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Sample records for jejunal mesentery presenting

  1. Multiple Primary Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma of the Jejunal Mesentery: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vats, Manu; Pandey, Diwakar; Ahlawat, Himani; Akhtar, Azaz; Singh, Nain

    2016-01-01

    Liposarcoma arising primarily from the intestinal mesentery is a rare malignancy. Malignancy is said to be synchronous when there is occurrence of two or more tumours that have not spread from a common site or recurred and show no evidence of metastasis. Multiple synchronous primary liposarcoma of the mesentery is a very unusual clinical finding. Here, we report a rare case of synchronous multiple primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma of jejunal mesentery in a 36-year-old female patient. Radiological investigations aided in making a provisional diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy. A staging laparotomy was performed and general surgeon's help was sought due to the presence of three separate jejunal mesenteric masses of sizes 8x6 cms, 6x6 cms and 25x20 cms respectively. Complete excision of mesenteric masses with one feet of involved jejunum was done and a jejuno-jejunal anastomosis made. The histopathology report was indicative of multiple dedifferentiated liposarcoma of jejunal mesentery. Postoperatively patient received Doxorubicin, Dacarbazine and Ifosfamide based adjuvant chemotherapy in view of poorly differentiated tumour. Patient remains tumour free for the last 12 months of follow up. PMID:26894164

  2. Eosinophilic jejunitis presenting as intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

    2014-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

  3. Jejunal duplication in an adult presenting with hematochezia.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Setoyama, Kanae; Iwashita, Yuji; Saito, Seiya; Hanada, Norihisa; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Numata, Masatsugu; Ido, Akio

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with appetite loss, palpitations, orthostatic syncope, and hematochezia. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a proximal jejunal diverticulum with contrast extravasation. We immediately performed transoral double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to treat the bleed in the jejunum, and this revealed a small ulcer with an exposed vessel at the opening of the jejunal diverticulum. Hemostasis was achieved endoscopically with argon plasma coagulation (APC) and hemoclips. During subsequent surgery, the diverticulum was found on the mesenteric side of the jejunum. We performed laparoscopy-assisted partial resection of the jejunum, and pathological examination showed that the diverticulum shared a common proper muscle layer with the jejunum and was covered by jejunal mucosa with no ectopic mucosa. Therefore, we diagnosed jejunal duplication. After hospital discharge, the patient had no recurrence of hematochezia or anemia. We report a rare case of jejunal duplication presenting with hematochezia, which was diagnosed as jejunal diverticular bleeding by CT and DBE before surgery. Pathological analysis confirmed jejunal duplication after surgery. We suggest that intestinal diverticular bleeding, as well as duplication of the gastrointestinal tract, should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:27052396

  4. Late presentation of jejunal perforation after thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, Vasileios K; Matheos, Efthimiou; Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Spyridakis, Michalis; Desimonas, Nikolaos; Hatzitheofilou, Kostas

    2009-11-01

    Jejunal perforation is extremely rare in trauma especially without initial involvement of the abdomen. We present the case of a delayed jejunal perforation after thoracic trauma with no initial indication of abdominal trauma in a 55-year-old man who was admitted to our department after a road traffic accident. The patient sustained thoracic trauma with rib fractures of the left hemithorax and hemopneumothorax and a mild head injury. On the fourth day of his in-hospital stay, he complained of severe abdominal pain and signs of acute abdomen were observed. He underwent emergency laparotomy where a perforation of the jejunum near the ligament of Treitz was noticed and sutured. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Physicians treating trauma should always have a high degree of suspicion regarding rare abdominal injuries, with delayed presentation, even if no abdominal involvement is noticed during the initial survey. PMID:19931795

  5. Primary amyloidosis of the mesentery and the retroperitoneum presenting with lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Halm, U; Berr, F; Tannapfel, A; Klöppel, R; Secknus, R; Mössner, J

    1998-11-01

    We report the case of a 57-yr-old woman presenting with moderate weight loss, abdominal distension, and lymphedema of the legs and vulva. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed massive thickening of the rectal wall, mesentery, and retroperitoneum. Primary amyloidosis was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry from the rectum and duodenum. To our knowledge, lymphedema due to primary amyloidosis has not yet been reported. The diagnosis should be presumed in the case of retroperitoneal thickening and lymphedema and can be established by immunohistochemistry. PMID:9820426

  6. Delayed Presentation of Jejuno-Jejunal Fistula With Stricture After Physical Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, Adil Z; Kulaylat, Afif N; Santos, Mary C; Rocourt, Dorothy V; Methratta, Sosamma T; Millington, Karmaine; Alexander, Chandran P

    2016-07-01

    Small intestinal injury is seldom described in the context of child abuse. Signs and symptoms are subtle, often leading to delays in diagnosis. We describe a 3-year-old boy initially admitted with severe blunt abdominal trauma from physical child abuse. He was successfully managed nonoperatively. The child was then hospitalized several times for nonspecific abdominal symptoms until diagnostic laparoscopy discovered a jejunal stricture with a proximal jejuno-jejunal fistula. Symptoms fully resolved after resection. Delayed presentation of small intestinal injury should remain on the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of persistent abdominal symptoms in a child with a prior history of physical abuse, even if imaging studies do not reveal specific abnormalities. PMID:25899753

  7. A jejunal GIST presenting with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Peter; Lanzon-Miller, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man with episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was investigated with multiple upper and lower GI endoscopies, CT enterography and capsule endoscopy, but no cause was found. He then presented acutely with small bowel obstruction. A laparotomy revealed complete small bowel obstruction secondary to jejunal intussusception over a 4 cm intraluminal polyp. Following resection and primary anastomosis, histology revealed that the polyp was a GI stromal tumour (GIST). This is an exceptionally uncommon presentation of a rare tumour. It is surprising that this tumour was not detected by CT enterography and not seen on capsule endoscopy. Immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis of the GIST suggested that it had a low risk of metastatic disease, but a high risk of recurrence. Staging CT scans did not reveal evidence of distal spread. The patient is currently receiving 3 years of chemotherapy with imatinib. PMID:26527610

  8. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the small-bowel mesentery: A case report of nonspecific clinical presentation and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuer, Ali

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm of various anatomical sites, which is histopathologically characterized by spindle-shaped cells with myofibroblastic proliferation and inflammatory infiltration. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report, a 37-year-old man presented with nonspecific systemic symptoms, including abdominal pain and weakness, which was diagnosed by multislice computed tomography and ultrasonography. An 8 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm nodular gray-white firm noninfiltrative mass, which was well localized in the mesentery tissues of small bowel, was observed and the patient underwent surgical resection. DISCUSSION A review of the literature on IMT of the small-bowel mesentery yielded a small number of previously described cases. This tumor most frequently involves the lungs and arises most commonly in extrapulmonary locations such as the mesentery and omentum. The etiopathogenesis and the clinical course of the disease are unclear. The histological and clinical differential diagnosis of IMT also includes reactive processes and mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Follow-up after surgical removal documented local recurrence and metastasis. CONCLUSION The preferred primary treatment is complete surgical excision, and patients require close clinicoradiological follow-up. In general, cases treated with complete surgical resection have a good prognosis. PMID:25437679

  9. A Sporadic Small Jejunal GIST Presenting with Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A Review of the Literature and Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Sridar; Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Gautham, S L

    2015-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) represent the majority of primary nonepithelial neoplasms of the digestive tract, most frequently expressing the KIT protein detected by immunohistochemical staining for the CD117 antigen. Jejunal GISTs account for approximately 10 % of GISTs. Patients usually present with abdominal discomfort. Jejunal GISTs may cause symptoms secondary to obstruction or hemorrhage. Pressure necrosis and ulceration of the overlying mucosa may cause gastrointestinal bleeding, and patients who experience significant blood loss may suffer from malaise and fatigue. Literature has classified small-bowel GISTs on the basis of size, and various established guidelines have advised conservative management of small jejunal GISTs (<2 cm). We here report the clinical, macroscopic, and immunohistological features of a small jejunal GIST presenting with acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a 50-year-old postmenopausal woman necessitating an emergency laparotomy to control the bleed. The management of very small (<2 cm) small-bowel GISTs is controversial. While guidelines are primarily based on the risk of malignancy in GISTs, no guideline predicting the risk of complications in small-bowel GISTs exists. Hence, these tumors should be removed even if incidentally detected. PMID:25972676

  10. Uncomplicated jejunal diverticulosis with pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jae Young; Park, Eun Hwa; Park, Cheon Soo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Han, Myeong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel diverticulosis is a rare finding within all bowel diverticuloses and jejunal diverticulosis is even rarer. Their relative clinical rarity and varied presentation may make diagnosis both delayed and difficult. We experienced a case of jejunal diverticulosis, which was diagnosed intraoperatively. A 55-year-old woman was admitted to Emergency Department with pneumoperitoneum on plain chest and abdominal film from a local clinic. She was hemodynamically stable with minimal tenderness on the left upper quadrant of the abdomen but no rebound tenderness. At surgery, small bowel torsion and jejunal diverticulosis were confirmed. Over 30 variable sized small bowel diverticula were noted on the mesenteric side of the proximal jejunum. The affected segment of the jejunum was about 180 cm. On exploration, we could not find any perforation site. No postoperative complications were observed, and the patient made a full recovery. Jejunal diverticulosis is rare, but it should not be regarded as insignificant. PMID:27274511

  11. Paraduodenal hernia and jejunal diverticulosis.

    PubMed

    Goodney, Philip P; Pindyck, Frank

    2004-02-01

    A case of left-sided paraduodenal hernia and jejunal diverticulosis is described in 75-year-old man who presented with chronic intermittent abdominal pain, weight loss, and anemia. A brief review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation displays the variety of symptoms associated with these rare conditions. PMID:14731138

  12. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF AN ACUTE MESENTERIAL ISCHEMIA].

    PubMed

    Shepehtko, E N; Garmash, D A; Kurbanov, A K; Marchenko, V O; Kozak, Yu S

    2016-04-01

    Experience of surgical treatment of 143 patients, suffering an acute mesenterial ischemia, was summarized. Isolated intestinal resection was performed in 41 patients (lethality 65.9%), intestinal resection with the mesenterial vessels thrombembolectomy--in 9 (lethality 33.3%). After performance of the combined intervention postoperative lethality was in two times lower, than after isolated intestinal resection. PMID:27434952

  13. Abdominal Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma Associated With Lymphangiomatosis Involving Mesentery and Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; He, Tianlin; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy that occurs mainly in the childhood. Adult patients with KH are rare. Imaging findings of KH have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in an adult patient with KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. A 22-year-old female complained of a 9-month history of intermittent melena, weakness, and palpitation. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal occult blood test was positive. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed a large abdominal mass involving mesentery and ileum. On enhanced MRI, there were many hypervascular nodules in the mass. On FDG PET/CT, the mass and the nodules showed slight FDG uptake. Small bowel capsule endoscopy showed numerous grape-shaped red nodules in the luminal wall of the involved ileum. The patient underwent resection of the abdominal mass and a segment of the ileum invaded by the abdominal mass. KH arising within lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum was confirmed by pathology. After surgery, the patient's symptoms improved. This is the first case of KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. In this case, the lymphangiomatosis overshadowed the small tumor nodules resulting in unusual imaging findings. Familiarity with these imaging findings is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of KH. PMID:26871848

  14. Ulcerative jejunitis in a child with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Celiac disease can present in children and adults with a variety of manifestations including a rare complication known as ulcerative jejunitis. The latter has been associated with refractory celiac disease in adult onset patients. The objective of this case report is to describe the first pediatric case of ulcerative jejunitis in celiac disease, diagnosed by capsule endoscopy, which was not associated with refractory celiac disease. Case presentation The 9 year old girl presented with a history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Laboratory investigations revealed a slightly elevated IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody level in the setting of serum IgA deficiency. Initial upper endoscopy with biopsies was not conclusive for celiac disease. Further investigations included positive IgA anti-endomysium antibody, and positive HLA DQ2 typing. Video capsule endoscopy showed delayed appearance of villi until the proximal to mid jejunum and jejunal mucosal ulcerations. Push enteroscopy with biopsies subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of celiac disease and ulcerative jejunitis. Immunohistochemical studies of the intraepithelial lymphocytes and PCR amplification revealed surface expression of CD3 and CD8 and oligoclonal T cell populations. A repeat capsule study and upper endoscopy, 1 year and 4 years following a strict gluten free diet showed endoscopic and histological normalization of the small bowel. Conclusion Ulcerative jejunitis in association with celiac disease has never previously been described in children. Capsule endoscopy was essential to both the diagnosis of celiac disease and its associated ulcerative jejunitis. The repeat capsule endoscopy findings, one year following institution of a gluten free diet, also suggest that ulcerative jejunitis is not always associated with refractory celiac disease and does not necessarily dictate a poor outcome. PMID:24524552

  15. Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Georgios; Tangalos, Athanasios; Pappa, Polyxeni; Papageorgiou, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Background Mucinous cystic neoplasms arise in the ovary and various extra-ovarian sites. While their pathogenesis remains conjectural, their similarities suggest a common pathway of development. There have been rare reports involving the mesentery as a primary tumour site. Case presentation A cystic mass of uncertain origin was demonstrated radiologically in a 22 year old female with chronic abdominal pain. At laparotomy, the mass was fixed within the colonic mesentery. Histology demonstrated a benign mucinous cystadenoma. Methods and results We review the literature on mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery and report on the pathogenesis, biologic behavior, diagnosis and treatment of similar extra-ovarian tumors. We propose an updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors. Conclusion Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery present almost exclusively in women and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric tumors. Only full histological examination of a mucinous cystic neoplasm can exclude a borderline or malignant component. An updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors is proposed. PMID:19454018

  16. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak; Choudhari, Fazal Ur Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause of intestinal atresia. We report a 7-day-old full term neonate presenting with intrauterine intussusceptions (jejuno-jejunal) resulting in jejunal atresia. PMID:26500958

  17. Jejunal adenocarcinoma-a case report with review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priti Prasad; Kothari, Sudhir

    2013-06-01

    Primary Small bowel tumours are rare accounting for only 3-6% of GI neoplasm; 1-2% of these are malignant. Their presentation is usually with nonspecific symptoms that causes delay in diagnosis and consequently a worse outcome for the patient. We report a case of Jejunal adenocarcinoma where early diagnosis and treatment lead to good outcome. PMID:24426522

  18. Root of the small-bowel mesentery: correlative anatomy and CT features of pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Okino, Y; Kiyosue, H; Mori, H; Komatsu, E; Matsumoto, S; Yamada, Y; Suzuki, K; Tomonari, K

    2001-01-01

    The root of the small-bowel mesentery (SBM) is an important peritoneal fold that is contiguous to other peritoneal ligaments and mesocolons. Several pathologic conditions can occur in the SBM itself, and diseases that spread through the connections from adjacent organs frequently involve it. The root of the SBM is contiguous to the hepatoduodenal ligament around the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and contiguous to the right side of the transverse mesocolon around the gastrocolic trunk. The inferior mesenteric vein, which is a landmark of the descending mesocolon, runs along the left side of the root of the SBM. Malignant neoplasms can spread to the SBM by means of direct extension, extension along the neural plexus, extension along neighboring ligaments, or extension along lymphatic vessels. Inflammatory conditions such as pancreatitis and perforation of a jejunal diverticulum can also spread to the SBM. Anomalies that can occur in the SBM include rotation anomalies and internal hernia. Vascular lesions of the SBM include thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), acute SMV thrombosis, SMA dissection, arterioportal fistula, and portal venous gas. Other pathologic conditions that can occur in the SBM are edema or congestion, mesenteric tear, mesenteric panniculitis, and tumors or tumorlike lesions. PMID:11706218

  19. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia of a free jejunal flap.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Satoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Koshimune, Seijiro; Onoda, Tomoo; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-05-01

    Free jejunal transfer using microsurgery after oesophageal or pharyngeal cancer resection is a useful operative approach. However, the disadvantage of free tissue transfer is the risk of necrosis of the transferred tissue due to impaired blood supply. In addition, jejunal flaps are more prone to blood-flow disorders such as ischaemia and congestion compared with other types of flaps. The causes of local blood supply disorders after microsurgery are divided broadly into two classes: one is thrombosis of an artery and/or vein in the anastomotic region and the other consists of local physical factors such as compressive pressure derived from haematoma formation and the effect of infection of the vascular pedicle. In this report, two rare cases of blood-flow disorder of the transferred free jejunum are described. In both cases, no signs of significant infection or occlusion of the vascular pedicles were present and late necrosis progressed gradually. The patients showed remarkable weight loss and a poor nutritional state due to inadequate preoperative nutritional intake. The necrosis was considered to be a result of non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia of a free jejunal flap, and the factors contributing to free jejunal necrosis were reviewed. PMID:23395151

  20. Jejunal cavernous lymphangioma

    PubMed Central

    Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Vargo, John; Bronner, Mary; Vogt, David P

    2011-01-01

    Cavernous lymphangiomas are usually identified in infants and children with the majority of lesions found around the head and neck, trunk or extremities. Tumours affecting the intra-abdominal organs are rare. The authors report a case of small bowel cavernous lymphangioma arising within the jejunum of a 34-year-old woman presenting with dyspnoea and anaemia, and review the existing literature relating to this uncommon tumour. PMID:22696733

  1. [Jejunal perforation as initial metastatic manifestation of laryngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Claros González, I; Santonja Garriga, J L; Rubio Barbón, S; Santamaría Girón, L; Triviño López, A; Velasco Alvarez, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of acute abdominal pain due to jejunal perforation in a patient with dissemination of laryngeal carcinoma is presented. Six jejunal intramural nodes of squamous cell carcinoma, one of them perforated, were observed at laparotomy. At the same time, a lesion suspicious of local recurrence in the tracheostomy orifice was observed. The patient died in the postoperative period. The rarity of intestinal perforation as an initial manifestation of metastatical dissemination of a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma as well as its poor prognosis are discussed. The hematogenous spread is proposed in our case. Finally the inclusion of metastases in the differential diagnosis in a clinical episode of intestinal perforation in patients with a history of neoplasm is emphasized. PMID:8186002

  2. Microvascular pressures and filtration coefficients in the cat mesentery.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, P A; Smaje, L H; Verrinder, A

    1978-01-01

    1. Filtration coefficient and hydrostatic pressure have been measured in single capillaries and venules in the cat mesentery using a modification of the Landis (1927) single vessel occlusion technique. 2. Venules were found to be filtering fluid, not absorbing it as is often supposed. 3. The mean filtration coefficient in capillaries was 0.018 micrometers . s-1 . mmHg-1 (1.35 X 10(-10)m . s-1 . Pa-1) while that in venules, was 0.027 micrometers . s-1 . mmHg-1 (2.02 X 10(-10)m . s-1 . Pa-1). 4. In both capillaries and venules, filtration coefficient increased with decreasing pressure. 5. The difference between directly measured venular pressure and that calculated from the occlusion data was used to determine the contribution of the interstitium to fluid exchange. In the mesentery superfused with Krebs solution the tissue pressure so determined was found to be zero or subatmospheric initially but became increasingly positive with lengthening exposure of the mesentery. PMID:722585

  3. Successful percutaneous angioembolisation of bleeding jejunal varix by acrylate glue and coils

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Tanveer Ul; AlQamari, Nauman; Sayani, Raza; Hilal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common disease worldwide. One of its rare complications is bleeding jejunal varices which is usually asymptomatic and may present with gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of a jejunal bleeding that was successfully embolised with acrylate glue and embolisation coils. A middle-aged woman with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries for adenocarcinoma of right ovary, presented to us with multiple episodes of haematochezia. On a CT scan of the abdomen, she was diagnosed with chronic liver disease with portal hypertension, multiple varices at porto-systemic anastomosis and ectopic jejunal varix. She was treated by interventional radiologists by percutaneous embolisation of bleeding varix using glue and embolisation coils through a portal venous approach. PMID:24158303

  4. Gross anatomy of the intestine and its mesentery in the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Lima, M; Bielli, A

    2008-11-01

    The intestines and mesentery of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) have not been fully described. In the present study 30 adult nutrias were studied using gross dissection. The small intestine was divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The duodenum started at the pylorus with a cranial portion, which dilated forming a duodenal ampulla. The ileum was located within the concavity of the caecum and attached to the coiled caecum by means of the iliocaecal fold. The ascending colon had two ansae, one proximal and one distal. The proximal ansa was fixed to the caecum by the caecocolic fold. The base of the caecum and a short proximal part of the ascending colon belonging to the proximal ansa were attached to the mesoduodenum descendens. The distal ansa of the ascending colon had a proximal part which was sacculated and a distal part which was smooth. The two parts of the distal ansa of the ascending colon were parallel and joined by a flexure of variable localisation. The smooth part of the distal ansa of the ascending colon was attached to the initial portion of the descending colon by a peritoneal fold. The short transverse colon was directly attached to the mesoduodenum and greater omentum. In conclusion, we have described the anatomy of the intestines of the nutria and its mesentery in detail, and provided a nomenclature list adapted to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. PMID:19085870

  5. Lipopolysaccharide modulates neutrophil recruitment and macrophage polarization on lymphatic vessels and impairs lymphatic function in rat mesentery.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Zawieja, Scott D; Wang, Wei; Lee, Yang; Wang, Yuan J; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Zawieja, David C; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2015-12-15

    Impairment of the lymphatic system is apparent in multiple inflammatory pathologies connected to elevated endotoxins such as LPS. However, the direct mechanisms by which LPS influences the lymphatic contractility are not well understood. We hypothesized that a dynamic modulation of innate immune cell populations in mesentery under inflammatory conditions perturbs tissue cytokine/chemokine homeostasis and subsequently influences lymphatic function. We used rats that were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (10 mg/kg) to determine the changes in the profiles of innate immune cells in the mesentery and in the stretch-mediated contractile responses of isolated lymphatic preparations. Results demonstrated a reduction in the phasic contractile activity of mesenteric lymphatic vessels from LPS-injected rats and a severe impairment of lymphatic pump function and flow. There was a significant reduction in the number of neutrophils and an increase in monocytes/macrophages present on the lymphatic vessels and in the clear mesentery of the LPS group. This population of monocytes and macrophages established a robust M2 phenotype, with the majority showing high expression of CD163 and CD206. Several cytokines and chemoattractants for neutrophils and macrophages were significantly changed in the mesentery of LPS-injected rats. Treatment of lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) with LPS showed significant changes in the expression of adhesion molecules, VCAM1, ICAM1, CXCR2, and galectin-9. LPS-TLR4-mediated regulation of pAKT, pERK pI-κB, and pMLC20 in LMCs promoted both contractile and inflammatory pathways. Thus, our data provide the first evidence connecting the dynamic changes in innate immune cells on or near the lymphatics and complex cytokine milieu during inflammation with lymphatic dysfunction. PMID:26453331

  6. Embolization of a Jejunal Artery Pseudoaneurysm via Collateral Vessels.

    PubMed

    Breguet, Romain; Pupulim, Lawrence F; Terraz, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms are rare and only few cases have been reported. They are considered to be life threatening in case of rupture. Rapid treatment is mandatory and endovascular procedure is recommended as the treatment of choice. Occasionally, endovascular approach is difficult to achieve, owing to unusual vascular anatomy. Whenever it is the case, an alternative method has to be considered. We report the case of a jejunal artery pseudoaneurysm that required an access via collateral vessels to accomplish complete occlusion in a 34-year-old woman who presented with a sudden epigastric pain 14 days after a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. PMID:26798541

  7. Embolization of a Jejunal Artery Pseudoaneurysm via Collateral Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Breguet, Romain; Pupulim, Lawrence F.; Terraz, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms are rare and only few cases have been reported. They are considered to be life threatening in case of rupture. Rapid treatment is mandatory and endovascular procedure is recommended as the treatment of choice. Occasionally, endovascular approach is difficult to achieve, owing to unusual vascular anatomy. Whenever it is the case, an alternative method has to be considered. We report the case of a jejunal artery pseudoaneurysm that required an access via collateral vessels to accomplish complete occlusion in a 34-year-old woman who presented with a sudden epigastric pain 14 days after a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. PMID:26798541

  8. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding from a jejunal Dieulafoy lesion

    PubMed Central

    Kozan, Ramazan; Gülen, Merter; Yılmaz, Tonguç Utku; Leventoğlu, Sezai; Yılmaz, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Dieulafoy lesion should be considered in massive gastrointestinal bleeding that may be difficult to localize. If the endoscopic and angiographic approaches fail, surgery must be considered according to the patient’s clinical condition within an appropriate time. Although mostly seen in the stomach of old male patients with co-morbidities, here we presented a Dieulafoy lesion in the jejunum of a 21-year-old female patient without any significant comorbidity. After endoscopic and angiographic attempts, surgical resection with the help of intraoperative endoscopy was performed. It was shown that perioperative endoscopy may reveal the localization of jejunal bleedings and may guide the definitive treatment. PMID:25931935

  9. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding from a jejunal Dieulafoy lesion.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Ramazan; Gülen, Merter; Yılmaz, Tonguç Utku; Leventoğlu, Sezai; Yılmaz, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Dieulafoy lesion should be considered in massive gastrointestinal bleeding that may be difficult to localize. If the endoscopic and angiographic approaches fail, surgery must be considered according to the patient's clinical condition within an appropriate time. Although mostly seen in the stomach of old male patients with co-morbidities, here we presented a Dieulafoy lesion in the jejunum of a 21-year-old female patient without any significant comorbidity. After endoscopic and angiographic attempts, surgical resection with the help of intraoperative endoscopy was performed. It was shown that perioperative endoscopy may reveal the localization of jejunal bleedings and may guide the definitive treatment. PMID:25931935

  10. Challenges of banding jejunal varices in an 8-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Belsha, Dalia; Thomson, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Endoscoic variceal ligation (EVL) by the application of bands on small bowel varices is a relatively rare procedure in gastroenterology and hepatology. There are no previously reported paediatric cases of EVL for jejunal varices. We report a case of an eight-year-old male patient with a complex surgical background leading to jejunal varices and short bowel syndrome, presenting with obscure but profound acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Wireless capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) confirmed jejunal varices as the source of bleeding. The commercially available variceal banding devices are not long enough to be used either with DBE or with push enteroscopes. With the use of an operating gastroscope, four bands were placed successfully on the afferent and efferent ends of the leads of the 2 of the varices. Initial hemostasis was achieved with obliteration of the varices after three separate applications. This case illustrates the feasibility of achieving initial hemostasis in the pediatric population. PMID:26722617

  11. Challenges of banding jejunal varices in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Belsha, Dalia; Thomson, Mike

    2015-12-25

    Endoscoic variceal ligation (EVL) by the application of bands on small bowel varices is a relatively rare procedure in gastroenterology and hepatology. There are no previously reported paediatric cases of EVL for jejunal varices. We report a case of an eight-year-old male patient with a complex surgical background leading to jejunal varices and short bowel syndrome, presenting with obscure but profound acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Wireless capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) confirmed jejunal varices as the source of bleeding. The commercially available variceal banding devices are not long enough to be used either with DBE or with push enteroscopes. With the use of an operating gastroscope, four bands were placed successfully on the afferent and efferent ends of the leads of the 2 of the varices. Initial hemostasis was achieved with obliteration of the varices after three separate applications. This case illustrates the feasibility of achieving initial hemostasis in the pediatric population. PMID:26722617

  12. Somatostatinoma of the first jejunal loop in a patient with neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen and bilateral pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Constantinoiu, Silviu; Constantin, Adrian; Predescu, Dragos; Iosif, Cristina; Hoara, Petre; Achim, Florin; Surugiu, Paul; Bacanu, Florin; Cociu, Luminita

    2012-09-01

    Somatostatinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which especially develops in the pancreas. There are few communicated cases about extra-pancreatic localization, having as a particularity the absence of somatostatin hypersecretion syndrome and frequent association with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We present the case of a 42-year old patient with Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis admitted in our clinic with a chronic upper digestive obstruction syndrome. The presence of a first jejunal loop somatostatinoma was an intraoperative surprising diagnosis that imposed jejunal resection and association of complementary specific treatment. Despite the therapeutic correct management, the status of the patient deteriorated very fast, confirming the aggressiveness of this neoplasia. PMID:22819908

  13. Limited efficacy of early postoperative jejunal feeding.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J T; Wolfe, B M; Calvert, C C

    1985-07-01

    Twenty patients underwent placement of a jejunal catheter for early postoperative feeding at the time of upper abdominal operations, and a control group of 11 patients underwent operative procedures of similar magnitude without jejunostomy. Advancement of the rate of feeding to target intake over 6 to 7 days was attempted. Complications from the feeding led to cessation or curtailment of intake in 65 percent of the patients. Specific complications included abdominal pain and distention, diarrhea, and retrograde reflux of the feeding into the stomach. No statistically significant difference in nitrogen balance was demonstrated between the fed and unfed groups, presumably due to the limitations of nutrient delivery or absorption in the fed groups or elevated breath hydrogen excretion in patients with abdominal pain and distention suggests that the nature of the nutrients, particularly complex carbohydrates, is a factor in the development of feeding complications. Caution must be exercised in advancing the rate of postoperative jejunal feeding. PMID:3925800

  14. Effects of spaceflight on the proliferation of jejunal mucosal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.; Moeller, C. L.; Sawyer, Heywood R.; Smirnov, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that the generalized, whole body decrease in synthetic activity due to microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight would be demonstrable in cells and tissues characterized by a rapid rate of turnover. Jejunal mucosal cells were chosen as a model since these cells are among the most rapidly proliferating in the body. Accordingly, the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts of Lieberkuhn in each of 5 rats flown on the COSMOS 2044 mission were compared to the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts in rats included in each of 3 ground control groups (i.e., vivarium, synchronous and caudal-elevated). No significant difference (p greater than .05) was detected in mitotic indices between the flight and vivarium group. Although the ability of jejunal mucosal cells to divide by mitosis was not impaired in flight group, there was, however, a reduction in the length of villi and depth of crypts. The concommitant reduction in villus length and crypth depth in the flight group probably reflects changes in connective tissue components within the core of villi.

  15. Abdominal Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma Associated With Lymphangiomatosis Involving Mesentery and Ileum: A Case Report of MRI, CT, and 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; He, Tianlin; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-02-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy that occurs mainly in the childhood. Adult patients with KH are rare. Imaging findings of KH have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in an adult patient with KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum.A 22-year-old female complained of a 9-month history of intermittent melena, weakness, and palpitation. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal occult blood test was positive. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed a large abdominal mass involving mesentery and ileum. On enhanced MRI, there were many hypervascular nodules in the mass. On FDG PET/CT, the mass and the nodules showed slight FDG uptake. Small bowel capsule endoscopy showed numerous grape-shaped red nodules in the luminal wall of the involved ileum. The patient underwent resection of the abdominal mass and a segment of the ileum invaded by the abdominal mass. KH arising within lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum was confirmed by pathology. After surgery, the patient's symptoms improved.This is the first case of KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. In this case, the lymphangiomatosis overshadowed the small tumor nodules resulting in unusual imaging findings. Familiarity with these imaging findings is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of KH. PMID:26871848

  16. Adult jejunojejunal intussusception in the face of jejunal adenocarcinoma: two infrequently encountered entities.

    PubMed

    Elmoghrabi, Adel; Mohamed, Mohamed; McCann, Michael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul

    2016-01-01

    Adult intussusception and small bowel adenocarcinoma are rarely encountered together. Intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult patients presenting with abdominal pain, especially those with unremitting symptoms. Concomitant anaemia should lower the threshold for suspicion of underlying malignancy. Jejunal adenocarcinoma represents a rare, but possible aetiology. PMID:26961563

  17. One of the Rare Causes of Acute Abdomen Leading to Subileus: Jejunal Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Elçin; Yerli, Hasan; Avcı, Tevfik; Yılmaz, Tuğbahan; Gülay, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Jejunal diverticulitis is one of the rare causes of acute abdomen generally seen in the elderly. Jejunal diverticulosis was defined as the herniation of the mucosa and the submucosa from the inside of the muscular layer of the bowel wall on the mesenteric side of the intestine. Case Report: We presented the intraoperative and pathological findings of a 69-year-old male patient who had presented with complaints about abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting and been operated upon due to subileus and peritonitis induced by large-sized jejunal diverticulitis, along with his computed tomography (CT) findings. Conclusion: Jejunal diverticulitis is uncommon and may be a disease which might be difficult to diagnose when it develops on the basis of the large-sized diverticula resembling intestinal ansae. To the best of our knowledge, the computed tomography and intraoperative findings of a case in which partial resection is applied to the jejunum due to subileus have not been previously presented in the literature. PMID:27308082

  18. Misty mesentery: a pictorial review of multidetector-row CT findings.

    PubMed

    Filippone, A; Cianci, R; Di Fabio, F; Storto, M L

    2011-04-01

    The term "misty mesentery" indicates a pathological increase in mesenteric fat attenuation at computed tomography (CT). It is frequently observed on multidetector CT (MDCT) scans performed during daily clinical practice and may be caused by various pathological conditions, including oedema, inflammation, haemorrhage, neoplastic infiltration or sclerosing mesenteritis. In patients suffering from acute abdominal disease, misty mesentery may be considered a feature of the underlying disease. Otherwise, it may represent an incidental finding on MDCT performed for other reasons. This article describes the MDCT features of misty mesentery in different diseases in order to provide a rational approach to the differential diagnosis. PMID:21311992

  19. Meckel’s diverticulum mesentery along with its band forming a hernial sac: A rare case of internal herniation

    PubMed Central

    Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Chandrashekhar; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal anomaly. However, only 2% of cases are symptomatic. It can cause intestinal obstruction by various mechanisms as volvulus, adhesions, Littre’s hernia, intussusception. Case presentation An unusual case of internal herniation of small bowel loops into complete hernia sac formed by unusual mesentery of Meckel’s diverticulum which was present upto the adhesive band, extending from tip of the Meckel’s diverticulum to the adjacent mesentery of small intestine leading to small bowel obstruction (SBO). Diverticulectomy with resection of adjacent ileum with ileo-ileal anastomosis was done. Discussion Internal herniation by MD leading to SBO is an extremely rare complication. In literature, cases of internal hernia through mesentry of Meckel’s diverticulum, through mesodiverticular band, adhesion of inflamed end of MD to corresponding base of mesentry, fibrous cord extending upto umblical wall have been reported but in our case, patient had both adhesion band along with internal herniation into sac formed by unusual mesentry of the meckel’s diverticulum and the adhesion band. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult with only 6–12% of cases diagnosed correctly. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients with intestinal obstruction or high risk of incarceration. Conclusion Meckel’s diverticulum causing internal hernia is rare event. It’s presentation due to herniation of bowel loops into sac formed by mesentery attached to diverticulum and the adhesion is rarest, with non specific signs and symptoms. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment prevent further complications. PMID:25790912

  20. Simultaneous measurement of pressure in the interstitium and the terminal lymphatics of the cat mesentery.

    PubMed Central

    Clough, G; Smaje, L H

    1978-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of the pressure in terminal lymphatics and interstitial tissue have been made in the exteriorized cat mesentery superfused with either physiological salt solution (Krebs solution) or a water-immiscible fluorocarbon, FC-80. 2. The pressures within individual terminal lymphatics were measured using glass micropipettes attached to a servo pressure-measuring system. Tissue pressures were recorded using saline-filled cotton-wool wicks. 3. Mean pressure recorded in the terminal lymphatics of the Krebs-superfused mesentery were slightly above atmospheric (+0.2 mmHg, n = 45), while those recorded in the FC-80-superfused mesentery were slightly below atmospheric (-0.2 mmHg, n = 46). 4. Tissue pressures were also slightly subatmospheric in the in situ mesentery, and the recently exposed tissue. Continuous superfusion with Krebs solution caused the tissue pressure to rise to atmospheric pressure or above; with FC-80-superfusion the tissue pressure also rose, but never to above atmospheric pressure. 5. Isolated strips of mesentery immersed in Krebs solutions of different concentrations gained weight, but when immersed in FC-80 no change in weight was detected. 6. It was concluded that the interstitial gel of the mesentery is normally unsaturated and that superfusion with Krebs solution leads to tissue oedema. This tendency is less marked in FC-80-superfused preparations. Possible mechanisms for lymph formation and propulsion are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:722586

  1. Jejunal Perfusion of Simple and Conjugated Folates in Tropical Sprue

    PubMed Central

    Corcino, José J.; Reisenauer, Ann M.; Halsted, Charles H.

    1976-01-01

    Absorption of labeled simple 3′,5′,9′-3H pteroylmonoglutamate, ([3H]PG-1) and conjugated pteroyl-μ[14C]glutamyl-γ-hexaglutamate, ([14C]PG-7) folates was assessed in six patients with tropical sprue, before and after 6 mo of treatment, utilizing jejunal perfusion and urinary recovery techniques. Degradation products of [14C]PG-7 which were produced during perfusion were identified by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. Jejunal mucosal activities of folate conjugase, lactase, sucrase, and maltase were measured in every patient. Malabsorption of both [3H]PG-1 and [14C]PG-7 was found in every untreated patient, with significant improvement after therapy. The urinary excretion of 3H and 14C paralleled the luminal disappearance of both isotopes. The chromatographic patterns of intraluminal degradation products of [14C]PG-7 obtained during perfusion did not differ from those previously found in normal subjects and were similar in studies performed before and after treatment. The activity of folate conjugase was increased in the mucosa of the untreated patients when compared to the post-treatment levels while the activities of mucosal lactase, sucrase, and maltase were originally low and increased significantly after therapy. These observations suggest that folate conjugase originates at a different mucosal locus than the brush border disaccharidases, and are consistent with previous evidence that folate conjugase is an intracellular enzyme. The present studies have demonstrated unequivocal malabsorption of both simple and conjugated folates in tropical sprue. In tropical sprue, folate malabsorption is the reflection of impaired folate transport and not of impaired hydrolysis. PMID:16695965

  2. FIXING JEJUNAL MANEUVER TO PREVENT PETERSEN HERNIA IN GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    MURAD-JUNIOR, Abdon José; SCHEIBE, Christian Lamar; CAMPELO, Giuliano Peixoto; de LIMA, Roclides Castro; MURAD, Lucianne Maria Moraes Rêgo Pereira; dos SANTOS, Eduardo Pachu Raia; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; VALADÃO, José Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Background : Among Roux-en-Y gastric bypass complications is the occurrence of intestinal obstruction by the appearance of internal hernias, which may occur in Petersen space or the opening in mesenteric enteroenteroanastomosis. Aim : To evaluate the efficiency and safety in performing a fixing jejunal maneuver in the transverse mesocolon to prevent internal hernia formation in Petersen space. Method : Two surgical points between the jejunum and the transverse mesocolon, being 5 cm and 10 cm from duodenojejunal angle are made. In all patients was left Petersen space open and closing the opening of the mesenteric enteroenteroanastomosis. Results : Among 52 operated patients, 35 were women (67.3%). The age ranged 18-63 years, mean 39.2 years. BMI ranged from 35 to 56 kg/m2 (mean 40.5 kg/m2). Mean follow-up was 15.1 months (12-18 months). The operative time ranged from 68-138 min. There were no intraoperative complications, and there were no major postoperative complications and no reoperations. The hospital stay ranged from 2-3 days. During the follow-up, no one patient developed suspect clinical presentation of internal hernia. Follow-up in nine patients (17.3%) showed asymptomatic cholelithiasis and underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During these procedures were verified the Petersen space and jejunal fixation. In all nine, there was no herniation of the jejunum to the right side in Petersen space. Conclusion : The fixation of the first part of the jejunum to left side of the transverse mesocolon is safe and effective to prevent internal Petersen hernia in RYGB postoperatively in the short and medium term. It may be interesting alternative to closing the Petersen space. PMID:26537279

  3. The Combination of Gastroschisis, Jejunal Atresia, and Colonic Atresia in a Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Zachary; Nanagas, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a rare case of gastroschisis associated with jejunal atresia and colonic atresia. In our case, the jejunal atresia was not discovered for 27 days after the initial abdominal wall closure. The colonic atresia was not discovered for 48 days after initial repair of the gastroschisis secondary to the rarity of the disorder. Both types of atresia were repaired with primary hand-sewn anastomoses. Other than the prolonged parenteral nutrition and hyperbilirubinemia, our patient did very well throughout his hospital course. Based on our case presentation, small bowel atresia and colonic atresia must be considered in patients who undergo abdominal wall closure for gastroschisis with prolonged symptoms suggestive of bowel obstruction. Our case report also demonstrates primary enteric anastomosis as a safe, well-tolerated surgical option for patients with types of intestinal atresia. PMID:26180651

  4. Effect of pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and colonic transit time in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, M; Salles, J P; Fallet, M; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1992-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a specific calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for its spasmolytic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and total and segmental colonic transit time in control subjects. Gastrointestinal studies were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (30 +/- 3 years), before and after a treatment phase of 14 days (150 mg/d). Jejunal motility was measured by prolonged manometry (14 h) and colonic transit time by a multiple ingestion, single marker technique. No significant modification of phase III of the migrating motor complexes was demonstrated. On the contrary, a significant (p < 0.01) but weak decrease of the frequency of contraction was found. Unlike previous studies, no decrease of total or segmental colonic transit time was demonstrated. PMID:1421047

  5. Ferric Chloride-induced Thrombosis Mouse Model on Carotid Artery and Mesentery Vessel.

    PubMed

    Bonnard, Thomas; Hagemeyer, Christoph E

    2015-01-01

    Severe thrombosis and its ischemic consequences such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and stroke are major worldwide health issues. The ferric chloride injury is now a well-established technique to rapidly and accurately induce the formation of thrombi in exposed veins or artery of small and large diameter. This model has played a key role in the study of the pathophysiology of thrombosis, in the discovery and validation of novel antithrombotic drugs and in the understanding of the mechanism of action of these new agents. Here, the implementation of this technique on a mesenteric vessel and carotid artery in mice is presented. The method describes how to label circulating leukocytes and platelets with a fluorescent dye and to observe, by intravital microscopy on the exposed mesentery, their accumulation at the injured vessel wall which leads to the formation of a thrombus. On the carotid artery, the occlusion caused by the clot formation is measured by monitoring the blood flow with a Doppler probe. PMID:26167713

  6. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Sanita; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Wei Wen; Gu, Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHAE) is a malignant vascular tumor derived from endothelial cell often misdiagnosed as Hepatic carcinoma on the basis of radiological features. Till now etiology of this rare curiosity is unknown but it is related with use of oral contraceptives pills (OCP), liver trauma, exposure to vinyl chloride and hepatitis. We herein report on a case which failed to be diagnosed by cytopathology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patient was a 46 yr old man presented with abdominal distension for a month. Initial liver function test (LFT) was increased whereas renal function test (RFT) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. His abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules and multiple liver calcifications. Subsequently laparoscopic omental biopsy and Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was done showing the neoplastic cells scattered in fibrous stroma. The immunohistochemistry for endothelial tumor cells stained positive for Vimentin (+++), CD10 (+++), CD34 (++), CD31 (+), Factor VIII antigen (focal) (+) and low proliferative activity for ki-67. Our case is very interesting in which patient admitted with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and diagnosed to be a Malignant Hepatic EHAE metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery. The patient was on thalidomide 50 mg/day and increased to 100 mg/day. 5-Flurouracil (FU) intraperitoneal chemotherapy and other symptomatic and supportive treatment was given to the patient. Our case highlights on the importance of immunohistopathological diagnosis, compare the radiological findings of this disease and discuss the treatment strategy with review of available literature. PMID:26191313

  7. Segmental "misty mesentery" on FDG PET/CT: an uncommon manifestation of mesenteric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Ameya D; Purandare, Nilendu C; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric lymphomas are commonly seen as bulky hypermetabolic nodal masses on F-FDG PET/CT. Very rarely, these are seen as mesenteric haziness due to localized hyperattenuation of fat, known as "misty mesentery", which morphological imaging-wise has other differentials as well. We report a unique imaging finding of segmental misty mesentery with hypermetabolic mesenteric nodes on FDG PET/CT in a patient who was kept on observation due to inconclusive biopsy, which on follow-up imaging progressed to extensive lymphomatous involvement. Thus, in retrospect, this imaging feature on baseline PET/CT was diagnostic for mesenteric lymphoma. PMID:23797224

  8. Ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches in buffalo calves: Histomorphological comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate the histomorphology of ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches in the small intestine of buffalo calves and their structural comparison. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on neonatal (n=10) and pre-pubertal (n=10) buffalo calves. The age of the postnatal buffalo calves was estimated by their temporary and permanent dentition. Results: The study revealed that several layers of oval to elongate elliptical lymphoid follicles were observed in submucosa on the anti-mesenteric side in the ileum of early neonatal calves. However, the follicles at this age, in jejunum were of all shapes present within one layer. The interfollicular space was occupied by the interfollicular tissue, which was diffuse and wider around jejunal lymphoid follicles as compared to ileal lymphoid follicles. However, toward the pubertal stage, the number of layers of lymphoid follicles was reduced in ileum due to involution while it remained similar in number in jejunum at this stage. Conclusion: The ileal Peyer’s patches were found to have started involution more or less around reaching puberty, whereas the jejunal Peyer’s patches appear to be functional throughout the lifespan of the animal. PMID:27047029

  9. Laparoscopy as a Diagnostic and Definitive Therapeutic Tool in Cases of Inflamed Simple Lymphatic Cysts of the Mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaal, Abdelrahman; Sulieman, Ibnouf; Aftab, Zia; Ahmed, Ayman; Al-Mudares, Saif; Al Tarakji, Mohannad; Almuzrakchi, Ahmad; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare benign abdominal tumors. These cysts, especially those of lymphatic origin, very rarely become inflamed. The diagnosis of inflamed lymphatic cysts of the mesentery may be difficult. We herein report two cases of inflamed simple lymphatic cysts of the mesentery definitively diagnosed and excised by laparoscopy. PMID:26064760

  10. Uncommon Presentation of Isolated Jejunal Lymphoma Masquerading as Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sattavan, Swati; Aggarwal, Lalit; Dikshit, Priyadarshi

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is a rare entity, commonly involving stomach, small bowel, and colorectum. The usual location for small bowel B cell lymphoma is distal ileum due to abundant lymphoid tissue. We are reporting the case of a 53-year-old lady presumptively diagnosed as Crohn's disease on clinical and radiological grounds but histopathologically proven to be an unusual variant of isolated primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:27313941

  11. Are children on jejunal feeds at risk of iron deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li-Zsa; Adams, Susan E; Kennedy, Alison; Kepreotes, Helen; Ooi, Chee Y

    2015-01-01

    Children on exclusive jejunal feeding may be at risk of iron deficiency due to the feeds bypassing the duodenum, which is the primary site for iron absorption. We describe the biochemical and hematological features of six children on exclusive jejunal feeding who did not receive iron supplementation. At a mean (standard deviation) period of 11 (6.5) mo after commencing jejunal feeds, there was a significant reduction in both serum iron (18.5 g/L vs 9.8 g/L, P = 0.01) and transferrin saturation levels (23.1% vs 13.7%, P = 0.02), suggesting iron deficiency. However, there was no significant change in ferritin, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume levels post-commencement of jejunal feeds. This may be the result of small bowel adaptation in response to early iron deficiency. Larger and longer term prospective studies are required to investigate if children on jejunal feeds are at risk of developing iron deficiency. PMID:25987804

  12. Symbolic dynamics of jejunal motility in the irritable bowel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Renate; Schmidt, Thomas

    1999-09-01

    Different studies of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by conventional analysis of jejunal motility report conflicting results. Therefore, our aim is to quantify the jejunal contraction activity by symbolic dynamics in order to discriminate between IBS and control subjects. Contraction amplitudes during fasting motility (phase II) are analyzed for 30 IBS and 30 healthy subjects. On the basis of a particular scale-independent discretization of the contraction amplitudes with respect to the median, IBS patients are characterized by increased block entropy as well as increased mean contraction amplitude. In a further more elementary level of analysis these differences can be reduced to specific contraction patterns within the time series, namely the fact that successive large contraction amplitudes are less ordered in IBS than in controls. These significant differences in jejunal motility may point to an altered control of the gut in IBS, although further studies on a representative number of patients have to be done for a validation of these findings.

  13. Jejunal disaccharidases in protein energy malnutrition and recovery.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R; Khambadkone, S M; Jain, M K; Ganapathy, S

    1994-11-01

    The jejunal disaccharidases, sucrase, maltase and lactase, were determined in jejunal biopsies obtained from 43 malnourished children and 10 controls. In the study group, 63% were girls and 93% had severe malnutrition. Lactase activity was significantly reduced in third and fourth degree malnutrition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively), but maltase activity was significantly reduced only in the fourth degree malnutrition (p < 0.01). After recovery, maltase and sucrase activities showed a marginally significant increase (p = 0.06), where lactase showed no significant increase (p > 0.05). We conclude that jejunal disaccharidase activity decreases significantly with increasing severity of malnutrition, lactase being the most severely affected and the last to recover. PMID:7896332

  14. Ascites Drainage Leading to Intestinal Adhesions at the Mesentery of the Small Intestine with Fatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kettler, B.; Schrem, H.; Klempnauer, J.; Grannas, G.

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in patients with chronic liver diseases and liver cirrhosis is the development of ascites. First line therapy for ascites is the restriction of sodium intake and a diuretic treatment. Paracentesis is indicated in patients with large compromising volumes of ascites. In selected cases, permanent drainage of ascites over prolonged periods of time may be indicated. In the case presented here, a 66-year-old male patient, who was hospitalized with liver cirrhosis caused by alcoholic abuse, required permanent drainage of ascites. After three weeks of continuous ascites drainage, he developed bacterial peritonitis. Conventional attempts to remove the catheter by transcutaneous pulling failed and we thus decided to perform a median laparotomy to remove the catheter surgically. Intraoperatively an adhesion of the ascites drain (a so called ‘basket catheter’) to the mesentery very close to the small intestine was found, approximately 50 mm distal of the ligament suspensorium duodeni (ligament of Treitz). The basket catheter used for this patient was especially designed to drain infections, not fluids. We solved the adhesion, removed the basket catheter, placed a new surgical drain and finished the operation. The patient developed a rupture of his abdominal fascia suture 12 days later, which was caused by massive ascites and complicated by hepatorenal syndrome type I. The patient was taken to the operating theater again. After the second operation, the chronic liver failure decompensated and the patient died. Ascites caused by liver cirrhosis is still a medical challenge. The indication for the use of the correct percutaneous catheter for permanent paracentesis should be carefully considered. Some catheters are obviously not suited to drain ascites and may lead to fatal outcomes. PMID:24453504

  15. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  16. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  17. MicroRNA changes in rat mesentery and serum associated with drug-induced vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Roberta A. Scicchitano, Marshall S.; Mirabile, Rosanna C.; Chau, Nancy T.; Frazier, Kendall S.; Thomas, Heath C.

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory miRNAs play a role in vascular biology and are involved in biochemical and molecular pathways dysregulated during vascular injury. Collection and integration of functional miRNA data into these pathways can provide insight into pathogenesis at the site of injury; the same technologies applied to biofluids may provide diagnostic or surrogate biomarkers. miRNA was analyzed from mesentery and serum from rats given vasculotoxic compounds for 4 days. Fenoldopam, dopamine and midodrine each alter hemodynamics and are associated with histologic evidence of vascular injury, while yohimbine is vasoactive but does not cause histologic evidence of vascular injury in rat. There were 38 and 35 miRNAs altered in a statistically significant manner with a fold change of 2 or greater in mesenteries of fenoldopam- and dopamine-dosed rats, respectively, with 9 of these miRNAs shared. 10 miRNAs were altered in rats given midodrine; 6 were shared with either fenoldopam or dopamine. In situ hybridization demonstrated strong expression and co-localization of miR-134 in affected but not in adjacent unaffected vessels. Mesenteric miRNA expression may provide clarity or avenues of research into mechanisms involved in vascular injury once the functional role of specific miRNAs becomes better characterized. 102 miRNAs were altered in serum from rats with drug-induced vascular injury. 10 miRNAs were commonly altered in serum from dopamine and either fenoldopam or midodrine dosed rats; 18 of these 102 were also altered in mesenteries from rats with drug-induced vascular injury, suggesting their possible utility as peripheral biomarkers. -- Highlights: ► Mesentery and serum were examined from rats given vasoactive compounds for 4 days. ► 72 miRNAs were altered in mesenteries from rats with vascular injury. ► miR-134 was localized to affected but not adjacent unaffected vessels. ► 102 miRNAs were changed in serum from rats with vascular injury. ► 18 miRNAs changed in both

  18. Peritonitis caused by jejunal perforation with Taenia saginata: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bekraki, Ali; Hanna, Khalil

    2016-03-01

    Complicated Taeniasis necessitating surgical intervention is extremely rare and is usually reported to occur in the distal ileal region of the Gastrointestinal tract. A case of peritonitis secondary to proximal jejunal perforation due to Taenia saginata is presented. Preoperative evaluation suggested the diagnosis of acute duodenal ulcer perforation. Although no real change in management and outcome is present, Taenia remains an exceptional direct cause of intestinal perforation, and should be kept on the list of differential diagnosis of peritonitis and acute abdomen in endemic geographical locations. PMID:27065626

  19. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-In; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  20. A Rare Case of Jejunal Arterio-Venous Fistula: Treatment with Superselective Catheter Embolization with a Tracker-18 Catheter and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Martin J. Anderson, Suzanne E.; Lourens, Steven; Triller, Juergen

    2004-11-15

    Arterio-venous fistulas may develop spontaneously, following trauma or infection, or be iatrogenic in nature. We present a rare case of a jejunal arterio- venous fistula in a 35-year-old man with a history of pancreatic head resection that had been performed two years previously because of chronic pancreatitis. The patient was admitted with acute upper abdominal pain, vomiting and an abdominal machinery-type bruit. The diagnosis of a jejunal arterio-venous fistula was established by MR imaging. Transfemoral angiography was performed to assess the possibility of catheter embolization. The angiographic study revealed a small aneurysm of the third jejunal artery, abnormal early filling of dilated jejunal veins and marked filling of the slightly dilated portal vein (13-14 mm). We considered the presence of segmental portal hypertension. The patient was treated with coil embolization in the same angiographic session. This case report demonstrates the importance of auscultation of the abdomen in the initial clinical examination. MR imaging and color Doppler ultrasound are excellent noninvasive tools in establishing the diagnosis. The role of interventional radiological techniques in the treatment of early portal hypertension secondary to jejunal arterio-venous fistula is discussed at a time when this condition is still asymptomatic. A review of the current literature is included.

  1. Balloon dilation of jejunal afferent loop functional stenosis following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long time after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-In; Hwang, Shin; Ko, Gi-Young; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kang, Chul-Min; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Cheon, Sung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    We present a rare case of functional stenosis of the jejunal loop following left hepatectomy and hepaticojejunostomy long after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), which was successfully managed by balloon dilation. A 70-year-old Korean man had undergone PPPD 6 years before due to 1.8 cm-sized distal bile duct cancer. Sudden onset of obstructive jaundice led to diagnosis of recurrent bile duct cancer mimicking perihilar cholangiocarcinoma of type IIIb. After left portal vein embolization, the patient underwent resection of the left liver and caudate lobe and remnant extrahepatic bile duct. The pre-existing jejunal loop and choledochojejunostomy site were used again for new hepaticojejunostomy. The patient recovered uneventfully, but clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube resulted in cholangitis. Biliary imaging studies revealed that biliary passage into the afferent jejunal limb was significantly impaired. We performed balloon dilation of the afferent jejunal loop by using a 20 mm-wide balloon. Follow-up hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed gradual improvement in biliary excretion and the PTBD tube was removed at 1 month after balloon dilation. This very unusual condition was regarded as disuse atrophy of the jejunal loop, which was successfully managed by balloon dilation and intraluminal keeping of a large-bore PTBD tube for 1 month. PMID:26155279

  2. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacy L.; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  3. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacy L; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-02-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of small bowel mesentery with postoperative bowel obstruction: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jing; Li, Ruo-Tong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Wei-Dong; Fu, Wei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) which is an extremely rare clinical entity has been reported infrequently. Most commonly it is distinguished into pleural and extrapleural forms, with same morphological resemblance. There has been many literatures reported regarding extrapleural form of SFT but few cases of SFT originating from small bowel mesentery have been reported till now. We here report one case of SFT of small bowel mesentery with some eventful postoperative bowel obstruction and literature review. PMID:26617912

  5. Upper G.I. hemorrhage from glass fragments’ ingestion in a patient with jejunal diverticula – Case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Gattai, Riccardo; Pantalone, Desire’; Migliaccio, Maria Luisa; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Peris, Adriano; Bechi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency. The ingestion of foreign bodies represents a less frequent cause of bleeding, but it is equally life-threatening, especially if the patient does not report the incident. Presentation of case We are reporting the case of a 77-year-old patient with a bleeding caused by ingestion of glass fragments with co-existing jejunal diverticula. Discussion The ingestion of foreign bodies is a rare, mostly accidental event. Another possible source of upper G.I. bleeding is jejunal diverticula; in this case, the examination of the specimens showed evidence of glass ingestion fragments as the likely cause of bleeding. Conclusion Surgeons should be aware that patients may fail to report correctly on the possible causes of bleeding, misleading the diagnosis, and delaying the diagnostic routes. PMID:25543882

  6. Experiment K-7-17: Effects of Spaceflight on the Proliferation of Jejunal Mucosal Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Moeller, C. L.; Sawyer, H. R.; Smirnov, K. L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that the generalized, whole body decrease in synthetic activity due to microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight would be demonstrable in cells and tissues characterized by a rapid rate of turnover. Jejunal mucosal cells were chosen as a model since these cells are among the most rapidly proliferating in the body. Accordingly, the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts of Lieberkuhn in each of 5 rats flown on the COSMOS 2044 mission were compared to the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts in rats included in each of 3 ground control groups (i.e., vivarium, synchronous and caudal-elevated). No significant difference (p greater than .05) was detected in mitotic indices between the flight and vivarium group. Although the ability of jejunal mucosal cells to divide by mitosis was not impaired in flight group, there was, however, a reduction in the length of villi and depth of crypts. The concommitant reduction in villus length and crypth depth in the flight group probably reflects changes in connective tissue components within the core of villi.

  7. Jejunal epithelial glucose metabolism: effects of Na+ replacement.

    PubMed

    Mallet, R T; Jackson, M J; Kelleher, J K

    1986-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of replacement of extracellular Na+ with a nontransportable cation, N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG+) on jejunal epithelial glucose metabolism. Jejunal epithelium isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats was incubated in media containing 5 mM glucose, 0.5 mM glutamine, 0.5 mM beta-hydroxybutyrate, and 0.3 mM acetoacetate as the principal carbon sources. O2 consumption and total glucose utilization were reduced 30 and 50%, respectively, when Na+ was replaced with NMDG+. In both media, approximately 75% of utilized glucose carbon was converted to lactate. The rate of glucose metabolism via the hexose monophosphate shunt, as evaluated using specific 14CO2 yields from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose, was not appreciably altered by Na+ replacement. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux was evaluated using 14CO2 production from [14C]glucose and [14C]pyruvate radioisotopes. Approximately 50% of TCA cycle flux was shunted into products other than CO2 in both media. The majority of the acetyl-CoA oxidized in the TCA cycle was derived from cytosolic pyruvate. It is concluded that removal of Na+ from the bathing medium substantially reduced glucose utilization via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and TCA cycle in the jejunal epithelium. PMID:3777159

  8. Microperfusion Technique to Investigate Regulation of Microvessel Permeability in Rat Mesentery.

    PubMed

    Curry, Fitz-Roy E; Clark, Joyce F; Adamson, Roger H

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to measure the permeability properties of individually perfused microvessels provide a bridge between investigation of molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating vascular permeability in cultured endothelial cell monolayers and the functional exchange properties of whole microvascular beds. A method to cannulate and perfuse venular microvessels of rat mesentery and measure the hydraulic conductivity of the microvessel wall is described. The main equipment needed includes an intravital microscope with a large modified stage that supports micromanipulators to position three different microtools: (1) a beveled glass micropipette to cannulate and perfuse the microvessel; (2) a glass micro-occluder to transiently block perfusion and enable measurement of transvascular water flow movement at a measured hydrostatic pressure, and (3) a blunt glass rod to stabilize the mesenteric tissue at the site of cannulation. The modified Landis micro-occlusion technique uses red cells suspended in the artificial perfusate as markers of transvascular fluid movement, and also enables repeated measurements of these flows as experimental conditions are changed and hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure difference across the microvessels are carefully controlled. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity first using a control perfusate, then after re-cannulation of the same microvessel with the test perfusates enable paired comparisons of the microvessel response under these well-controlled conditions. Attempts to extend the method to microvessels in the mesentery of mice with genetic modifications expected to modify vascular permeability were severely limited because of the absence of long straight and unbranched microvessels in the mouse mesentery, but the recent availability of the rats with similar genetic modifications using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology is expected to open new areas of investigation where the methods described herein can be applied. PMID:26436435

  9. Pulsating blood-flow monitoring in developing fish embryos and rat mesentery by laser Doppler microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkulova, K. F.; Lapteva, N. B.; Levenko, Borislav A.; Polyakova, Marina S.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Proskurin, Sergei G.; Romanovsky, Yuri A.; Sokolova, Irina A.

    1993-07-01

    Laser Doppler (LD) microscopy is a technique, providing high-resolution noninvasive measurements of microstructures dynamics. It can be used in different fields of biophysics and biomedicine. This technique yields quantitative information on diffusion coefficients, velocities, and velocity profiles of dynamic microstructures in vivo and in vitro. LD microscopy is an alternative method of velocity measurement to such methods as computer- aided microphotography and imaging, diffraction grating microscopy, FRAP, etc. In this paper we describe the results of our LDM measurements of one of the main hemodynamic parameters -- the blood-flow velocities in the microvessels of Salmo salar and Danio rerio fish embryos, as well as of the rat mesentery.

  10. Blood flow velocity measurements in rat mesentery arterioles in health and under hypertensive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, Marina S.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Proskurin, Sergei G.; Savchenko, Natalia B.; Shakhnazarov, Alexander A.

    1994-07-01

    Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow velocities in the vessels of rat mesentery have been performed to study the effect of the drag-reducing agent polyethylene oxide Polyox WSR-301 on microcirculation. These agents are capable of increasing the cardiac output and decreasing the arterial pressure. Measurements performed on spontaneously hypertensive rats anesthetized by Nembutal showed that the mean blood velocities in all groups of studied vessels are higher (by nearly two to three times) as compared to those in controls. Most likely these results reflect the effects of hypertensive raising pressure drop and the `rarefaction' phenomenon.

  11. A case of lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Ignacio; Latorre, Rafael; Soria, Federico; Carballo, Fernando; Lopez-Albors, Octavio; Buendia, Antonio J; Perez-Cuadrado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    A 3 yr old male English setter dog was presented for evaluation of a 6-wk history of intermittent diarrhea. After standard gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy showed normal mucosa, double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) was used via both oral and anal approaches. Gross changes consistent with inflammation in the jejunum were seen, and biopsy specimens were obtained. Histologic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis. Clinical remission of the disease occurred after 3 mo of therapy with prednisone, metronidazole, and a novel protein diet. Use of DBE has not been previously reported in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease, and isolated lymphocytic-plasmacytic jejunitis has not been described. The described cases of intestinal inflammatory disease diagnosed by conventional endoscopy were related to pathologic changes in the duodenum, ileum or colon, but not the jejunum. The main advantage of the DBE technique allowed examination of portions of the small intestine (jejunum) that were not commonly accessible by standard endoscopic techniques, and permitted a minimally invasive collection of biopsy samples compared with surgical biopsy. This case highlights the need to consider using DBE in animals with gastrointestinal disorders, whose symptoms are not readily explained by routine tests, conventional endoscopy, and dietary or therapeutic trials. PMID:21673335

  12. Splanchnic slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with punctate receptive fields in the mesentery and gastrointestinal tract of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. F. B.

    1973-01-01

    1. A class of slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with A-delta and C fibres running in the splanchnic nerves of cats is described. 2. The mechanoreceptors have punctate regions of mechanical sensitivity at macroscopic vascular branching points and have been found in the lesser omentum, the mesentery of the gall-bladder, porta hepatis, portal vein, pancreas, spleen and the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and their mesenteries. 3. The receptive fields of these mechanoreceptors vary considerably in size in the different regions. The largest receptive fields were found in the small intestinal mesentery and consisted of up to seven points of mechanical sensitivity at vascular divisions, each separated by distances of a few up to about 40 mm. The smallest receptive fields were single or double points of mechanical sensitivity which were most commonly found in relation to the portal vein in the root of the mesentery. 4. Maintained stretch of the receptive field elicited a train of impulses which had phasic and tonic components. The tonic discharge was sometimes maintained for more than 1 min. 5. Distension of a neighbouring viscus often caused a discharge which had a phasic component and a variable tonic component. The occurrence of the latter appeared to depend on the relative positions of the bowel and mesentery, and was probably associated with a change in tension on the mesentery. 6. Occlusion of the portal vein resulted in some units in a discharge which began soon after the start of the occlusion. 7. The receptors do not appear to be affected by acid, hypoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:4747231

  13. Influence of meal composition on canine jejunal water and electrolyte absorption.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, J A; Zinner, M J; Bastidas, J A; Orandle, M S; Yeo, C J

    1992-02-01

    The absorption of water and electrolytes from the proximal jejunal lumen increases immediately after a meal. This meal-induced jejunal absorption occurs in jejunal segments out of normal gastrointestinal continuity. This study was designed to characterize the jejunal absorptive response to a series of isovolumetric gavage-delivered stimuli. Twenty-five-centimeter canine proximal jejunal Thiry-Vella fistulas were constructed, and jejunal absorption studies (n = 66) were performed by luminal perfusion of the jejunal segments with an isotonic buffer containing 14C-labeled polyethylene glycol. Each study consisted of a 1-hour basal period, followed by a 3-hour experimental period. Nine groups were studied, each receiving one of the following isovolumetric stimuli delivered via the gavage route: water, 0.9% saline, mixed meal, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mannitol (150 mmol/L, 300 mmol/L, and 600 mmol/L). The water and 0.9% saline gavage groups showed no significant changes in integrated postprandial water and electrolyte absorption above basal. The isocaloric mixed meal, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mannitol groups all had significantly increased integrated postprandial jejunal water and electrolyte absorption above basal (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that a proabsorptive signal for meal-induced jejunal absorption originates from or distal to the stomach. Meal-induced jejunal absorption occurs in response to nutrients of diverse composition and is also responsive to nonnutritive solutes such as mannitol. These findings support a new role for gastric or intestinal chemo- or osmo-receptors in stimulating the neurohumoral mechanisms that mediate meal-induced jejunal absorption. PMID:1732119

  14. The diagnosis of lymph microcirculation in experimental studies on rat mesentery in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Solovieva, Anastasia V.; Stepanova, Tatyana V.; Brill, Gregory E.

    2003-07-01

    The many biological and medical problems associated with microlymphatic functioning and its disturbances at different diseases, include primary and secondary lymphedema, inflammation, lymphatic malformations, and so on. It is important both to establish an adequate animal model for study lymph microcirculation in vivo and to match it with corresponding diagnostic techniques. The rat mesentery has been successfully used in experiments focusing on the microcirculation, including small lymphatics. Among optical methods the transmittance microscopy is most widely employed to study microcirculation. We have undertaken following investigations: development and evaluation of capability of transmission microscopy for in vivo studies of microcirculation; obtaining of single cell images; estimation of lymph microcirculation parameters, including the relation of forward to backward flow in intact lymphatics; regulation of microlymphatic function by nitric oxide and study of microlymphatic disturbances at the experimental lymphedema. Although interesting data has been obtained, the transmission microscopy has the relatively low absorption sensitivity and prevents obtaining good absorption contrast. To obtain more comprehensive physiological data, the further development and improvement imaging of rat mesentery is discussed with focus on new combined optical imaging systems which integrate recent advances in video-transmission and photothermal (PT) microscopy, PT fluid velocimetry, and laser spectroscopy.

  15. Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2007-01-01

    Using animal mesentery with intravital optical microscopy is a well-established experimental model for studying blood and lymph microcirculation in vivo. Recent advances in cell biology and optical techniques provide the basis for extending this model for new applications, which should generate significantly improved experimental data. This review summarizes the achievements in this specific area, including in vivo label-free blood and lymph photothermal flow cytometry, super-sensitive fluorescence image cytometry, light scattering and speckle flow cytometry, microvessel dynamic microscopy, infrared (IR) angiography, and high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast flow. The capabilities of these techniques, using the rat mesentery model, were demonstrated in various studies; e.g., real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells, studies on vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics under normal conditions and under different interventions (e.g. lasers, drugs, nicotine), assessment of lymphatic disturbances from experimental lymphedema, monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems, and high-speed imaging of cell transient deformability in flow. In particular, the obtained results demonstrated that individual cell transportation in living organisms depends on cell type (e.g., normal blood or leukemic cells), the cell’s functional state (e.g., live, apoptotic, or necrotic), and the functional status of the organism. Possible future applications, including in vivo early diagnosis and prevention of disease, monitoring immune response and apoptosis, chemo- and radio-sensitivity tests, and drug screening, are also discussed. PMID:17226898

  16. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  17. Ileal impaction and jejunal enterotomy in a 4-month-old Arabian filly

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Munsterman, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    A 4-month-old Arabian filly was treated by surgical correction of an ileal impaction. The impaction was resolved through a distal jejunal enterotomy. One-year follow-up showed no post-operative complications secondary to the enterotomy. Jejunal enterotomy may be a surgical option for resolution of an ileal impaction. PMID:22753967

  18. Jejunal and ileal absorption of oxprenolol in man: influence of nutrients and digestive secretions on jejunal absorption and systemic availability.

    PubMed Central

    Godbillon, J; Vidon, N; Palma, R; Pfeiffer, A; Franchisseur, C; Bovet, M; Gosset, G; Bernier, J J; Hirtz, J

    1987-01-01

    1 Study I evaluated the absorption of oxprenolol in the ileum, compared to jejunum, in healthy volunteers by an intestinal perfusion technique. Around 80 mg of drug were delivered as a saline solution directly in the small bowel. 2 Samples taken 30 cm distally to the site of perfusion showed that 63% of perfused oxprenolol was absorbed in the jejunum and 48% in the ileum; the differences were significant. 3 The plasma concentration-time profiles were similar for the two perfusions. The AUC and Cmax values of free and conjugated oxprenolol for the jejunal perfusion were significantly lower than those of ileum. They showed large but consistent intersubject variations in the two treatments. 4 Study II investigated, using the same technique, the influence of nutrients and digestive secretions on jejunal absorption and systemic availability of this drug. A saline (in treatments A and B) or a nutrient (in treatment C) solution containing oxprenolol was perfused into the jejunum below a balloon either inflated (A) or deflated (B and C). 5 The disappearance rate of oxprenolol from the jejunum was unaffected by endogenous secretions. The mean amount of drug absorbed along a 30-cm jejunal segment accounted for 52 (A) and 57% (B) of the total amount perfused. The intestinal absorption rate was markedly increased in the presence of nutrients (mean amount absorbed 96% for C). 6 The change in the rate of disappearance from the intestine had no effect on the systemic availability of oxprenolol (mean AUC values 8740, 8250 and 8020 nmol l-1 h for A, B and C, respectively) or its elimination from plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3663450

  19. [Jejunal diverticulosis: a cause of infrequent gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Case report].

    PubMed

    Zapata, R; Rojas, C; Gaete, F

    2000-10-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a very uncommon acquired disease. Clinical manifestations include acute life threatening complication such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Jejunal diverticulosis is an extremely rare site of origin of gastrointestinal bleeding, with fewer than seventy cases reported in the literature. We report a 77-year-old patient with a recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding manifested by melena and hematochaezia. During the hospitalization the tagged red blood cell scanning was positive for bleeding in the jejunum. At laparotomy, several large-mouthed diverticula at the proximal jejunum were identified. Approximately 30 centimeters of the involved segment was resected with primary end-to-end anastomosis. Postoperative 7 month evolution has been favorable, without any evidence of rebleeding. This report reviews the literature concerning this disease, discusses some diagnostic methods of studying small bowel bleeding and highlights the need to consider this diagnosis in old patients with a gastrointestinal hemorrhage of unknown origin (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1133-38). PMID:11349513

  20. Intravital Microscopy of Leukocyte-endothelial and Platelet-leukocyte Interactions in Mesenterial Veins in Mice.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nadine; Mauler, Maximilian; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a method that can be used to investigate different processes in different regions and vessels in living animals. In this protocol, we describe intravital microscopy of mesentery veins. This can be performed in a short period of time with reproducible results showing leukocyte-endothelial interactions in vivo. We describe an inflammatory setting after LPS challenge of the endothelium. But in this model one can apply many different types of inflammatory conditions, like bacterial, chemical or biological and investigate the administration of drugs and their direct effects on the living animal and its impact on leukocyte recruitment. This protocol has been applied successfully to a number of different treatments of mice and their effects on inflammatory response in vessels. Herein, we describe the visualization of leukocytes and platelets by fluorescently labeling these with rhodamine 6G. Additionally, any specific imaging can be performed using targeted fluorescently labeled molecules. PMID:26325284

  1. Mechanism of bile acid-regulated glucose and lipid metabolism in duodenal-jejunal bypass

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jie; Zou, Lei; Li, Xirui; Han, Dali; Wang, Shan; Hu, Sanyuan; Guan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid plays an important role in regulating blood glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. The present study was implemented to determine the effect of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on FXR, TGR-5expression in terminal ileum and its bile acid-related mechanism on glucose and lipid metabolism. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect relative gene or protein expression in liver and intestine. Firstly, we found that expression of FXR in liver and terminal ileum of DJB group was significantly higher than that in S-DJB group (P<0.05). In addition, DJB dramatically increased the activation of TGR-5 in the liver of rats. Furthermore, PEPCK, G6Pase, FBPase 1 and GLP-1 were up-regulated by DJB. In conclusion, these results showed that bile acid ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism through bile acid-FXR and bile acid- TGR-5 signaling pathway. PMID:26884847

  2. The effects of progressive anemia on jejunal mucosal and serosal tissue oxygenation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Haisjackl, M; Luz, G; Sparr, H; Germann, R; Salak, N; Friesenecker, B; Deusch, E; Meusburger, S; Hasibeder, W

    1997-03-01

    Anemia may promote intestinal hypoxia. We studied the effects of progressive isovolemic hemodilution on jejunal mucosal (Po2muc), and serosal tissue oxygen tension (Po2ser, Clark-type surface electrodes), mucosal microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Hbo2muc), and hematocrit (Hctmuc; tissue reflectance spectophotometry) in a jejunal segment. Twelve domestic pigs were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Laparatomy was performed, arterial supply of a jejunal segment isolated, and constant pressure pump perfused. Seven animals were progressively hemodiluted to systemic hematocrits (Hctsys) of 20%, 15%, 10%, and 6%. Baseline for Po2muc, Po2ser and Hbo2muc was 23.5 +/- 2.1 mm Hg, 57.5 +/- 4 mm Hg, and 47.0% +/- 6.4% which were not different from the five controls. Despite a significant increase in jejunal blood flow, jejunal oxygen delivery decreased and oxygen extraction ratio increased significantly at Hctsys 10% and 6%. Po2ser decreased significantly below or at Hctsys of 15%, whereas Po2muc and Hbo2muc were maintained to Hctsys of 10%, but less than 10% Hbo2muc and mesenteric venous pH decreased significantly, implying that physiological limits of jejunal microvascular adaptation to severe anemia were reached. Decrease of Hctmuc was less pronounced than Hctsys. In conclusion, redistribution of jejunal blood flow and an increase in the ratio of mucosal to systemic hematocrit are the main mechanisms maintaining mucosal oxygen supply during progressive anemia. PMID:9052297

  3. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Preeti; Mandal, Maloy B.; Gangopadhyay, Ajay N.; Patne, Shashikant C. U.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker), pheniramine (H1 blocker), and lignocaine (neuronal blocker) to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM). ACh (100 μM) induced contractions were attenuated (by 60%) by atropine. Histamine (100 μM)-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM) and lignocaine (4 μM) by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients. PMID:26862290

  4. Effects of histamine on the contractile and electrical activity in isolated lymphatic vessels of the guinea-pig mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James L R; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2002-01-01

    The effect of histamine on the rate of lymphatic vessel constrictions and lymphatic smooth muscle membrane potential was examined in the guinea-pig mesentery. Histamine (0.01–5 μM) increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of constrictions in lymphatic vessels under intraluminal perfusion. This response was accompanied by a depolarization of the smooth muscle membrane potential, an increase in the activity of spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs), the proposed pacemaker for constrictions in these vessels, and an increase in the occurrence of action potentials. Responses to histamine were inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine (0.2 μM), but unaffected by NO synthase inhibition with NG-nitro L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM) and lysis of the endothelium. In about 50% of the vessels, a decrease in constriction frequency, STD activity and a smooth muscle hyperpolarization were observed in response to dimaprit (10 μM), suggesting the presence of H2 receptors. These vessels had also a significantly lower basal contractile rate. Lymphatic vessel pumping was not affected by R-α-methylhistamine (10–50 μM), ruling out a role for H3 receptor stimulation in the histamine response. The present results suggest a direct action of histamine on the lymphatic smooth muscle via stimulation of H1 (and in some vessels H2) receptors. H1 receptors enhance and H2 receptors slow down lymphatic pumping, the dominant effect being an increased contractile activity. Correlation of these effects with histamine-induced changes in membrane potential and STD activity suggests the involvement of these electrical changes in the initiation of the contractile response. PMID:12163355

  5. Temporary Trans-jejunal Hepatic Duct Stenting in Roux-en-y Hepaticojejunostomy for Reconstruction of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Fazeli, Mohammad; Kazemeini, Ali Reza; Jafarian, Ali; Bashashati, Mohammad; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile Duct Injuries (BDI) during cholecystectomy are now being recognized as major health problems. Objectives Herein, we present our experience with handling major BDIs and report long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomies followed by trans-jejunal hepatic duct stenting performed to reconstruct extra-hepatic biliary tracts. Materials and Methods In this case series, we prospectively collected data of 22 patients, who underwent first time biliary reconstruction through Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy followed by hepatic duct stenting using a trans-jejunal bifurcated 6F tube drain. The long-term outcome was assessed and defined as excellent (asymptomatic, normal liver enzymes and bilirubin levels), good (asymptomatic, mild abnormality in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels), poor (symptomatic, abnormal liver enzymes and bilirubin level) and failure (requiring reoperation). Results A total of 22 patients including four males (18.1%) and 18 females (81.8%) were evaluated. The mean age was 42.71 (range: 23 - 74) years. Twelve patients had undergone open cholecystectomy (54.5%) and the rest had a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The mean interval between the primary operation and reconstruction was 92.71 days. The mean follow-up period after biliary reconstruction was 42.33 (range: 1 - 96) months. No instance of anastomotic leakage or stenosis, biliary sepsis, thromboembolic event, or respiratory infection was noted in the long-term follow-up. The outcome was excellent in all patients. No case with poor or failure of result was noticed. Conclusions Although a devastating complication iatrogenic major bile duct injuries can be corrected surgically with a high rate of success. Temporary trans-jejunal stenting of the hepatic ducts can help in maintaining the integrity of anastomosis without stenosis or biliary sepsis. PMID:27626003

  6. Percutaneous Retrograde Sclerotherapy for Refractory Bleeding of Jejunal Varices: Direct Injection via Superficial Epigastric Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu Nakata, Waka; Isoda, Norio Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-02-15

    Small-bowel varices are rare and almost always occur in cases with portal hypertension. We encountered a patient with bleeding jejunal varices due to liver cirrhosis. Percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy was performed via the superficial epigastric vein. Melena disappeared immediately after treatment. Disappearance of jejunal varices was confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrent melena was observed.

  7. Induction by endotoxin of nitric oxide synthase in the rat mesentery: lack of effect on action of vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J. A.; Kohlhaas, K. L.; Sorrentino, R.; Warner, T. D.; Murad, F.; Vane, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. Male Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and killed after 1, 3, 6, 15, and 24 h. The brains, mesenteries, spleens, lungs, livers, kidneys, hearts, aortae and diaphragms were removed and frozen immediately. Control rats were injected with sterile saline and killed after 6 h. 2. The organs were homogenized in a semi-frozen state and NO synthase (NOS) activity measured in tissues from both LPS-treated and saline-treated groups by the ability of homogenates to convert [3H]-L-arginine to [3H]-L-citrulline in a NADPH-dependent manner. 3. The NOS activity in all organs taken from control animals was found to be calcium-dependent, with the highest activity being in the brain. After LPS-treatment an induced calcium-independent NOS was detected in all tissues tested, with the exception of the brain. The spleen, lung, mesentery and liver had the highest amounts of LPS-induced NOS activity. No induction of calcium-dependent NOS was detected. 4. Induction of NOS was maximum 6 h after administration of LPS and had returned to control levels in 24 h. 5. The constitutive NOS in brain and mesentery and the LPS-induced activities in the spleen, lung, liver and mesentery were inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) according to concentration. The IC50 for L-NAME was 2.5 microM against the constitutive NOS from brain, and 20-25 microM against the inducible NOS. For L-NMMA the IC50 was 20-25 microM against either NOS isoform.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7684306

  8. Primordial germ cells in the dorsal mesentery of the chicken embryo demonstrate left–right asymmetry and polarized distribution of the EMA1 epitope

    PubMed Central

    Hen, Gideon; Friedman-Einat, Miriam; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of the chicken as a model system, our understanding of the development of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) is far from complete. Here we characterized the morphology of PGCs at different developmental stages, their migration pattern in the dorsal mesentery of the chicken embryo, and the distribution of the EMA1 epitope on PGCs. The spatial distribution of PGCs during their migration was characterized by immunofluorescence on whole-mounted chicken embryos and on paraffin sections, using EMA1 and chicken vasa homolog antibodies. While in the germinal crescent PGCs were rounded and only 25% of them were labeled by EMA1, often seen as a concentrated cluster on the cell surface, following extravasation and migration in the dorsal mesentery PGCs acquired an elongated morphology, and 90% exhibited EMA1 epitope, which was concentrated at the tip of the pseudopodia, at the contact sites between neighboring PGCs. Examination of PGC migration in the dorsal mesentery of Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20–22 embryos demonstrated a left–right asymmetry, as migration of cells toward the genital ridges was usually restricted to the right, rather than the left, side of the mesentery. Moreover, an examination of another group of cells that migrate through the dorsal mesentery, the enteric neural crest cells, revealed a similar preference for the right side of the mesentery, suggesting that the migratory pathway of PGCs is dictated by the mesentery itself. Our findings provide new insights into the migration pathway of PGCs in the dorsal mesentery, and suggest a link between EMA1, PGC migration and cell–cell interactions. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying migration of PGCs in avians. PMID:24697411

  9. Lysophosphatidic acid does not cause blood/lymphatic vessel plasticity in the rat mesentery culture model.

    PubMed

    Sweat, Richard S; Azimi, Mohammad S; Suarez-Martinez, Ariana D; Katakam, Prasad; Murfee, Walter L

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind endothelial cell identity is crucial for the goal of manipulating microvascular networks. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and serum stimulation have been suggested to induce a lymphatic identity in blood endothelial cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if LPA or serum induces blood-to-lymphatic vessel phenotypic transition in microvascular networks. The rat mesentery culture model was used to observe the effect of stimulation on blood and lymphatic microvascular networks ex vivo. Vascularized mesenteric tissues were harvested from adult Wistar rats and cultured with LPA or 10% serum for up to 5 days. Tissues were then immunolabeled with PECAM to identify blood vessels and LYVE-1 or Prox1 to identify lymphatic vessels. We show that while LPA caused capillary sprouting and increased vascular length density in adult microvascular networks, LPA did not cause a blood-to-lymphatic phenotypic transition. The results suggest that LPA is not sufficient to cause blood endothelial cells to adopt a lymphatic identity in adult microvascular networks. Similarly, serum stimulation caused robust angiogenesis and increased lymphatic/blood vessel connections, yet did not induce a blood-to-lymphatic phenotypic transition. Our study highlights an understudied area of lymphatic research and warrants future investigation into the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessel identity. PMID:27401461

  10. Claudin-4 undergoes age-dependent change in cellular localization on pig jejunal villous epithelial cells, independent of bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, J Alex; Kent-Dennis, Coral; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Wilson, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases. PMID:25948883

  11. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Van Kessel, Andrew G.; Wilson, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases. PMID:25948883

  12. Ectopic Jejunal Variceal Rupture in a Liver Transplant Recipient Successfully Treated With Percutaneous Transhepatic Coil Embolization: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Abe, Satoru; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Hoshikawa, Mayumi; Shirata, Chikara; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the rupture of ectopic jejunal varices developing in a liver transplant recipient without portal hypertension, which was successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic coil embolization.A 48-year-old man with massive melena was admitted to our department. He had undergone liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis 8 months before, and his postoperative course was satisfactory except for an acute cellular rejection. No evidence of bleeding was detected by upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, but dynamic multidetector computed tomography of the whole abdomen revealed an intestinal varix protruding into the lumen of the jejunum with suspected extravasation. There was no evidence of portal venous stenosis or thrombosis. Immediately upon diagnosis of the ruptured ectopic jejunal varix, percutaneous transhepatic coil embolization was performed, achieving complete hemostasis. The portal venous pressure measured during the procedure was within normal limits. He was discharged from the hospital 11 days after embolization and remained in stable condition without re-bleeding 6 months after discharge.This is the first report of an ectopic intestinal variceal rupture in an uneventful liver transplant recipient that was successfully treated with interventional percutaneous transhepatic coil embolization. Clinicians encountering liver transplant recipients with melena should be aware of the possibility of late-onset rupture of ectopic varices, even in those having an uneventful post-transplant course without portal hypertension. PMID:26632745

  13. Reconstruction with Jejunal Pouch after Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Eri; Munekage, Masaya; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The construction of a gastric substitute pouch after gastrectomy for gastric cancer has been proposed to help ameliorate postprandial symptoms and nutritional performance. Adequate reconstruction after gastrectomy is an important issue, because postoperative patient quality of life (QOL) primarily depends on the reconstruction method. To this end, jejunal pouch (JP) reconstructions were developed to improve the patient's eating capacity and QOL by creating large reservoirs with improved reflux barriers to prevent esophagitis and residual gastritis. It is important that such reconstructions also preserve blood and extrinsic neural integrity for maintaining pouch function, because JP motility is associated directly with QOL. Some problems remain to be resolved with the JP reconstructions method including gastrointestinal motility, which plays a major role in food transfer, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. Further studies including basic research and larger prospective randomized control trials are also needed to obtain definitive results. With persistent innovations in surgical techniques, JP after gastrectomy could become a safe and preferable reconstructive modality to improve patient QOL after gastrectomy. PMID:27305882

  14. Vasodilator responses to dopamine in rat perfused mesentery are age-dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Wanstall, J. C.; O'Donnell, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. Dose-dependent vasodilator responses to dopamine, isoprenaline, noradrenaline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and sodium nitroprusside were obtained in isolated perfused mesentery preparations, taken from reserpine-treated rats of different ages. The preparations were pretreated with phenoxybenzamine (1 microM) and perfused with physiological salt solution containing cocaine (10 microM), additional KCl (20 mM) and vasopressin (0.1 microM). 2. Vasodilator responses to dopamine were abolished by the dopamine1 (DA1)-selective antagonist SCH 23390 (10 nM) and those to isoprenaline by propranolol (1 microM), but the vasodilator responses to noradrenaline were abolished only when SCH 23390 and propranolol were used together. This indicated that dopamine was acting via DA1-receptors, isoprenaline via beta-adrenoceptors and that noradrenaline could act via DA1-receptors and beta-adrenoceptors in this preparation. 3. Responses to all the vasodilator drugs decreased in magnitude between the ages of 1 and 2 months. Responses to dopamine declined further in 4 month-old rats and were negligible at 6 or 22-24 months of age. Responses to isoprenaline were well maintained up to 6 months of age, but were negligible at 22-24 months. 4. It is concluded that, in the rat mesenteric vasculature, there is a non-specific decline in responses to vasodilator drugs during development (1 to 2 months). Subsequently there is a specific decline in DA1-receptor-mediated and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated responses; the former are lost at an earlier age than the latter. This different time course suggests that age influences receptor numbers, or their coupling to adenylate cyclase, rather than a post-receptor event in the adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP pathway. PMID:2804550

  15. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin increases permeability of single perfused microvessels of rat mesentery.

    PubMed

    Adamson, R H; Ly, J C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, M; Ochi, S; Sakurai, J; Uzal, F; Curry, F E

    2005-08-01

    Epsilon-toxin, the primary virulence factor of Clostridium perfringens type D, causes mortality in livestock, particularly sheep and goats, in which it induces an often-fatal enterotoxemia. It is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier and then enter the gut vasculature, from which it is carried systemically, causing widespread vascular endothelial damage and edema. Here we used single perfused venular microvessels in rat mesentery, which enabled direct observation of permeability properties of the in situ vascular wall during exposure to toxin. We determined the hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) of microvessels as a measure of the response to epsilon-toxin. We found that microvessels were highly sensitive to toxin. At 10 microg ml(-1) the L(p) increased irreversibly to more than 15 times the control value by 10 min. At 0.3 microg ml(-1) no increase in L(p) was observed for up to 90 min. The toxin-induced increase in L(p) was consistent with changes in ultrastructure of microvessels exposed to the toxin. Those microvessels exhibited gaps either between or through endothelial cells where perfusate had direct access to the basement membrane. Many endothelial cells appeared necrotic, highly attenuated, and with dense cytoplasm. We showed that epsilon-toxin, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, rapidly and irreversibly compromised the barrier function of venular microvessel endothelium. The results conformed to the hypothesis that epsilon-toxin interacts with vascular endothelial cells and increases the vessel wall permeability by direct damage of the endothelium. PMID:16041001

  16. De-misty-fying the mesentery: an algorithmic approach to neoplastic and non-neoplastic mesenteric abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Taffel, Myles T; Khati, Nadia J; Hai, Nabila; Yaghmai, Vahid; Nikolaidis, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Mesenteric abnormalities are often incidentally discovered on cross-sectional imaging performed during daily clinical practice. Findings can range from the vague "misty mesentery" to solid masses, and the possible etiologic causes encompass a wide spectrum of underlying pathologies including infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes. Unfortunately, the clinical and imaging findings are often non-specific and may overlap. This article discusses the various diseases that result in mesenteric abnormalities. It provides a framework to non-invasively differentiate these entities, when possible. PMID:24633598

  17. Lysine fluxes across the jejunal epithelium in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Desjeux, J F; Simell, R O; Dumontier, A M; Perheentupa, J

    1980-06-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is one of a group of genetic diseases in which intestinal absorption of the diamino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine is impaired. In LPI, the clinical symptoms are more severe than in the kindred disorders. The mechanism of lysine absorption was, therefore, investigated in vitro on peroral jejunal biopsy specimens in seven patients with LPI and 27 controls. The lysine concentration ratio between cell compartment and medium was significantly higher in the LPI group (mean+/-SEM, 7.17+/-0.60) than in the controls (5.44+/-0.51). This was also true for the intracellular Na concentration (LPI, 73.6+/-10.8 mM; controls 42.3+/-3.7 mM). The rate of unidirectional influx of lysine across the luminal membrane was Na dependent and was the same in the two groups. In the absence of an electrochemical gradient, net transepithelial lysine secretion was observed in LPI. This was entirely the result of a 60% reduction of the unidirectional flux from mucosa to serosa. Calculation of unidirectional fluxes revealed the most striking difference at the basolateral membrane, where the flux from cells to serosa was reduced by 62% and the corresponding permeability coefficient reduced by 71%. A progressive reduction in short-circuit current appeared in the epithelia of all four patients with LPI tested after addition of 3 mM lysine. Thus, LPI appears to be the first disease in which a genetically determined transport defect has been demonstrated at the basolateral membrane. PMID:6773985

  18. New Portal-Superior Mesenteric Vein Reconstructions Using First Jejunal Vein Flap in Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Nobuyuki; Miki, Kenji; Kosuge, Tomoo

    2016-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the only potential treatment for pancreatic head adenocarcinomas, which are sometimes located close to or invade the portal-superior mesenteric vein (PSMV). Surgeons often attempt to obtain a negative resectional margin after resection of the PSMV. This attempt requires PSMV reconstruction through graft replacements or end-to-end anastomosis; however, possible complications should be concerned including anastomosis stenosis, damage to some of the PSMV branches, prosthetic graft infection, and that associated with autologous graft harvesting. The first jejunal artery and vein are often resected in PD with the intent of lymphadenectomy. In this study, jejunal vein flap was used for PSMV reconstruction without causing damage to any of the PSMV branches in two patients. Here, we describe the new methods of PSMV reconstruction using first jejunal vein flap in PD. PMID:26801505

  19. Stress and strain analysis of contractions during ramp distension in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated morphological and biomechanical remodeling in the intestine proximal to an obstruction. The present study aimed to obtain stress and strain thresholds to initiate contraction and the maximal contraction stress and strain in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments. Partial obstruction and sham operations were surgically created in mid-jejunum of male guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. Animals not being operated on served as normal controls. The segments were used for no-load state, zero-stress state and distension analyses. The segment was inflated to 10 cmH2O pressure in an organ bath containing 37°C Krebs solution and the outer diameter change was monitored. The stress and strain at the contraction threshold and at maximum contraction were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. Young’s modulus was determined at the contraction threshold. The muscle layer thickness in obstructed intestinal segments increased up to 300%. Compared with sham-obstructed and normal groups, the contraction stress threshold, the maximum contraction stress and the Young’s modulus at the contraction threshold increased whereas the strain threshold and maximum contraction strain decreased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05 and 0.01). In conclusion, in the partially obstructed intestinal segments, a larger distension force was needed to evoke contraction likely due to tissue remodeling. Higher contraction stresses were produced and the contraction deformation (strain) became smaller. PMID:21632056

  20. Jejunal choristoma: a very rare cause of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Olajide, T A; Agodirin, S O; Ojewola, R W; Akanbi, O O; Solaja, T O; Odesanya, Johnson Oluremi; Ariyibi, O O

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC) causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine) revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children. PMID:24511408

  1. Embolization therapy for bleeding from jejunal loop varices due to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kajiwara, Kenji; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Hiyama, Eiso; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Four patients underwent embolization therapy for hemorrhage from varices in the jejunal loop after choledochojejunostomy existing in hepatopetal collateral veins due to chronic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction through the afferent veins using microcoils and/or n-butyl cyanoacrylate. In all four patients, all afferent veins were successfully embolized and successful hemostasis was achieved without liver dysfunction. However, recurrence of the varices and rebleeding occurred within a year in two patients. Embolization for hemorrhage from varices in the jejunal loop after choledochojejunostomy through afferent veins is acceptable in terms of safety and is useful to achieve hemostasis in emergency circumstances. PMID:26330264

  2. Solid tumors of the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation: from the radiologic pathology archives.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ellen M; Biko, David M; Arzamendi, Aaron M; Meldrum, Jaren T; Stocker, J Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal solid tumors are far less common in children than in adults, and the histologic spectrum of neoplasms of the peritoneum and its specialized folds in young patients differs from that in older patients. Localized masses may be caused by inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, Castleman disease, mesenteric fibromatosis, or other mesenchymal masses. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a mesenchymal tumor of borderline biologic potential that appears as a solitary circumscribed mass, possibly with central calcification. Castleman disease is an idiopathic lymphoproliferative disorder that appears as a circumscribed, intensely enhancing mass in the mesentery. Mesenteric fibromatosis, or intra-abdominal desmoid tumor, is a benign tumor of mesenchymal origin associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Mesenteric fibromatosis appears as a mildly enhancing, circumscribed solitary mass without metastases. Diffuse peritoneal disease may be due to desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or rhabdomyosarcoma. DSRCT is a rare member of the small round blue cell tumor family that causes diffuse peritoneal masses without a visible primary tumor. A dominant mass is typically found in the retrovesical space. Burkitt lymphoma is a pediatric tumor that manifests with extensive disease because of its short doubling time. The bowel and adjacent mesentery are commonly involved. Rhabdomyosarcoma may arise as a primary tumor of the omentum or may spread from a primary tumor in the bladder, prostate, or scrotum. Knowledge of this spectrum of disease allows the radiologist to provide an appropriate differential diagnosis and suggest proper patient management. PMID:25763737

  3. The TRPA1 Activator Allyl Isothiocyanate (AITC) Contracts Human Jejunal Muscle: Pharmacological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Zsolt; Dekany, Andras; Kelemen, Dezsö; Bencsik, Timea; Papp, Robert; Bartho, Lorand

    2016-09-01

    The contractile effect of AITC (300 μM) on human jejunal longitudinal strips was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC 030031 and atropine or scopolamine, but was insensitive to tetrodotoxin, purinoceptor antagonists or capsaicin desensitization. It is concluded that TRPA1 activation stimulates a cholinergic mechanism in a tetrodotoxin-resistant manner. PMID:26928772

  4. Dominance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the Facultative Jejunal Lactobacillus Microbiota of Fistulated Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yurui; Manninen, Titta J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 104 to 108 CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), Lactobacillus acidophilus was dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern. PMID:22843523

  5. Gastrointestinal monitor: automatic titration of jejunal inflow to match peristaltic outflow.

    PubMed

    Moss, Gerald; Posada, Jose G

    2007-06-15

    A peristaltic gradient insures that chyme normally removed from the jejunal feeding site continues to be propelled caudad. The trigger for iatrogenic "feeding intolerance" is the inadvertently overwhelming of the jejunum's peristaltic outflow, even momentarily. Even minimum local stasis can stimulate a vagal reflex response. Motility of the sluggish gut further slows, leading to generalized abdominal distention, malaise, immobility, and impaired respiratory mechanics. Vagal vascular reflexes could explain the 1:1000 incidence of bowel necrosis for jejunally fed patients. We developed a clinical regimen that continuously "checks for residual" at the enteral feeding site, monitoring the adequacy of emptying. The jejunal inflow automatically is titrated to match peristaltic outflow if the latter cannot keep up. Intermittent suction aspirates the feeding catheter into a plastic chamber for 30 s. All swallowed air is removed efficiently within the close confines of the jejunal segment, without wasting digestive juices. The degassed aspirate is returned by gravity with the feedings during the second half of the 1-min cycle, unless incipient excess (>or=20 mL) fluid overflows. Only this relatively small volume of potentially excess fluid is discarded, forestalling the local distention. All patients tolerated immediate feeding without discomfort or abdominal distention, including three that had esophageal resection (including vagotomy) for carcinoma. Postoperative full enteral nutrition can be achieved quickly and safely with minimum attention, despite initially marginal gastrointestinal function. PMID:17509263

  6. Jejunal administration of glucose enhances acyl ghrelin suppression in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Sidani, Reem M; Garcia, Anna E; Antoun, Joseph; Isbell, James M; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2016-07-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates hunger and worsens glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin is decreased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this change is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that jejunal nutrient exposure plays a significant role in ghrelin suppression after RYGB. Feeding tubes were placed in the stomach or jejunum in 13 obese subjects to simulate pre-RYGB or post-RYGB glucose exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively, without the confounding effects of caloric restriction, weight loss, and surgical stress. On separate study days, the plasma glucose curves obtained with either gastric or jejunal administration of glucose were replicated with intravenous (iv) infusions of glucose. These "isoglycemic clamps" enabled us to determine the contribution of the GI tract and postabsorptive plasma glucose to acyl ghrelin suppression. Plasma acyl ghrelin levels were suppressed to a greater degree with jejunal glucose administration compared with gastric glucose administration (P < 0.05). Jejunal administration of glucose also resulted in a greater suppression of acyl ghrelin than the corresponding isoglycemic glucose infusion (P ≤ 0.01). However, gastric and isoglycemic iv glucose infusions resulted in similar degrees of acyl ghrelin suppression (P > 0.05). Direct exposure of the proximal jejunum to glucose increases acyl ghrelin suppression independent of circulating glucose levels. The enhanced suppression of acyl ghrelin after RYGB may be due to a nutrient-initiated signal in the jejunum that regulates ghrelin secretion. PMID:27279247

  7. Late-onset dysphagia caused by severe spastic peristalsis of a free jejunal graft in a case of hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takayuki; Goto, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Ko; Kurosawa, Koreyuki; Asada, Yukinori; Saijo, Shigeru; Matsuura, Kazuto

    2016-12-01

    Free jejunal transfer is the main technique used for reconstructing a circumferential defect caused by total pharyngo-laryngo-cervical-esophagectomy in certain cancer cases. We report a rare case of severe late-onset dysphagia caused by autonomous spastic peristalsis, which led to complete obstruction of the free jejunal route. A 70-year-old man underwent treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer involving total pharyngolaryngectomy with free jejunal transfer. After uneventful peri- and postoperative recovery, he developed sudden-onset severe dysphagia 22 months later. Gastrografin fluoroscopy revealed abnormal peristalsis and contraction of the transferred jejunum, leading to complete obstruction. Nutritional treatment, application of depressants of peristalsis, and xylocaine injection into the outer space of the jejunal mucosa all failed to alleviate the dysphagia. Surgical treatment involving a longitudinal incision of the jejunal graft, and interposing a cutaneous flap, as a fixed wall, between the incised jejunal margins to prevent obstruction was performed. After further reconstructive surgery involving using a pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap and a split-thickness skin graft to close a refractory jejunum-skin fistula, the dysphagia was permanently alleviated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of severe dysphagia caused by peristalsis of a free jejunal graft. PMID:27068782

  8. The Role of the Mesentery in Crohn's Disease: The Contributions of Nerves, Vessels, Lymphatics, and Fat to the Pathogenesis and Disease Course.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Weiming; Zuo, Lugen; Shen, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a complex gastrointestinal disorder involving multiple levels of cross talk between the immunological, neural, vascular, and endocrine systems. The current dominant theory in CD is based on the unidirectional axis of dysbiosis-innate immunity-adaptive immunity-mesentery-body system. Emerging clinical evidence strongly suggests that the axis be bidirectional. The morphologic and/or functional abnormalities in the mesenteric structures likely contribute to the disease progression of CD, to a less extent the disease initiation. In addition to adipocytes, mesentery contains nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, stromal cells, and fibroblasts. By the secretion of adipokines that have endocrine functions, the mesenteric fat tissue exerts its activity in immunomodulation mainly through response to afferent signals, neuropeptides, and functional cytokines. Mesenteric nerves are involved in the pathogenesis and prognosis of CD mainly through neuropeptides. In addition to angiogenesis observed in CD, lymphatic obstruction, remodeling, and impaired contraction maybe a cause and consequence of CD. Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis play a concomitant role in the progress of chronic intestinal inflammation. Finally, the interaction between neuropeptides, adipokines, and vascular and lymphatic endothelia leads to adipose tissue remodeling, which makes the mesentery an active participator, not a bystander, in the disease initiation and precipitation CD. The identification of the role of mesentery, including the structure and function of mesenteric nerves, vessels, lymphatics, and fat, in the intestinal inflammation in CD has important implications in understanding its pathogenesis and clinical management. PMID:27167572

  9. Castleman disease of the mesentery as the great mimic: Incidental finding of one case and the literature review.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Hao, Chunyi; Qian, Honggang; Leng, Jiahua; Liu, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Castleman disease is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles. More commonly described in the mediastinum, its occurrence in the mesentery is exceedingly rare, which is easily to be ignored in differential diagnosis when an abdominal mass is found. We report the case of an asymptomatic 71-year-old woman with a homogenous and hypervascular mass at the inner side of duodenojejunal junction. Based on the clinical suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a surgical resection was performed. Final diagnosis of the mass was hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease. Here, we summarize the clinicopathological and radiological features of this disease by literature review, which may be helpful to bring awareness of this entity and improve the clinical decision making when similar scenarios are encountered. PMID:26166374

  10. Jejunal angiodysplasia causing recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding presenting as severe anaemia and melena.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Satyendra K; Hakim, Md Zeeshan; Kumar, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Angiodysplasia of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of ectasia of the submucosal vessels of the bowel. The evaluation of such patients needs proctoscopy, colonoscopy, small bowel enema, enteroscopy, capsule enteroscopy and angiography. Capsule enteroscopy has come up as an alternative to GI enteroscopy and colonoscopy in patients with occult GI bleeding; up to 52% cases of small bowel angiodysplasia in patients with occult GI bleed with negative upper GI and colonoscopy have been reported. The use of capsule enteroscopy potentially limits the hazard of radiation exposure from angiography and is less invasive than double balloon endoscopy. The treatment options for angiodysplasias include intra-arterial vasopressin injection, selective gel foam embolisation, endoscopic electrocoagulation and injection of sclerosants, with each of these being technically demanding, and requiring centres with good access to enteroscopy technology and trained gastroenterologists. Operative intervention has been indicated for refractory bleeding or lesions in sites not accessible to endoscopic interventions. PMID:26567241

  11. Computed Tomographic presentation of obstructive jejunal adenocarcinoma associated with celiac disease and incomplete intestinal malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Ines, Marzouk Moussa; Ennaifer, Rym; Omrani, Sahir; Ahlem, Lahmar Boufaroua; Ouji, Rym; Hendaoui, Lotfi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare entity most frequently observed with celiac disease. This is the first case report on the association of celiac disease, small bowel adenocarcinoma and intestinal malrotation. Case report A 40 year-old male patient diagnosed with celiac disease since the age of 5 years complained of epigastric pain and vomiting for three days. Computed tomography (CT) showed a significant gastroduodenal dilatation with thickened intestinal wall proximal to the duodenojejunal flexure. The lumen contained a food bezoar in the center. The duodenojejunal angle was abnormally on the right side of the abdomen and the superior mesenteric vein was anterior to the superior mesenteric artery. Endoscopy after aspiration found a hemi-circumferential and irregular mass which bled at the contact of fibroscope. Biopsies showed an adenocarcinoma and small bowel resection was performed. Discussion Celiac disease is associated with a high risk of small bowel cancer. The association of incomplete intestinal malrotation, duodenojejunal flexure tumor and celiac disease made the surgery challenging. Conclusion Patients with celiac disease should be carefully monitored and endoscopic or radiologic investigations should be carried out in patients with any doubtful symptoms. PMID:26670410

  12. Functional outcomes and reevaluation of esophageal speech after free jejunal transfer in two hundred thirty-six cases.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Tsuneo; Sakuraba, Minoru; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ebihara, Satoshi; Hata, Yuiro

    2009-01-01

    Swallowing and communication are occasionally impaired after free jejunal transfer. Here, the relationship between surgical procedure and functional outcome was analyzed in 236 patients undergoing free jejunal transfer after total laryngopharyngectomy from 1992 through 2003. Swallowing and communication functions were also investigated with a questionnaire in 40 long-surviving patients. Although oral feeding could be resumed after surgery in most patients, anastomotic stricture and nasal regurgitation occurred in 12.7% and 29.7% of patients, respectively. Use of our standardized procedure, the tensed jejunal method, significantly reduced the incidence of stricture (P < 0.01) but increased the rate of nasal regurgitation; however, in most cases regurgitation gradually resolved. Of the 40 long-surviving patients, 17 attended a speech rehabilitation program at which 12 learned to perform esophageal speech without voice restoration procedures (11 of the 12 had received a tensed jejunal graft). Our standardized procedure helps prevent strictures and encourages esophageal speech. PMID:19131720

  13. Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells from gut mesentery-derived cells by ectopic expression of OCT4/SOX2/NANOG.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Hongxi; Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew; Chen, Liu; Lin, Changsheng; Yao, Yuanqing; Li, Lingsong

    2010-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from human somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Application of this approach in human cells may have enormous potential to generate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. However, traditional methods of reprogramming in human somatic cells involve the use of oncogenes c-MYC and KLF4, which are not applicable to clinical translation. In the present study, we investigated whether human fetal gut mesentery-derived cells (hGMDCs) could be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG alone. We used lentiviruses to express OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, in hGMDCs, then generated iPS cells that were identified by morphology, presence of pluripotency markers, global gene expression profile, DNA methylation status, capacity to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and terotoma formation. iPS cells resulting from hGMDCs were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface markers, gene expression, and epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes. Furthermore, these cells were able to differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, as shown by EB and teratoma formation assays. DNA fingerprinting showed that the human iPS cells were derived from the donor cells, and are not a result of contamination. Our results provide proof that hGMDCs can be reprogrammed into pluripotent cells by ectopic expression of three factors (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG) without the use of oncogenes c-MYC and KLF4. PMID:20698766

  14. Retrograde jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Huang, G S; Jin, Y

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde jejunal intussusception is a rare disease. A 60-year-old female patient was hospitalized due to vomiting for 2 days, with a history of radical gastrectomy plus esophagus jejunum Rouxs-en-Y. On examination, there was a palpable wax-like mass on the left-hand side underneath the umbilicus. Computerized tomography scan showed a proximal jejunal intussusception. During surgery, the distal jejunum was found set into the proximal jejunum for a length of 30 cm, and bowel necrosis was also observed. The necrotic tube was resected and anastomosis was performed. Four days after the surgery, gastrointestinal function resumed. After a 10-month follow-up, the patient had no discomfort. PMID:27022810

  15. The role of metoclopramide in peroral jejunal biopsy: a controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Arvanitakis, C; Gonzalez, G; Rhodes, J B

    1976-10-01

    Metoclopramide is known to enhance gastric emptying and stimulate duodenal and small-intestinal peristaltic activity. The effect of the drug on peroral jejunal biopsy was examined in a controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Forty-nine patients (24 females and 25 males) who required jejunal biopsy for diagnostic purposes were admitted to the study. All the biopsies were performed by the same operator using the Quinton multipurpose suction biopsy tube and applying the same technique. Twenty-four patients ranging in age from 18 to 67 years (mean 44.5) received placebo intravenously (sodium metabisulfite), and 25 patients from 16 to 73 years old (mean 39.9) received 10 mg of metoclopramide intravenously prior to the jejunal intubation. Objective parameters of the study were (1) time in minutes required for the intubation at the biopsy site, ie, the area at the ligament of Treitz, and (2) fluoroscopy time. Intubation time in the placebo group was 22.3 +/- 1.9 min (mean +/- SEM) vs 11.3 +/- 1.4 min in the metoclopramide group (P less than 0.001). Fluoroscopy exposure time was 2.47 +/- 0.25 in the placebo group vs 1.40 +/- 0.12 min in the metoclopramide group (P less than 0.001). Subjective clinical evaluation of the operator's assessment of the procedure was based on a 0-4 scale (much easier = 0, easier = 1, average = 2, harder = 3, and much harder = 4). Metoclopramide administration resulted in a significantly easier performance of the procedure (P less than 0.001) but did not influence patient tolerance. Three patients who received metoclopramide and one receiving placebo developed mild to moderate drowsiness of short duration. The results of this controlled trial indicate that metoclopramide significantly shortens the time required for jejunal biopsy and reduces fluoroscopy exposure. Its regulatory action on gastrointestinal motility contributes to the easier performance of a valuable diagnostic procedure. PMID:1015496

  16. Electroacupuncture at ST25 inhibits jejunal motility: Role of sympathetic pathways and TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Na; Lu, Chun-Xia; Pang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Kai-Yue; Jiang, Jing-Feng; Zhu, Bing; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at ST25 affects jejunal motility in vivo and if so, whether a sympathetic pathway is involved. METHODS: Jejunal motility was assessed using a manometric balloon placed in the jejunum approximately about 3-5 cm away from the suspensory ligament of the duodenum in anesthetized animals. The effects of EA at ST25 were measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats, some of which were treated with propranolol or clenbuterol (EA intensities: 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mA), and in male transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) (capsaicin receptor) knockout mice (EA intensities: 1, 2, and 4 mA). RESULTS: Anesthetized rats exhibited three types of fasting jejunal motor patterns (types A, B, and C), and only type C rats responded to EA stimulation. In type C rats, EA at ST25 significantly suppressed the motor activity of the jejunum in an intensity-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of EA was weakened by propranolol (β adrenoceptor antagonist) and disappeared with clenbuterol (β adrenoceptor agonist) induced inhibition of motility, suggesting that the effect of EA on motility is mediated via a sympathetic pathway. Compared with wild-type mice, EA at ST25 was less effective in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that this multi-modal sensor channel participates in the mechanism. CONCLUSION: EA at ST25 was found to inhibit jejunal motility in an intensity-dependent manner, via a mechanism in which sympathetic nerves and TRPV1 receptors play an important role. PMID:26855542

  17. Substrate metabolism in isolated rat jejunal epithelium. Analysis using /sup 14/C-radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mallet, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    The jejunal epithelium absorbs nutrients from the intestinal lumen and is therefore the initial site for metabolism of these compounds. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze substrate metabolism in a preparation of jejunal epithelium relatively free of other tissues. Novel radioisotopic labelling techniques allow quantitation of substrate metabolism in the TCA cycle, Embden-Meyerhof (glycolytic) pathway, and hexose monophosphate shunt. For example, ratios of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from pairs of /sup 14/C-pyruvate, and /sup 14/C-succinate radioisotopes (CO/sub 2/ ratios) indicate the probability of TCA cycle intermediate efflux to generate compounds other than CO/sub 2/. With (2,3-/sup 14/C)succinate as tracer, the ratio of /sup 14/C in carbon 4 + 5 versus carbon 2 + 3 of citrate, the citrate labelling ratio, equals the probability of TCA intermediate flux to the acetyl CoA-derived portion of citrate versus flux to the oxaloacetate-derived portion. The principal metabolic substrates for the jejunal epithelium are glucose and glutamine. CO/sub 2/ ratios indicate that glutamine uptake and metabolism is partially Na/sup +/-independent, and is saturable, with a half-maximal rate at physiological plasma glutamine concentrations. Glucose metabolism in the jejunal epithelium proceeds almost entirely via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. Conversion of substrates to multi-carbon products in this tissue allows partial conservation of reduced carbon for further utilization in other tissues. In summary, metabolic modeling based on /sup 14/C labelling ratios is a potentially valuable technique for analysis of metabolic flux patterns in cell preparations.

  18. [Early jejunal feeding in acute pancreatitis: prevention of septic complications and multiorgan failure].

    PubMed

    Oláh, A; Pardavi, G; Belágyi, T

    2000-02-01

    Authors evaluate the effect of early jejunal feeding on septic complications and mortality in acute pancreatitis, based on the results of a two-phase, prospective, randomized study. In the first part of the study they compared the conventional parenteral nutrition with early (started within 24 hours) enteral nutrition in a prospective, randomized trial on 89 patients. Forty-eight patients were randomized into the parenteral group "A" (Rindex 10, Infusamin S, Intralipid 10%: 30 kcal/kg) and 41 patients into the enteral group "B" (fed by nasogastric jejunal tube Survimed OPD, 30 kcal/kg). The rate of septic complications (infected necrosis, abscess, infected pseudocyst) were significantly lower in the enteral group (p = 0.08 chi-square test). In the second phase of the study early jejunal feeding was combined with imipenem prophylaxis (Tienam, 2 x 500 mg i.v.) in the necrotizing cases detected by CT scan. According to the results of 92 patients the rate of septic complications (p = 0.03), multiple organ failure (p = 0.14), and mortality (p = 0.13) were further reduced in this group. Authors believe that combination of early enteral nutrition and a selective, adequate antibiotic therapy may give a chance for prevention of multiple organ failure. PMID:11299593

  19. Microvascular Reconstruction of Free Jejunal Graft in Larynx-preserving Esophagectomy for Cervical Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Natori, Yuhei; Komoto, Masakazu; Matsumura, Takashi; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Iwanuma, Yoshimi; Tsurumaru, Masahioko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Losing the ability to speak severely affects the quality of life, and patients who have undergone laryngectomy tend to become depressed, which may lead to social withdrawal. Recently, with advancements in chemoradiotherapy and with alternative perspectives on postoperative quality of life, larynx preservation has been pursued; however, the selection of candidates and the optimal reconstructive procedure remain controversial. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our experience with free jejunal graft for larynx-preserving cervical esophagectomy (LPCE), focusing on microvascular reconstruction. Methods: Seven patients underwent LPCE for cervical esophageal carcinoma, and defects were reconstructed by free jejunal transfer subsequently. We collected preoperative and postoperative data of the patients and assessed the importance of the procedure. Results: We mostly used the transverse cervical artery as the recipient, and a longer operative time was required, particularly for the regrowth cases. The operative field for microvascular anastomosis was more limited and deeper than those in the laryngectomy cases. Two graft necrosis cases were confirmed at postoperative day 9 or 15, and vessels contralateral from the graft were chosen as recipients in both patients. Conclusions: Microvascular reconstruction for free jejunal graft in LPCE differed in several ways from the procedure combined with laryngectomy. Compression from the tracheal cartilage to the pedicle was suspected as the reason of the necrosis clinically and pathologically. Therefore, we should select recipient vessels from the ipsilateral side of the graft, and careful and extended monitoring of the flap should be considered to make this procedure successful. PMID:27257562

  20. Hepatic metastases of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor: A case report with radiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Özen, Özkan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Bora, Aydın

    2009-01-01

    Context: Carcinoid tumors represent a group of well-differentiated tumors originating from the diffuse endocrine system outside the pancreas and thyroid. The overall prevalence of carcinoid tumors in the United States is estimated to be one to two cases per 100,000 persons. Various sites of origin of this neoplasm are appendix - 30-45%, small bowel - 25-35% (duodenum 2%, jejunum 7%, ileum 91%, multiple sites 15-35%), rectum 10-15%, caecum - 5%, and stomach - 0.5%. Liver metastases from jejunal and ileal carcinoids are generally hypervascular. Case report: Here we report a case of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor in a 66-year-old woman metastasizing to liver with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) findings. Conclusion: Primary jejunal carcinoid tumor is a rare entity. DWI can help in the differential diagnosis of hepatic hypervascular metastatic mass lesions from benign ones, as well as in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor. PMID:22666712

  1. Diamine oxidase plasma activities after treatment with heparin and jejunal morphometry in untreated coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Corazza, G R; Ginaldi, L; Falasca, A; Strocchi, A; Rossi, C A; Quaglino, D; Gasbarrini, G

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase plasma concentrations after treatment with heparin were measured and compared with the surface to volume ratio of jejunal biopsy samples assessed by a morphometric technique in patients with untreated and treated coeliac disease and in biopsied controls. As expected, enzyme activity was significantly lower in patients with untreated coeliac disease than in patients on a gluten-free diet and in biopsied controls. No difference was found between treated patients and biopsied controls. There was a significant overall correlation between plasma enzyme activity and surface to volume ratio of jejunal mucosa, although two untreated patients without an overt malabsorption syndrome but with a very low surface to volume ratio had normal enzyme activity. This study shows that in coeliac disease plasma diamine oxidase activity after treatment with heparin does not always mirror the extent of the jejunal lesions, particularly in those patients with minimal or unrelated symptoms who would benefit most from a valid screening test to identify their condition. PMID:2511229

  2. Jejunitis and brown bowel syndrome with multifocal carcinogenesis of the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Raithel, Martin; Rau, Tilman T; Hagel, Alexander F; Albrecht, Heinz; de Rossi, Thomas; Kirchner, Thomas; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report describing a case where prolonged, severe malabsorption from brown bowel syndrome progressed to multifocally spread small bowel adenocarcinoma. This case involves a female patient who was initially diagnosed with chronic jejunitis associated with primary diffuse lymphangiectasia at the age of 26 years. The course of the disease was clinically, endoscopically, and histologically followed for 21 years until her death at the age 47 due to multifocal, metastasizing adenocarcinoma of the small bowel. Multiple lipofuscin deposits (so-called brown bowel syndrome) and severe jejunitis were observed microscopically, and sections of the small bowel showed dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the lamina propria as well as blocked lymphatic vessels. After several decades, multifocal nests of adenocarcinoma cells and extensive, flat, neoplastic mucosal proliferations were found only in the small bowel, along with a loss of the mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a long-term consequence of chronic jejunitis with malabsorption. No evidence was found for hereditary nonpolyposis colon carcinoma syndrome. This article demonstrates for the first time multifocal carcinogenesis in the small bowel in a malabsorption syndrome in an enteritis-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:26420973

  3. Jejunitis and brown bowel syndrome with multifocal carcinogenesis of the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Rau, Tilman T; Hagel, Alexander F; Albrecht, Heinz; de Rossi, Thomas; Kirchner, Thomas; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2015-09-28

    This is the first report describing a case where prolonged, severe malabsorption from brown bowel syndrome progressed to multifocally spread small bowel adenocarcinoma. This case involves a female patient who was initially diagnosed with chronic jejunitis associated with primary diffuse lymphangiectasia at the age of 26 years. The course of the disease was clinically, endoscopically, and histologically followed for 21 years until her death at the age 47 due to multifocal, metastasizing adenocarcinoma of the small bowel. Multiple lipofuscin deposits (so-called brown bowel syndrome) and severe jejunitis were observed microscopically, and sections of the small bowel showed dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the lamina propria as well as blocked lymphatic vessels. After several decades, multifocal nests of adenocarcinoma cells and extensive, flat, neoplastic mucosal proliferations were found only in the small bowel, along with a loss of the mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a long-term consequence of chronic jejunitis with malabsorption. No evidence was found for hereditary nonpolyposis colon carcinoma syndrome. This article demonstrates for the first time multifocal carcinogenesis in the small bowel in a malabsorption syndrome in an enteritis-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:26420973

  4. Response of the jejunal mucosa of dogs with aerobic and anaerobic bacterial overgrowth to antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Batt, R M; McLean, L; Riley, J E

    1988-01-01

    Dogs with naturally occurring aerobic or anaerobic bacterial overgrowth have been examined before and after antibiotic therapy in order to assess reversibility of damage to the jejunal mucosa. Histological changes in peroral jejunal biopsies were relatively minor before and after treatment, but sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed specific biochemical abnormalities that responded to antibiotic therapy. Aerobic overgrowth was initially associated with a marked loss of the main brush border component of alkaline phosphatase activity; this recovered following treatment, suggesting that aerobic bacteria may cause reversible damage to the hydrophobic region of the brush border membrane. In contrast, anaerobic overgrowth was initially associated with a marked reduction in brush border density, indicative of a considerable fall in the glycoprotein-to-lipid ratio of the membrane. Density increased from 1.17 to 1.21 g/ml after antibiotic therapy, consistent with recovery from this relatively severe damage to the brush border caused by anaerobic bacteria. Reductions in soluble and peroxisomal catalase activities which could compromise mucosal protection against free radicals in dogs with aerobic overgrowth, and a loss of particulate malate dehydrogenase activity indicative of mitochondrial disruption in dogs with anaerobic overgrowth, were also reversed after treatment. These findings indicate that aerobic and anaerobic bacterial overgrowth can result in contrasting but potentially reversible damage to the jejunal mucosa which would not be detected by conventional investigative procedures. PMID:3371716

  5. Protection by polaprezinc against radiation-induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Uemura, Takashi; Niino, Daisuke; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    Polaprezinc, an anti-ulcer drug, is a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine. Polaprezinc has been shown to prevent gastric mucosal injury. The anti ulcer effects of polaprezinc have been ascribed to its antioxidative property. The effect of polaprezinc on ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis was studied in the jejunal epithelial crypt cells of rats. Seven-to eight week-old Wistar rats, which were treated with 100 mg/kg of polaprezinc orally 1h before irradiation or 2% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium in controls, were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at 2 Gy. The number of apoptotic cells per jejunum crypt was counted in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections at 0-6 h after irradiation. TUNEL positive cells and immunopositive cells for active caspase-3 per crypt were also counted. Accumulation of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and Bax expression in the jejunum after irradiation were examined by Western blot analyses. Polaprezinc treatment given prior to radiation resulted in a significant reduction in numbers of apoptotic cells, TUNEL positive cells and active caspase-3 immunopositive cells in jejunal crypt cells. Polaprezinc treatment resulted in decreases of p53 accumulation, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and Bax expression after irradiation. Polaprezinc has a protective effect against ionizing radiation induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells. PMID:18413982

  6. An approach for studies of mediator-induced leukocyte rolling in the undisturbed microcirculation of the rat mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Kohji; Lindbom, Lennart; Thorlacius, Henrik; Hedqvist, Per; Raud, Johan

    1998-01-01

    Although intravital microscopy is the method of choice for observation of inflammatory leukocyte rolling and adhesion in small venules in vivo, a problem with this technique is that surgical exposure of suitable tissues per se triggers the rolling mechanism. In this study, we describe an approach to investigate induction of rolling in undisturbed microvessels. For this purpose, intravital microscopic observation of leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the rat mesentery was combined with histological determination of the intravascular concentrations of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes (PMNL and MNL). By relating the histologically determined number of intravascular leukocytes to either microvessel volume or to the erythrocyte concentration, the baseline MNL and PMNL content was found to be 3–6 fold higher in venules than in systemic blood. This increase in microvessel leukocyte concentration did not seem to be related to leukocyte-endothelium interactions, because the leukocyte concentration was similarly elevated in arterioles where rolling and adhesion did not take place. Preparation of the rat mesentery for intravital microscopy time-dependently increased the venular PMNL concentration to over 100 fold the systemic PMNL concentration 45 min after exteriorization of the small intestine. The MNLs were much less responsive to the preparative manipulation. By treatment with the polysaccharide fucoidin (inhibits rolling but not firm adhesion per se), or by use of intravital microscopy immediately before tissue fixation, approximately 90% of the accumulated venular PMNLs were found to represent rolling cells. Intraperitoneal injection of 10−3M histamine increased the venular PMNL (but not the MNL) concentration to almost 50 fold the systemic PMNL value. The histamine response did not vary with venular diameter, and the relative contribution of rolling vs firmly adherent cells to the PMNL, accumulation was again ≈amp;90%. Intraperitoneal injection of

  7. Ex-vivo Resection and Small-Bowel Auto-transplantation for the Treatment of Tumors at the Root of the Mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Nikeghbalian, S.; Aliakbarian, M.; Kazemi, K.; Shamsaeefar, A. R.; Mehdi, S. H.; Bahreini, A.; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tumors involving the root of the mesentery are generally regarded as “unresectable” with conventional surgical techniques. Resection with conventional surgery may end in life-threatening complications in these patients. Ex-vivo resection and auto-transplantation avoids excessive bleeding and prevents ischemic related damage to the small intestine and other organs. Objective: To share our experience of ex-vivo resection of the tumors with involvement of small bowel mesentery followed by small bowel auto-transplantation. Methods: In this study, medical records of all the patients who underwent ex-vivo resection and auto-transplantation at our center were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The most common indication for the procedure in our series was locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Our survival rate was 50% with a mean±SD follow-up of 10.1±9.8 (range: 0–26) months. Causes of early in-hospital mortality were multi-organ failure, sepsis, and cerebrovascular accident. Recurrence of disease was noted in one patient while one patient developed hepatic metastasis after 20 months of surgery. Conclusion: Ex-vivo resection of the tumor and auto-transplantation is the surgical treatment of choice for the locally advanced abdominal tumors involving the root of the mesentery. PMID:25184032

  8. Enteroscopic Tattooing for Better Intraoperative Localization of a Bleeding Jejunal GIST Facilitates Minimally Invasive Laparoscopically-assisted Surgery.

    PubMed

    Iacob, Razvan; Dimitriu, Anca; Stanciulea, Oana; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old man that was admitted for melena and severe anemia. Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy failed to identify the lesion responsible for bleeding, and enteroCT scan was also non-contributive to the diagnosis. Capsule endoscopy indicated possible jejunal bleeding but could not indicate the source of bleeding, recommending anterograde enteroscopy. Single balloon enteroscopy identified a 2 cm submucosal tumour in the distal part of the jejunum, with a macroscopic appearance suggesting a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The tumor location was marked using SPOT tattoo and subsequently easily identified by the surgeon and resected via minimally invasive laparoscopic-assisted approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis indicated a low risk GIST. The unusual small size of the GIST as a modality of presentation, with digestive bleeding and anemia and the ability to use VCE/enteroscopy to identify and mark the lesion prior to minimally invasive surgery, represent the particularities of the presented case. PMID:27014761

  9. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, M; Suzuki, H

    1996-01-01

    The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells was studied. Adult male Crj:CD-1 (ICR) mice were fed a fat-free semisynthetic diet supplemented with 5% (by weight) purified DHA ethyl ester, refined sardine oil, or palm oil. The mice received the DHA or palm oil diets for 7 days (groups 1 and 2) and the refined sardine oil or palm oil diets for 30 days (groups 3 and 4). There were significant ultrastructural changes in the jejunal absorptive cells between the mice fed on the palm oil diet and those receiving the DHA and sardine oil diets. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of some jejunal absorptive cells in the mice fed on the palm oil diet for 7 and 30 days developed vacuolation on the upper site of the nucleus. In contrast, many granules, which appeared to be lipid droplets, were observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the jejunal absorptive cells in the DHA and sardine oil diet groups. These results suggest that ultrastructural differences in the jejunal absorptive cells between mice in the omega-3 fatty acid and palm oil diet groups may be associated with the changes in lipid metabolism. PMID:9001686

  10. Determination of the effect of single abomasal or jejunal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens Type A in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A randomized study was conducted to determine if inoculation of the abomasum or jejunum with Clostridium perfringens Type A would induce jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in healthy cows. Twelve adult nonlactating dairy cows were inoculated with 10 mL of pure culture broth of C. perfringens type A (beta2 toxin positive) into the abomasum (n = 6) or jejunum (n = 6). On day 6, the cows were euthanized and samples for culture were taken from the abomasum, jejunum, and feces. No cows developed clinical signs of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome during the course of the study. Five of 6 abomasal samples and 1 of 6 jejunal samples were positive for C. perfringens Type A (beta2 negative) prior to inoculation. Eight of 12 abomasal samples, 11 of 12 fecal samples, and 10 of 12 jejunal samples were positive for C. perfringens Type A (beta2 negative) after inoculation. Intraluminal inoculation of C. perfringens Type A alone at this dose and under these conditions did not induce clinical signs of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in adult dairy cows. The multifactorial nature of the disease likely contributed to our inability to reproduce the disease in this study. PMID:16231652

  11. Jejunal intussusception and small bowel transmural infarction in a baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis).

    PubMed

    Cary, Max E; Suarez-Chavez, Maria; Wolf, Roman F; Kosanke, Stanley D; White, Gary L

    2006-03-01

    A 4.3-y-old, colony-bred female baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) of low social rank and exhibiting no clinically significant signs of illness or distress was found dead at the Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center baboon breeding facility at El Reno, OK. Prior to death she exhibited excessive grooming behavior both toward herself and other baboons. In addition, she was consistently shy, timid, reclusive, and prone to minimal sustained movement (that is, generally lethargic behavior). Animals of low social rank typically exhibit some degree of these behaviors in order to avoid surplus interactions with other animals within their groups, which can lead to conflict and injury. Accordingly, her death was surprising in view of the apparent lack of clinical signs. Necropsy established the cause for death as systemic shock with resultant cardiovascular collapse resulting from a massive jejunal intussusception. This intussusception and resulting entrapment of the jejunal mesenteric vasculature caused total occlusion of the small bowel blood supply, with resulting hemorrhage and ischemic necrosis (small bowel infarction). Jejunal intussusceptions generally are considered to be uncommon and therefore are rarely reported in either the veterinary or human literature. Of special interest was the cause for this intussusception, determined to have been a large hairball located at the most proximal portion of the jejunum. Extending from this hairball and traversing essentially the entire length of the jejunum was a braided strand of hair acting as a string foreign body about which the intussusception formed. In light of our findings we suggest that animals of low social rank exhibiting excessive grooming behavior and lethargy might merit clinical evaluation to rule out possible abdominal disorders. PMID:16542042

  12. Glucose transport by brush-border membrane vesicles after proximal resection or ileo-jejunal transposition in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Menge, H; Murer, H; Robinson, J W

    1978-01-01

    1. The functional properties of the ileal mucosa following jejunal resection or interposition in the jejunum were studied with the help of membrane vesicles. 2. Despite the development of functional and morphological features in the mucosa which are more generally associated with the jejunum than with the ileum, examination of brush-border vesicles derived from ileal and jejunal enterocytes from resected or transposed intestines reveals that the functional characteristics of apical membranes isolated from the different regions of the intestine are maintained after these surgical manoeuvres. Vesicles from control ileum develop an 'overshoot' uptake of glucose that is 3-4 times smaller than that of jejunal vesicles, a difference that is still observed in membranes prepared from mucosa of ileal loops following proximal resection or interposition in the jejunum. Images Fig. 3 PMID:625015

  13. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints enhances jejunal motility in constipated and diarrheic rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qing-Guang; Gao, Xin-Yan; Liu, Kun; Yu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Liang; Wang, Hai-Ping; Zhu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints on jejunal motility, particularly in pathological conditions. METHODS: Jejunal motility was assessed using a manometric balloon placed in the jejunum approximately 18-20 cm downstream from the pylorus and filled with approximately 0.1 mL warm water in anesthetized normal rats or rats with diarrhea or constipation. The heterotopic acupoints including LI11 (Quchi), ST37 (Shangjuxu), BL25 (Dachangshu), and the homotopic acupoint ST25 (Tianshu), and were stimulated for 60 s by rotating acupuncture needles right and left at a frequency of 2 Hz. To determine the type of afferent fibers mediating the regulation of jejunal motility by manual acupuncture, the ipsilateral sciatic A or C fibers of ST37 were inactivated by local application of the A-fiber selective demyelination agent cobra venom or the C fiber blocker capsaicin. Methoctramine, a selective M2 receptor antagonist, was injected intravenously to identify a specific role for M2 receptors in mediating the effect of acupuncture on jejunal motility. RESULTS: Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, such as LI11 and ST37, increased jejunal motility not only in normal rats, but also in rats with constipation or diarrhea. In normal rats, manual acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 enhanced jejunal pressure from 7.34 ± 0.19 cmH2O to 7.93 ± 0.20 cmH2O, an increase of 9.05% ± 0.82% (P < 0.05), and from 6.95 ± 0.14 cmH2O to 8.97 ± 0.22 cmH2O, a significant increase of 27.44% ± 1.96% (P < 0.01), respectively. In constipated rats, manual acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 increased intrajejunal pressure from 8.17 ± 0.31 cmH2O to 9.86 ± 0.36 cmH2O, an increase of 20.69% ± 2.10% (P < 0.05), and from 8.82 ± 0.28 cmH2O to 10.83 ± 0.28 cmH2O, an increase of 22.81% ± 1.46% (P < 0.05), respectively. In rats with diarrhea, MA at LI11 or ST37 increased intrajejunal pressure from 11.95 ± 0.35 cmH2O to 13.96 ± 0.39 cmH2O, an increase of 16.82% ± 2.35% (P

  14. Fluoroscopy-guided jejunal extension tube placement through existing gastrostomy tubes: analysis of 391 procedures

    PubMed Central

    Uflacker, Andre; Qiao, Yujie; Easley, Genevieve; Patrie, James; Lambert, Drew; de Lange, Eduard E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fluoroscopically placed jejunal extension tubes (J-arm) in patients with existing gastrostomy tubes. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of 391 J-arm placements performed in 174 patients. Indications for jejunal nutrition were aspiration risk (35%), pancreatitis (17%), gastroparesis (13%), gastric outlet obstruction (12%), and other (23%). Technical success, complications, malfunctions, and patency were assessed. Percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube location, J-arm course, and fluoroscopy time were correlated with success/failure. Failure was defined as inability to exit the stomach. Procedure-related complications were defined as adverse events related to tube placement occurring within seven days. Tube malfunctions and aspiration events were recorded and assessed. RESULTS Technical success was achieved in 91.9% (95% CI, 86.7%–95.2%) of new tubes versus 94.2% (95% CI, 86.7%–95.2%) of replacements (P = 0.373). Periprocedural complications occurred in three patients (0.8%). Malfunctions occurred in 197 patients (50%). Median tube patency was 103 days (95% CI, 71–134 days). No association was found between successful J-arm placement and gastric PEG tube position (P = 0.677), indication for jejunal nutrition (P = 0.349), J-arm trajectory in the stomach and incidence of malfunction (P = 0.365), risk of tube migration and PEG tube position (P = 0.173), or J-arm length (P = 0.987). A fluoroscopy time of 21.3 min was identified as a threshold for failure. Malfunctions occurred more often in tubes replaced after 90 days than in tubes replaced before 90 days (P < 0.001). A total of 42 aspiration events occurred (OR 6.4, P < 0.001, compared with nonmalfunctioning tubes). CONCLUSION Fluoroscopy-guided J-arm placement is safe for patients requiring jejunal nutrition. Tubes indwelling for longer than 90 days have higher rates of malfunction and aspiration. PMID:26380895

  15. Laparoscopic resection of a jejunal mesenteric pseudocyst: case report

    PubMed Central

    RESTA, G.; TARTARINI, D.; FABBRI, N.; BIANCHINI, E.; ANANIA, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and can occur at any age. They can manifest with abdominal pain or compressive mass effect. The exact etiology is unknown. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and laparoscopy are used in diagnosing mesenteric cysts. Laparoscopic excision of a mesenteric cyst is possible and should be considered as the treatment of choice. We present a case of mesenteric pseudocyst of small bowel treated by laparoscopic excision. PMID:25644729

  16. Jejunal Amyloidoma - a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of localized amyloid tumor of the jejunum which presented with abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. We reviewed the pathophysiologic process that precipitates bleeding in this rare tumor. We also examined the documented radiologic and endoscopic features of amyloidosis of the small bowel in the light of our reported case. All with a view to add to the growing evidence on this rare tumor which will facilitate accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:20062677

  17. Homicidal blunt abdominal trauma with isolated laceration of the small bowel mesentery.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A

    1984-01-01

    Nonpenetrating abdominal trauma rarely causes isolated mesenteric lacerations with fatal hemorrhages. When this does happen, it is often the result of compression by a lap seal belt or a steering wheel, only extremely rarely is it the result of a homicidal act. In the present paper, two homicide victims with resulting mesenteric tears and fatal bleeding due to sagittal compression are described. A high blood alcohol concentration may in both cases have contributed to the fatal outcome. The cases support the assumption that direct rather than indirect trauma causes this kind of lesion. PMID:6516601

  18. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers across Isolated Rat Jejunal Mucosae in Ussing Chambers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [14C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery. PMID:24992090

  19. Substrate metabolism of isolated jejunal epithelium: conservation of three-carbon units.

    PubMed

    Mallet, R T; Kelleher, J K; Jackson, M J

    1986-02-01

    This study characterizes the substrate metabolism of isolated jejunal epithelial cells. Utilization of substrates was assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Significant quantities of glucose, glutamine, and ketone bodies were consumed in a 1-h period; lactate and ammonia were produced. [U-14C]glucose was metabolized in this medium to approximately three moles of lactate per mole of CO2. The pattern of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism was analyzed utilizing media containing different concentrations of potential metabolic substrates and trace quantities of [14C]- succinate. O2 consumption rates indicated that glutamine can serve as an energy source in the absence of other substrates. Relative 14CO2 production from [1,4-14C]succinate versus [2,3-14C]succinate, which estimates flux of TCA cycle intermediates to products other than CO2, was increased more than twofold when glutamine was the only major substrate available. Alanine was produced from TCA cycle intermediates. Analysis of the citrate labeling pattern in the presence of [2,3-14C] succinate suggested that carbon from the TCA cycle does not form a significant fraction of acetyl-CoA used for citrate synthesis and that glutamine carbon was not completely oxidized to CO2. These findings suggest that glucose and glutamine are converted to three-carbon compounds by the jejunal epithelium. PMID:3953776

  20. Left paramesocolic hernia presenting as post appendicectomy abdominal cocoon.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik; Gabra, H Os; Nour, Shawqui

    2010-11-01

    We describe a rare case of left mesocolic hernia presenting as post appendicectomy intestinal obstruction in a girl. Laparotomy confirmed partial peritoneal encapsulation of upper small bowel due to herniation of jejunal loops into the left mesocolic hernia sac. Reduction of contents, resection of the sac and repair of the defect concluded the procedure uneventfully. PMID:21149902

  1. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonism on rat jejunal fluid and electrolyte secretion induced by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, F; Nassar, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The enteric nervous system is important in the pathophysiology of intestinal fluid secretion induced by cholera toxin (CT), Escherichia coli heat labile (LT), and heat stable (STa) toxins. The neurotransmitters involved are not fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a potent intestinal secretagogue present in the enteric nervous system, is increased after exposure of the cat intestine to CT. Whether VIP is involved in the pathogenesis of cholera and other toxins in not known.
AIM—To study in vivo the effect of VIP antagonism on jejunal fluid secretion induced by CT, LT, and STa.
METHODS—CT, LT (25 µg), or 0.9% NaCl was instilled in an isolated 25 cm segment of rat jejunum, and the VIP antagonist (VIPa) [4Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17]-VIP (0.2 or 2 µg/kg/min) or 0.9% NaCl was given intravenously. Two hours later, single pass in vivo jejunal perfusion was performed to assess fluid movement. In STa experiments, intravenous VIPa or 0.9% NaCl was given and 30 minutes later the jejunal segment was perfused with a solution containing STa 200 µg/l.
RESULTS—VIPa had no effect on basal intestinal fluid absorption. CT induced net fluid secretion (median −68 µl/min/g dry intestinal weight (interquartile range −80 to −56)) which was dose dependently reversed by VIPa (6.2 (−16 to 34) and 29 (17 to 42); p<0.01). Similarly, LT induced secretion (−63 (−73 to −30)) was attenuated by VIPa (0.2 µg/kg/min) (−15 (−24 to −1); p<0.01) and totally reversed to normal levels by VIPa (2 µg/kg/min) (37 (28-56); p<0.01 compared with LT and not significant compared with normal controls). STa induced secretion (−17 (−19 to −2)) was also reversed by VIPa (12 (9-23) and 14 (0-26); p<0.01).
CONCLUSION—VIP plays an important role in CT, LT, and STa induced intestinal secretion and may be the final putative neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of these toxins.


Keywords: cholera toxin; Escherichia coli toxins

  2. Effect of 4'-oxythiamine on thiamin transport and phosphorylation by everted jejunal sacs, and on thiamin uptake by rat isolated enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, G; Casirola, D; Ferrari, G

    1982-06-30

    Two preparations were used for the present investigation. Rat everted jejunal sacs were incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in Krebs-Henseleit buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.2 microM [thiazole-2-14C] -thiamin, with or without 2 microM 4'-oxythiamine. Suspensions of rat isolated enterocytes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 min in Ringer-Krebs, pH 7.4, containing 10 mM d-glucose and 0.125 microM [thiazole-2-14C] -thiamin, with or without 1.25 or 12.50 microM 4'-oxythiamine. Radiometric methods were used for the determination of: labeled thiamin net transport, free and phosphorylated thiamin content in the sac walls, total thiamin content in the isolated enterocytes. 4'-oxythiamine, at a molecular ratio with thiamin of 10:1, did not modify labeled thiamin net transport and accumulation by everted jejunal sacs, but caused a slight, statistically insignificant, decrease of labeled phosphorylated thiamin content of the sac walls. 4'-oxythiamine, at a molecular ratio of 10:1 or 100:1, did not inhibit labeled thiamin uptake by isolated enterocytes. Therefore, 4'-oxythiamine, which is known to be unable to inhibit thiamin enzymatic phosphorylation, did not affect thiamin intestinal transport both by everted intestinal sacs and isolated enterocytes. The present results can be interpreted as a further evidence that intracellular thiamin phosphorylation is an important step in thiamin intestinal transport. PMID:7104099

  3. Undiagnosed Sjögren's Syndrome Presenting as Mesenteric Panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rebecca L.; Bhavnagri, Sharukh J.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare inflammatory and fibrotic process that affects the small intestine mesentery. It may occur following abdominal surgery or in association with a variety of conditions, including malignancy, infection, and certain autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Herein, an unusual case of mesenteric panniculitis in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome will be presented. The patient presented with abdominal pain, weight loss, sicca symptoms, fatigue, and arthralgia. An abdominal CT revealed mesenteric fat stranding and prominent lymph nodes of the small intestine mesentery. She was found on laboratory workup to have positive antinuclear and anti-SSa antibodies. Minor salivary gland lip biopsy revealed focal lymphocytic sialadenitis. The patient's symptoms and CT findings improved with corticosteroids. This case suggests that Sjögren's syndrome should be considered as an underlying disease process in the evaluation of patients with mesenteric panniculitis. PMID:27366340

  4. Undiagnosed Sjögren's Syndrome Presenting as Mesenteric Panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebecca L; Bhavnagri, Sharukh J

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare inflammatory and fibrotic process that affects the small intestine mesentery. It may occur following abdominal surgery or in association with a variety of conditions, including malignancy, infection, and certain autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Herein, an unusual case of mesenteric panniculitis in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome will be presented. The patient presented with abdominal pain, weight loss, sicca symptoms, fatigue, and arthralgia. An abdominal CT revealed mesenteric fat stranding and prominent lymph nodes of the small intestine mesentery. She was found on laboratory workup to have positive antinuclear and anti-SSa antibodies. Minor salivary gland lip biopsy revealed focal lymphocytic sialadenitis. The patient's symptoms and CT findings improved with corticosteroids. This case suggests that Sjögren's syndrome should be considered as an underlying disease process in the evaluation of patients with mesenteric panniculitis. PMID:27366340

  5. The angiotensin II receptor type 2 agonist CGP 42112A stimulates NO production in the porcine jejunal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Sara; Laesser, Mats; Johansson, Bernalt; Holm, Mathias; Aneman, Anders; Fandriks, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to elucidate if nitric oxide is released by the porcine jejunal mucosa upon selective stimulation of AT2 receptors and the possible involvement of iNOS, and to investigate the presence of jejunal AT1 and AT2 receptors. Young landrace pigs were anaesthetized with ketamine and α-chloralose. Jejunal luminal NO output was assessed by intraluminal tonometry and analysed by chemiluminescense. Western blot analysis quantified mucosal iNOS and detected AT1 and AT2 receptor protein expression. AT1 and AT2 receptor RNA expression was detected by rtPCR. Results Baseline luminal NO output correlated significantly to baseline mucosal iNOS-protein content. In animals treated with the AT2-receptor agonist CGP42112A (n = 11) luminal NO output increased significantly (at 0.1 micrograms kg-1 min-1 and 1.0 micrograms kg-1 min-1), but not in animals simultaneously treated with the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 (bolus 0.3 mgkg-1, infusion 0.03 mg kg-1 h-1) (n = 7). No differences in iNOS protein expression were found between groups or before/after the administration of drugs. Western blot and rtPCR recognised expression of the AT1 and AT2 receptors in jejunal tissue. Conclusion The results suggest that activation of AT2 receptors increases jejunal luminal NO output. This response was not due to an increase in the expression of the iNOS protein in the mucosa. PMID:12689346

  6. The immediate response of jejunal mucosa to small bowel heterotopic allotransplatation in rats.

    PubMed

    Jonecová, Z; Tóth, Š; Varga, J; Staško, P; Kovalčinová, B; Maretta, M; Veselá, J

    2014-02-01

    The course of histopathological alterations within jejunal graft architecture during the initial adaptation phase in the host body was investigated. Graft tissues were compared to the intestinal tissues of the recipients. This study demonstrates: (1) renewal of intestinal epithelial lining in the graft biopsies during initial hours after transplantation is more likely caused by migration and extension of remaining epithelial cells than by their increased mitotic division. (2) Distinct decrease in histopathological injury was observed in transplanted grafts after 6h, but the morphometrical parameters, particularly villus height and wall thickness, remained altered. (3) Significant decrease in apoptotic cell death in the epithelial lining within 6h of graft recirculation was accompanied by no effect on apoptosis levels of the cells in lamina propria connective tissue. (4) Although the apoptosis level in the connective tissue cells was not modulated in the grafts within the first hour after transplantation, caspase-3 dependent apoptosis was decreased significantly. PMID:24079856

  7. Familial Apple Peel Jejunal Atresia with Helical Umbilical Cord Ulcerations in Three Consecutive Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Jaiman, Sunil; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao; Ratha, Chinmayee

    2016-01-01

    Apple peel deformity is a rare form of upper intestinal atresia of unknown etiology. Umbilical cord ulcers can occur secondary to reflux of gastric juice and bile as a result of the atresia and can cause lethal intrauterine hemorrhage. The authors report 3 instances of congenital apple peel jejunal atresia with helical umbilical cord ulcers afflicting all female offspring in consecutive pregnancies in a single nonconsanguineous family. There was no hemorrhage from the cord ulcers, but all 3 pregnancies resulted in perinatal death. Although familial occurrence is known, our case series is probably the 1st from the Indian subcontinent and warrants further research into the genetic mechanisms and possible ethnic differences of congenital upper intestinal atresia. The causation of sudden fetal demise in the absence of antecedent cord hemorrhage remains elusive. PMID:26213797

  8. Improved Cell Line IPEC-J2, Characterized as a Model for Porcine Jejunal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Silke S.; Richter, Jan F.; Krug, Susanne M.; Jebautzke, Britta; Lee, In-Fah M.; Rieger, Juliane; Sachtleben, Monika; Bondzio, Angelika; Schulzke, Jörg D.; Fromm, Michael; Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Cell lines matching the source epithelium are indispensable for investigating porcine intestinal transport and barrier properties on a subcellular or molecular level and furthermore help to reduce animal usage. The porcine jejunal cell line IPEC-J2 is established as an in vitro model for porcine infection studies but exhibits atypically high transepithelial resistances (TER) and only low active transport rates so that the effect of nutritional factors cannot be reliably investigated. This study aimed to properly remodel IPEC-J2 and then to re-characterize these cells regarding epithelial architecture, expression of barrier-relevant tight junction (TJ) proteins, adequate TER and transport function, and reaction to secretagogues. For this, IPEC-J2 monolayers were cultured on permeable supports, either under conventional (fetal bovine serum, FBS) or species-specific (porcine serum, PS) conditions. Porcine jejunal mucosa was analyzed for comparison. Main results were that under PS conditions (IPEC-J2/PS), compared to conventional FBS culture (IPEC-J2/FBS), the cell height increased 6-fold while the cell diameter was reduced by 50%. The apical cell membrane of IPEC-J2/PS exhibited typical microvilli. Most importantly, PS caused a one order of magnitude reduction of TER and of trans- and paracellular resistance, and a 2-fold increase in secretory response to forskolin when compared to FBS condition. TJ ultrastructure and appearance of TJ proteins changed dramatically in IPEC-J2/PS. Most parameters measured under PS conditions were much closer to those of typical pig jejunocytes than ever reported since the cell line’s initial establishment in 1989. In conclusion, IPEC-J2, if cultured under defined species-specific conditions, forms a suitable model for investigating porcine paracellular intestinal barrier function. PMID:24260272

  9. In vitro exposure to Escherichia coli decreases ion conductance in the jejunal epithelium of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Claudia; Khayal, Basel; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across the isolated jejunal mucosa. In addition, the intestinal epithelial responses to cholera toxin, histamine and carbamoylcholine (carbachol) were evaluated following an E. coli exposure. Jejunal tissues from 5-week-old broilers were exposed to 6×10(8) CFU/mL of either avian non-pathogenic E. coli IMT11322 (Ont:H16) or avian pathogenic E. coli IMT4529 (O24:H4) in Ussing chambers and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 1 h. After incubation with E. coli for 1 h, either cholera toxin (1 mg/L), histamine (100 μM) or carbachol (100 μM) were added to the incubation medium. Both strains of avian E. coli (non-pathogenic and pathogenic) reduced epithelial ion conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc). The decrease in ion conductance after exposure to avian pathogenic E. coli was, at least, partly reversed by the histamine or carbachol treatment. Serosal histamine application produced no significant changes in the Isc in any tissues. Only the uninfected control tissues responded significantly to carbachol with an increase of Isc, while the response to carbachol was blunted to non-significant values in infected tissues. Together, these data may explain why chickens rarely respond to intestinal infections with overt secretory diarrhea. Instead, the immediate response to intestinal E. coli infections appears to be a tightening of the epithelial barrier. PMID:24637645

  10. In Vitro Exposure to Escherichia coli Decreases Ion Conductance in the Jejunal Epithelium of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Claudia; Khayal, Basel; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across the isolated jejunal mucosa. In addition, the intestinal epithelial responses to cholera toxin, histamine and carbamoylcholine (carbachol) were evaluated following an E. coli exposure. Jejunal tissues from 5-week-old broilers were exposed to 6×108 CFU/mL of either avian non-pathogenic E. coli IMT11322 (Ont:H16) or avian pathogenic E. coli IMT4529 (O24:H4) in Ussing chambers and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 1 h. After incubation with E. coli for 1 h, either cholera toxin (1 mg/L), histamine (100 μM) or carbachol (100 μM) were added to the incubation medium. Both strains of avian E. coli (non-pathogenic and pathogenic) reduced epithelial ion conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc). The decrease in ion conductance after exposure to avian pathogenic E. coli was, at least, partly reversed by the histamine or carbachol treatment. Serosal histamine application produced no significant changes in the Isc in any tissues. Only the uninfected control tissues responded significantly to carbachol with an increase of Isc, while the response to carbachol was blunted to non-significant values in infected tissues. Together, these data may explain why chickens rarely respond to intestinal infections with overt secretory diarrhea. Instead, the immediate response to intestinal E. coli infections appears to be a tightening of the epithelial barrier. PMID:24637645

  11. Improved cell line IPEC-J2, characterized as a model for porcine jejunal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Silke S; Richter, Jan F; Krug, Susanne M; Jebautzke, Britta; Lee, In-Fah M; Rieger, Juliane; Sachtleben, Monika; Bondzio, Angelika; Schulzke, Jörg D; Fromm, Michael; Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Cell lines matching the source epithelium are indispensable for investigating porcine intestinal transport and barrier properties on a subcellular or molecular level and furthermore help to reduce animal usage. The porcine jejunal cell line IPEC-J2 is established as an in vitro model for porcine infection studies but exhibits atypically high transepithelial resistances (TER) and only low active transport rates so that the effect of nutritional factors cannot be reliably investigated. This study aimed to properly remodel IPEC-J2 and then to re-characterize these cells regarding epithelial architecture, expression of barrier-relevant tight junction (TJ) proteins, adequate TER and transport function, and reaction to secretagogues. For this, IPEC-J2 monolayers were cultured on permeable supports, either under conventional (fetal bovine serum, FBS) or species-specific (porcine serum, PS) conditions. Porcine jejunal mucosa was analyzed for comparison. Main results were that under PS conditions (IPEC-J2/PS), compared to conventional FBS culture (IPEC-J2/FBS), the cell height increased 6-fold while the cell diameter was reduced by 50%. The apical cell membrane of IPEC-J2/PS exhibited typical microvilli. Most importantly, PS caused a one order of magnitude reduction of TER and of trans- and paracellular resistance, and a 2-fold increase in secretory response to forskolin when compared to FBS condition. TJ ultrastructure and appearance of TJ proteins changed dramatically in IPEC-J2/PS. Most parameters measured under PS conditions were much closer to those of typical pig jejunocytes than ever reported since the cell line's initial establishment in 1989. In conclusion, IPEC-J2, if cultured under defined species-specific conditions, forms a suitable model for investigating porcine paracellular intestinal barrier function. PMID:24260272

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE GASTRO-JEJUNO-DUODENAL TRANSIT AFTER JEJUNAL POUCH INTERPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Alcino Lázaro; GOMES, Célio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background : The jejunal pouch interposition between the gastric body and the duodenum after the gastrectomy, although not frequent in the surgical practice today, has been successfully employed for the prevention and treatment of the postgastrectomy syndromes. In the latter, it is included the dumping syndrome, which affects 13-58% of the patients who undergo gastrectomy. Aim : Retrospective assessment of the results of this procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome. Methods : Fourty patients were selected and treatetd surgically for peptic ulcer, between 1965 and 1970. Of these, 29 underwent vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunalduodenostomy at the lesser curvature level, and the 11 remaining were submitted to vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunal-duodenostomy at the greater curvature level. The gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit was assessed in the immediate or late postoperative with the contrasted study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The clinical evolution was assessed according to the Visick grade. Results : Of the 40 patients, 28 were followed with the contrast evaluation in the late postoperative. Among those who were followed until the first month (n=22), 20 (90%) had slow gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit and in two (10%) the transit was normal. Among those who were followed after the first month (n=16), three (19%) and 13 (81%) had slow and normal gastric emptying, respectively. None had the contrasted exam compatible with the dumping syndrome. Among the 40 patients, 22 underwent postoperative clinical evaluation. Of these, 19 (86,5%) had excellent and good results (Visick 1 and 2, respectively). Conclusions : The jejunal pouch interposition showed to be a very effective surgical procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome in gastrectomized patients. PMID:26734789

  13. Neuroimmune connections in jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches at various bovine ages: potential sites for prion neuroinvasion.

    PubMed

    Defaweux, Valérie; Dorban, Gauthier; Antoine, Nadine; Piret, Joëlle; Gabriel, Annick; Jacqmot, Olivier; Falisse-Poirier, Nandini; Flandroy, Sylvain; Zorzi, Danièle; Heinen, Ernst

    2007-07-01

    During preclinical stages of cattle orally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the responsible agent is confined to ileal Peyer's patches (IPP), namely in nerve fibers and in lymph follicles, before reaching the peripheral and central nervous systems. No infectivity has been reported in other bovine lymphoid organs, including jejunal Peyer's patches (JPP). To determine the potential sites for prion neuroinvasion in IPP, we analyzed the mucosal innervation and the interface between nerve fibers and follicular dendritic cells (FDC), two dramatic influences on neuroinvasion. Bovine IPP were studied at three ages, viz., newborn calves, calves less than 12 months old, and bovines older than 24 months, and the parameters obtained were compared with those of JPP. No differences in innervation patterns between IPP and JPP were found. The major difference observed was that, in calves of less than 12 months, IPP were the major mucosal-associated lymphoid organ that possessed a large number of follicles with extended FDC networks. Using a panel of antibodies, we showed that PP in 24-month-old bovines were highly innervated at various strategic sites assumed to be involved in the invasion and replication of the BSE pathogen: the suprafollicular dome, T cell area, and germinal centers. In PP in calves of less than 12 months old, no nerve fibers positive for the neurofilament markers NF-L (70 kDa) and NF-H (200 kDa) were observed in contact with FDC. Thus, in view of the proportion of these protein subunits present in neurofilaments, the innervation of the germinal centers can be said to be an age-dependent dynamic process. This variation in innervation might influence the path of neuroinvasion and, thus, the susceptibility of bovines to the BSE agent. PMID:17406903

  14. Effect of Na/sup +/ replacement on transport and metabolism of succinate and glutamine in jejunal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Mallet, R.T.; Jackson, M.J.; Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    Novel radioisotope techniques may be applied to the analysis of metabolism and transport in intact cells. In the present study, rat jejunal epithelium was suspended in media containing five concentrations of glutamine between 0 and 5 mM, either Na/sup +/ or N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG/sup +/) as the major cation, and 44 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)succinate. An increased ratio of steady state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (1,4-/sup 14/C)succinate versus (2,3-/sup 14/C)succinate indicates enhanced efflux of TCA cycle intermediates to products other than CO/sub 2/, relative to cycle flux. Glutamine dependent increases in succinate CO/sub 2/ ratios plateaued above 0.5mM glutamine, indicating that entry of glutamine-derived carbon into TCA cycle intermediate pools was saturated above physiological plasma glutamine concentrations. Although /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from succinate tracers was reduced approximately 95% by Na/sup +/ replacement, succinate CO/sub 2/ ratios were not altered, indicating that succinate uptake was significantly reduced in NMDG/sup +/ medium. /sup 14/C-alanine and /sup 14/C-aspartate accumulation increased with increasing glutamine concentrations in a pattern similar to succinate CO/sub 2/ ratios, indicating that these amino acids were net products of glutamine carbon. Incorporation of /sup 14/C into lactate and alanine demonstrated the presence of an enzymatic pathway for conversion of TCA cycle intermediates to pyruvate.

  15. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax

  16. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, V; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, E

    2016-02-01

    As alterations of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) can influence amino acid metabolism via changes the ions incur in their configurations, performance and immunological responses of broiler chicks might be affected. So, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of sulphur amino acids (SAA) and DEB on performance, jejunal morphology and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. A total of 360 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of SAA (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation, provided by methionine supplementation in diets with the same cysteine level) and three levels of DEB (150, 250, and 350 mEq/kg) that were fed during the entire of trial in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that the relative weights of intestine and abdominal fat were decreased markedly (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of SAA and DEB respectively. Antibody titre against sheep red blood cell was neither individually nor in combination influenced by supplementation of SAA or DEB. Nevertheless, a decrease in DEB level led to a suppression in heterophile (p < 0.05) and an increase in lymphocyte counts (p = 0.06); consequently, heterophile to lymphocyte ratio was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by decremental levels of DEB. Albumin to globulin ratio was increased after inclusion of at least 10% SAA (p < 0.001) and 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet (p = 0.11). Although feeding high-DEB level led to a remarkable decrease in villus height (p < 0.01) and goblet cell numbers (p < 0.001), supplementing the highest level of SAA improved the height of jejunal villus. During the entire trial period, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased by incremental SAA levels (p < 0.05). However, inclusion of 150 mEq/kg led to not only a remarkable increase (p < 0.0001) in both ADFI and average daily

  17. Ceruletide increases dose dependently both jejunal motor activity and threshold and tolerance to experimentally induced pain in healthy man.

    PubMed Central

    Stacher, G; Steinringer, H; Schmierer, G; Schneider, C; Winklehner, S; Mittelbach, G; De Paolis, C; Praga, C

    1984-01-01

    The effects of ceruletide on jejunal motility and experimentally induced pain were studied in 16 healthy men, who participated each in four experiments and received in random double blind fashion 5, 10, or 20 micrograms ceruletide intramuscularly or placebo. Jejunal pressures were recorded by three perfused catheters with orifices between 10 and 20 cm aboral of the ligament of Treitz. Ceruletide dose dependently diminished phase I and increased phase II type activity and tended to reduce the number, but not the duration, of activity fronts. The number and amplitude of contractions as well as the area under the curve increased significantly and dose dependently as did threshold and tolerance to electrically and threshold to thermally induced pain. Only mild sedative and other side effects occurred. PMID:6714795

  18. Osmotic reflextion coefficients of capillary walls to low molecular weight hydrophilic solutes measured in single perfused capillaries of the frog mesentery.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, F E; Michel, C C; Mason, J C

    1976-01-01

    1. Individual capillaries of the transilluminated frog mesentery have been perfused with suspensions of human red cells in frog Ringer solution containing 1-0 g albumin 100 ml.-1. The outer surface of the mesentery has been washed with normal frog Ringer solution and with frog Ringer solutions made hypertonic by addition of one of the following solutes: sodium chloride (100 m-mole. 1.-1); urea (100 m-mole.1.-1); sucrose (20-50 m-mole. 1.-1); cyanocobalamin (8-5 m-mole. 1.-1). The temperature of the mesentery was between 14 and 16 degrees C in all experiments. 2. Wtih the mesentery superfused with normal Ringer, the filtration coefficient was determined from measurements of the rate of fluid filtration across the capillary wall, at a series of known capillary pressures (Michel, Mason, Curry & Tooke, 1974). Filtration coefficient varied from 0-69 X 10(-3) to 4-45 X 10(-3) mum. sec-1 .cm H2O-1 with an average value of 1-87 X 10(-3) mum. sec-1. cm H2O-1. 3. When the superfusate was made hypertonic by the addition of a test solute, the osmotic reflextion coefficient (sigma) of the capillary wall to test solute was calculated from the additional rate of filtration, the concentration of test solute in the superfusate and the filtration coefficient. Average values for sigma were: sodium chloride, 0-068 +/- 0-03 (three capillaries); urea, 0-071 +/- 0.015 (four capillaries); sucrose, 0-115 +/- 0-023 (seven capillaries); cyanocobalamin, 0-100 +/- 0-03 (three capillaries). 4. In further experiments, the osmotic reflextion coefficients to sodium chloride, urea and sucrose were determined in the same capillary. Five technically acceptable experiments were carried out. Although there were differences in the value of sigma between different capillaries, in any one capillary values of sigma were of the same magnitude and there appeared to be no significant trend with the molecular size of the test solute. 5. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that there is a single

  19. Osmotic reflextion coefficients of capillary walls to low molecular weight hydrophilic solutes measured in single perfused capillaries of the frog mesentery.

    PubMed

    Curry, F E; Michel, C C; Mason, J C

    1976-10-01

    1. Individual capillaries of the transilluminated frog mesentery have been perfused with suspensions of human red cells in frog Ringer solution containing 1-0 g albumin 100 ml.-1. The outer surface of the mesentery has been washed with normal frog Ringer solution and with frog Ringer solutions made hypertonic by addition of one of the following solutes: sodium chloride (100 m-mole. 1.-1); urea (100 m-mole.1.-1); sucrose (20-50 m-mole. 1.-1); cyanocobalamin (8-5 m-mole. 1.-1). The temperature of the mesentery was between 14 and 16 degrees C in all experiments. 2. Wtih the mesentery superfused with normal Ringer, the filtration coefficient was determined from measurements of the rate of fluid filtration across the capillary wall, at a series of known capillary pressures (Michel, Mason, Curry & Tooke, 1974). Filtration coefficient varied from 0-69 X 10(-3) to 4-45 X 10(-3) mum. sec-1 .cm H2O-1 with an average value of 1-87 X 10(-3) mum. sec-1. cm H2O-1. 3. When the superfusate was made hypertonic by the addition of a test solute, the osmotic reflextion coefficient (sigma) of the capillary wall to test solute was calculated from the additional rate of filtration, the concentration of test solute in the superfusate and the filtration coefficient. Average values for sigma were: sodium chloride, 0-068 +/- 0-03 (three capillaries); urea, 0-071 +/- 0.015 (four capillaries); sucrose, 0-115 +/- 0-023 (seven capillaries); cyanocobalamin, 0-100 +/- 0-03 (three capillaries). 4. In further experiments, the osmotic reflextion coefficients to sodium chloride, urea and sucrose were determined in the same capillary. Five technically acceptable experiments were carried out. Although there were differences in the value of sigma between different capillaries, in any one capillary values of sigma were of the same magnitude and there appeared to be no significant trend with the molecular size of the test solute. 5. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that there is a single

  20. Jejunal morphology and blood metabolites in tail biting, victim and control pigs.

    PubMed

    Palander, P A; Heinonen, M; Simpura, I; Edwards, S A; Valros, A E

    2013-09-01

    Tail biting has several identified feeding-related risk factors. Tail biters are often said to be lighter and thinner than other pigs in the pen, possibly because of nutrition-related problems such as reduced feed intake or inability to use nutrients efficiently. This can lead to an increase in foraging behavior and tail biting. In this study, a total of 55 pigs of different ages were selected according to their tail-biting behavior (bouts/hour) and pen-feeding system to form eight experimental groups: tail-biting pigs (TB), victim pigs (V) and control pigs from a tail-biting pen (Ctb) and control pen (Cno) having either free access to feed with limited feeding space or meal feeding from a long trough. After euthanasia, a segment of jejunal cell wall was cut from 50 cm (S50) and 100 cm (S100) posterior to the bile duct. Villus height, crypt depth and villus : crypt ratio (V : C) were measured morphometrically. Blood serum concentration of minerals and plasma concentration of amino acids (AA) was determined. Villus height was greater in Cno than Ctb pigs in the proximal and mid-jejunum (P < 0.05), indicative of better ability to absorb nutrients, and increased with age in the proximal jejunum (P < 0.001). Serum mineral concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and calcium (Ca) was lower in Ctb compared with Cno pigs, and that of Pi in V compared with all the other pigs. Many non-essential AA were lower in pigs from tail-biting pens, and particularly in victim pigs. Free access feeding with shared feeding space was associated with lower levels of essential AA in blood than meal feeding with simultaneous feeding space. Our data suggest that being a pig in a tail-biting pen is associated with decreased jejunal villus height and blood AA levels, possibly because of depressed absorption capacity, feeding behavior or environmental stress associated with tail biting. Victim pigs had lower concentrations of AA and Pi in plasma, possibly as a consequence of being bitten

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus control and atherosclerosis prevention in a non-obese rat model using duodenal-jejunal bypass

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XUAN; HUANG, ZHEN; RAN, WENHUA; LIAO, GANG; ZHA, LANG; WANG, ZIWEI

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent disease worldwide and during its conventional treatment, vascular complications remain unavoidable. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) is able to induce the remission of T2DM. However, studies of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), a modified procedure of GBP, are being carried out to investigate its ability to induce the remission of T2DM and protect the aorta from atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of DJB on the rate of T2DM remission and the prevention of atherosclerosis in the aorta in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes without obesity, and to explore the mechanism of DJB in protecting the aorta from atherosclerosis. A T2DM rat model was established with a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. Surgery was performed to analyze its effects on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation and pathological changes. Furthermore, changes in c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inhibitor of κB kinase (IKKβ) genes in the aorta following DJB surgery were examined. Levels of blood glucose, lipids, insulin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly elevated in the T2DM diabetic model compared with the non-diabetic control. A gradual recovery was observed in the DJB group following surgery. Foam cells and atherosclerotic plaques appeared in the ascending aortic tissue in the sham-surgery and T2DM groups, whereas only slight lesions were observed in the DJB group. The expression levels of JNK1 and IKKβ genes in the aorta were significantly increased in the sham-operated and T2DM groups compared with those in the DJB and normal control groups. The present study demonstrated that DJB caused remission of T2DM without weight loss in non-obese rats. Thus, DJB may delay or prevent the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis in the aorta and this may occur through the JNK1 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. PMID:25120614

  2. Viable intestinal passage of a canine jejunal commensal strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yurui; Saris, Per E J

    2014-10-01

    The strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 with immunomodulatory properties was previously found dominant in the jejunal chyme of four dogs, and the novel surface layer protein of LAB20 suggested its competitive colonization in canine gut. To evaluate the persistence and survival of LAB20 in healthy dogs, LAB20 was fed to five healthy pet dogs for 3 days, at a dosage of 10(8) CFU daily as fermented milk supplement. The fecal samples, from 1 day prior to feeding, three continuous feeding days, and on day 5, 7, 14, and 21, were collected for strain-specific detection of LAB20 using real-time PCR. We found that LAB20 count was significantly increased in dog fecal samples at the second feeding day, but rapidly decreased after feeding ceased. The fecal samples from prior to feeding, during feeding, and post-cessation days were plated onto mLBS7 agar, from where LAB20 was recovered and distinguishable from other fecal lactobacilli based on its colony morphotype. Using strain-specific PCR detection, the colonies were further verified as LAB20 indicating that LAB20 can survive through the passage of the canine intestine. This study suggested that canine-derived strain LAB20 maintained at high numbers during feeding, viably transited through the dog gut, and could be identified based on its colony morphotype. PMID:24849733

  3. Isolated Jejunal Perforation Following Bicycle Handlebar Injury in Adults: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Neofytou, Kyriakos; Michailidou, Maria; Petrou, Athanasios; Loizou, Sakis; Andreou, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    The small intestine is the third in frequency intraperitoneal organ which is injured after blunt trauma of the abdomen. In most of the cases, this type of injuries is accompanied by other injuries, which make it more difficult to diagnose. Failure of diagnosis and delay in treating these injuries significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the handlebar of the bike are common in children. Such injuries can cause injury to both solid and hollow abdominal viscera. Unlike children, adults' abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the bike's handlebar are extremely rare. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our department due to progressively abdominal pain after an accident with the handlebar of his bike. The subsequent CT scan after per os administration of contrast medium revealed the presence of free intraperitoneal contrast. It is a rare case of jejunal perforation after flipping the handlebar of the bicycle which was treated by partial removal of the injured part of jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time we describe such an injury with this mechanism to an adult. PMID:23984116

  4. Ex vivo absorption of thymol and thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside in piglet everted jejunal segments.

    PubMed

    Petrujkić, Branko T; Sedej, Ivana; Beier, Ross C; Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Epps, Sharon V R; Stipanovic, Robert D; Krueger, Nathan A; Nisbet, David J

    2013-04-17

    Food-producing animals are reservoirs of Campylobacter, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness. The natural product thymol can reduce the survivability of Campylobacter, but its rapid absorption in the proximal gastrointestinal tract may preclude its use as a feed additive to reduce intestinal colonization of these pathogens. This work examined the ex vivo absorption of thymol and thymol-β-d-glucopyranoside in everted porcine jejunal segments, as the latter was hypothesized to be more resistant to absorption. A modified gas chromatography and extraction method was developed to determine 1.0-500 mg/L thymol. From 1 and 3 mM solutions, 0.293 ± 0.04 and 0.898 ± 0.212 mM thymol, respectively, p = 0.0347, were absorbed, and 0.125 ± 0.041 and 0.317 ± 0.143 mM thymol-β-d-glucopyranoside, respectively, p = 0.0892, were absorbed. Results indicate that thymol-β-d-glucopyranoside was absorbed 2.3 to 2.8 times less effectively than thymol, thus providing evidence that thymol-β-d-glucopyranoside may potentially be used as a feed additive to transport thymol to the piglet lower gut. PMID:23551201

  5. Laparoscopic gastro-jejunal anastomosis using novel r2 deflectable instruments in an ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    Zdichavsky, Marty; Krautwald, Martina; Feilitzsch, Maximilian V; Wichmann, Dörte; Königsrainer, Alfred; Schurr, Marc Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Objective A novel 5 mm steerable instrument system (r2-DRIVE) was developed with active tip deflection and tip and shaft rotation. The feasibility and training effect of the r2 instruments were determined in a phantom model. Material and methods Experienced laparoscopic surgeons and untrained novices performed laparoscopic gastro-jejunal anastomoses using porcine tissue and r2 DRIVE-instruments. Mean anastomosis time, anastomosis width and burst pressure were measured. Number of stitches, skipped stitches and dropped needles were counted. Results of trained and untrained subjects were compared. Results Mean time for suturing decreased rapidly for all participants, but was more evident for untrained persons. After five anastomoses no relevant improvement in anastomotic time was seen for the skilled group. The ease of use, efficacy of manipulation and swift training effect with the novel r2 instruments for both experienced laparoscopic surgeons and untrained non-surgeons could be demonstrated and after few cases stable anastomosis times and a fast learning curve were obtained. Conclusions This study demonstrates the ease of use, efficacy of manipulation and swift training effect with the novel r2 instruments for both experienced laparoscopic surgeons and untrained non-surgeons. After few cases stable anastomosis times and a fast learning curve were obtained. PMID:26635060

  6. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in dairy and beef cattle: 11 cases (2001 to 2003)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a “ping” and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 cases, 10 cases were euthanized, and 1 died. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal contents from 7 of 7 cases. At necropsy, the characteristic finding was a varying length of a dark purple-red distended jejunum with an intraluminal blood clot. Histologically, there was segmental necrosis, ulceration, and mucosal and transmural hemorrhage of the jejunum. This is a sporadic disease of adult cattle characterized by mechanical obstruction of the small intestines by a large blood clot with a case fatality of almost 100%. PMID:16187715

  7. Differential proteome analysis along jejunal crypt-villus axis in piglets.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xia; Yang, Huansheng; Hu, Xihai; Wang, Xiaocheng; Li, Biao; Long, Lina; Li, Tiejun; Wang, Junjun; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The brush-border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients and ions in the small intestine. To identify the BBM proteins involved in epithelial cell maturation along the crypt-villus axis, enterocytes were sequentially isolated from the villus tip to the crypt of the jejunum from 21-day-old suckling piglets. After preparation of BBM vesicles, we detected 194 proteins in the jejunal epithelial cells by isobaric tags using relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. Of these, 56 BBM proteins were differentially expressed along the crypt-villus axis. During differentiation, the expression of proteins related to digestion and absorption of nutrients was primarily downregulated at the upper, middle villus, or crypt compared to the villus tip, while expression of proteins related to structural and enzyme regulator proteins was largely upregulated. We verified the differences in Na(+)/K(+) -transporting ATPase, galectin-3, and an intestinal-type fatty acid binding protein by western blot or immunochemical analysis. Identification of BBM-associated proteins helps enhance our understanding of digestion and absorption in piglets and other mammals, including humans. PMID:26709777

  8. Recycling of jejunal effluent to enable enteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephen; McCain, Scott; Harris, Andrew; McCallion, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman developed severe abdominal pain, distension and faeculent vomiting. CT of abdomen and pelvis revealed small bowel malrotation with a right paraduodenal hernia. At emergency laparotomy, a right paraduodenal hernia containing jejunum and ileum was identified. She had a viable duodenum with 50 cm of ischaemic proximal jejunum which was exteriorised as an end jejunostomy; 180 cm of infarcted jejunum and ileum was resected. The proximal end of 150 cm of healthy ileum was exteriorised as a closed mucous fistula and 50 cm distally a feeding ileostomy was constructed. On day 5 postoperatively, jejunal effluent began to be recycled via her feeding ileostomy and she never required parenteral nutrition. Despite having only 50 cm of jejunum proximal to her stoma, recycling of effluent enabled her electrolytes to remain normal. She put on weight postoperatively and proceeded to closure of her stomas at 6 months, not requiring laparotomy. PMID:24872491

  9. Barber Pole Sign in CT Angiography, Adult Presentation of Midgut Malrotation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garcelan-Trigo, Juan Arsenio; Tello-Moreno, Manuel; Rabaza-Espigares, Manuel Jesus; Talavera-Martinez, Ildefonso

    2015-07-01

    Adult midgut volvulus is a challenging diagnosis because of its low incidence and nonspecific symptoms. Diagnostic delay and long-term complaints are frequent in this clinical scenario. We reported a patient referred to our diagnostic imaging unit with intermittent abdominal pain, bloating and episodic vomiting for several years. He underwent barium gastrointestinal transit and abdominal ultrasound, which revealed severe gastric dilatation, food retention and slow transit until a depressed duodenojejunal flexure, with malrotation of the midgut and jejunal loops being located in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography angiography was performed, showing rotation of the small intestine around the mesentery root, suggestive of midgut malrotation. In addition, an abnormal twisted disposition of superior mesenteric artery with corkscrew appearance was seen, shaping the pole-barber sign which was evident in volume rendering three-dimensional reconstructions. The patient underwent scheduled surgical treatment without any complication and had good outcome after hospital discharge and follow-up. Computed tomography plays an important role in evaluation of adult midgut volvulus. In addition, angiographic reconstructions can help us to assess the anatomic disposition of mesenteric vascular supply. Both of these assessments are useful in preoperative management. PMID:26557278

  10. Impairment of jejunal absorption rate of carnosine by glycylglycine in man in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G C

    1976-01-01

    Using a double-lumen tube jejunal perfusion system in vivo, the mutual effects of carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and glycylglycine on their respective absorption rates have been studied in six Zambian African adults. Data on the effect of the constituent amino-acids of carnosine on glycylglycine absorption rate have similarly been obtained. The solutions infused in each subject contained (A) carnosine (50 mmol l.-1), (B) carnosine (50 mmol l.-1) and glycylglycine (50 mmol l.-1), (C) glycylglycine (50 mmol l.-1), and (D) glycylglycine (50 mmol l.-1), L-histidine (50 mmol l.-1) and beta-alanine (50 mmol l.-1). Glycylglycine produced a significant impairment in the mean rate of histidine absorption from carnosine (P less than 0-01). However, carnosine did not have a significant effect on the mean rate of glycine absorption from glycylglycine. Mean rate of histidine absorption from solution D was significantly higher than that from solution A (P less than 0-01). Mean rate of glycine absorption from glycylglycine was not significantly different during infusion of solutions B, C, and D. The results are consistent with the concept that carnosine on glycylglycine is probably because the affinity of mechanism; the lack of influence of carnosine on glycylglycine is probably because the affinity of carnosine for the dipeptide uptake mechanism is relatively low. A gross difference has been shown between mean absorption rate of histidine from free L-histidine (solution D) (25-8 mmol h-1) and when it is given in the form of carnosine in the presence of another dipeptide (solution B) (8-7 mmol h-1); that emphasizes the complexity of amino acid and peptide interaction during absorption, which must be important in nutrition. PMID:773786

  11. Effect of pectin on jejunal glucose absorption and unstirred layer thickness in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Flourie, B; Vidon, N; Florent, C H; Bernier, J J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of high methoxy apple pectin, a carbohydrate gelling agent, on the intestinal absorption of glucose, water, and sodium was studied in man. The effect of intraluminal fibre was evaluated in 22 healthy volunteers by the intestinal perfusion technique under an occlusive balloon. The test solutions (NaCl 130 mM, KCl 5 mM, glucose or mannitol 30 mM, PEG 4000 5 g/l) were perfused just beyond the ligament of Treitz at a rate of 10 ml/min. A 25 cm segment was studied. Three concentrations of pectin were tested: 6, 10, and 15 g/l. The effect of this pectin at two concentrations, 6 and 10 g/l, on the jejunal unstirred layer thickness was evaluated in nine other healthy subjects by an electrical technique. In mannitol solution, pectin reversed water and sodium absorption, whatever its concentration was, while in glucose solution it significantly reduced absorption of water and sodium at 10 and 15 g/l only (p less than 0.01). It significantly reduced glucose absorption at all concentrations (p less than 0.01). This reduction was found to be correlated with the solution viscosity (p less than 0.01). Pectin did not alter the glucose dependent sodium transport but increased significantly (p less than 0.001) the unstirred layer thickness. These results suggested that, in healthy man, pectin acutely given may impair intestinal absorption by means of an increased unstirred layer resistance. This effect could contribute to the diminished postprandial glycaemia observed in human subjects fed pectin. PMID:6432635

  12. Early immune response following Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in porcine jejunal gut loops.

    PubMed

    Meurens, François; Berri, Mustapha; Auray, Gael; Melo, Sandrine; Levast, Benoît; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chevaleyre, Claire; Gerdts, Volker; Salmon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, commonly called S. Typhimurium, can cause intestinal infections in humans and various animal species such as swine. To analyze the host response to Salmonella infection in the pig we used an in vivo gut loop model, which allows the analysis of multiple immune responses within the same animal. Four jejunal gut-loops were each inoculated with 3 x 10(8) cfu of S. Typhimurium in 3 one-month-old piglets and mRNA expressions of various cytokines, chemokines, transcription factors, antimicrobial peptides, toll like and chemokine receptors were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in the Peyer's patch and the gut wall after 24 h. Several genes such as the newly cloned CCRL1/CCX-CKR were assessed for the first time in the pig at the mRNA level. Pro-inflammatory and T-helper type-1 (Th1) cytokine mRNA were expressed at higher levels in infected compared to non-infected control loops. Similarly, some B cell activation genes, NOD2 and toll like receptor 2 and 4 transcripts were more expressed in both tissues while TLR5 mRNA was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCL25 mRNA expression as well as the mRNA expressions of its receptors CCR9 and CCRL1 were decreased both in the Peyer's patch and gut wall suggesting a potential Salmonella strategy to reduce lymphocyte homing to the intestine. In conclusion, these results provide insight into the porcine innate mucosal immune response to infection with entero-invasive microorganisms such as S. Typhimurium. In the future, this knowledge should help in the development of improved prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against porcine intestinal S. Typhimurium infections. PMID:18922229

  13. Effect of pectin on jejunal glucose absorption and unstirred layer thickness in normal man.

    PubMed

    Flourie, B; Vidon, N; Florent, C H; Bernier, J J

    1984-09-01

    The effect of high methoxy apple pectin, a carbohydrate gelling agent, on the intestinal absorption of glucose, water, and sodium was studied in man. The effect of intraluminal fibre was evaluated in 22 healthy volunteers by the intestinal perfusion technique under an occlusive balloon. The test solutions (NaCl 130 mM, KCl 5 mM, glucose or mannitol 30 mM, PEG 4000 5 g/l) were perfused just beyond the ligament of Treitz at a rate of 10 ml/min. A 25 cm segment was studied. Three concentrations of pectin were tested: 6, 10, and 15 g/l. The effect of this pectin at two concentrations, 6 and 10 g/l, on the jejunal unstirred layer thickness was evaluated in nine other healthy subjects by an electrical technique. In mannitol solution, pectin reversed water and sodium absorption, whatever its concentration was, while in glucose solution it significantly reduced absorption of water and sodium at 10 and 15 g/l only (p less than 0.01). It significantly reduced glucose absorption at all concentrations (p less than 0.01). This reduction was found to be correlated with the solution viscosity (p less than 0.01). Pectin did not alter the glucose dependent sodium transport but increased significantly (p less than 0.001) the unstirred layer thickness. These results suggested that, in healthy man, pectin acutely given may impair intestinal absorption by means of an increased unstirred layer resistance. This effect could contribute to the diminished postprandial glycaemia observed in human subjects fed pectin. PMID:6432635

  14. Endocrine effects of duodenal-jejunal exclusion in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaválková, Petra; Mráz, Miloš; Trachta, Pavel; Kloučková, Jana; Cinkajzlová, Anna; Lacinová, Zdeňka; Haluzíková, Denisa; Beneš, Marek; Vlasáková, Zuzana; Burda, Václav; Novák, Daniel; Petr, Tomáš; Vítek, Libor; Pelikánová, Terezie; Haluzík, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is an endoscopically implantable device designed to noninvasively mimic the effects of gastrointestinal bypass operations by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from the contact with ingested food. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of DJBL on anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation, metabolic and hormonal profile in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to characterize both the magnitude and the possible mechanisms of its effect. Thirty obese patients with poorly controlled T2DM underwent the implantation of DJBL and were assessed before and 1, 6 and 10months after the implantation, and 3months after the removal of DJBL. The implantation decreased body weight, and improved lipid levels and glucose regulation along with reduced glycemic variability. Serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and bile acids markedly increased together with a tendency to restoration of postprandial peak of GLP1. White blood cell count slightly increased and red blood cell count decreased throughout the DJBL implantation period along with decreased ferritin, iron and vitamin B12 concentrations. Blood count returned to baseline values 3months after DJBL removal. Decreased body weight and improved glucose control persisted with only slight deterioration 3months after DJBL removal while the effect on lipids was lost. We conclude that the implantation of DJBL induced a sustained reduction in body weight and improvement in regulation of lipid and glucose. The increase in FGF19 and bile acids levels could be at least partially responsible for these effects. PMID:27474690

  15. Intracellular potassium as a possible inducer of amino acid transport across hamster jejunal enterocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cremaschi, D; James, P S; Meyer, G; Rossetti, C; Smith, M W

    1986-01-01

    Brush border membrane potentials (Vm), intracellular K+ activity (aiK) and alanine uptake were measured in different parts of villi in mid-jejunal tissue taken from hamsters fed different amounts of food at high and low environmental temperatures. Basal villus enterocytes (Y cells) were found to have lower values for Vm and aiK than upper villus enterocytes (O cells). Alanine uptake was confined to O cells. The position on the villus where values for Vm and aiK changed, and where alanine uptake could first be seen to take place, depended on the energy intake and environmental temperature at which hamsters were kept. Na+-dependent alanine uptake and Vm were both higher in O cells of hamsters fed 10 kcal day-1 at 30 degrees C (10 k/30 degrees C) compared with animals fed 30 kcal day-1 at an environmental temperature of 12 degrees C (30 k/12 degrees C hamsters). The rates at which enterocytes migrated along the crypt-villus axis, measured separately in thymidine-labelling experiments, were 6.9 and 16.1 micron h-1 for 10 k/30 degrees C and 30 k/12 degrees C hamsters respectively. Both Vm and aiK were estimated, from these measurements, to have increased significantly by the time enterocytes became 30 h old. Alanine uptake began 15 h later. Neither of these parameters were influenced by previous adaptation conditions. The close temporal and variable positional relationship found between changes in aiK and onset of transport suggests that early changes in electrolyte composition might initiate a second phase of development enabling the enterocyte to absorb nutrients. The possibility that other ions besides K+ might also be involved in this aspect of regulation is also discussed. PMID:3795055

  16. Effects of hydrochloric acid on duodenal and jejunal mucosal permeability in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nylander, O.; Kvietys, P.; Granger, D.N. )

    1989-10-01

    The effects of various concentrations of hydrochloric acid (1, 5, 10, and 100 mM) on mucosal permeability and acid disappearance (H+-dis) in duodenum and jejunum were studied in anesthetized rats. Mucosal permeability was assessed by measuring blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-labeled EDTA (ED-Cl). Luminal alkalinization (LA) and H+-dis were determined by backtitration. ED-Cl was stable during saline perfusion and was not affected by changes in intestinal blood flow. Basal ED-Cl was four times higher in duodenum than in jejunum. Mucosal permeability of both duodenum and jejunum was not altered by 1 mM HCl. However, 5 mM HCl induced a 3.3-fold increase (P less than 0.001) in ED-Cl in jejunum but was without effect in duodenum. A 15-fold increase in ED-Cl was obtained in jejunum and a doubling (P less than 0.001) in ED-Cl was observed in duodenum when HCl concentration was increased to 10 mM HCl. One hundred millimolar HCl induced large increases of ED-Cl in both segments. The twofold increase of ED-Cl in response to 10 mM HCl in duodenum was completely reversible, whereas ED-Cl in jejunum was three to four times higher (P less than 0.05) than preacid levels 60 min after cessation of acid perfusion. The net increase in jejunal ED-Cl obtained after acid exposure was closely correlated (r = 0.99) with the net increase in LA, indicating leakage of interstitial fluid into the luminal solution. LA (saline perfusion) and H+-dis (HCl perfusion) were significantly higher in duodenum than in jejunum.

  17. Transition between columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells in the rat jejunal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, K; Shibuichi, I; Tosaka, H

    1981-11-01

    Electron microscopic observation of the jejunal epithelium of rats demonstrated morphological evidence of a transition between columnar absorptive cells and growing goblet cells. The columnar cells in both the villi and crypts have features suggestive of absorptive functions. They are provided with apical invaginations continuous to the intermicrovillous space. Absorbed lipid is observed in small vesicles in the terminal web layer, and chylomicrons derived here from are contained in large vacuoles near the Golgi apparatus. Ferritin particles artificially infused into the gut lumen were absorbed into the vacuoles in the subapical zone of columnar cells of suckling rats. Growing goblet cells situated in the crypt epithelium contain surface invaginations and lysosomes which are the same in structure as those found in absorptive cells nearby. Fat droplets evidently absorbed by the growing goblet cell were observed among immature mucus droplets. Artificially infused ferritin particles were found in vacuoles and lysosomes near the Golgi apparatus of some goblet cells of suckling rats. Some goblet cells on the intestinal villi of suckling rats looked immature and their microvilli and cytoplasmic matrix were clear like those of columnar absorptive cells. The transition between these goblet cells with clear cytoplasm and the mature goblet cells with dark cytoplasm was observed. These morphological evidences indicate that some of columnar cells already differentiated to absorptive cells are capable of transforming into mucus-producing (goblet) cells. It is suggested that not only undifferentiated columnar cells in the crypt base but also considerably differentiated columnar cells with absorptive function can differentiate into goblet cells. PMID:7325782

  18. Central nervous system influence of prostaglandin E2 on jejunal water and electrolyte transport in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Primi, M P; Bueno, L

    1986-12-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) vs. i.v. administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on net fluxes of water, Na+, and K+ through a jejunal Thiry-Vella loop were investigated before or after previous treatment with adrenergic blockers, indomethacin, and 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB8) in conscious dogs. Administered intracerebroventricularly at doses of 20-100 ng/kg, PGE2 significantly reduced (p less than 0.01), in a dose-related manner, the net fluxes of water, Na+, and K+, which were reversed from an absorption to a secretion. Intravenously administered PGE2 at a five times higher dosage failed to significantly alter net water and electrolyte fluxes. Phentolamine (0.2 mg/kg body wt) and tolazoline (2 mg/kg body wt) administered intravenously abolished the secretory effects of centrally administered PGE2 (50 ng/kg). However, 10 times lower dosages of phentolamine and tolazoline administered intracerebroventricularly did not prevent the PGE2-induced secretion of water and electrolytes. Intracerebroventricular administration of indomethacin (10 micrograms/kg body wt) and TMB8 (1 microgram/kg body wt), did not modify the effect of i.c.v.-administered PGE2; however, indomethacin administered intracerebroventricularly alone stimulated water and electrolyte absorption. None of these treatments results in a significant (p greater than 0.05) change in mean transit time through the Thiry-Vella loop. We conclude that centrally administered PGE2 influences jejunal water, Na+, and K+ absorption, through a mechanism related to adrenergic innervation and/or involving at least alpha 2-adrenoceptors. The results also suggest that PGE2 in the central nervous system controls jejunal water and ion transport in the dog. PMID:3464524

  19. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yetisir, Fahri; Sarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Özer, Mehmet; Yaylak, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA) patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT) and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S) with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP). Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient. PMID:27006853

  20. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis infection of the porcine jejunal Peyer’s patch rapidly induces IL-1β and IL-8 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Kendra A.; Brown, David R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is an enteric pathogen of swine, producing septicemia, enterocolitis, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The initial molecular events at the site of Salmonella infection are hypothesized to be critical in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses; however the acute immune response elicited by porcine intestinal tissues is not well understood. To address this need, we employed explants of jejunal Peyer’s patch (JPP) mucosa from pigs to examine Salmonella-induced immune responses under controlled conditions as well as to overcome limitations of whole animal approaches. JPP explants mounted in Ussing chambers maintained normal histological structure for 2 h and stable short-circuit current and electrical conductance for 2.5 h. After ex vivo luminal exposure to Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis, JPP responded with an increase in mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-8, but not TNFα. Increased IL-1β and IL-8 expression were dependent on efficient Salmonella adhesion and internalization, whereas mutant Salmonella did not induce inflammatory cytokine expression. Commensal enteric bacteria, present in some experiments, also did not induce inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicate that Salmonella uptake by Peyer’s patch is important in the induction of an innate response involving expression of IL-1β and IL-8, and that ex vivo intestinal immune tissue explants provide an intact tissue model that will facilitate investigation of mucosal immunity in swine. PMID:16115691

  1. [Usefulness of endoscopically guided nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube placement in a case of aspiration pneumonia due to postgastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kosei; Totsuka, Osamu; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    A 79-year-old man with a history of gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction 27 years previously was admitted to our hospital due to recurrent pneumonia. Because he had dysphagia and had frequently developed pneumonia over the course of a year, enteral nutrition via nasogastric tube was initiated approximately six months before admission. The clinical and computed tomography findings showed that the cause of pneumonia was aspiration of tube feeding nutrients due to gastroesophageal reflux. To prevent gastroesophageal reflux, he was continuously kept in a 30-degree or greater reclining position. However, gastroesophageal reflux was seen at an injection rate of 50 ml/h or greater. After we inserted a nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube guided by endoscopy, gastroesophageal reflux, dumping syndrome and diarrhea were not seen up to an injection rate of 300 ml/h. Endoscopically guided nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube placement is a simple method and may be useful for patients with aspiration pneumonia due to postgastrectomy. Moreover, long-term postgastrectomy patients appear to tolerate the postopyloric injection of enteral nutrition. Because the number of elderly patients who have dysphagia with postgastrectomy is increasing, these findings provide a basis for treatment in elderly medical settings. PMID:26700781

  2. Comparison of the biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa of dogs with aerobic and anaerobic bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Batt, R M; McLean, L

    1987-11-01

    Subcellular biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa have been compared in dogs with either aerobic or anaerobic bacterial overgrowth to explore relationships between composition of the flora and mucosal damage. Affected animals comprised 17 German shepherd dogs with chronic diarrhea or weight loss, or both. Analysis of duodenal juice demonstrated aerobic overgrowth in 10 cases, most frequently comprising enterococci and Escherichia coli, and obligate anaerobic overgrowth in 7 cases, most frequently including Clostridia spp. Histologic changes were minimal; however, examination of peroral jejunal biopsy specimens by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed specific biochemical abnormalities. In the dogs with aerobic overgrowth, there was a selective loss of brush border alkaline phosphatase activity, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was increased, whereas activities of disaccharidases and aminopeptidase N were unaltered. In contrast, anaerobic overgrowth was associated with a reduction in brush border density, indicative of a considerable fall in the glycoprotein-to-lipid ratio of the brush border membrane, whereas brush border enzyme activities were unaltered. There was a loss of peroxisomal catalase activity in dogs with aerobic overgrowth, and an indication of mitochondrial disruption in dogs with anaerobic overgrowth, but little evidence for damage to other subcellular organelles. These findings demonstrate that aerobic and anaerobic overgrowth may be associated with distinct but different mucosal abnormalities particularly affecting the brush border membrane. PMID:2888701

  3. Toxoplasma gondii causes death and plastic alteration in the jejunal myenteric plexus

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Eduardo José de Almeida; Zaniolo, Larissa Marchi; Vicentino, Suellen Laís; Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Sant’Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ME-49 Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) strain infection on the myenteric plexus and external muscle of the jejunum in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into two groups: the control group (CG) (n = 15) received 1 mL of saline solution orally, and the infected group (IG) (n = 15) inoculated with 1 mL of saline solution containing 500 oocysts of M-49 T. gondii strain orally. After 36 d of infection, the rats were euthanized. Infection with T. gondii was confirmed by blood samples collected from all rats at the beginning and end of the experiment. The jejunum of five animals was removed and submitted to routine histological processing (paraffin) for analysis of external muscle thickness. The remaining jejunum from the others animals was used to analyze the general population and the NADH-diaphorase, VIPergic and nitrergic subpopulations of myenteric neurons; and the enteric glial cells (S100-IR). RESULTS: Serological analysis showed that animals from the IG were infected with the parasite. Hypertrophy affecting jejunal muscle thickness was observed in the IG rats (77.02 ± 42.71) in relation to the CG (51.40 ± 12.34), P < 0.05. In addition, 31.2% of the total number of myenteric neurons died (CG: 39839.3 ± 5362.3; IG: 26766.6 ± 2177.6; P < 0.05); hyperplasia of nitrergic myenteric neurons was observed (CG: 7959.0 ± 1290.4; IG: 10893.0 ± 1156.3; P < 0.05); general hypertrophy of the cell body in the remaining myenteric neurons was noted [CG: 232.5 (187.2-286.0); IG: 248.2 (204.4-293.0); P < 0.05]; hypertrophy of the smallest varicosities containing VIP neurotransmitter was seen (CG: 0.46 ± 0.10; IG: 0.80 ± 0.16; P < 0.05) and a reduction of 25.3% in enteric glia cells (CG: 12.64 ± 1.27; IG: 10.09 ± 2.10; P < 0.05) was observed in the infected rats. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that infection with oocysts of ME-49 T. gondii strain caused quantitative and plastic alterations in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum in rats. PMID

  4. Unusual presentation of a familiar pathology: chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sierakowski, Kyra; Pattichis, Andrew; Russell, Patrick; Wattchow, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a man who experienced night sweats, abdominal pain and fever for over 3 months, with incomplete response to broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Although CT imaging was insufficient to identify the cause for his chronic abdominal pain, the abnormality of a 'misty mesentery' was crucial in guiding further investigation. The final diagnosis of chronic appendicitis was made through laparoscopic and pathological examination. This case highlights the utility of a collaborative diagnostic effort between disciplines. Chronic appendicitis can cause lingering abdominal pain. Early recognition and appropriate referral can save patients months and even years of unnecessary suffering. PMID:26869622

  5. Toxin-associated and other genes in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS)

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Benjamin J.; Nowell, Victoria J.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Soltes, Glenn; Prescott, John F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined known or possible virulence-associated genes in type A Clostridium perfringens from cases of both bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and compared these to isolates from calves that were healthy or had undifferentiated diarrheal illness. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to genotype the 218 C. perfringens isolates. Isolates were sourced from healthy and diarrheic young and mature cattle (n = 191), from calves with confirmed or suspected BCA (n = 22), and from mature cattle with JHS (n = 5). Of 216 isolates (96%), 208 were positive for the cpa gene and 13% (29/218) were positive for atypical cpb2. Three of 8 (37.5%) confirmed BCA isolates, 2 of 13 (15.4%) suspected BCA isolates, and no JHS isolates tested positive for atypical cpb2. As all isolates were negative for cpb, cpb2, cpe, etx, netB, and tpeL, the results of the present study do not support a role for these genes in BCA or JHS. A subset of unique genes identified in 1 bovine clostridial abomasitis isolate (F262), for which a genome sequence is available, was searched for in 8 BCA isolates by PCR. None of the 10 genes was consistently present in all or even in a majority of BCA isolates. Many of these genes were also variably and inconsistently present in type A isolates from calves that did not have BCA. Although a virulence signature to aid in the diagnosis of BCA caused by C. perfringens type A was not identified, further work may discover a gene or group of genes that would constitute such a signature. PMID:23543949

  6. Toxin-associated and other genes in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS).

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Benjamin J; Nowell, Victoria J; Parreira, Valeria R; Soltes, Glenn; Prescott, John F

    2012-10-01

    This study examined known or possible virulence-associated genes in type A Clostridium perfringens from cases of both bovine clostridial abomasitis (BCA) and jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and compared these to isolates from calves that were healthy or had undifferentiated diarrheal illness. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to genotype the 218 C. perfringens isolates. Isolates were sourced from healthy and diarrheic young and mature cattle (n = 191), from calves with confirmed or suspected BCA (n = 22), and from mature cattle with JHS (n = 5). Of 216 isolates (96%), 208 were positive for the cpa gene and 13% (29/218) were positive for atypical cpb2. Three of 8 (37.5%) confirmed BCA isolates, 2 of 13 (15.4%) suspected BCA isolates, and no JHS isolates tested positive for atypical cpb2. As all isolates were negative for cpb, cpb2, cpe, etx, netB, and tpeL, the results of the present study do not support a role for these genes in BCA or JHS. A subset of unique genes identified in 1 bovine clostridial abomasitis isolate (F262), for which a genome sequence is available, was searched for in 8 BCA isolates by PCR. None of the 10 genes was consistently present in all or even in a majority of BCA isolates. Many of these genes were also variably and inconsistently present in type A isolates from calves that did not have BCA. Although a virulence signature to aid in the diagnosis of BCA caused by C. perfringens type A was not identified, further work may discover a gene or group of genes that would constitute such a signature. PMID:23543949

  7. Construction of cDNA library from intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of Apostichopus japonicus Selenka infected with Vibrio sp. and a preliminary analysis of immunity-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongzhan; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Xiuqin; Cai, Yimei

    2012-06-01

    The aquaculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) has grown rapidly during recent years and has become an important sector of the marine industry in Northern China. However, with the rapid growth of the industry and the use of non-standard culture techniques, epidemic diseases of A. japonicus now pose increasing problems to the industry. To screen the genes with stress response to bacterial infection in sea cucumber at a genome wide level, we constructed a cDNA library from A. japonicus Selenka (Aspidochirotida: Stichopodidae) after infecting them with Vibrio sp. for 48 h. Total RNA was extracted from the intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of infected sea cucumber using Trizol and mRNA was isolated by Oligotex mRNA Kits. The ligated cDNAs were transformed into DH5α, and a library of 3.24×105 clones (3.24×105 cfu mL-1) was obtained with the sizes of inserted fragments ranging from 0.8 to 2.5 kb. Sequencing the cDNA clones resulted in a total of 1106 ESTs that passed the quality control. BlastX and BlastN searches have identified 168 (31.5%) ESTs sharing significant homology with known sequences in NCBI protein or nucleotide databases. Among a panel of 25 putative immunity-related genes, serum lectin isoform, complement component 3, complement component 3-like genes were further studied by real-time PCR and they all increased more than 5 fold in response to Vibrio sp. challenge. Our library provides a valuable molecular tool for future study of invertebrate immunity against bacterial infection and our gene expression data indicates the importance of the immune system in the evolution and development of sea cucumber.

  8. Ectopic bone formation by marrow stromal osteoblast transplantation using poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams implanted into the rat mesentery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishaug-Riley, S. L.; Crane, G. M.; Gurlek, A.; Miller, M. J.; Yasko, A. W.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Porous biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams were seeded with rat marrow stromal cells and implanted into the rat mesentery to investigate in vivo bone formation at an ectopic site. Cells were seeded at a density of 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 onto polymer foams having pore sizes ranging from either 150 to 300 to 710 microns and cultured for 7 days in vitro prior to implantation. The polymer/cell constructs were harvested after 1, 7, 28, or 49 days in vivo and processed for histology and gel permeation chromatography. Visual observation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and von Kossa-stained sections revealed the formation of mineralized bonelike tissue in the constructs within 7 days postimplantation. Ingrowth of vascular tissue was also found adjacent to the islands of bone, supplying the necessary metabolic requirements to the newly formed tissue. Mineralization and bone tissue formation were investigated by histomorphometry. The average penetration depth of mineralized tissue in the construct ranged from 190 +/- 50 microns for foams with 500-710-microns pores to 370 +/- 160 microns for foams with 150-300-microns pores after 49 days in vivo. The mineralized bone volume per surface area and total bone volume per surface area had maximal values of 0.28 +/- 0.21 mm (500-710-microns pore size, day 28) and 0.038 +/- 0.024 mm (150-300-microns, day 28), respectively. As much as 11% of the foam volume penetrated by bone tissue was filled with mineralized tissue. No significant trends over time were observed for any of the measured values (penetration depth, bone volume/surface area, or percent mineralized bone volume). These results suggest the feasibility of bone formation by osteoblast transplantation in an orthotopic site where not only bone formation from transplanted cells but also ingrowth from adjacent bone may occur.

  9. Effects of dietary administering chitosan on growth performance, jejunal morphology, jejunal mucosal sIgA, occludin, claudin-1 and TLR4 expression in weaned piglets challenged by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dingfu; Tang, Zhiru; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Xionggui; Feng, Zemeng; Wang, Jinquan

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how chitosan (COS) affects intestinal mucosal barrier function and to further explain mechanisms of COS on growth performance. Thirty piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during preliminary trial period. Three groups of Piglets in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing no addition, 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. Jejunal morphology and histology were analyzed under light microscope. The concentrations of occludin proteins were determined by western blot. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine secretory immunoglobulin (sIgA) level. Real-time PCR was used to detect Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Claudin-1 in jejunal mucosa. Feeding COS or chlortetracycline reduced (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio. Villus length, villus length/crypt depth, and goblet cells, were increased (P<0.05), but villus width and crypt depth were decreased (P<0.05) in both COS and chlortetracycline groups. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were higher (P<0.05) in the COS group than both chlortetracycline and control groups. Occludin protein expression was increased (P<0.01) in the COS group, but was decreased (P<0.05) in the chlortetracycline group. Expression of sIgA protein was higher (P<0.05) in the COS group than both control and chlortetracycline groups, however TLR4 mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.05) in both COS and chlortetracycline groups. There was no difference in expression of claudin-1 among the three groups. In conclusion, chitosan and the antibiotic have similar effects in promoting piglet growth and reducing intestinal inflammation, but different effects on intestinal mucosal barrier function. This indicates that chitosan can replace chlortetracycline as a feed additive for piglets. PMID:24007779

  10. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with duodeno-jejunal bypass for morbid obesity in a patient with situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Seki, Yosuke; Kasama, Kazunori

    2016-08-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with duodeno-jejunal bypass (LSG/DJB) has been adopted in our center for the treatment of morbidly obese patients with both severe type 2 diabetes mellitus and existing risks factors for gastric cancer. We have successfully performed over 200 LSG/DJB procedures in our institution. Here we report the techniques used to perform LSG/DJB in a morbidly obese patient with situs inversus totalis. The only significant difference in executing LSG/DJB between normal anatomy and situs inversus totalis is changing the surgeon's position and switching the trocar placements during the intraoperative phase. Consequently, there were no significant difference in operative time between normal anatomy cases and the situs inversus totalis case. PMID:27140835

  11. Adult midgut malrotation presented with acute bowel obstruction and ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Akile; Uçar, Bercis İmge; Düzgün, Şükrü Aydın; Bayhan, Zülfü; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Şanal, Bekir; Bayhan, Nilüfer Araz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal malrotation refers to the partial or complete failure of rotation of midgut around the superior mesenteric vessels in embryonic life. Arrested midgut rotation results due to narrow-based mesentery and increases the risk of twisting midgut and subsequent obstruction and necrosis. Presentation of case 40 years old female patient admitted to emergency service with acute abdomen and computerized tomography scan showed dilated large and small intestine segments with air-fluid levels and twisted mesentery around superior mesenteric artery and vein indicating “whirpool sign”. Discussion Malrotation in adults is a rare cause of midgut volvulus as though it should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Even though clinical symptoms are obscure, adult patients usually present with vomiting and recurrent abdominal pain due to chronic partial obstruction. Contrast enhanced radiograph has been shown to be the most accurate method. Typical radiological signs are corkscrew sign, which is caused by the dilatation of various duodenal segments at different levels and the relocation of duodenojejunal junction due to jejunum folding. As malrotation commonly causes intestinal obstruction, patients deserve an elective laparotomy. Conclusion Malrotation should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Surgical intervention should be prompt to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:27015011

  12. Oral administration recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor enhances the jejunal digestive enzyme genes expression and activity of early-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Lee, D N; Chuang, Y S; Chiou, H Y; Wu, F Y; Yen, H T; Weng, C F

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to determine ingested porcine epidermal growth factor (pEGF) on the gastrointestinal tract development of early-weaned piglets. Thirty-two piglets (14-day weaned) were randomly allotted to supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg pEGF/kg diet. Each treatment consisted of four replicates with two pigs per pen for a 14 days experimental period. Piglets were sacrificed and gastrointestinal tract samples were collected to measure mucosa morphology, mRNA expression and activities of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets at the end of the experiment. Diets supplemented with pEGF failed to influence growth performance but tended to increase jejunal mucosa weight (p < 0.09) and protein content (p < 0.07). Piglets supplemental pEGF induced incrementally the gastric pepsin activity (p < 0.05) and stimulated jejunal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactase activities accompanied with the increase of jejunal ALP and maltase mRNA expression. No effect of pEGF on the activities of all enzymes in ileum except the stimulation of ileal aminopeptide N mRNA expression. These results reveal that dietary pEGF supplementation might enhance gene expression and activities of digestive enzymes in the stomach and jejunum of piglets. PMID:18662356

  13. The expression of genes involved in jejunal lipogenesis and lipoprotein synthesis is altered in morbidly obese subjects with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Garcia-Arnes, Juan; Valdes, Sergio; Gonzalo, Montserrat; Soriguer, Federico; Moreno-Ruiz, Francisco J; Rodriguez-Cañete, Alberto; Gallego-Perales, Jose L; Alcain-Martinez, Guillermo; Vazquez-Pedreño, Luis; Lopez-Enriquez, Soledad; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, until now little attention has been paid to the role that the intestine might have. The aim of this research was to determine the relation between insulin resistance and intestinal de novo lipogenesis/lipoprotein synthesis in morbidly obese subjects and to study the effect of insulin on these processes. Jejunal mRNA expression of the different genes involved in the intestinal de novo lipogenesis/lipoprotein synthesis was analyzed in three groups of morbidly obese subjects: Group 1 with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), group 2 with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and group 3 with T2DM and treatment with metformin (MO-metf-T2DM). In addition, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from MO-low-IR were incubated with different doses of insulin/glucose. In Group 2 (MO-high-IR), the jejunal mRNA expression levels of apo A-IV, ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) were significantly higher and acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACC1) and fatty-acid synthase lower than in Group 1 (MO-low-IR). In Group 3 (MO-metf-T2DM), only the ACLY and PDHB mRNA expressions were significantly higher than in Group 1 (MO-low-IR). The mRNA expression of most of the genes studied was significantly linked to insulin and glucose levels. The incubation of IEC with different doses of insulin and glucose produced a higher expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, apo A-IV, SREBP-1c, and ACC1 when both, glucose and insulin, were at a high concentration. However, with only high insulin levels, there were higher apo A-IV, PDHB and SREBP-1c expressions, and a lower ACLY expression. In conclusion, the jejunum of MO-high-IR has a decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo fatty-acid synthesis and an

  14. Raised number of jejunal IgG2-producing cells in untreated adult coeliac disease compared with food allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Rognum, T O; Kett, K; Fausa, O; Bengtsson, U; Kilander, A; Scott, H; Gaarder, P I; Brandtzaeg, P

    1989-01-01

    The subclass distribution of IgG-producing immunocytes was studied by two colour immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies in jejunal biopsy specimens from 10 adults with untreated coeliac disease, 11 coeliac disease patients on a gluten free diet, and seven patients with established food allergy. Paired immunofluorescence staining was performed with subclass specific murine monoclonal antibodies in combination with polyclonal rabbit antibody reagent to total IgG; the proportion of cells belonging to each subclass could thereby be determined. The ratio of IgG2 immunocytes was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in untreated coeliac disease patients (median, 35.2%; range, 26.7-65.2%) than in those on a gluten free diet (median, 7.3%; range, 0-31.9%) or those having food allergy (median, 12.5%; range, 0-36.5%). The disparity in the local IgG2 response between patients with untreated coeliac disease and those with food allergy might be due to differences in the nature of the antigenic stimuli, dissimilar genetic 'make-up' of the subjects, or both. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2599444

  15. Effect of glucose on jejunal water and solute absorption in the presence of glycodeoxycholate and oleate in man.

    PubMed

    Brown, B D; Ammon, H V

    1981-08-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 12 healthy volunteers to study the effects of 14 and 56 mM glucose on fluid secretion induced by 5 mM glycodeoxycholate on 7 mM oleate. Glucose enhanced water absorption under control conditions and reduced water secretion induced by glycodeoxycholate or oleate (P less than 0.01). As has been observed previously, glycodeoxycholate and oleate inhibited glucose absorption (P less than 0.001) and significant linear relationships existed between net water movement and glucose absorption. Glycodeoxycholate also reduced the absorption of 14 mM arabinose (P less than 0.05) and oleate reduced the absorption of 56 mM mannitol (P less than 0.05). Reduced solute absorption in the presence of glycodeoxycholate and oleate, therefore, cannot be attributed to an effect on active transport alone. The relationships between sodium transport and water absorption varied with the glucose concentration in the perfusion solutions. Similarly, the relationships between glucose absorption and sodium absorption varied with glucose concentration. The data suggest that a significant amount of glucose can be absorbed without concomitant absorption of sodium. The data indicate that glucose absorption can stimulate water absorption directly without the mediation of sodium and that water movement follows glucose at a rate which maintains isotonicity. PMID:7261835

  16. Sutureless jejuno-jejunal anastomosis in gastric cancer patients: a comparison with handsewn procedure in a single institute

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biofragmentable anastomotic ring has been used to this day for various types of anastomosis in the gastrointestinal tract, but it has not yet achieved widespread acceptance among surgeons. The purpose of this retrospective study is to compare surgical outcomes of sutureless with suture method of Roux-and-Y jejunojejunostomy in patients with gastric cancer. Methods Two groups of patients were obtained based on anastomosis technique (sutureless group versus hand sewn group): perioperative outcomes were recorded for every patient. Results The mean time spent to complete a sutureless anastomosis was 11±4 min, whereas the time spent to perform hand sewn anastomosis was 23±7 min. Estimated intraoperative blood loss was 178±32ml in the sutureless group and 182±23ml in the suture-method group with no significant differences. No complications were registered related to enteroanastomosis. Intraoperative mortality was none for both groups. Conclusions The Biofragmentable Anastomotic Ring offers a safe and time-saving method for the jejuno-jejunal anastomosis in gastric cancer surgery, and for this purpose the ring has been approved as a standard method in our clinic. Nevertheless currently there are few studies on upper gastrointestinal sutureless anastomoses and this could be the reason for the low uptake of this device. PMID:23173807

  17. Individual and combined cytotoxic effects of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins B1) on swine jejunal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lam Yim Murphy; Turner, Paul C; El-Nezami, Hani

    2013-07-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins occur worldwide in foods such as cereals and animal forages, leading to acute and chronic exposures in human and animals. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are an important first target site for these dietary toxins. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of four common Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on a normal porcine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. A dose response relationship between individual mycotoxins and cell viability (MTT assay) was initially investigated, and subsequently cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic concentrations were selected to investigate combinations of two, three and all four of the mycotoxins. For individual mycotoxins, a dose response was observed with cell viability, such that the potency ranking was NIV>DON>ZEA>FB1. At cytotoxic doses of individual mycotoxins, all mixtures gave reduced cell viability compared to control. At noncytotoxic concentrations of individual mycotoxins, all mixtures were cytotoxic with DON-NIV, DON-ZEA, DON-NIV-FB1, DON-ZEA-FB1, NIV-ZEA-FB1 and all four mixed causing the greatest loss of cell viability. The latter observation in particular raises concerns over safety margins based on single toxin species, and suggests that the effects of multiple complex mixtures need to be better understood to assess health risks. PMID:23562706

  18. A very feasible alternative in patients with feeding difficulties from gastrostomy: Jejunal tube advanced through the gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Ramazan; Turkyilmaz, Zafer; Sonmez, Kaan; Oktar, Suna Ozhan; Kaya, Cem; Kokurcan, Atilla; Oncu, Fatih; Basaklar, Abdullah Can

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our aim is to share our experiences regarding patients who cannot be fed effectively through the gastrostomy tube, but were inserted feeding jejunostomy through the gastrostomy orifice using scopic fluoroscopic techniques utilised by the interventional radiology. Patients and Methods: Between January 2010 and May 2013 the patients that were inserted jejunostomy tube through the gastrostomy orifice using fluoroscopic techniques were retrospectively analysed. Data including primary indication for gastrostomy, sex, concomitant disease and the requirement for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were all recorded. Results: There were five patients with these criteria. They all received either medical or surgical GERD therapy; nevertheless enteral feeding failed to reach an effective level, they all had vomiting and did not gain any weight. Following conversion, all the patients gained minimum 2 kg in 2-5 months; all the patients tolerated enteral feeding and were discharged in the early period. There were neither procedure related complications such as perforation, bleeding nor sedation related complications. Procedure took no more than 30 min as a whole. There was no need for surgical intervention. However in one patient re-intervention was required due to accidental removal of the catheter. Conclusions: In case of feeding difficulties following the gastrostomy; instead of an invasive surgical intervention; physicians should consider jejunal feeding that is advanced through the gastrostomy, which does not require any anaesthesia. PMID:26168749

  19. Biochemical changes in the jejunal mucosa of dogs with a naturally occurring enteropathy associated with bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Batt, R M; Carter, M W; Peters, T J

    1984-01-01

    The subcellular biochemical features of a naturally occurring enteropathy in the dog associated with bacterial overgrowth have been examined. Affected animals comprised a group of 10 German Shepherd dogs with raised serum folate and reduced vitamin B12 concentrations, mild steatorrhoea, reduced xylose absorption, and normal exocrine pancreatic function. Culture of duodenal juice showed bacterial overgrowth with mixed flora, most frequently including enterococci and Escherichia coli. Examination of peroral jejunal biopsies revealed predominantly minimal histological but distinct biochemical abnormalities in the mucosa. The specific activity of alkaline phosphatase was decreased, isopycnic density gradient centrifugation showing a marked loss particularly of the brush border component of enzyme activity. In contrast, gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was enhanced in brush border fragments of slightly increased modal density, but there were no changes in the activities of the carbohydrases, zinc-resistant alpha-glucosidase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase or of the peptidase, leucyl-2-naphthylamidase. Activities of lysosomal enzymes were increased and there was evidence for enhanced lysosomal fragility and mitochondrial disruption. The activities and density gradient distributions of marker enzymes for basal-lateral membranes, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes were essentially unaltered. These findings show that bacterial colonisation of the proximal small intestine may be associated with specific alterations in microvillus membrane proteins and provide biochemical evidence for intracellular damage to the enterocytes. PMID:6745719

  20. Reversed Intestinal Rotation Presented as Bowel Obstruction in a Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of complete large bowel obstruction in a pregnant woman, without previous surgical history, due to previously undiagnosed reversed intestinal rotation is presented. The young woman was admitted with progressive nausea and vomiting which did not respond to conventional therapy. Her plain abdominal film revealed signs of small bowel obstruction. On laparotomy, her transverse colon was found to be located beneath the root of small bowel mesentery and completely obstructed by congenital fibrous bands. Postoperative recovery was unremarkable. Surgery for this unusual developmental anomaly is discussed. PMID:26075133

  1. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming-Wei; Liu, Shao-Zhuang; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats. METHODS Diabetic rats, which were induced by high-fat diet (HFD), nicotinamide and low-dose streptozotocin, underwent sham operations, SG, SG with jejuno-ileal loop (SG-JI) and SG with jejuno-jejunal loop (SG-JJ) followed by postoperative HFD. Then, at the time points of baseline and 2, 12 and 24 wk postoperatively, we determined and compared several variables, including the area under the curve for the results of oral glucose tolerance test (AUCOGTT), serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and ghrelin in fasting state, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body weight, calorie intake, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and insulin secretions after glucose gavage at dose of 1 g/kg. RESULTS At 2 wk postoperatively, rats that underwent SG, SG-JJ and SG-JI, compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats, demonstrated lower body weight, calorie intake and ghrelin (P < 0.05 vs SHAM), enhanced secretion of insulin and GLP-1 after glucose gavage (P < 0.05 vs SHAM), improved AUCOGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting serum triglyceride and cholesterol (AUCOGTT: 1616.9 ± 83.2, 837.4 ± 83.7, 874.9 ± 97.2 and 812.6 ± 81.9, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; HOMA-IR: 4.31 ± 0.54, 2.94 ± 0.22, 3.17 ± 0.37 and 3.41 ± 0.22, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; Triglyceride: 2.35 ± 0.17, 1.87 ± 0.23, 1.98 ± 0.30 and 2.04 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; Cholesterol: 1.84 ± 0.21, 1.53 ± 0.20, 1.52 ± 0.20 and 1.46 ± 0.23 mmol/L). At 12 wk postoperatively, rats receiving SG-JJ and SG-JI had lower body weight, reduced levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and elevated level of GLP-1 compared to those receiving SG (P < 0.05 vs SG). At 24 wk after surgery, compared with SG, the advantage of SG-JJ and SG-JI for glucolipid metabolism was still evident (P < 0.05 vs SG). SG-JI had a better performance in lipid metabolism and GLP-1 secretion of rats than did SG-JJ. CONCLUSION

  2. miR-200a regulates Rheb-mediated amelioration of insulin resistance after duodenal–jejunal bypass

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W; Han, H; Wang, Y; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Zhang, G; Hu, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Duodenal–jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery can induce the rapid and durable remission of diabetes. Recent studies indicate that ameliorated hepatic insulin resistance and improved insulin signaling might contribute to the diabetic control observed after DJB. Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is reported to have an important role in insulin pathway, and some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to regulate Rheb. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DJB on hepatic insulin resistance and the effects of miRNA-200a, a Rheb-targeting miRNA, on the development of DJB-induced amelioration in hepatic insulin resistance. Subjects: We investigated hepatic insulin signaling change and mapped the hepatic miRNAome involved in a rat model of DJB. We studied the effects of miR-200a on Rheb signaling pathway in buffalo rat liver cell lines. Liver tissues were studied and glucose tolerance tests were conducted in DJB rats injected with lentivirus encoding miR-200a inhibitor and diabetic rats injected with miR-200a mimic. Results: Rheb is a potential target of miR-200a. Transfection with an miR-200a inhibitor increased Rheb protein levels and enhanced the feedback action on insulin receptor substrate-dependent insulin signaling, whereas transfection with an miR-200a mimic produced the opposite effects. A luciferase assay confirmed that miR-200a bind to the 3′UTR (untranslated regions) of Rheb. Global downregulation of miR-200a in DJB rats showed impaired insulin sensitivity whereas upregulation of miR-200a in diabetic rats showed amelioration of diabetes. Conclusions: A novel mechanism was identified, in which miR-200a regulates the Rheb-mediated amelioration of insulin resistance in DJB. The findings suggest miR-200a should be further explored as a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27121251

  3. Intestinal transport of thiamin and thiamin monophosphate in rat everted jejunal sacs: a comparative study using some potential inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, G; Casirola, D; Patrini, C; Ricci, V; Laforenza, U; Ferrari, G; Rindi, G

    1988-12-01

    Rat everted jejunal sacs were incubated for 15 and 30 min at 37 degrees C in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.2 microM [3H]-thiamin (3H-T) or [3H]-thiamin monophosphate (3H-TMP) with and without 10 mM 1-phenylalanine (PAL) or 2.5 mM levamisole (LEV). The concentrations of 3H-T and its phosphoesters in sac wall and serosal fluid were determined by a radiometric method after electrophoretic separation. In separate experiments, thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPKase) and thiamin pyrophosphatase (TPPase) activities were determined in mucosal scrapings, with and without PAL or LEV, by using a radiometric and a colorimetric method, respectively. 3H-TMP was transported partly unchanged by an active mechanism similarly to 3H-T, but less efficiently. During transport, 3H-TMP was also enzymatically transformed to thiamin (T) and thiamin pyrophosphate, which accumulated in the tissue. In the serosal fluid, the concentration of 3H-TMP exceeded that of 3H-T. Presence of PAL or LEV with 3H-T or 3H-TMP in the incubation medium reduced the serosal transport and the tissue content of T compounds. LEV caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TPKase without affecting TPPase, whereas PAL inhibited both activities to about the same extent. These results indicate that the transport of TMP involves a number of different processes similar to those responsible for T transport. The effects of PAL and LEV underline the importance of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation coupling. PMID:2474283

  4. Effects of yeast cell wall-derived mannan-oligosaccharides on jejunal gene expression in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, R; Power, R F; Mallonee, D; Routt, K; Spangler, L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Dawson, K A

    2012-07-01

    The use of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has gained in popularity in recent years due to regulatory restrictions of using AGP in food animal production. Benefits of MOS usage include improvement on animal performance, feed efficiency, and gastrointestinal health. The molecular mechanisms of these functions however are not clear. The goal of the current study was to use a transcriptomics approach to investigate the effects of MOS on the intestinal gene expression profile of young broilers and characterize biological gene pathways responsible for the actions of MOS. One hundred and twenty 1-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups and were fed either a standard wheat-soybean meal-based (control) diet or the same diet supplemented with 2.2 g/kg of MOS (Bio-Mos, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) for 3 wk, followed by jejunal gene expression profiling analysis using chicken-specific Affymetrix microarrays. Results indicated that a total of 672 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and fold change >1.2) in the jejunum by MOS supplementation. Association analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes are involved in diverse biological functions including energy production, cell death, and protein translation. Expression of 77 protein synthesis-related genes was differentially regulated by MOS in the jejunum. Further pathway analysis indicated that 15 genes related to oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated in the jejunum, and expression of genes important in cellular stress response, such as peroxiredoxin 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and thioredoxin, were also increased by MOS. Differential expression of genes associated with cellular immune processes, including lysozyme, lumican, β 2-microglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and fibronectin 1, were also observed in MOS-fed broilers. In summary, this study systematically identified biological functions and gene pathways that are important in

  5. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  6. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  7. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (159). Jejunal intussusception due to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vijay; Chawla, Ashish; Wee, Eric; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman presented with acute onset of upper abdominal pain. A diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) was made based on the clinical picture of perioral pigmentation with imaging findings of transient jejunojejunal intussusceptions and small bowel polyps, and confirmed by characteristic histopathological appearances of Peutz-Jeghers polyps. PJS is a rare hereditary condition characterised by unique hamartomatous polyps, perioral mucocutaneous pigmentations, and increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal and extraintestinal neoplasms. Patients usually present with recurrent abdominal pain due to intussusception caused by polyps. Other modes of presentations include rectal bleeding and melaena. We describe the imaging findings of PJS and provide a brief review of bowel polyposis syndromes. The latter are relatively rare disorders characterised by multiple polyps in the large or small intestine, with associated risk of malignancies and other extraintestinal manifestations. Awareness of the manifestations and early diagnosis of these syndromes is crucial to prevent further complications. PMID:25715854

  8. Easy to swallow: detection of an extramural jejunal GIST by video capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kauser, Ricky; Kazemi, Ali; Farah, Katie; Morrissey, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with an obscure gastrointestinal bleed who was found to have an extramural gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), detected by capsule endoscopy, and confirmed by laparoscopically-assisted enteroscopy and resection. Currently, major modalities used for detection of GISTs include double-balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy and CT. Endoscopic measures, including capsule endoscopy, are limited in their ability to detect GISTs with extramural growth, as these typically do not demonstrate obvious luminal abnormalities. This case report illustrates a case in which an extraluminal GIST causing recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding presented as an ulcer, as seen on capsule endoscopy. PMID:26459493

  9. Measurement of intracellular mediators in enterocytes isolated from jejunal biopsy specimens of control and cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchin, B W; Dobson, P R; Brown, B L; Hardcastle, J; Hardcastle, P T; Taylor, C J

    1991-01-01

    A method that maximises the yield of viable enterocytes has been developed for the isolation of enterocytes from human jejunal biopsy specimens. These enterocytes have been used to study the values of intracellular free calcium and the rises in adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) induced by secretagogues in normal and cystic fibrosis cells. Basal intracellular free calcium of cystic fibrosis enterocytes, measured fluorimetrically with fura-2, was within the range of the basal intracellular free calcium of non-cystic fibrosis enterocytes (cystic fibrosis 263 nmol/l; non-cystic fibrosis 287 nmol/l). Changes in intracellular free calcium were observed after exposure to ionomycin: a 100 nmol/l solution induced a 2.5 fold increase in intracellular free calcium in the cystic fibrosis enterocytes and a 2.2 fold increase in the intracellular free calcium concentration of the non-cystic fibrosis enterocytes. Basal cAMP values were not significantly different between cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis enterocytes (cystic fibrosis 575 fmol/100,000 cells; non-cystic fibrosis 716 fmol/100,000 cells, p greater than 0.05) and the enterocyte cAMP value increased in response to stimulation with prostaglandin E2 (7 mumol/l) (cystic fibrosis 2.2 fold increase over basal, p less than 0.05; non-cystic fibrosis 1.9 fold stimulation over basal, p less than 0.05) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (100 nmol/l) (cystic fibrosis 7.1 fold increase over basal, p less than 0.05; non-cystic fibrosis 5.8 fold increase over basal, p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in the magnitude of the response between cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis enterocytes (p greater than 0.05). These results indicate that the cystic fibrosis defect in the small intestine, as in other affected epithelia, seems to be distal to the production of second messengers. The small intestine is therefore an appropriate model in which to study the biochemical defect in cystic fibrosis

  10. Effect of genistein on basal jejunal chloride secretion in R117H CF mice is sex and route specific

    PubMed Central

    Rayyan, Esa; Polito, Sarah; Leung, Lana; Bhakta, Ashesh; Kang, Jonathan; Willey, Justin; Mansour, Wasim; Drumm, Mitchell L; Al-Nakkash, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from the loss or reduction in function of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein) chloride channel. The third most common CFTR mutation seen clinically is R117H. Genistein, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen, is known to stimulate CFTR function in vitro. We aimed to determine whether route of administration of genistein could mediate differential effects in R117H male and female CF mice. Mice were fed (4 weeks) or injected subcutaneously (1 week) with the following: genistein 600 mg/kg diet (600Gd); genistein-free diet (0Gd); genistein injection 600 mg/kg body weight (600Gi); dimethyl sulfoxide control (0Gi). In male R117H mice fed 600Gd, basal short circuit current (Isc) was unchanged. In 600Gd-fed female mice, there was a subgroup that demonstrated a significant increase in basal Isc (53.14±7.92 μA/cm2, n=6, P<0.05) and a subgroup of nonresponders (12.05±6.59 μA/cm2, n=4), compared to 0Gd controls (29.3±6.5 μA/cm2, n=7). In R117H mice injected with 600Gi, basal Isc was unchanged in both male and female mice compared to 0Gi controls. Isc was measured in response to the following: the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 μM, bilateral), bumetanide (100 μM, basolateral) to indicate the Cl− secretory component, and acetazolamide (100 μM, bilateral) to indicate the HCO3− secretory component; however, there was no effect of genistein (diet or injection) on any of these parameters. Jejunal morphology (ie, villi length, number of goblet cells per villus, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells per crypt) in R117H mice suggested no genistein-mediated difference among the groups. Serum levels of genistein were significantly elevated, compared to respective controls, by either 600Gd (equally elevated in males and females) or 600Gi (elevated more in females versus males). These data suggest a sex-dependent increase in basal Isc of R117H mice and that the increase is also specific for route of

  11. Characteristics of glutamine transport in dog jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bulus, N M; Abumrad, N N; Ghishan, F K

    1989-07-01

    The present study characterizes glutamine transport across brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from dog jejunum. The purity of these vesicles was demonstrated by a 20-fold enrichment of leucine aminopeptidase, a marker for BBM. Glutamine uptake was found to occur into an osmotically active space with no membrane binding and to exhibit temperature and pH dependence (optimal uptake at pH 7-7.5). Glutamine uptake was driven by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient with a distinct overshoot not observed under K+ gradient. Lithium could not substitute for Na+ as a stimulator of glutamine uptake. Na+-dependent glutamine uptake was not inhibited by methylaminoisobutyric acid, a typical substrate for system A, and was found to be electrogenic and saturable with a Km of 0.97 +/- 0.58 mM and a Vmax of 3.93 +/- 0.99 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. A Na+-glutamine coupling ratio of 1:1 could be demonstrated by a plot of Hill transformation. Na+-independent glutamine uptake was found to be electroneutral and saturable with a Km of 3.70 +/- 0.66 mM and a Vmax of 2.70 +/- 1.55 nmol.mg protein-1.10 s-1. Inhibition studies confirmed the presence of a Na+-dependent as well as a Na+-independent carrier for glutamine uptake. We conclude that glutamine uptake across dog BBMV occurs via two transport systems: a Na+-dependent high-affinity system similar to the neutral brush-border system and a Na+-independent lower-affinity system similar to system L. PMID:2750912

  12. Protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on the jejunal graft mucosa injury during cold preservation.

    PubMed

    Jonecova, Zuzana; Toth, Stefan; Maretta, Milan; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Varga, Jan; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Protection of intestinal graft mucosa during cold preservation is still an unmet need in clinical practice, thus affecting the success of transplantation. The present study investigates the ability of two ischemic preconditioning (IPC) procedures to limit cold preservation injury. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were recruited (n=11 each) as follows: the short IPC (SIPC) performed through 4 cycles of mesenteric ischemia of 4 min each followed by 10 min of reperfusion, the long IPC (LIPC) obtained by 2 ischemic cycles of 12 min each followed by 10 min of reperfusion, and the control group (C) without IPC. Grafts were then stored in cold histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution and samples were taken at 0, 3, 6 and 9 h lasting preservation. Both IPC groups showed an advanced degree of preservation with delayed development of graft mucosa damage, mainly in the crypt region. At the beginning of preservation, the graft mucosa in both IPC groups showed lower degree of mucosal injury index (MII) by 50% in comparison with C group. Specifically, a significant improvement of MII was observed after 3h of preservation in the LIPC group (p<0.05) in comparison with untreated C grafts. Significant atrophy of the intestinal mucosa in C group was found after 3h of preservation (p<0.01), in SIPC group the progress of atrophy was delayed to 6 h (p<0.001), and in LIPC group only moderate decrease in that was found. A parallel increase of laminin expression with the MII rate after 6 and 9h of preservation in comparison with the level at time 0 was observed in all grafts (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). In both IPC groups the apoptotic cell (AC) rate was significantly reduced at the beginning of cold preservation (p<0.05 both). Moreover, in both the SIPC and C groups, the progressive increase in MII rate connected with AC rate decrease was due to a predominance of necrosis. By contrast in the LIPC group, after an increase of nearly 50% in the AC rate at the 3rd hour, its level

  13. Alterations in gut microbiota during remission and recurrence of diabetes after duodenal-jejunal bypass in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming-Wei; Liu, Shao-Zhuang; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Teng; Hu, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To observe the alterations in gut microbiota in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes recurrence after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) in rats. METHODS: We assigned HDF- and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats into two major groups to receive DJB and sham operation respectively. When the DJB was completed, we used HFD to induce diabetes recurrence. Then, we grouped the DJB-operated rats by blood glucose level into the DJB-remission (DJB-RM) group and the DJB-recurrence (DJB-RC) group. At a sequence of time points after operations, we compared calorie content in the food intake (calorie intake), oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), serum insulin, total bile acids (TBAs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and alterations in colonic microbiota. RESULTS: The relative abundance of Firmicutes in the control (58.06% ± 11.12%; P < 0.05 vs sham; P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC) and DJB-RM (55.58% ± 6.16%; P < 0.05 vs sham; P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC) groups was higher than that in the sham (29.04% ± 1.36%) and DJB-RC (27.44% ± 2.17%) groups; but the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was lower (control group: 33.46% ± 10.52%, P < 0.05 vs sham 46.88% ± 2.34%, P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC 47.41% ± 5.67%. DJB-RM group: 34.63% ± 3.37%, P < 0.05 vs sham; P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC). Escherichia coli was higher in the sham (15.72% ± 1.67%, P < 0.05 vs control, P < 0.05 vs DJB-RM) and DJB-RC (16.42% ± 3.00%; P < 0.05 vs control; P < 0.05 vs DJB-RM) groups than in the control (3.58% ± 3.67%) and DJB-RM (4.15% ± 2.76%) groups. Improved HOMA-IR (2.82 ± 0.73, P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC 4.23 ± 0.72), increased TBAs (27803.17 ± 4673.42 ng/mL; P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC 18744.00 ± 3047.26 ng/mL) and decreased LPS (0.12 ± 0.04 ng/mL, P < 0.05 vs DJB-RC 0.19 ± 0.03 ng/mL) were observed the in DJB-RM group; however, these improvements were reversed in the DJB-RC group, with the exception of GLP-1 (DJB-RM vs DJB-RC P

  14. Dietary protein reduction in sheep and goats: different effects on L-alanine and L-leucine transport across the brush-border membrane of jejunal enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Schröder, B; Schöneberger, M; Rodehutscord, M; Pfeffer, E; Breves, G

    2003-08-01

    It was the aim of this study to examine the potential regulatory effects of a long-term low dietary protein supply on the transport capacity of the jejunal brush-border membrane for amino acids. For this purpose, we used the neutral amino acids L-alanine (representative for nonessential amino acids) and L-leucine (representative for essential amino acids) as model substances. Ten sheep lambs, 8 weeks of age and 19-27 kg body weight, were allotted to two dietary regimes with either adequate or reduced protein supply which was achieved by 17.9% and 9.7% of crude protein in the concentrated feed, respectively. The feeding periods were 4-6 weeks in length. Similarly, eight goat kids of 5-7 weeks of age and 8-14 kg body weight were allotted to either adequate (crude protein 20.1%, feeding period 9-12 weeks) or reduced protein supply (10.1%, feeding period 17-18 weeks). Dietary protein reduction in lambs caused a significant body weight loss of 0.6 +/- 0.7 kg, whereas the body weight in control animals increased by 1.9 +/- 0.7 kg (P<0.05). Plasma urea concentrations decreased significantly by 60% (low protein 2.3 +/- 0.1 versus control 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol l(-1), P<0.001). In kids, reduction of dietary protein intake led to significant decreases of the daily weight gain by 48% from 181 +/- 8 g to 94 +/- 3 g (P<0.001) and daily dry matter intake by 27% from 568 +/- 13 g to 417 +/- 6 g (P<0.01). Respective urea concentrations in plasma were reduced by 77% from 5.2 +/- 0.4 to 1.2 +/- 0.2 mmol l(-1) (P<0.01). Kinetic analyses of the initial rates of alanine uptake into isolated jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles from sheep and goats as affected by low dietary protein supply yielded that the apparent Km was neither significantly different between the species nor significantly affected by the feeding regime thus ranging between 0.12 and 0.16 mmol.l(-1). Reduction of dietary protein, however, resulted in significantly decreased Vmax values of the transport system by 25

  15. The A0 blood group genotype modifies the jejunal glycomic binding pattern profile of piglets early associated with a simple or complex microbiota.

    PubMed

    Priori, D; Colombo, M; Koopmans, S-J; Jansman, A J M; van der Meulen, J; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif is an important determinant of the bacterial-host interaction and may be affected in pigs by gut microbiota and by blood group genotype. The aim was to study the effect of intestinal association with different microbiota and A0 blood group genotypes on the expressed glycomic pattern in the small intestine. Twelve caesarean-derived pigs previously associated with a simple association (SA) or complex association (CA) microbiota were selected at 26 to 37 d of age. In each subject, different jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with enterotoxigenic K88 (ETEC), ETEC fimbriae (F4), (LAM), or a saline control. The piglets were genotyped for A0 blood group and the glycomic profile was evaluated by microscopic screening of lectin binding: peanut agglutinin (PNA), which is galactose specific; agglutinin I (UEA), which is fucose specific; lectin II (MALii), which is sialic acid specific; concavalin A, which is mannose specific; soybean agglutinin (SBA), which is -acetyl-galactosamine specific; and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which is -acetyl-glucosamine specific. A0 pigs had fewer UEA-positive cells, MALii-positive cells ( < 0.001), and SBA-positive cells ( < 0.10) than 00 pigs. Simple association pigs had more SBA positive cells ( < 0.01) than CA pigs. Enterotoxigenic K88-perfused intestinal loops had fewer UEA-positive cells ( < 0.01) and WGA positive cells ( < 0.001) cells and more PNA positive cells (only in SA pigs, < 0.01). No effects of introduction of F4 and LAM in the intestinal lumen were observed. The porcine A0 blood group genotype and the luminal presence of ETEC strongly affected the jejunal mucosa glycomic pattern profile whereas an early oral simple or complex microbial association had limited effects. Pig genetic background has relevance on the cross talk between intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif and ETEC and, ultimately, on the gut microbial colonization in later life. PMID:27065129

  16. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Due to Rhus Ingestion Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Chan; Cho, Kyuman; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Rhus-related illnesses in Korea are mostly caused by ingestion of parts of the Rhus tree. Contact dermatitis occurrence after ingestion of Rhus-related food is very common in Korea. However, Rhus-related gastrointestinal disease is very rare. Herein, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by Rhus ingestion. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with hematemesis and hematochezia after Rhus extract ingestion. Routine laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosal changes with touch bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed edematous wall thickening of the duodenum and proximal jejunal loops. Patch testing with Rhus extracts showed a strong positive reaction, suggesting Rhus as the allergen. Her symptoms improved after avoidance of the allergen. PMID:25844348

  17. Primary myelolipoma presenting as a nasal cavity polyp: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Myelolipomas are rare, benign tumors comprising mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. The vast majority occur within the adrenal glands, but extra-adrenal myelolipomas have also been reported in the presacral region, retroperitoneum, mesentery, stomach, spleen, liver, mediastinum and lungs. Here, we present a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in an unusual site: the nasal cavity. To the best of our knowledge, we believe that this location for extra-adrenal myelolipoma has not been previously described in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in the nasal cavity of a 48-year-old Asian woman. We describe the etiology, pathology and differential diagnosis of extra-adrenal myelolipomas, and review the literature. Conclusions We chose to present this case because of its unusual location. Although myelolipomas are rare, we conclude that they it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in this site. PMID:22584001

  18. Effect of colchicine on the Golgi apparatus and on GERL of rat jejunal absorptive cells. Ultrastructural localization of thiamine pyrophosphatase and acid phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, M; Ellinger, A

    1981-04-01

    Ultrastructural localization of thiamine pyrophosphatase (TTP) and acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity was performed on jejunal absorptive cells of rats pretreated with the antimicrotubular agent colchicine and of control animals. Demonstration of TPP activity showed that most of the dislocated Golgi stacks after colchicine application lacked positively staining cisternae of the mature side. This cytochemical finding is in agreement with the morphologically demonstrable changes of the Golgi stacks resulting in a loss of polarity and give evidence for a colchicine-induced deficiency of the Golgi apparatus. The cytochemical localization of AcPase activity showed deposits of reaction product over lysosomes and GERL and demonstrated a dislocation of GERL occurring concomitantly with the changes of the Golgi apparatus. The antimicrotubular effect of colchicine is well documented; thus the morphological and cytochemical changes of the Golgi apparatus and of GERL might be due to a disturbed microtubular function after application of this agent suggesting an influence of microtubules in the maintenance of the integrity of these organelles. This hypothesis includes the possibility of an involvement of microtubules in formation and differentiation of Golgi stacks and GERL as well as a kind of "skeletal"function being responsible for their characteristic structure and fashion. PMID:6113143

  19. The lack of protective effects of tea supplementation on liver and jejunal epithelium in adult rats exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Adult rats at the age of 12 weeks were divided into the control group and groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. The diet (except that for the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50 mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. Basal haematology and plasma biochemical parameters as well as the histomorphometrical parameters of jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The lowest body mass was found in the RT and WT groups. Some functional (increased plasma ALT and AST, and the de Ritis coefficient) and structural changes in the liver (slight fatty degenerative changes, an increase in the intercellular space) were evident irrespective of the type of tea in the Cd and Pb poisoned rats. This toxic effect was visible especially in rats drinking black or red tea. However, the rats had no elevated LDH and ALT activities. The highest content of Cd and Pb in the liver and blood plasma was found in rats drinking red tea. Based on the results obtained, it is clear that long-term exposure of adult rats with a mature intestinal barrier to Cd and Pb contamination, under higher exposure conditions than the current estimates of weekly exposure of the general population to Cd and Pb through diet, causes a toxic effect, especially in the liver, and can change the structure of intestinal mucosa, irrespective of tea administration. PMID:26410089

  20. Presentation Timer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-06-23

    Abstract Conferences and Meetings feature many presentations on a tight schedule. The Session Timer system provides an electronic display for showing the remaining time in a presentation. It provides continuous feedback so the speaker can judge the pace throughout a presentation. The timer automates the job so the session chairman does not have to awkwardly interrupt the speaker.

  1. Relief of diabetes by duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve implantation in the high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model is associated with an increase in GLP-1 levels and the number of GLP-1-positive cells

    PubMed Central

    SHUANG, JINQUAN; ZHANG, YING; MA, LIMEI; TAN, XUEMING; HUANG, JING; WANG, XIANG; XIONG, GUANYIN; JIANG, ZHONGHUA; ZHANG, XIUHUA; DU, SHIQING; GU, YONGSONG; SHI, XIANGYANG; FAN, ZHINING

    2015-01-01

    A recently invented duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) implanted in the duodenum and proximal jejunum has exhibited good glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. However, the specific mechanism by which DJBS placement induces the remission of diabetes is not well known. Previous studies have indicated that changes in the pattern of gut hormone secretion may play a role. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of intestinal L cells and the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by these cells in DJBS implantation-induced glycemic control in diabetic rats. A DJBS was placed in the proximal small intestine of rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and the effects of the DJBS on the remission of diabetes and the GLP-1 levels of plasma and intestinal tissues were investigated 12 weeks after DJBS placement. The number of intestinal GLP-1 positive cells was also counted. When the DJBS had been in place for 12 weeks, the plasma glucose level of the DJBS-implanted rats decreased significantly from 23.33±1.56 mmol/l prior to surgery to 7.70±0.84 mmol/l and the diabetes mellitus was relieved completely; however, diabetic control rats and diabetic rats subjected to sham surgery did not show any improvement. Parallel with the remission of diabetes, the plasma and distal ileum GLP-1 levels of rats in the DJBS implantation group were also higher than those of rats in the diabetic control and sham surgery groups. The number of GLP-1-positive cells in the distal ileum was also higher in the DJBS implantation group than in the diabetic control and sham surgery groups (31.0±2.6 vs. 23.5±4.4 vs. 23.0±3.2 respectively; P<0.01). DJBS implantation effectively led to the remission of diabetes in rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose STZ when implanted for 12 weeks. The remission of diabetes may be associated with the increase in the number of L cells and elevation of GLP-1 levels induced by DJBS

  2. Multiple giant intra abdominal lipomas: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Nangare, Nitin R.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Vekariya, Mayank A.; Patankar, Ritvij; Mahna, Abhishek; Wader, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Solitary or multiple lipomas, composed of mature fat, represents by far the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm occurring throughout the whole body, but they rarely originate in the intestinal mesentery. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old male presented with left sided abdominal distension and pain since 4 months, ultrasonography and computerized tomography abdomen was suggestive of multiple well-defined fat density lesions in the lower abdomen and pelvis. USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology was conclusive of a spindle cell lesion. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and multiple major fat tissue swellings were excised. Histopathology confirmed it to be spindle cell type of lipoma. DISCUSSION Because of the silent nature the exact prevalence of lipomas is unknown. It can arise in any location in which fat is normally present, reported intra abdominal lipomas have been very rare. Clinical manifestations depend on the size and location of the growth. In most patients, symptoms are few or absent. USG and CT scan abdomen are used for the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision being the only treatment. CONCLUSION Intra abdominal lipoma is a very rare entity, and many cases might be ignored due to their silent nature. They might or might not present with any symptoms. Complete surgical excision being the only treatment, with a very good prognosis. PMID:24862028

  3. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum presenting as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with a history of gliosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso Puentes, Nidia; Jimenez-Alfaro Larrazabal, Carmen; García Higuera, Maria Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel malignant tumors are rare and sarcomatoid carcinomas have rarely been reported at this site. We report a 56-year-old woman, with history of an excised gliosarcoma, who presented with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. She underwent endoscopy and colonoscopy, which failed to identify the cause of the bleeding. The abdominal computed tomography scan located a tumor in the small bowel. Pathology revealed a jejunal sarcomatoid carcinoma. She developed tumor recurrence and multiple liver metastases shortly after surgery. Immunohistochemistry is required for accurate diagnosis. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, which is associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:24759341

  4. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  5. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  6. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... brow first position. Most of the time, the force of contractions causes the baby to be in face-first position. It is also detected when labor does not progress. In some of these presentations, ...

  7. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  8. [Scientific presentation].

    PubMed

    Kraft, Giuliano

    2002-01-01

    To give a correct and effective scientific presentation, is an arduous task that asks for close examination of basic techniques of communication. This article proposes indications and suggestions to help public speakers to be communicators, to use visual aids and it explains how to capture the audience attention. PMID:12599721

  9. Modulation of Porcine β-Defensins 1 and 2 upon Individual and Combined Fusarium Toxin Exposure in a Swine Jejunal Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Murphy Lam-Yim; Woo, Chit-Shing Jackson; Turner, Paul C.; El-Nezami, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that play an important role in the innate immune system of mammals. Since the effect of mycotoxin contamination of food and feed on the secretion of intestinal AMPs is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to elucidate the individual and combined effects of four common Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), on the mRNA expression, protein secretion, and corresponding antimicrobial effects of porcine β-defensins 1 and 2 (pBD-1 and pBD-2) using a porcine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. In general, upregulation of pBD-1 and pBD-2 mRNA expression occurred following exposure to Fusarium toxins, individually and in mixtures (P < 0.05). However, no significant increase in secreted pBD-1 and pBD-2 protein levels was observed, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Supernatants from IPEC-J2 cells exposed to toxins, singly or in combination, however, possessed significantly less antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli than untreated supernatants. When single toxins and two-toxin combinations were assessed, toxicity effects were shown to be nonadditive (including synergism, potentiation, and antagonism), suggesting interactive toxin effects when cells are exposed to mycotoxin combinations. The results show that Fusarium toxins, individually and in mixtures, activate distinct antimicrobial defense mechanisms possessing the potential to alter the intestinal microbiota through diminished antimicrobial effects. Moreover, by evaluating toxin mixtures, this improved understanding of toxin effects will enable more effective risk assessments for common mycotoxin combinations observed in contaminated food and feed. PMID:23354708

  10. Performance, organ zinc concentration, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA expression in piglets fed with different levels of dietary zinc.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lena; Pieper, Robert; Schunter, Nadine; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of dietary zinc on performance, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA levels of enzymes and two zinc transporters in piglets. A total of 126 piglets were weaned at 26 ±1 days of age and randomly allocated into three groups fed with diets 50, 150 and 2500 mg zinc/kg. Performance was recorded and at weekly intervals, eight piglets per group were killed. The activities of isolated brush border membrane enzymes including lactase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase-N and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), and the relative transcript abundance of aminopeptidase-N (APN), sucrase-isomaltase (SUC), IAP and the two zinc transporters SLC39A4 (ZIP4) and SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were investigated in the jejunum. Feeding pharmacological zinc levels increased weight gain (p < 0.001) during the first week, but performance was lower (p < 0.05) in the third week. Organ zinc concentrations were increased by high dietary zinc level. The activity of IAP was higher (p < 0.05) with the highest dietary zinc level, no effects were determined for other enzymes. Dietary zinc level had no effect on transcript abundance of digestive enzymes. The mRNA levels decreased (p < 0.001) for ZIP4, and increased for ZnT1 (p < 0.05) with pharmacological zinc levels. In conclusion, pharmacological zinc levels improved performance in the short-term. Intestinal mRNA level of zinc transporters changed with high zinc supply, but this did not prevent zinc accumulation in tissues, suggesting hampered homoeostatic regulation. This might cause impaired performance during longer supply. PMID:23742645

  11. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  12. Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine presenting as superior mesenteric artery syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SUN, KE-KANG; WU, XIAOYANG; LIU, GANG; QIAN, HAIXIN; SHEN, XIAOJUN

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is an uncommon cause of vomiting and weight loss due to compression of the third part of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. Small bowel adenocarcinoma is an uncommon tumor, which is frequently delayed in diagnosis as its symptoms and signs are non-specific. The present study describes a case of SMAS occurring in a 51-year-old man, caused by intestinal obstruction secondary to a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenal-jejunal junction. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first report of small bowel adenocarcinoma masquerading as SMAS. The present case highlights the importance of considering the possibility of SMAS in patients with upper bowel obstruction caused by intestinal carcinoma. PMID:26998097

  13. The deconjugation ability of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids in the blind loop syndrome with high sup 14 CO sub 2 excretion. Using the breath analysis technique and thin-layer chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Mizuno, T.; Shionoiri, H.; Sugiyama, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Five patients with blind loop syndrome (Billroth II) were examined by measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} specific activity of expired breath samples taken at intervals after a meal containing glycine-1-{sup 14}C cholate. The 5 patients tested showed a marked increase of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} specific activity. Furthermore, the ability of deconjugation of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids in the efferent loop of these patients was tested by thin-layer chromatography. The bacterial species identified from the samples were as follows: enterococcus, Lactobacillus buchneri, L. bifidus, L. brevis, Eubacterium lentum, Bacteroides vulgaricus, B. filamentosum, Corynebacterium granulosum, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Aerobacter aerogenes. These species of bacteria, except E. coli and A. aerogenes, showed the deconjugation ability by which conjugated bile acids in ox gall was hydrolyzed. Administration of chloramphenicol to the 5 patients reduced {sup 14}CO{sub 2} specific activity significantly. On the other hand, 9 healthy men who were tested showed a flat curve, and 8 of the 9 had no growth of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids. The remaining healthy man showed an over growth of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the species did not have the ability of deconjugation.

  14. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  15. Strangulated internal hernia by giant Meckel diverticulum presented as acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Diaz, Jhonny Mauricio; Trujillo-Vasquez, Camilo Andrés; Parra-Vargas, Ana María; Rovira-Chaves, Andrea Sofía; Tinoco-Guzman, Laura Viviana; Garcia-Garcia, Johana Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Internal hernia due to a Meckel diverticulum is a common presentation of bowel obstruction mostly seen in pediatric population. However, it has been stated that among 5% of the patients had a giant Meckel diverticulum (defined as a Meckel diverticulum with increased dimensions than the ones commonly found), being this condition very unusual. Presentation of case We presented a 19 year old male with acute abdominal pain suggestive of appendicitis. During appendectomy we discovered ischemic and necrotic signs in a bowel segment, leading us to perform a laparotomy that revealed a portion of ischemic and necrotic jejunum, and another bowel segment with a strong adherence to the mesentery root that created an internal hernia. The internal hernia was reduced and the injured bowel portions were resected. Necrotic bowel samples were sent to the pathology department who posteriorly reported a giant Meckel diverticulum. The patient had an excellent recovery after procedure. Discussion After searching in PubMed for a similar association between Meckel diverticulum and internal hernia, we found few cases that reported a giant Meckel diverticulum and a low occurrence with internal hernias making our case not so common to find. Conclusion We concluded that a giant Meckel diverticulum in association with mesenteric defects producing internal hernias are not common pathologies to find together in a patient as our research and case suggest. PMID:26117448

  16. Inverse relationship between heat stable enterotoxin-b induced fluid accumulation and adherence of F4ac-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in ligated jejunal loops of F4ab/ac fimbria receptor-positive swine.

    PubMed

    Erume, Joseph; Wijemanne, Prageeth; Berberov, Emil M; Kachman, Stephen D; Oestmann, Daniel J; Francis, David H; Moxley, Rodney A

    2013-01-25

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) increases bacterial adherence to porcine enterocytes in vitro and enhances small intestinal colonization in swine. Heat-stable enterotoxin-b (STb) is not known to affect colonization; however, through an induction of net fluid accumulation it might reduce bacterial adherence. The relationship between fluid accumulation and bacterial adherence in jejunal loops inoculated with ETEC strains that produce LT, STb, both, or neither toxin was studied. Ligated jejunal loops were constructed in weaned Yorkshire pigs in two independent experiments (Exp. 1, n=5, 8-week-old; Exp. 2, n=6, 6-8-week-old). Each pig was inoculated with six F4ac(+)E. coli strains: (1) LT(+), STb(+) parent (WAM2317); (2) STb(-) (ΔestB) mutant (MUN297); (3) MUN297 complemented with STb (MUN298); (4) LT(-) STb(-) (ΔeltAB ΔestB) mutant (MUN300); (5) MUN300 complemented with LT (MUN301); and (6) 1836-2 (non-enterotoxigenic, wild-type). Pigs were confirmed to be K88 (F4)ab/ac receptor-positive in Exp. 2 by testing for intestinal mucin-type glycoproteins and inferred to be receptor-positive in both Exp. 1 and 2 based on histopathologic evidence of bacterial adherence. Strains that produced STb induced marked fluid accumulation with the response (ml/cm) to WAM2317 and MUN298 significantly greater than that to the other strains (P<0.0001). Conversely, bacterial adherence scores based on immunohistochemistry and CFU/g of washed mucosa were both lowest in the strains that expressed STb and highest in those that did not. For the two experiments combined, the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) between fluid volume (ml/cm) and log CFU per gram was -0.57021 (P<0.0001); R(2)=0.3521 (n=197). These results support the hypothesis that enterotoxin-induced fluid accumulation flushes progeny organisms into the lumen of the bowel, thereby increasing the likelihood of fecal shedding and transmission of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID

  17. A Case of Superior Mesenteric Artery Aneurysm Mimicking an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Presenting as a Pulsating Abdominal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Keon Kuk; Kang, Jin Mo

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with a smoking history of 30 pack-years presented with a 1-year history of a periumbilical pulsating mass. He had been treated for hypertension for 2 years. Physical examination revealed a huge pulsating mass in the periumbilical abdomen. Femoral and popliteal arterial pulses were palpable. Computed tomography showed arterial dissection in the proximal segment of the superior mesenteric artery, a huge aneurysm (52×50 mm) with mural thrombus and two smaller aneurysms (20×20 mm) in the right ileocolic and ileal branches, along with atherosclerotic changes. Interposition using the great saphenous vein was performed after aneurysmal isolation and ligation of jejunal branches in the sac. Distal flow was reestablished by end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses of the right ileocolic and ileal branches, respectively. No complications were observed at 1-year follow-up. PMID:27051659

  18. A case of small-bowel obstruction after insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube due to mesenteric penetration.

    PubMed

    Roos, J

    2015-07-01

    A case of small-bowel obstruction after insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is described. At laparotomy, the PEG tube was found to have penetrated the jejunal mesentery at two points, thereby acting as a focus for a volvulus. Direct injury and obstruction to the small bowel have been described but volvulus due to mesenteric penetration has not. PMID:26264109

  19. A Fatal Twist: Volvulus of the Small Intestine in a 46-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jared; Baxstrom, Kathryn; Donnelly, Stephen; Feasel, Patrick; Koles, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented to two emergency departments within 12 hours because of acute abdominal pain. Physical exam demonstrated tenderness and epigastric guarding. An ultrasound was interpreted as negative; she was discharged home. Later that evening, she was found dead. Postmortem exam revealed acute hemorrhagic necrosis of a segment of jejunum secondary to volvulus. Clinical clues suggesting presentations of small bowel volvulus are usually nonspecific; the diagnosis is typically confirmed at surgery. Her unremitting abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, and absolute neutrophilia were consistent with an acute process. The etiology of this volvulus was caused by an elastic fibrous band at the root of the jejunal mesentery. While congenital fibrous bands are rare in adults, this interpretation is favored for two reasons. First, the band was located 20 cm superior to postsurgical adhesions in the lower abdomen and pelvis. Second, there was no history of trauma or previous surgery involving the site of volvulus. PMID:26612989

  20. Making your presentation fun: creative presentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE

    2000-05-18

    What possesses someone to volunteer and go through hoops and red tape to make a presentation at a conference? For that matter, why does anyone ever present anything to anyone? Actually, presentations are a fact of life and there are many reasons for doing a presentation and doing it well. New and existing staff need training and orientation to the way things are done here. Handing all of them a manual and hoping they read it is pretty much a waste of paper. On the other hand, an effective, entertaining and upbeat presentation on the relevant topics is more likely to stick with those people. They will even have a name and face to remember and seek out when they have an issue on or with that topic. This can be a very effective beginning for networking with new peers. The presenter is seen as knowledgeable, as a source of information on company topics and possibly evaluated as a potential mentor or future manager. Project staff and/or peers benefit from clear, concise, presentations of topical knowledge. This is one way that a group working on various aspects of the same project or program can stay in touch and in step with each other. Most importantly, presentations may be the best or only door into the minds (and budgets) of management and customers. These presentations are a wonderful opportunity to address legal and compliance issues, budget, staffing, and services. Here is a chance, maybe the only one, to demonstrate and explain the wonderfulness of a program and the benefit they get by using the services offered most effectively. An interactive presentation on legal and compliance issues can be an effective tool in helping customers and/or management make good risk management decisions.

  1. Delayed Presentation of Isolated Complete Pancreatic Transection as a Result of Sport-Related Blunt Trauma to the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Andrew J.; Dimarikis, Iannis; Pai, Madhava; Jiao, Long R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Blunt abdominal trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of pancreatic transection. A delayed presentation of pancreatic fracture following sport-related blunt trauma with the coexisting diagnostic pitfalls is presented. Case Report A 17-year-old rugby player was referred to our specialist unit after having been diagnosed with traumatic pancreatic transection, having presented 24 h after a sporting injury. Despite haemodynamic stability, at laparotomy he was found to have a diffuse mesenteric hematoma involving the large and small bowel mesentery, extending down to the sigmoid colon from the splenic flexure, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma arising from the pancreas. The pancreas was completely severed with the superior border of the distal segment remaining attached to the splenic vein that was intact. A distal pancreatectomy with spleen preservation and evacuation of the retroperitoneal hematoma was performed. Discussion/Conclusion Blunt pancreatic trauma is a serious condition. Diagnosis and treatment may often be delayed, which in turn may drastically increase morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic difficulties apply to both paraclinical and radiological diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in such cases, with a multi-modality diagnostic approach and prompt surgical intervention as required. PMID:21490833

  2. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. PMID:25837382

  3. Marked Differences in Mucosal Immune Responses Induced in Ileal versus Jejunal Peyer’s Patches to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Secreted Proteins following Targeted Enteric Infection in Young Calves

    PubMed Central

    Facciuolo, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is primarily mediated through M cells overlying Peyer’s patches (PP) in the ileum. The capacity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to invade ileal PP (IPP) versus discrete PP in the jejunum (JPP) and subsequent differences in mucosal immune responses were investigated. Intestinal segments were surgically prepared in both mid-jejunum, containing two JPPs, and in terminal small intestine containing continuous IPP. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (109 CFU) was injected into the lumen of half of each intestinal segment when calves were 10–14 days-old and infection confirmed 1–2 months later by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Thirteen recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins, previously identified as immunogenic, were used to analyze pathogen-specific B- and T-cell responses in PP and mesenteric lymph nodes. IgA plasma cell responses to 9 of 13 recombinant proteins were detected in JPP but not in IPP. Secretory IgA reacting in ELISA with 9 of the 13 recombinant proteins was detected in luminal contents from both jejunal and ileal segments. These observations support the conclusion that pathogen-specific IgA B cells were induced in JPP but not IPP early after a primary infection. The presence of secretory IgA in intestinal contents is consistent with dissemination of IgA plasma cells from the identified mucosa-associated immune induction sites. This is the first direct evidence for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis uptake by bovine JPP and for local induction of pathogen-specific IgA plasma cell responses after enteric infection. We also provide evidence that bacterial invasion of IPP, a primary B lymphoid tissue, provides a novel strategy to evade induction of mucosal immune responses. Over 60% of PPs in the newborn calf small intestine is primary lymphoid tissue, which has significant implications when designing oral vaccines or diagnostic tests to detect early M. avium subsp

  4. Small bowel adenocarcinoma arising in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIOKA, YUICHIRO; NOZAWA, HIROAKI; TANAKA, JUNICHIRO; NISHIKAWA, TAKESHI; TANAKA, TOSHIAKI; KIYOMATSU, TOMOMICHI; KAWAI, KAZUSHIGE; HATA, KEISUKE; KAZAMA, SHINSUKE; YAMAGUCHI, HIRONORI; ISHIHARA, SOICHIRO; SUNAMI, EIJI; KITAYAMA, JOJI; WATANABE, TOSHIAKI

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are reportedly at a lower overall risk of malignancies, and small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) arising in a HHT patient is extremely rare. In this study, the case of a 37-year-old female with HHT who developed a poorly differentiated jejunal adenocarcinoma five years after ileocecal resection for multiple colonic adenomas is presented. The patient underwent curative resection of the cancer invading the ileum and the mesentery of the transverse colon, but had to overcome critical complications perioperatively, stemming from HHT-associated peripheral capillary dilatation and arteriovenous malformation, including nosebleeds and possible infusion-induced air embolism through pulmonary shunts. The patient subsequently received adjuvant chemotherapy including capecitabine and oxaliplatin for 6 months, and currently remains alive without any evidence of recurrence 12 months after the second surgery. This patient with SBA was an instructive case demonstrating the necessity of careful attention during major surgery in HHT. PMID:26998137

  5. Wegener’s granulomatosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease and presenting with chronic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shahedi, Kamyar; Hanna, Ramy Magdy; Melamed, Oleg; Wilson, James

    2013-01-01

    Wegener’s granulomatosis, also known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, is a small vessel vasculitis with primarily pulmonary, renal, and sinus disease manifestations. The prevalence of Wegener’s granulomatosis is three cases per 100,000 patients. Cardiovascular, neurologic, cutaneous, and joint manifestations have been reported in many case reports and case series. Gastrointestinal manifestations are less noted in Wegener’s granulomatosis, although they have been previously reported in the form of intestinal perforation and intestinal ischemia. Additionally, there are characteristic findings of vasculitis that are noted with active Wegener’s granulomatosis of the small bowel. We report a case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss, diarrhea, and hematochezia. His symptoms were chronic and had lasted for more than 1 year before diagnosis. Inflammatory bowel disease or chronic enteritis due to Salmonella arizonae because of reptile exposure originally were suspected as etiologies of his presentation. The findings of proteinuria, renal failure, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis on renal biopsy, in conjunction with an elevated c-ANCA titer, confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener’s granulomatosis with associated intestinal vasculitis. This case demonstrates an atypical presentation of chronic duodenitis and jejunitis secondary to Wegener’s granulomatosis, which mimicked inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24124396

  6. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Small Bowel and Mesentery.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siva P; Fishman, Elliot K

    2016-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has largely supplanted other available radiologic modalities in the evaluation of a wide variety of different vascular and inflammatory abnormalities of the small bowel, with computed tomography angiography (CTA) playing a major role in the diagnostic efficacy of MDCT for these diseases. Improvements in CTA imaging have proved particularly valuable in the evaluation of small bowel vascular and inflammatory disorders, diagnoses in which arterial phase images might be able to offer greater information than standard venous phase imaging. This article details the MDCT imaging findings of several small bowel vascular and inflammatory disorders. PMID:26654393

  7. Teaching Presentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.; Thompson, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Effective teaching of presentation skills focuses on the most important element of the presentation--the message itself. Some instructors place the heaviest emphasis on the messenger (the presenter) and focus their presentation feedback on all the presenter is doing wrong--saying "um," gesturing awkwardly, and so forth. When students receive this…

  8. A new revisional surgery for severe protein-calorie malnutrition after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: successful duodenojejunal reconstruction using jejunal interposition.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Júnior, Wilson Salgado; Marchini, Júlio S

    2016-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may result in nutritional deficiencies, mainly involving micronutrients, and occasionally protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) because of the resulting anatomic and functional changes. Failure of conservative PCM treatment may be an indication for corrective surgery, where the technique may vary according to the surgical cause of the malnutrition. In this study, we present the results of the reconnection of the duodenum and the proximal jejunum to the alimentary tract for the treatment of severe PCM caused by malabsorption after RYGB. PMID:26775048

  9. Role of computed tomography angiography in detection and staging of small bowel carcinoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, David; Raman, Siva P; Horton, Karen M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2015-09-28

    Small-bowel carcinoid tumors are the most common form (42%) of gastrointestinal carcinoids, which by themselves comprise 70% of neuroendocrine tumors. Although primary small bowel neoplasms are overall rare (3%-6% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms), carcinoids still represent the second most common (20%-30%) primary small-bowel malignancy after small bowel adenocarcinoma. Their imaging evaluation is often challenging. State-of-the-art high-resolution multiphasic computed tomography together with advanced postprocessing methods provides an excellent tool for their depiction. The manifold interactive parameter choices however require knowledge of when to use which technique. Here, we discuss the imaging appearance and evaluation of duodenal, jejunal and ileal carcinoid tumors, including the imaging features of the primary tumor, locoregional mesenteric nodal metastases, and distant metastatic disease. A protocol for optimal lesion detection is presented, including the use of computed tomography enterography, volume acquisition, computed tomography angiography and three-dimensional mapping. Imaging findings are illustrated with a series of challenging cases which illustrate the spectrum of possible disease in the small bowel and mesentery, the range of possible appearances in the bowel itself on multiphase data and extraluminal findings such as the desmoplastic reaction in mesentery and hypervascular liver metastases. Typical imaging pitfalls and pearls are illustrated. PMID:26435774

  10. Role of computed tomography angiography in detection and staging of small bowel carcinoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, David; Raman, Siva P; Horton, Karen M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2015-01-01

    Small-bowel carcinoid tumors are the most common form (42%) of gastrointestinal carcinoids, which by themselves comprise 70% of neuroendocrine tumors. Although primary small bowel neoplasms are overall rare (3%-6% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms), carcinoids still represent the second most common (20%-30%) primary small-bowel malignancy after small bowel adenocarcinoma. Their imaging evaluation is often challenging. State-of-the-art high-resolution multiphasic computed tomography together with advanced postprocessing methods provides an excellent tool for their depiction. The manifold interactive parameter choices however require knowledge of when to use which technique. Here, we discuss the imaging appearance and evaluation of duodenal, jejunal and ileal carcinoid tumors, including the imaging features of the primary tumor, locoregional mesenteric nodal metastases, and distant metastatic disease. A protocol for optimal lesion detection is presented, including the use of computed tomography enterography, volume acquisition, computed tomography angiography and three-dimensional mapping. Imaging findings are illustrated with a series of challenging cases which illustrate the spectrum of possible disease in the small bowel and mesentery, the range of possible appearances in the bowel itself on multiphase data and extraluminal findings such as the desmoplastic reaction in mesentery and hypervascular liver metastases. Typical imaging pitfalls and pearls are illustrated. PMID:26435774