacent evaporite seals to separate these reservoirs from Jurassic source rocks. Thermal maturation studies indicate that the hydrocarbons in Mesozoic reservoirs migrated into the present traps during the early Tertiary.

  16. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

  17. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  18. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Adel A

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

  19. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  20. Epidemiology of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlShail, Essam; De Vol, Edward; Yassen, Ahsan; Elgamal, Essam A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distribution and pattern of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia by creating a hospital based registry. Methods: All cases registered in the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) neural tube defect (NTD) registry since it was established in October 2000 until December 2012 were studied through active surveillance comprising a registrar who collects NTD information by reviewing the patient’s medical records, and interviewing patient’s families. Results: The total number of patients registered from October 2000 to December 2012 was 718 patients. There were more females (417, 58%) than males (301, 42%). Of 620 mothers who underwent antenatal ultrasonography; 392 (63%) were diagnosed at birth, and 204 (33%) were diagnosed with antenatal hydrocephalus. In our registry sample, most mothers (95%) did not take folic acid 3 months prior to pregnancy, and 76% did not take folic acid during the 3 months after conception with the affected child. Only 5% received folic acid prior to conception. Conclusions: The KFSH&RC-NTD registry has met its objectives as a source of data that may significantly contribute to the prevention of NTDs, and improving quality of care for NTD patients through active publication of registry findings and management approaches. PMID:25551116

  1. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  2. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

  3. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

  4. Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Zabramawi, Yasser A.

    2012-12-01

    Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole-dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A\\. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole.

  5. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  6. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M.; Abdelmoneim, T.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems. PMID:26150754

  8. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abdelmoneim, T S; Almaghrabi, O A

    2015-07-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems. PMID:26150754

  9. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bondagji, Nabeel S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence, pattern of distribution, and the outcome of different types of kidney and urinary tract anomalies (CAKUT) diagnosed during the antenatal period. The second objective is to test the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis of CAKUT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional hospital-based study, all cases diagnosed antenatally with urinary tract anomalies at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The prevalence, pattern of distribution, and immediate postnatal outcomes, in addition to the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis, of those cases are reported. Results: One hundred and forty-one cases of urinary tract anomalies were antenatally diagnosed; postnatal diagnosis was confirmed in 128 cases (90.1%). The prevalence of CAKUT in our population is 3.26 per 1000 births. The most common abnormalities detected were hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and renal agenesis, in descending order of frequency. The perinatal mortality rate among fetuses with CAKUT is 310 per 1000, the majority of these cases (90%) occurred in cases with renal parenchyma involvement. Conclusions: The prevalence of different types of CAKUT is higher than that reported in developed countries. Urinary tract anomalies can be accurately diagnosed and classified in the antenatal period using ultrasonography imaging. Antenatal diagnosis is a helpful tool in planning immediate postnatal care and deciding the place for delivery. This might prevent or slow renal function deterioration and help in early identification of patients who need early surgical intervention. PMID:24669120

  10. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804