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1

Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Laboratory tests indicate that methylated spirits, widely espoused as a first-aid treatment for jellyfish stings, causes massive discharge of nematocysts in living tentacles of the box-jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. This action, together with demonstrated hazards of flammability and intoxication, casts doubt on this substance as a treatment for Chironex stings. In an attempt to find a substitute which will be effective in inactivating unfired nematocysts in the tentacles adhering to sting victims, a number of substances were tested in the laboratory. Weak solutions of acetic acid, as well as commerical vinegar, were found to inactivate the penetrating nematocysts of Chironex rapidly and completely. Most other substances tested proved less effective, and some actually stimulated the firing of nematocysts. PMID:6102347

Hartwick, R; Callanan, V; Williamson, J

1980-01-12

2

Venom Proteome of the Box Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri  

PubMed Central

The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis). The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome. PMID:23236347

Brinkman, Diane L.; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

2012-01-01

3

Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis). The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome. PMID:23236347

Brinkman, Diane L; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

2012-01-01

4

Techniques applicable for purifying Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) venom.  

PubMed

A survey of several techniques to isolate a purified lethal factor from the tentacles of Chironex fleckeri was completed. Heterologous band patterns were obtained from specific eluates after gel filtration, ion exchange, immunoaffinity and hydrophobic chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed a dense band at 24,000 mol. wt in many of these fractions. Isoelectric focusing of the crude venom resulted in considerable loss of activity but indicated significant purification in the fractions having a pI of 5.2-6.8. These fractions were also immunologically active against sera from a convalescing post-evenomation patient. The primary difficulties encountered in jellyfish venom purification are the lack of stability and the tendency of the active toxins to adhere to each other and to various support matrices. PMID:1977211

Othman, I; Burnett, J W

1990-01-01

5

The Mechanism Underlying the Cardiotoxic Effect of the Toxin from the Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of the toxin from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. Papillary muscles isolated from the hearts of ferrets and ventricular myocytes isolated from the hearts of ferrets and rats were used. Force, intracellular [Ca2+], and membrane potential were monitored in the papillary muscles; contraction, intracellular [Ca2+], intracellular [Na+], and membrane currents were

M. R. Mustafa; E. White; K. Hongo; I. Othman; C. H. Orchard

1995-01-01

6

Partial purification of box jellyfish ( Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chironex fleckeri, the northern Australian box jellyfish produces one of, if not, the most potent animal venoms. Study of the venom has been hampered by the limits of the animals' range and the venom's thermolability. Using retained lethality and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NPAGE), we show that lyophilization of autolysis isolated nematocysts is an effective method of transporting the venom.

David A. Bloom; Joseph W. Burnett; Philip Alderslade

1998-01-01

7

The effects of antivenom and verapamil on the haemodynamic actions of Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom.  

PubMed

The efficacy of antivenom and verapamil against Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom was investigated in monitored mechanically ventilated piglets. Chironex fleckeri tentacle extract alone, a mixture of tentacle extract with antivenom, and verapamil before tentacle extract were administered intravenously to groups of animals. Tentacle extract caused severe systemic hypotension, cardiac dysrrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, haemolysis and hyperkalaemia. These effects were prevented by pre-incubation of tentacle extract with antivenom. Verapamil did not prevent any effect of venom, exacerbated cardiovascular collapse and increased mortality. We conclude that antivenom neutralizes the cardiovascular, haemolytic and hyperkalaemic effects of box jellyfish venom. Verapamil does not prevent any of these effects and is contra-indicated for treatment of envenomation. PMID:9513666

Tibballs, J; Williams, D; Sutherland, S K

1998-02-01

8

Acute management of serious envenomation by box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).  

PubMed

Two cases of serious envenomation by the northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) are reported. The first-aid measures and the subsequent management and follow-up of patients are discussed. In addition to its known life-saving effects, the early administration of the specific antivenom appears to be the best treatment for the savage pain of the sting, and may also result in a reduction of subsequent skin scarring. PMID:6150421

Williamson, J A; Le Ray, L E; Wohlfahrt, M; Fenner, P J

9

Response of the box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) cardiotoxin to intravenous administration of verapamil.  

PubMed

Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, has been shown to be effective in delaying death in mice after intravenous challenge with box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom. Death from a challenge of up to three mouse-lethal doses of venom was significantly delayed after the prior intravenous administration of verapamil (P = 0.003). A smaller dose of verapamil could "rescue" mice previously envenomed with 1.25 mouse-lethal doses (P = 0.0001). These data suggest that verapamil injections should be added to the first-aid procedures performed on the beach for victims of box-jellyfish stings. PMID:6135976

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

1983-08-20

10

Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Two of the most abundant proteins found in the nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri have been identified as C. fleckeri toxin-1 (CfTX-1) and toxin-2 (CfTX-2). The molecular masses of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, are approximately 43 and 45 kDa, respectively, and both proteins are strongly antigenic to commercially available box jellyfish antivenom and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The amino acid sequences of mature CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 (436 and 445 residues, respectively) share significant homology with three known proteins: CqTX-A from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, CrTXs from Carybdea rastoni and CaTX-A from Carybdea alata, all of which are lethal, haemolytic box jellyfish toxins. Multiple sequence alignment of the five jellyfish proteins has identified several short, but highly conserved regions of amino acids that coincide with a predicted transmembrane spanning region, referred to as TSR1, which may be involved in a pore-forming mechanism of action. Furthermore, remote protein homology predictions for CfTX-2 and CaTX-A suggest weak structural similarities to pore-forming insecticidal delta-endotoxins Cry1Aa, Cry3Bb and Cry3A. PMID:17688901

Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

2007-11-01

11

Stabilization of lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom.  

PubMed

The stability of both the lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extract was assessed after various extraction procedures. Both activities were higher when no buffers or water were used during the initial extraction. Also, when the extract was first filtered through a Sep-pak C18 cartridge, the residual lethal titre, after incubation for 24 hr at room temperature, was increased 16-fold and hemolysis was increased 2.6-fold. Evidence for proteolytic activity in the extract was also obtained and monitored by size exclusion HPLC. PMID:2567076

Comis, A; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

1989-01-01

12

Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing the haemolytic activity of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extracts.  

PubMed

1. Three monoclonal antibodies have been produced which neutralize in vitro the haemolytic activity present in tentacle extracts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri). 2. Two of these monoclonal antibodies bound specifically to a component of relative molecular mass 50,000 in tentacle extract on Western blots. 3. This binding only occurred when the extracts were electrophoresed under non-reducing conditions. 4. The third monoclonal antibody did not display binding to Western blots of tentacle extract under any of our experimental conditions. PMID:8104761

Collins, S P; Comis, A; Marshall, M; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

1993-09-01

13

Partial purification of cytolytic venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Venom proteins from the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri were fractionated by size-exclusion and cation-exchange chromatography. Using sheep erythrocyte haemolysis as an indicator of cytolytic activity, two major cytolysins, with native molecular masses of approximately 370 and 145kDa, and one minor cytolysin ( approximately 70kDa) were isolated. SDS-PAGE and western blot protein profiles revealed that the 370kDa haemolysin is composed of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 subunits ( approximately 43 and 45kDa, respectively); the most abundant proteins found in C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The 145kDa haemolysin predominately contains two other major proteins ( approximately 39 and 41kDa), which are not antigenic towards commercially available box jellyfish antivenom or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against whole C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts or CfTX-1 and -2. The kinetics of CfTX-1 and -2 haemolytic activities are temperature dependent and characterised by a pre-lytic lag phase ( approximately 6-7min) prior to initiation of haemolysis. Significant amino acid sequence homology between the CfTX proteins and other box jellyfish toxins suggest that CfTX-1 and -2 may also be lethal and dermonecrotic. Therefore, further in vivo and in vitro studies are required to investigate the potential roles of CfTX-1 and -2 in the lethal effects of C. fleckeri venom. PMID:18243272

Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

2008-04-01

14

Fatal envenomation by Chironex fleckeri, the north Australian box jellyfish: the continuing search for lethal mechanisms.  

PubMed

A child with severe envenomation by Chironex fleckeri presented in cardiac arrest at a hospital between 15 and 20 min after the sting was sustained. Resuscitation was not successful. Objective confirmation of C. fleckeri as the cause of death is described. Four metres of tentacle contact in this case represents the smallest-measured fatal C. fleckeri sting that has been recorded so far. The mechanism of this death was toxic and not allergic. The available clinical information suggests direct myocardial interference, but does not exclude a respiratory hypoxic element. A more widespread venom-induced functional disruption of the cell membrane is postulated, with a resultant dysfunction in several vital organ systems that were acting in concert. Early, vigorous and sustained resuscitation that is performed as a first-aid measure offers the best hope of prehospital survival after a massive C. fleckeri sting, which is the most explosive envenomation process that is presently known to humans. In-hospital resuscitation from unresponsive circulatory arrest should now involve intravenously-administered verapamil (or its equivalent) and additional box-jellyfish antivenom, while the patient is being monitored. PMID:2897074

Lumley, J; Williamson, J A; Fenner, P J; Burnett, J W; Colquhoun, D M

1988-05-16

15

An in vivo examination of the stability of venom from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

We have previously characterised the pharmacological activity of a number of jellyfish venoms with a particular emphasis on the profound cardiovascular effects. It has been suggested that jellyfish venoms are difficult to work with and are sensitive to pH, temperature and chemical changes. The current study aimed to examine the working parameters of the venom of the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri to enable fractionation and isolation of the toxins with cardiovascular activity. C. fleckeri venom was made up fresh each day and subjected to a number of different environments (i.e. a pH range of 5-9 and a temperature range of 4-30 degrees C). In addition, the effect of freeze drying and reconstituting the venom was investigated. Venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetised rats. This biphasic response was not significantly effected by preparation of the venom at a pH of 5, 7 or 9. Similarly, venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.) did not display a loss of activity when exposed to temperatures of 4, 20 or 30 degrees C for 1.5h. However, the cardiovascular activity was abolished by boiling the venom. Freeze drying, and then reconstituting, the venom did not significantly affect its cardiovascular activity. However, repeated freeze drying and reconstituting of extracted venom resulted in a significantly loss of activity. This study provides a more detailed knowledge of the parameters in which C. fleckeri venom can be used and, while supporting some previous studies, contradicts some of the perceived problems of working with the venom. PMID:17215014

Winter, K L; Isbister, G K; Seymour, J E; Hodgson, W C

2007-05-01

16

Partial purification of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside.  

PubMed

Chironex fleckeri, the northern Australian box jellyfish produces one of, if not, the most potent animal venoms. Study of the venom has been hampered by the limits of the animals' range and the venom's thermolability. Using retained lethality and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NPAGE), we show that lyophilization of autolysis isolated nematocysts is an effective method of transporting the venom. In addition, Sephadex G-200 chromatography, spin concentration, and NPAGE fail to demonstrate the presence of a 600 kDa protein to which the bulk of the lethal activity has been ascribed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary electrophoresis of crude venom yields several protein bands with a molecular weight range of 30-200 kDa. Freeze-thaw studies show a loss of activity and NPAGE bands after two freeze thaw cycles. PMID:9690776

Bloom, D A; Burnett, J W; Alderslade, P

1998-08-01

17

Toxins from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Two myotoxins (T1 and T2) with mol. wts of approximately 600,000 and 150,000, respectively, and a haemolysin (T3) with a mol. wt of approximately 70,000 were isolated from the crude nematocyst venom of C. fleckeri by the use of Sephadex G-200 chromatography. A neurotoxic fraction (T4) and a haemolytic fraction (T5) containing proteins with apparent mol. wts of approximately 150,000 and 70,000, respectively, were also isolated by Sephadex chromatography from crude extracts of tentacular material from which nematocysts had been removed. The three nematocyst toxins and the two toxic fractions from tentacle extracts were lethal to mice on i.v. injection. After SDS-PAGE the myotoxins T1 and T2 yielded similar major bands corresponding with mol. wts different from those yielded by T3 and the toxic tentacle fractions. T1 and T2 appeared to be comprised of aggregations of subunits with mol. wts of approximately 18,000. On HPLC, crude nematocyst venom and the nematocyst toxins T1 and T2 lost their myotoxic properties. The need for thorough removal of extraneous tentacular material from isolated nematocysts, the need for effective rupture of nematocysts, the need to counter the lability of the nematocyst venom and the need to use myotoxicity as a criterion of venom activity if the active components of the venom are to be purified and characterized are emphasized. PMID:8099238

Endean, R; Monks, S A; Cameron, A M

1993-04-01

18

Pharmacologically distinct cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish ( Chironex fleckeri) venom and a tentacle-only extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a recently developed technique to extract jellyfish venom from nematocysts, the present study investigated the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom and tentacle extract (devoid of nematocysts). In anaesthetised rats, venom (10?g\\/kg, i.v.) produced a transient pressor response (23±4mmHg) followed, in two of five animals, by cardiovascular collapse. Tentacle extract (100?g\\/kg, i.v.) produced a more prolonged hypertensive

Sharmaine Ramasamy; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

2005-01-01

19

Effects of verapamil and CSL antivenom on Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) induced mortality.  

PubMed

Ovine antivenom prolonged survival in mice challenged with intravenous Chironex fleckeri venom over a limited dose range. Verapamil enhanced the beneficial effect of ovine antivenom. This data suggests that there may be an, as yet undefined, optimal antivenom dose for humans and that verapamil, used in combination with antivenom is an effective agent. PMID:10482395

Bloom, D A; Burnett, J W; Hebel, J R; Alderslade, P

1999-11-01

20

The mechanism underlying the cardiotoxic effect of the toxin from the jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of the toxin from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. Papillary muscles isolated from the hearts of ferrets and ventricular myocytes isolated from the hearts of ferrets and rats were used. Force, intracellular [Ca2+], and membrane potential were monitored in the papillary muscles; contraction, intracellular [Ca2+], intracellular [Na+], and membrane currents were monitored in the isolated myocytes. Application of the toxin to these preparations resulted in a large increase in intracellular [Ca2+] and the adverse symptoms of Ca2+ overload (aftercontractions, spontaneous contractions, a decrease in developed force, and an increase in resting force). The response of papillary muscles to the toxin was not inhibited by blockers of Ca2+ or Na+ channels or by inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, Na+/K+ ATPase, or Na+/H+ exchange. The response to the toxin was, however, blocked by prior exposure to a solution which contained no Na+ and by Ni2+. In the isolated myocytes, as well as an increase in intracellular [Ca2+], the toxin also caused an increase in intracellular [Na+] and the appearance of a current which was inward at negative potentials and reversed at about -10 mV. These data can be explained by the toxin increasing Na+ influx into the cell. The increase in intracellular [Na+] will then increase intracellular [Ca2+] via the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism, thus producing the observed Ca2+ overload. PMID:7645014

Mustafa, M R; White, E; Hongo, K; Othman, I; Orchard, C H

1995-08-01

21

The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts, the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) and adjunct therapies, verapamil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), were investigated against the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom in anaesthetised rats.C. fleckeri venom (30 ?g\\/kg; i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse within 4 min

Sharmaine Ramasamy; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

2004-01-01

22

Growth, development and temporal variation in the onset of six Chironex fleckeri medusae seasons: a contribution to understanding jellyfish ecology.  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide distribution, toxicity and commercial, industrial and medical impacts jellyfish present, many aspects of their ecology remain poorly understood. Quantified here are important ecological parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C. fleckeri medusae were collected across seven seasons (1999, 2000, 2003, 2005-07 and 2010), with growth rates, temporal variation in the medusae season onset and differences in population structure between estuarine and coastal habitats quantified. With a mean of 2 September ± 2 d (mean ± 95% confidence limits), the earliest date of metamorphosis was temporally constrained between seasons, varying by only 7 d (30 August to 5 September). Juvenile medusae appeared to be added over an extended period, suggesting polyp metamorphosis was an ongoing process once it commenced. At a maximum of 3 ± 0.2 mm d(-1) IPD, medusae growth to an asymptotic size of ~190 mm IPD was rapid, yet, with the oldest medusae estimated to be ~78 d in age, medusae did not appear to accumulate along the coastline. Furthermore, a greater proportion of juveniles were observed along the coastline, with estuarine populations typified by larger medusae. With key aspects of C. fleckeri's ecology now quantified, medusae season management protocols can be further developed. PMID:22384009

Gordon, Matthew; Seymour, Jamie

2012-01-01

23

Growth, Development and Temporal Variation in the Onset of Six Chironex fleckeri Medusae Seasons: A Contribution to Understanding Jellyfish Ecology  

PubMed Central

Despite the worldwide distribution, toxicity and commercial, industrial and medical impacts jellyfish present, many aspects of their ecology remain poorly understood. Quantified here are important ecological parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C. fleckeri medusae were collected across seven seasons (1999, 2000, 2003, 2005–07 and 2010), with growth rates, temporal variation in the medusae season onset and differences in population structure between estuarine and coastal habitats quantified. With a mean of 2 September ±2 d (mean ±95% confidence limits), the earliest date of metamorphosis was temporally constrained between seasons, varying by only 7 d (30 August to 5 September). Juvenile medusae appeared to be added over an extended period, suggesting polyp metamorphosis was an ongoing process once it commenced. At a maximum of 3±0.2 mm d?1 IPD, medusae growth to an asymptotic size of ?190 mm IPD was rapid, yet, with the oldest medusae estimated to be ?78 d in age, medusae did not appear to accumulate along the coastline. Furthermore, a greater proportion of juveniles were observed along the coastline, with estuarine populations typified by larger medusae. With key aspects of C. fleckeri's ecology now quantified, medusae season management protocols can be further developed. PMID:22384009

Gordon, Matthew; Seymour, Jamie

2012-01-01

24

Clinical implications of research on the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

Despite several decades of laboratory research, many anecdotal clinical publications and successful production of antivenom, the active components of Chironex fleckeri venom and their mechanisms of toxicity remain poorly elucidated. Conflicting results of animal experiments and venom studies and the lack of controlled clinical trials necessitate caution in formulating protocols of clinical management. Of particular note are that in severe envenomation (1) clinical deterioration can occur within minutes and cardiac support must be emphasised in addition to respiratory support; (2) larger doses of antivenom may be appropriate; and (3) recommendations of therapy with verapamil and other cardioactive drugs remain controversial. PMID:7886690

Currie, B

1994-11-01

25

Pharmacologically distinct cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom and a tentacle-only extract in rats.  

PubMed

Using a recently developed technique to extract jellyfish venom from nematocysts, the present study investigated the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom and tentacle extract (devoid of nematocysts). In anaesthetised rats, venom (10 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient pressor response (23+/-4 mmHg) followed, in two of five animals, by cardiovascular collapse. Tentacle extract (100 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a more prolonged hypertensive effect (31+/-3 mmHg) without cardiovascular collapse. Prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) did not have any significant effect on the cardiovascular effects produced by venom. However, prazosin significantly attenuated the pressor response produced by tentacle extract. Ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not have any significant effect on the cardiovascular response of the anaesthetised rat to venom (10 microg/kg, i.v.; 25+/-1 mmHg). Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to compare the two jellyfish samples used in the present study. In addition to ensuring reproducibility of future studies and allow comparison with previous research. We show, for the first time, that a pure venom sample extracted from C. fleckeri nematocysts and a tentacle extract have cardiovascular effects in the anaesthetised rat which are different and pharmacologically distinct. PMID:15603916

Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

2005-02-15

26

Serious envenomation by the Northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).  

PubMed

Serious envenomation of an adult pregnant woman by a box-jellyfish (Chironex flecteri) in North Queensland is reported. Quick thinking and resuscitation by bystanders which was followed by early hospital treatment resulted in a successful outcome both for mother and for fetus. A brief review of the historic background of box-jellyfish envenomation is given, and some specific problems concerning the management and prevention of envenomation from this unique animal are described. On-the-spot resuscitation takes absolute priority, and the advent of specific antivenom is a major advance. Avoidance of fetal stings in the future is possible by simple preventive measures. The role of the Surf Life Saving Association of Australia in the prevention and treatment of such problems is highlighted, and, as a result of recent research, possible changes in the management of box-jellyfish envenomations are predicted. PMID:6102346

Williamson, J A; Callanan, V I; Hartwick, R F

1980-01-12

27

The in vitro effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.) venoms: efficacy of box jellyfish antivenom.  

PubMed

The pharmacological and biochemical isolation of cnidarian venoms has been hindered by difficulties with both extracting pure venom from nematocysts and venom stability. The development of a new technique to extract active, pure venom of Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. has enabled identify both neurotoxic and myotoxic activity in their venoms. These activities are similar, but not identical in each species. Venom (50 micro g/ml) from both species significantly inhibited indirect and direct twitches of the chick biventer nerve-muscle preparation. Pre-incubation with 1U/ml box jellyfish antivenom did not have any significant effect on venom-induced reductions of indirect twitches. However, this activity was markedly attenuated by prior addition of 5U/ml antivenom, albeit to a lesser degree for Chiropsalmus sp. In contrast, prior addition of 5U/ml box jellyfish antivenom did not neutralise the myotoxic activity of C. fleckeri venom (50 micro g/ml), although it did inhibit the myotoxicity produced by Chiropsalmus sp. venom (50 micro g/ml). Antivenom (5U/ml) added 1h after the addition of C. fleckeri venom (50 micro g/ml) had no effect on the indirect or direct twitches of the skeletal muscle preparation. However, it partially restored the reduction in indirect twitch height caused by Chiropsalmus sp. venom (50 micro g/ml). Myotoxicity was confirmed in muscle preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin.Therefore, although antivenom was able to neutralize the neurotoxic effects of both species, and the myotoxic effects of Chiropsalmus sp., when added prior to venom, it was unable to reverse the effects after venom addition. This suggests that antivenom is unlikely to be useful in the treatment of neurotoxic or myotoxic effects in patients, although these effects are rarely seen clinically. PMID:12727274

Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoff K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

2003-05-01

28

Rapid short term and gradual permanent cardiotoxic effects of vertebrate toxins from Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) venom.  

PubMed

The vertebrate cardiotoxic components of the venom produced by the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, have not previously been isolated. We have uncovered for the first time, three distinct cytotoxic crude fractions from within the vertebrate cardiotoxic peak of C. fleckeri venom by monitoring viability of human muscle cells with an impedance based assay (ACEA xCELLigence system) measuring cell detachment as cytotoxicity which was correlated with a reduction in cell metabolism using a cell proliferation (MTS) assay. When the effects of the venom components on human cardiomyocytes and human skeletal muscle cells were compared, two fractions were found to specifically affect cardiomyocytes with distinct temporal profiles (labelled Crude Toxic Fractions (CTF), ? and ?). A third fraction (CTF-?) was toxic to both muscle cell types and therefore not cardio specific. The vertebrate, cardio specific CTF-? and CTF-?, presented distinct activities; CTF-? caused rapid but short term cell detachment and reduction in cell metabolism with enhanced activity at lower concentrations than CTF-?. This activity was not permanent, with cell reattachment and subsequent increased metabolism of heart muscle cells observed when exposed to all but the highest concentrations of CTF-? tested. The cytotoxic effect of CTF-? took twice as long to act on the cells compared to CTF-?, however, the activity was permanent. Furthermore, we showed that the two fractions combined have a synergistic effect causing a much stronger and faster cell detachment (death) when combined than the sum of the individual effects of each toxin. These data presented here improves the current understanding of the toxic mechanisms of the Australian box jellyfish, C. fleckeri, and provides a basis for in vivo research of these newly isolated toxic fractions. PMID:24462661

Chaousis, Stephanie; Smout, Michael; Wilson, David; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie

2014-03-01

29

Cardiotoxic effects of venom fractions from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri on human myocardiocytes.  

PubMed

An investigation into the cardiotoxic effects in human cardiomyocytes of different fractions (as produced from an FPLC) of the venom from Chironex fleckeri showed that whole venom caused cardiac cell death in minutes, measured as cell detachment using xCELLigence technology. However, only one fraction of the venom was responsible for this effect. When all extracted venoms were recombined a similar result was seen for the toxic fraction, however these effects were slower than unfractionated venom alone even though the concentrations were similar. The difference in the results between fractioned and unfractionated venom may have been caused by compounds remaining in the FPLC column, which may interact with the toxic fraction to cause rapid cell detachment or death. PMID:22560886

Saggiomo, Silvia L A; Seymour, Jamie E

2012-09-01

30

A pharmacological investigation of the venom extract of the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, in cardiac and vascular tissues.  

PubMed

The pharmacology of Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, unpurified (crude) nematocyst venom extract (CVE) was investigated in rat isolated cardiac and vascular tissues and in anaesthetised rats. In small mesenteric arteries CVE (0.01-30 ?g/ml) caused contractions (EC(50) 1.15±0.19 ?g/ml) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.1 ?M), bosentan (10 ?M), CGRP(8-37) (1 ?M) or tetrodotoxin (1 ?M). Box jellyfish antivenom (5-92.6 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve with no change in the maximum. In the presence of l-NAME (100 ?M) the sensitivity and maximum response to CVE were increased, whilst MgSO(4) (6 mM) decreased both parameters. CVE (1-10 ?g/ml) caused inhibition of the contractile response to electrical sympathetic nerve stimulation. Left atrial responses to CVE (0.001-30 ?g/ml) were bi-phasic, composed of an initial positive inotropy followed by a marked negative inotropy and atrial standstill. CVE (0.3 ?g/ml) elicited a marked decrease in right atrial rate followed by atrial standstill at 3 ?g/ml. These responses were unaffected by 1 ?M of propranolol, atropine or CGRP(8-37). Antivenom (54 and 73 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve and prevented atrial standstill in left and right atria. The effects of CVE do not appear to involve autonomic nerves, post-synaptic ?(1)- or ?(1)-adrenoceptors, or muscarinic, endothelin or CGRP receptors, but may occur through direct effects on the cardiac and vascular muscle. Box jellyfish antivenom was effective in attenuating CVE-induced responses in isolated cardiac and vascular tissues. PMID:22154831

Hughes, Richard J A; Angus, James A; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E

2012-02-25

31

The effectiveness of antivenom in countering the actions of box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst toxins in mice.  

PubMed

The neutralizing ability of commercially available antivenom prepared against 'milked' box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom was tested intravenously in mice against crude nematocyst venom obtained by crushing isolated nematocysts and against each of two lethal toxins (T1 and T2) present in this venom. The in vitro neutralizing ability of the antivenom against crude venom was reduced markedly compared with its reported neutralizing ability against 'milked' venom whilst the in vivo neutralizing ability of the antivenom tested in both prophylactic and rescue experiments involving crude nematocyst venom was reduced approximately threefold. When tested in vitro and prophylactically in vivo the neutralizing ability of the antivenom was much more pronounced against T2 than against T1. This finding was in accord with the view that T1 was absent from the 'milked' venom against which the antivenom was prepared. Doses of crude venom in excess of twice the lethal dose killed mice within 2-3 min emphasizing the need for speed in the administration of antivenom. PMID:2903586

Endean, R; Sizemore, D J

1988-01-01

32

The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate.  

PubMed

Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts, the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) and adjunct therapies, verapamil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), were investigated against the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom in anaesthetised rats. C. fleckeri venom (30 microg/kg; i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse within 4 min of administration. Prophylactic treatment of anaesthetised rats with CSL box jellyfish AV (3000 U/kg; i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response, but prevented cardiovascular collapse in four out of 10 animals. Administration of verapamil (20mM@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) either alone or in combination with AV, did not have any effect on the C. fleckeri venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent hypotension or cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, the administration of verapamil negated the partially protective effects of AV. Concurrent artificial respiration of animals with the above treatments did not attenuate the C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular effects. MgSO(4) (0.05-0.07M@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) alone did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, although combined AV and MgSO(4) administration could not inhibit the transient pressor effect following the administration of C. fleckeri venom, it prevented cardiovascular collapse in all animals. We show for the first time, the cardiovascular effects of a C. fleckeri venom sample free of tentacular contamination and the potential of MgSO(4) as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of potentially fatal C. fleckeri envenomings. PMID:15109889

Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

2004-05-01

33

Separation of two myotoxins from nematocysts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).  

PubMed

Two myotoxins, both lethal to mice by i.v. injection, were obtained by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 of material released from isolated microbasic mastigophores of C. fleckeri. Both toxins elicit contractures of skeletal (diaphragm) musculature of the rat and of smooth (ileum and vas deferens) and atrial musculature of the guinea-pig, although consistent differences in the parameters of the contractures of each muscle type elicited by the two toxins are shown. Moreover, one toxin, with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000, also elicits activity on crustacean (barnacle) musculature, whilst the other toxin, with a molecular weight of approximately 600,000, elicits no activity in barnacle musculature at the concentrations tested. The toxins are labile when released from nematocysts and they lose all myotoxic activity within 3 days at 5 degrees C. They can also be isolated chromatographically from crude extracts of the contents of mixed nematocysts of C. fleckeri. They are considered to be the principal toxins injected by C. fleckeri during nematocyst discharge and appear to be different from the C. fleckeri toxins described by other workers. PMID:2887047

Endean, R

1987-01-01

34

An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom.  

PubMed

Although CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) remains the primary treatment for Chironex fleckeri envenoming, there has been considerable debate regarding its clinical effectiveness. Animal studies have shown that AV is largely ineffective in preventing C. fleckeri-induced cardiovascular collapse. This study examined the effectiveness of CSL box jellyfish AV (ovine IgG), raised against 'milked' venom, and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies (Ab) raised against nematocyst-derived venom. A venom dose of 30microg/kg, i.v., which causes an initial presser response (34+/-5mmHg; n=7) followed by cardiovascular collapse, was used in all experiments. A bolus dose of AV (3000U/kg, i.v.) or Ab (12mg; i.e. an equivalent protein 'load' to 3000U/kg AV), administered 15min prior to a bolus dose of venom, did not significantly attenuate the effects of venom. The venom response was also not significantly attenuated when AV (3000U/kg) was given as a bolus dose 10-60min prior to venom infusion. However, when the venom was incubated with either AV (3000U/kg) or Ab (12mg) for 3h prior to infusion, the effect of the venom was almost abolished. The results of this study demonstrate that antibodies raised against both 'milked' and nematocyst-derived venom are able to neutralise the cardiovascular collapse produced by the venom. However, large amounts of AV are required and must be preincubated with the venom to be protective. This indicates a very rapid action of the toxin(s) and that AV is unlikely to be clinically effective because it cannot be administered early enough. PMID:19429250

Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Jacoby, Tamara; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

2009-06-01

35

A functional comparison of the venom of three Australian jellyfish--Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana--on cytosolic Ca2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality.  

PubMed

Cnidarian venoms produce a wide spectrum of envenoming syndromes in humans ranging from minor local irritation to death. Here, the effects of Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana venoms on ventricular myocyte cytosolic Ca2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality are compared for the first time. All three venoms caused a large, irreversible elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in myocytes as measured using the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent probe Indo-1. The L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist verapamil had no effect on Ca2+ influx whilst La3+, a non-specific channel and pore blocker, inhibited the effect. Haemolytic activity was observed for all venoms, with C. xaymacana venom displaying the greatest activity. These activities are consistent with the presence of a pore-forming toxin existing in the venoms which has been demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy in the case of C. fleckeri. The venom of C. fleckeri was found to be more lethal against Artemia sp. than the venom of the other species, consistent with the order of known human toxicities. This suggests that the observed lytic effects may not underlie the lethal effects of the venom, and raises the question of how such potent activities are dealt with by envenomed humans. PMID:15626372

Bailey, Paul M; Bakker, Anthony J; Seymour, Jamie E; Wilce, Jacqueline A

2005-02-01

36

Purification of Chironex fleckeri venom components using Chironex immunoaffinity chromatography.  

PubMed

A comparison of the purification of the nematocyst venom of Chironex fleckeri by affinity immunochromatography using 13 different monoclonal antibodies was made. Varying degrees of purification of mouse lethal factor, hemolysin and dermonecrotic factors, as well as antigen positive proteins were achieved with each of the monoclonal antibodies. Although the protein curves of the chromatography were similar, each of the monoclonal antibody columns had a distinctive pharmacological and SDS-PAGE profile. At least two hemolysins (120,000 and 70,000 molecular weight), two dermonecrotic principles (120,000, less than 120,000) and three lethal factors (120,000, 70,000 and 14,500 molecular weight) were detected. The degree to which aggregation and fragmentation affects the molecular weights of these proteins is not known. It appears that multiple pharmacological activities are present within the same molecule since it is only with great difficulty that a pharmacological activity can be assigned to a specific molecular weight. PMID:2900563

Naguib, A M; Bansal, J; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

1988-01-01

37

Verapamil potentiation of Chironex (box-jellyfish) antivenom.  

PubMed

'Rescue' experiments were performed on mice to compare the efficacy of i.v. verapamil, box-jellyfish antivenom, and a combination of both agents to counter the effects of toxic material extracted from the tentacles of Chironex fleckeri. In each of three series of experiments, four sets of mice were injected with doses of Chironex tentacle extracts containing approximately 4 mg/ml protein which were equivalent to twice the LD50. Three of these groups also received verapamil alone, antivenom alone, or a combination of both treatments. The combination therapy of drug and antivenom was superior to either agent alone. Treatment of verapamil alone appeared to be equivalent to that with only antivenom. PMID:1971128

Burnett, J W; Othman, I B; Endean, R; Fenner, P J; Callanan, V I; Williamson, J A

1990-01-01

38

Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.  

PubMed

Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red. PMID:18723637

Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

2008-08-01

39

Venom and cnidome ontogeny of the cubomedusae Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

This is the first study to explore venom and cnidome variation of individual cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri, of different ages and from different regional locations in relation to feeding ecology. As medusae matured the proportion of mastigophores (those nematocysts containing the lethal venom component) in the cnidome increased, along with proportion of the vertebrate toxic fraction, in the venom profile. This switch in cnidome and venom occurred at the seven to ten tentacle stage. Whole venom was found to be toxic specifically to vertebrate cardiac cells, as opposed to vertebrate skeletal cells, and dose dependent, along with the vertebrate toxic fraction. The venom and cnidome ontogeny, along with venom toxicity, is correlated with C. fleckeri's known feeding ecology. Large and mature C. fleckeri feed predominantly on vertebrates, and have a greater proportion of mastigophores in their cnidome along with more vertebrate toxic fraction in their venom, compared to when they are young and small feeding on invertebrates. PMID:23010166

McClounan, S; Seymour, J

2012-12-15

40

The in vitro vascular effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie) venoms.  

PubMed

Clinical observations suggest a primary cardiotoxic role in fatal Chironex fleckeri stings. The limited research available indicates that Chiropsella bronzie venom acts in a similar manner although appears to be less potent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the vascular effects of C. fleckeri and C. bronzie venoms using rat isolated aorta. Both venoms produced a sustained contraction of endothelium-denuded aorta which was not significantly affected by prazosin or box jellyfish antivenom. Felodipine significantly reduced the contractile response to C. fleckeri venom but not C. bronzie venom. Both venoms produced an initial relaxation (Phase 1), followed by a sustained contraction (Phase 2), in pre-contracted endothelium-intact aorta. Removal of the endothelium significantly inhibited both phases of the response. NOLA significantly inhibited Phase 1, but not Phase 2, of the response to both venoms. Atropine, HOE 140 or BQ 123 did not have any significant inhibitory effect on either phase. In conclusion, neither C. fleckeri nor C. bronzie venoms appear to contain components with activity at alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Antivenom was ineffective in reversing the effects of the venom suggesting it is incapable of completely neutralising nematocyst-derived venom. Determining the mechanism of action of these venoms will allow for the development of better treatment strategies. PMID:17141433

Winter, Kelly L; Fernando, Ross; Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Seymour, Jamie E; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hodgson, Wayne C

2007-01-10

41

The structure and function of the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri Southcott, 1956.  

PubMed

Microbasic p-mastigophores, euryteles of two size groups, holotrichous isorhizas and atrichous isorhizas, comprise the cnidom of Chironex fleckeri, a cubozoan that has been responsible for several human fatalities. In its undischarged state each microbasic mastigophore of C. fleckeri consists of a capsule containing matrix and an inverted tube possessing a smooth-walled butt which is loosely coiled helically and which narrows to form a thread that is tightly coiled helically and markedly pleated. Both butt and thread carry three helices of spines and contain a granular matrix. During discharge, the proximal butt spines form initially a piercing stylet. Granular material from the butt and thread is released prior to the release of capsular material. Each eurytele possesses a tube with a butt composed of three bulbs, the middle bulb bearing long spines. Each holotrichous isorhiza possesses a coiled tube bearing small spines along its length. Each atrichous isorhiza exhibits a tube that is devoid of spines and loosely folded in the undischarged condition. The probable role of each type of nematocyst is inferred from its structure and features that enable the ready separation of the nematocysts of C. fleckeri from those of scyphozoan jellyfish are discussed. PMID:6138157

Rifkin, J; Endean, R

1983-01-01

42

A pharmacological and biochemical examination of the geographical variation of Chironex fleckeri venom.  

PubMed

Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) are found in the northern tropical waters of Australia. Although C. fleckeri have a wide geographical distribution and are able to swim large distances, adults tend to stay in small restricted areas. Clinical data shows that deaths from envenoming have not been recorded in Western Australia, yet numerous fatalities have occurred in Northern Territory and Queensland waters. One explanation for this discrepancy is a geographical variation in venom composition. This study examined the pharmacological and biochemical profiles of C. fleckeri venom from different geographical locations and seasons. Venoms were screened for cytotoxicity using a rat aortic smooth muscle cell line (A7r5). While all venoms caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, differences were seen in the potency of venoms from Mission Beach and Weipa, when collected in different seasons, as indicated by IC(50) values. Similarly venoms collected within the same season, from different locations around Australia, displayed marked differences in venom composition as shown by size exclusion HPLC and SDS-PAGE profiles which indicated the absence or reduced quantity of 'peaks' in some venoms. Based on IC(50) data obtained from the cell assay, the effects of the most potent (i.e. from Weipa in 2006) and the least potent (i.e. from Broome in 2007) venoms were examined in anesthetised rats. Both venoms at 10 microg/kg (i.v.) caused a transient hypertensive phase followed by cardiovascular collapse. However, at 4 microg/kg (i.v.) venom from Weipa 2006 caused a transient hypertensive phase followed by a transient decrease in MAP while venom from Broome 2007 only caused a small transient increase in MAP. This study demonstrates that there is considerable geographical variation in the composition of C. fleckeri venoms which is most distinct between specimens from western and eastern Australia and may explain the geographical variation in reported deaths. PMID:19945518

Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; McGowan, Sheena; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

2010-02-15

43

Toxinological and immunological studies of capillary electrophoresis fractionated Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) fishing tentacle and Chironex fleckeri Southcott nematocyst venoms.  

PubMed

Repeated runs of capillary electrophoresis (CE) were used to study partially-purified jellyfish nematocyst venom protein in concentrations sufficient to perform toxinological assays. Nematocyst venoms from Chironex fleckeri (Cf) and Chysaora quinquecirrha were processed. The CE eluate was divided into quadrants by scanning protein content. The fourth fraction of both jellyfish venoms, contained proteins with the smallest molecular weight components, which were responsible for the highest hemolysins and the humoral and cell-mediated immunological activity. Cytotoxic Cf lethal factor activity against human liver cells was widely dispersed throughout both venoms but more prominent in fraction 4. A V(beta) receptor human T-cell repertoire was not species-specific for either crude or fractionated jellyfish nematocyst venom. PMID:11166676

Bloom, D A; Radwan, F F; Burnett, J W

2001-01-01

44

Partial purification of Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp) venom by immunochromatography with antivenom.  

PubMed

Chironex fleckeri crude venom was partially purified using immobilized commercially available ovoid antivenom. The antibody preparation reacted with lethal, hemolytic, dermonecrotic and mouse writhing (pain) factors in the crude venom. The lethal activity was purified five fold, while the specific eluate contained lower quantities of hemolytic, dermonecrotic and mouse writhing activities than did the crude venom. PMID:2872735

Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

1986-01-01

45

A pharmacological study of the toxin of a Cnidarian, Chironex fleckeri Southcott  

PubMed Central

1. A study has been made of the pharmacological actions of toxic preparations obtained from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri Southcott. Two toxin preparations were used. One was a tentacle extract which was partially purified by Sephadex gel filtration; the second was obtained by a process analogous to snake milking, and is probably similar in composition to the material injected into victims. 2. All preparations were extremely toxic; death in animals, following minimally lethal doses, occurred in minutes. Respiratory arrest of central origin appeared to be the terminal event in all species tested. This was accompanied by marked signs of cardiotoxicity. The heart was slowed, irregular, and showed varying degrees of conduction delay. Terminally it showed atrioventricular block. 3. Blood pressure changes were biphasic. An initial rise in carotid pressure was followed by a profound fall; a second rise to an above normal level frequently followed this. These blood pressure oscillations were damped down by prior treatment with hexamethonium but the hypertensive response remained. 4. Blood samples taken before terminal apnoea showed a variable degree of haemolysis and a raised K+ level. 5. Experiments with isolated organ preparations suggested that the toxin had a non-specific lytic effect on cells, but did not contain pharmacologically active substances of small molecular weight such as 5-hydroxytryptamine. 6. It is suggested that the toxin(s) act by altering membrane permeability; the signs at death may reflect the sensitivity of the target organs to such a change. ImagesFIG. 1. PMID:4390195

Freeman, Shirley E.; Turner, R. J.

1969-01-01

46

Nematocyst ratio and prey in two Australian cubomedusans, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.  

PubMed

This study examined differences in the nematocyst ratios between two species of Australian cubozoans. In Chiropsalmus sp., a species that feeds exclusively on shrimp, no changes in the ratio of the three groups of nematocyst present in the cnidome were detected with size of the individual animals. In Chironex fleckeri, the ratio of different types of nematocysts in the cnidome for small animals (less than 40 mm) was similar to that of Chiropsalmus sp. However, with an increase in body size in C. fleckeri, the nematocyst ratio changed, with mastigophores (nematocysts believed to hold the lethal venom component for prey) increasing in proportion. The change in cnidome ratio is correlated with a change in the prey of C. fleckeri with increased size. Small C. fleckeri appeared to feed exclusively on prawns, medium sized animals fed on fish and prawns and large animals fed predominantly on fish. An increase in the proportion of mastigophores (and presumably the lethal venom component) in the cnidome of C. fleckeri may also be responsible for why this species has caused numerous human fatalities, while the Australian Chiropsalmus sp. has not. PMID:12419505

Carrette, T; Alderslade, P; Seymour, J

2002-11-01

47

In vitro effects on human heart and skeletal cells of the venom from two cubozoans, Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi.  

PubMed

Although Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi cause significant human envenomation, research into their effects in human models or human cells has been limited. In this in vitro study we have presented data that shows that although C. fleckeri is highly cytotoxic to human cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, C. barnesi is not cytotoxic at all concentrations tested to both cardiac and skeletal muscles cells. We also demonstrate that in vitro C. fleckeri venom cardiocytotoxic activity is significantly attenuated when heated to 44 °C for 20 min. There is a similar attenuation with skeletal cells at 46 °C. PMID:24176926

Pereira, Peter; Seymour, Jamie E

2013-12-15

48

Immunochromatographic purification of a nematocyst toxin from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp).  

PubMed

A cardiotoxin from "milked venom" of the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) was purified by immunochromatography on an immobilized mouse monoclonal anti-Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) venom antibody column. The 20,000 molecular weight toxin caused bradycardia followed by cell lysis when applied to cultured chick embryonic cardiocytes at concentrations higher than 1.7 micrograms protein per ml and was lethal to mice at 0.04 micrograms protein per g. The toxin affected ion permeability in lipid bilayer membranes by forming monovalent cation channels. PMID:6084344

Olson, C E; Pockl, E E; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

1984-01-01

49

The effect of vinegar on discharged nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri.  

PubMed

We are writing because we have serious concerns about the statistical analyses and data interpretation reported by Welfare, Little, Pereira, and Seymour. The authors state in the Abstract, "Part 1: There was a 69 ± 32% (F = 77, P < 0.001) increase in venom discharge after vinegar was applied compared to post electrical stimulation." The recovery of venom protein from a membrane after the application of vinegar subsequent to electrically stimulating tentacle cnidae to discharge, W4, was compared with protein recovered post stimulation in a saline wash, W3. Figure 2 shows W3 to be approximately 23 ± 20%. While the authors imply the statistical difference between "venom discharge after vinegar was applied compared to post electrical stimulation", or W4 vs W3, only the overall ANOVA significance comparing all four treatments was quoted (F = 77, P < 0.001) and no statistical significance was provided for this specific W4 vs W3 comparison. If we assume that standard errors of the means (SEMs) were used in Figure 2, a simple t-test will provide a P-value of only 0.11, comparing W4 and W3, an insignificant finding. The comparison of W4, post electrical stimulation to W1 the pre-stimulation control would yield a significant value of P < 0.001 but this is hardly surprising and intuitively obvious. For this and the following reasons, it seems that the data may not have been properly analysed and not properly presented: (1) The same three samples seem to have been used for W1-W4, resulting in internally matched samples, but the data were analysed using ANOVA, assuming samples in different treatments are all independent. (2) It is not clear what the value after the "±" represents, CI, SEM, or SD, as this is not stated in the caption. (3) It is not clear what the 3 x 82 subscript means for the reported F = 77.12 (page 32, right column, line 2 below Table 1). We respectfully recommend that the editors engage a third-party statistician to run an independent analysis of the primary data. If these statistical errors exist, we suggest that the publication be retracted. It is troubling that this small study reporting recovery of cytolytic activity from a placental membrane proxy of envenomation has been used to launch wildly extrapolative press releases despite over 40 years of using vinegar as a first-response treatment without a clear case of death resulting from its use. Statements such as "For decades experts have recommended vinegar to treat box jellyfish stings. Now, Queensland researchers have discovered the cure can kill" are simply not true; there was no death or killing in the Welfare et al study. Claims that "Vinegar may kill rather than cure victims of box jellyfish stings ... The remedy, used for decades to treat stings, causes up to 60 per cent more venom from the lethal jellyfish to be discharged into the victim" are also not supported by these data. There were no 'victims' and the slight elevation in the amount of protein recovered in W4 vs W3 was not statistically significant. The authors also report that "vinegar promotes further discharge of venom from already discharged nematocysts" but data show only modest enhanced recovery of cytolytic activity from the membrane, not the degree of cnidae discharge. Finally, the authors do not consider alternative potential causes of enhanced cytolytic recovery, e.g., vinegar improves recovery of certain venom component activities. Thus, these findings may suggest the diametric opposite to the authors' conclusion - that is, vinegar may enhance venom extraction from a sting site and thus increase survival. However, without validation of this membrane model in an authentic animal model, there is no clear way to interpret these data let alone extrapolate to make emergency medical care recommendations. PMID:25311327

Yanagihara, Angel A; Chen, John J

2014-09-01

50

Warmer waters in the Northern Territory--herald an earlier onset to the annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger season.  

PubMed

The discovery that Chironex fleckeri occurs annually in northern Australia occurred long ago, possibly before written records were available by local indigenous people, however, to date the precision of this yearly phenomenon is still not fully understood. Sea surface temperature (SST) appears to be a determining factor signaling the "arrival" of C. fleckeri each year. Anthropogenic climate change modeling predicts global rises in SST. Rises in SST may result in an earlier "arrival" of C. fleckeri during the dry season, possibly necessitating extension of the official Northern Territory stinger season to commence in September (currently October through to June). This short report presents data to support this hypothesis, facilitating policy makers with an environmental cue upon which changes to current stinger season can be based--prior to painful and potentially life-threatening presentations. PMID:20376549

Jacups, Susan P

2010-08-01

51

Australian venomous jellyfish, envenomation syndromes, toxins and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seas and oceans around Australia harbour numerous venomous jellyfish. Chironex fleckeri, the box jellyfish, is the most lethal causing rapid cardiorespiratory depression and although its venom has been characterised, its toxins remain to be identified. A moderately effective antivenom exists which is also partially effective against another chirodropid, Chiropsalmus sp. Numerous carybdeids, some unidentified, cause less severe illness, including

James Tibballs

2006-01-01

52

Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies.  

PubMed

Interest in envenoming syndromes caused by Australian jellyfish has been intense since the deaths in early 2002 of two tourists in Queensland, attributed to the Irukandji syndrome. We review current knowledge of these envenoming syndromes, mechanisms of venom action and therapy, focusing on the deadly box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and the array of jellyfish thought to cause the Irukandji syndrome. Current understanding of jellyfish venom activity is very limited, and many treatments are unproven and based on anecdote. PMID:12492389

Bailey, Paul M; Little, Mark; Jelinek, George A; Wilce, Jacqueline A

2003-01-01

53

Cardiovascular effects of toxins isolated from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri Southcott  

PubMed Central

1. Two unstable high molecular weight toxins have been isolated from tentacles of Chironex fleckeri by exclusion chromatography. Both are cardiotoxic; the lower molecular weight fraction is also a potent haemolysin. 2. Both toxins reduce the rate, amplitude of contraction and coronary flow in the isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart. Relative to the mouse lethal dose the haemolytic fraction is less potent in this preparation than the purely cardiotoxic fraction. 3. Both toxins cause a rise in arterial pressure in anaesthetized rats and rabbits by a direct action on the vascular musculature. This is followed by hypotension, bradycardia and cardiac irregularity. An increase in respiratory rate is followed by apnoea of variable duration, which is associated with a rise in arterial pressure. Animals frequently show arterial pressure oscillations with periods of apnoea interspersed with hyperpnoea. 4. The carotid occlusion reflex is depressed during hypotensive periods after both toxins, although (-)-noradrenaline can still elicit a marked pressor response. Bilateral cervical vagotomy has but little effect on the response to either toxin, save to prevent hyperpnoea, but radical denervation of sinoaortic afferents reduces the arterial pressure fall after the initial hypertensive response, suggesting that this fall is due to a combination of baroreceptor stimulation and a fall in cardiac output. Blood pressure oscillations are still seen, possibly due to central stimulation by hypercapnia. 5. Interference with the efferent arm of the vasomotor reflex arc with hexamethonium, bretylium or phenoxybenzamine either abolishes or markedly reduces the blood pressure oscillations without affecting the initial hypertensive response. 6. The cardiovascular effects of the two toxins are thought to be due to direct vasoconstriction, cardiotoxicity, baroreceptor stimulation and possibly depression of the vasomotor centre. The resultant disordering of the feed-back system regulating vasomotor tone leads to the characteristic arterial pressure oscillations. PMID:4396129

Freeman, Shirley E.; Turner, R. J.

1971-01-01

54

Exploring the therapeutic potential of jellyfish venom.  

PubMed

The venom of certain jellyfish has long been known to be potentially fatal to humans, but it is only recently that details of the proteomes of these fascinating creatures are emerging. The molecular contents of the nematocysts from several jellyfish species have now been analyzed using proteomic MS approaches and include the analysis of Chironex fleckeri, one of the most venomous jellyfish known. These studies suggest that some species contain toxins related to peptides and proteins found in other venomous creatures. The detailed characterization of jellyfish venom is likely to provide insight into the diversification of toxins and might be a valuable resource in drug design. PMID:25406009

Daly, Norelle L; Seymour, Jamie; Wilson, David

2014-10-01

55

Cutaneous light microscopic and ultrastructural changes in a fatal case of jellyfish envenomation.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old male suffered fatal envenomation from a jellyfish subsequently identified as Chironex fleckeri. Contact with the tentacles of the jellyfish had produced characteristic whiplash-like weals on the skin. At autopsy, skin from these areas was taken and later studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Both studies identified numerous nematocysts penetrating the epidermis and papillary dermis in the region of the sting. PMID:2903186

Strutton, G; Lumley, J

1988-08-01

56

Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings.  

PubMed

Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A; Turner, Helen C; Winkel, Ken

2011-10-01

57

Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings  

PubMed Central

Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

2013-01-01

58

First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia. Response to a newly differentiated species.  

PubMed

Vinegar has been shown to inhibit neomatocyst discharge in Chironex fleckeri, the deadly north Australian box-jellyfish, and application of vinegar has become accepted first aid, not only for box-jellyfish stings, but also for stings by other Australian jellyfish. However, in a newly differentiated species of Physalia in Australian waters, which causes severe envenomation, vinegar was found to cause discharge in up to 30% of neomatocysts. In treating these stings, the use of vinegar is not recommended as it may increase envenomation. Stings from the single-tentacled Physalia utriculus (the "bluebottle") are not severe, tentacles with unfired nematocysts rarely adhere to the victim's skin and vinegar dousing is not required. Vinegar treatment is therefore an unnecessary step in the first aid management of any Physalia sting but remains an essential first aid treatment for all cubozoan (box) jellyfish tested to date. PMID:8469205

Fenner, P J; Williamson, J A; Burnett, J W; Rifkin, J

1993-04-01

59

Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms in fish.  

PubMed

The North Queensland chirodropid box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. share similar nematocyst composition and the same prey of Acetes australis shrimps in their early medusa stages; however, as C. fleckeri individuals reach larger size, the animals add fish to their diet and their complement of nematocyst types changes, allowing larger doses of venom to be delivered to prey. This study demonstrated that the venoms of the two species differ as well: despite similar effects previously documented in crustacean prey models, the two had widely different cardiac and lethal effects in fish, with C. fleckeri being substantially more potent in its ability to cause death. Comparisons between the venom delivery abilities of the two species showed that the change in nematocysts of C. fleckeri cannot alone account for its ontogenetic shift to prey fish; instead, its prey ecology clearly necessitates it having venom capable of acting efficiently to cause death in fish. Although this venom is almost certainly produced at greater metabolic cost to the animal than the less-lethal venom of Chiropsalmus sp., owing to its greater molecular protein complexity, it confers the advantage of increased caloric intake from fish prey, facilitating larger size and potentially greater reproductive output of C. fleckeri over Chiropsalmus sp. PMID:16165181

Kintner, Anna H; Seymour, Jamie E; Edwards, Susan L

2005-11-01

60

Successful use of Chironex antivenom by members of the Queensland Ambulance Transport Brigade.  

PubMed

We report the first administration in Australia by ambulance officers of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories' Chironex fleckeri antivenom, in two separate, major, potentially life-threatening Chironex envenomations. In both cases, the antivenom was effective in helping to relieve signs and symptoms (including pain). This antivenom still is the most specific part of the treatment of a major Chironex fleckeri sting after stabilization of the airway, breathing and circulation. The additional use of verapamil may contribute to the prevention of some of the cardiac complications that result from the direct effects of the Chironex venom. PMID:2574410

Fenner, P J; Williamson, J A; Blenkin, J A

61

Dose and time dependence of box jellyfish antivenom  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of the currently available box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom has been subject of debate for many years. To assess whether the box jellyfish antivenom has the ability to attenuate venom-induced damage at cellular level, the present study analyzed the dose and time dependence of the antivenom in a cell-based assay. Methods Different doses of antivenom were added to venom and subsequently administered to cells and the cell index was measured using xCelligence Technology (ACEA Biosciences). Similarly, antivenom and venom were incubated over different time periods and cell survival measured as stated above. For both experiments, the cell index was plotted as a measure of cell survival against the dose or incubation time and significance was determined with the use of a one-way ANOVA with a LSD post hoc test. Results Increasing concentrations of antivenom significantly augmented cell survival, with a concentration of approximately five times the currently recommended dose for human envenomation, causing the first significant increase in cell survival compared venom alone. Further, cell survival improved with increasing incubation time of venom and antivenom prior to addition to the cells, indicating that box jellyfish antivenom requires approximately 70 minutes to neutralize C. fleckeri venom. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the currently recommended dose of antivenom requires adjustment, and more importantly, a human trial to test the effects of higher concentrations is also necessary. Further, antivenom has delayed neutralizing effects (i.e. after 70 minutes) which underlines the eminence of immediate and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in victims suffering from a C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular collapse. PMID:25161664

2014-01-01

62

The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats.  

PubMed

Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44+/-4 mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000 U/kg, i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced hypertensive response nor the subsequent cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular response of animals receiving venom after the infusion of MgSO4 (50-70 mM @ 0.25 ml/min, i.v.; n=5) alone, or in combination with AV (n=5), was not significantly different from rats receiving venom alone. Prior administration of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.; n=4) or ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.; n=4) did not significantly attenuate the hypertensive response nor prevent the cardiovascular collapse induced by venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.). In contrast to previous work examining C. fleckeri venom, administration of AV alone, or in combination with MgSO4, was not effective in preventing cardiovascular collapse following the administration of Chiropsalmus sp. venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming. PMID:15683870

Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

2005-03-01

63

Australian venomous jellyfish, envenomation syndromes, toxins and therapy.  

PubMed

The seas and oceans around Australia harbour numerous venomous jellyfish. Chironex fleckeri, the box jellyfish, is the most lethal causing rapid cardiorespiratory depression and although its venom has been characterised, its toxins remain to be identified. A moderately effective antivenom exists which is also partially effective against another chirodropid, Chiropsalmus sp. Numerous carybdeids, some unidentified, cause less severe illness, including Carybdea rastoni whose toxins CrTX-A and CrTX-B are large proteins. Carukia barnesi, another small carybdeid is one cause of the 'Irukandji' syndrome which includes delayed pain from severe muscle cramping, vomiting, anxiety, restlessness, sweating and prostration, and occasionally severe hypertension and acute cardiac failure. The syndrome is in part caused by release of catecholamines but the cause of heart failure is undefined. The venom contains a sodium channel modulator. Two species of Physalia are present and although one is potentially lethal, has not caused death in Australian waters. Other significant genera of jellyfish include Tamoya, Pelagia, Cyanea, Aurelia and Chyrosaora. PMID:16928389

Tibballs, James

2006-12-01

64

Autonomic neurotoxicity of jellyfish and marine animal venoms.  

PubMed

Venoms and poisons of jellyfish and other marine animals can induce damage to the human nervous and circulatory systems. Clues to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these lesions can be obtained from data of human envenomations and animal experimentation. Because many investigators are unaware that marine animal venoms have autonomic actions, this paper aims to elucidate the broad antagonistic or toxic effects these compounds have on the autonomic nervous system. Marine venoms can affect ion transport of particularly sodium and calcium, induce channels or pores in neural and muscular cellular membranes, alter intracellular membranes of organelles and release mediators of inflammation. The box jellyfish, particularly Chironex fleckeri, in the Indo-Pacific region, is the world's most venomous marine animal and is responsible for autonomic disorders in patients. The symptoms induced by these venoms are vasospasm, cardiac irregularities, peripheral neuropathy, aphonia, ophthalmic abnormalities and parasympathetic dysautonomia. Cases of Irukandji syndrome, caused by the jellyfish Carukia barnesi, have symptoms that mimic excessive catecholamine release. Coelenterate venoms can also target the myocardium, Purkinje fiber, A-V node or aortic ring. Actions on nerves, as well as skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle occur. Recent studies indicate that the hepatic P-450 enzyme family may be injured by these compounds. The multiplicity of these venom activities means that a thorough understanding of the sting pathogenesis will be essential in devising effective therapies. PMID:9613803

Burnett, J W; Weinrich, D; Williamson, J A; Fenner, P J; Lutz, L L; Bloom, D A

1998-04-01

65

The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia.  

PubMed

Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence. PMID:17070882

Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter

2006-12-01

66

Is sleep's 'supreme mystery' unraveling? An evolutionary analysis of sleep encounters no mystery; nor does life's earliest sleep, recently discovered in jellyfish.  

PubMed

Biotelemetry has revealed daily 15-h behavioral sleep periods in a cubomedusan jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Its sleep is expected to be phylogenetically most primitive, since jellyfish possess only two germ layers. They belong to the phylum Cnidaria, the 'simplest' multicellular organisms with an organized nervous system. Cubomedusae have a complex visual system with 24 eyes of four different types, each type specialized for a different task. Input to these eyes during visually guided fast-swimming predation requires enormous amounts of neural processing, possibly nearly saturating the capacity of their comparatively simple nervous system. These heavy neural demands may account for the need for fifteen hours of sleep. C. fleckeri is the only animal known for which sleep may be either present or absent, dependent on lifestyle. Limited knowledge of behavior of some other cubomedusae suggests that they also possess this faculty. The finding of sleep in C. fleckeri supports current proposals of sleep's origin and basic function. Evolutionary analyses link sleep to a conflict produced by excessive processing demands on multifunctional neural circuitry for detailed focal vision by complex lensed eyes. The conflict arises between the enormous demands of complex visual analysis and needs for split-second control of actions, on the one hand, and non-urgent processing of memories of ongoing and stored events, on the other. Conflict is resolved by deferring the non-urgent processing to periods of sleep. Without sleep, selection would favor the evolution of circuitry 'dedicated' to single or but few tasks, with corresponding lesser efficiency. Had complex lensed eyes of medusae originated as a consequence of selection for increased mating success of males pursuing females, it could have occurred before the evolution of fast-swimming bilateral (three-germ-layered) prey. But if it was a consequence of selection for increased prey-hunting success, the origin of such eyes probably awaited the coexistence of bilateral prey. PMID:16213664

Kavanau, J Lee

2006-01-01

67

The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.  

PubMed

The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100?g/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1?M), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1?M), propranolol (1?M), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1?M). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100?g/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100?g/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07?g/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3?M), ?-conotoxin GVIA (0.1?M) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3?M). TTX (0.1?M), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3?M) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release. PMID:21237252

Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

2011-03-25

68

Jellyfish stings  

MedlinePLUS

Jellyfish are sea creatures that have a nearly see-through (transparent) body with long finger-like structures ... Jellyfish venom ... Types of jellyfish include: Lion's mane ( Cyanea capillata ) Portuguese ... physalis ) Sea nettle ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha ), one of the ...

69

JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes  

E-print Network

JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes M. L. D. Palomares Ã? D. Pauly Published online: 15 and methods have been used to study the growth of jellyfish, with the result that few generalities have that this situation can be overcome by length-frequency analysis (LFA), applied to jellyfish bell diameter (i

Pauly, Daniel

70

Cardiovascular actions of the venom from the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi) jellyfish: effects in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues in vitro and in pigs in vitro.  

PubMed

1. We have investigated the cardiovascular pharmacology of the crude venom extract (CVE) from the potentially lethal, very small carybdeid jellyfish Carukia barnesi, in rat, guinea-pig and human isolated tissues and anaesthetized piglets. 2. In rat and guinea-pig isolated right atria, CVE (0.1-10 microg/mL) caused tachycardia in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), a response almost completely abolished by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1 micromol/L). In paced left atria from guinea-pig or rat, CVE (0.1-3 microg/mL) caused a positive inotropic response in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L). 3. In rat mesenteric small arteries, CVE (0.1-30 microg/mL) caused concentration-dependent contractions that were unaffected by 0.1 micromol/L TTX, 0.3 micromol/L prazosin or 0.1 micromol/L omega-conotoxin GVIA. 4. Neither the rat right atria tachycardic response nor the contraction of rat mesenteric arteries to CVE were affected by the presence of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom (92.6 units/mL). 5. In human isolated driven right atrial trabeculae muscle strips, CVE (10 microg/mL) tended to cause an initial fall, followed by a more sustained increase, in contractile force. In the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), CVE only caused a positive inotropic response. In separate experiments in the presence of propranolol (0.2 micromol/L), the negative inotropic effect of CVE was enhanced, whereas the positive inotropic response was markedly decreased. 6. In anaesthetized piglets, CVE (67 microg/kg, i.v.) caused sustained tachycardia and systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Venous blood samples demonstrated a marked elevation in circulating levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. 7. We conclude that C. barnesi venom may contain a neural sodium channel activator (blocked by TTX) that, in isolated atrial tissue (and in vivo), causes the release of transmitter (and circulating) catecholamines. The venom may also contain a 'direct' vasoconstrictor component. These observations explain, at least in part, the clinical features of the potentially deadly Irukandji syndrome. PMID:16173936

Winkel, Kenneth D; Tibballs, James; Molenaar, Peter; Lambert, Gavin; Coles, Peter; Ross-Smith, Mark; Wiltshire, Carolyn; Fenner, Peter J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Hawdon, Gabrielle M; Wright, Christine E; Angus, James A

2005-09-01

71

Jellyfish Stings, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a jellyfish sting is often red and swollen, and it may even bleed. First Aid Guide Jellyfish are aquatic invertebrates that can sting people who ...

72

Reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following stinging attributed to the box jelly fish (Chironex fleckeri).  

PubMed

Following a box jelly fish sting, a 52 year old Chinese fisherman developed acute abdominal distension, inability to pass urine and failure of erection. Examination revealed gaseous abdominal distension and a distended urinary bladder. Absence of lachrimation and absence of changes in the R-R interval in the ECG during breathing and carotid sinus massage gave further evidence of parasympathetic dysautonomia. The patient made a complete recovery. The case highlights the occurrence of reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following box jelly fish sting. PMID:6152151

Chand, R P; Selliah, K

1984-10-01

73

Jellyfish Gone Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the 1980s, worldwide jellyfish blooms have caused hundreds of millions--or perhaps even billions--of dollars in losses. Worldwide reports of massive jellyfish blooms are triggering speculation that jellyfish swarms are increasing because of human activities. But are they? This report--which is guaranteed to make your skin crawl--explains the basics of jellyfish biology and what scientists have thus far discovered about the causes and future of jellyfish blooms.

74

Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth  

E-print Network

Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth Developers: Kim Banta, Steve Heyer, Shari Main (teachers jellyfish data accurately !" Analyze data to answer questions Oregon State Science Standards addressed. Material list for the unit: !" Thermometers !" Salinity gauges (constructed by students) !" Jellyfish nets

75

Jellyfish as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jellyfish have been exploited commercially by Chinese as an important food for more than a thousand years. Semi-dried jellyfish represent a multi-million dollar seafood business in Asia. Traditional processing methods involve a multi-phase processing procedure using a mixture of salt (NaCl) and alum (AlK[SO4]2c12 H2O) to reduce the water content, decrease the pH, and firm the texture. Processed jellyfish have

Y. H. Peggy Hsieh; Fui-Ming Leong; Jack Rudloe

2001-01-01

76

JELLYFISH BLOOMS Increasing jellyfish populations: trends in Large Marine  

E-print Network

JELLYFISH BLOOMS Increasing jellyfish populations: trends in Large Marine Ecosystems Lucas Brotz there are various indications and claims that jellyfish (i.e., scyphozoans, cubozoans, most hydrozoans, ctenophores never been pre- sented. Because this is mainly due to scarcity of quantitative time series of jellyfish

Pauly, Daniel

77

Venomous pelagic coelenterates: chemistry, toxicology, immunology and treatment of their stings.  

PubMed

Ten years have elapsed since our last review article on the toxicology of venomous pelagic coelenterates was published (Burnett and Calton, 1977). Investigation on important medusae and the chemistry of their nematocyst venoms have been expanding. The venomous jellyfish discussed here include the Portuguese man-o'war, (Physalia physalis), the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha), the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri and/or Chiropsalmus quadrigatus), the cabbage head jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris), the lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), the Irukandji jellyfish (Carukia barnesi), the Moreton Bay Carybdeid medusa (Morbakka), and the mauve blubber (Pelagia noctiluca). PMID:2888220

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

1987-01-01

78

Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.  

PubMed

Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

1986-01-01

79

COLUMBIA SCIENCE REVIEW Jellyfish Takeover  

E-print Network

COLUMBIA SCIENCE REVIEW Jellyfish Takeover A Fundamental Change in the Food chain? The Science First Impressions and Snap Decisions Exoplanets 04 06 09 10 12 14 26 12 20 6 Jellyfish Takeover? Is More 30 Graphene I Thought There Were Only Resistors... Jellyfish Takeover? Brains, Games, and Mainframes

Qian, Ning

80

Jellyfish fisheries in southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few large jellyfish species in the order Rhizostomeae constitute an important food in Chinese cooking. For more than 1700 years, they have been exploited along the coasts of China. Such jellyfish became an important fishery commodity of Southeast Asian countries in the 1970s with increasing demand from the Japanese market. Recently, Japan has imported 5400–10?000 tons of jellyfish products

Makoto Omori; Eiji Nakano

2001-01-01

81

Jellyfish-human interactions in North Carolina.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation investigated potential drivers of jellyfish-human interactions in North Carolina. Jellyfish populations and human use of coasts are increasing; therefore jellyfish-human interactions are poised… (more)

Kaneshiro-Pineiro, Mahealani

2013-01-01

82

Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly  

E-print Network

Industry experience indicates that the ability to incrementally expand data centers is essential. However, existing high-bandwidth network designs have rigid structure that interferes with incremental expansion. We present Jellyfish, a high-capacity network interconnect, which, by adopting a random graph topology, yields itself naturally to incremental expansion. Somewhat surprisingly, Jellyfish is more cost-efficient than a fat-tree: A Jellyfish interconnect built using the same equipment as a fat-tree, supports as many as 25% more servers at full capacity at the scale of a few thousand nodes, and this advantage improves with scale. Jellyfish also allows great flexibility in building networks with different degrees of oversubscription. However, Jellyfish's unstructured design brings new challenges in routing, physical layout, and wiring. We describe and evaluate approaches that resolve these challenges effectively, indicating that Jellyfish could be deployed in today's data centers.

Singla, Ankit; Popa, Lucian; Godfrey, P Brighten

2011-01-01

83

Bioactive toxins from stinging jellyfish.  

PubMed

Jellyfish blooms occur throughout the world. Human contact with a jellyfish induces a local reaction of the skin, which can be painful and leave scaring. Systemic symptoms are also observed and contact with some species is lethal. A number of studies have evaluated the in vitro biological activity of whole jellyfish venom or of purified fractions. Hemolytic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic or enzymatic activities are commonly observed. Some toxins have been purified and characterized. A family of pore forming toxins specific to Medusozoans has been identified. There remains a need for detailed characterization of jellyfish toxins to fully understand the symptoms observed in vivo. PMID:25286397

Badré, Sophie

2014-12-01

84

Are Jellyfish Populations Increasing Worldwide Rachel Chudnow  

E-print Network

Are Jellyfish Populations Increasing Worldwide (and Why?) By Rachel Chudnow Submitted in partial of jellyfish Figure 2. Map of systems used for analysis of jellyfish population trends and correlations between jellyfish abundance and possible variables causing observed change. Figure 3. Interannual variation

Worm, Boris

85

Prediction of an Epitope-based Computational Vaccine Strategy for Gaining Concurrent Immunization Against the Venom Proteins of Australian Box Jellyfish  

PubMed Central

Background: Australian Box Jellyfish (C. fleckeri) has the most rapid acting venom known to in the arena of toxicological research and is capable enough of killing a person in less than 5 minutes inflicting painful, debilitating and potentially life-threatening stings in humans. It has been understood that C. fleckeri venom proteins CfTX-1, 2 and HSP70-1 contain cardiotoxic, neurotoxic and highly dermatonecrotic components that can cause itchy bumpy rash and cardiac arrest. Subjects and Methods: As there is no effective drug available, novel approaches regarding epitope prediction for vaccine development were performed in this study. Peptide fragments as nonamers of these antigenic venom proteins were analyzed by using computational tools that would elicit humoral and cell mediated immunity, were focused for attempting vaccine design. By ranking the peptides according to their proteasomal cleavage sites, TAP scores and IC50<250 nM, the predictions were scrutinized. Furthermore, the epitope sequences were examined by in silico docking simulation with different specific HLA receptors. Results: Interestingly, to our knowledge, this is the maiden hypothetical immunization that predicts the promiscuous epitopes with potential contributions to the tailored design of improved safe and effective vaccines against antigenic venom proteins of C. fleckeri which would be effective especially for the Australian population. Conclusion: Although the computational approaches executed here are based on concrete confidence which demands more validation and in vivo experiments to validate such in silico approach. PMID:24403734

Alam, Md. Jibran; Ashraf, Kutub Uddin Muhammad

2013-01-01

86

Immunostimulation effect of jellyfish collagen.  

PubMed

Certain edible large jellyfishes belonging to the order Rhizostomeae are consumed in large quantities in China and Japan. The exumbrella part of the edible jellyfish Stomolophus nomurai was cut and soaked in dilute hydrochloric acid solution (pH 3.0) for 12 h, and heated at 121 degrees C for 20 min. The immunostimulation effects of the jellyfish extract were examined. The jellyfish extract enhanced IgM production of human hybridoma HB4C5 cells 34-fold. IgM and IgG production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were also accelerated, 2.8- and 1.4-fold respectively. Moreover, production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by human PBL was stimulated 100- and 17-fold respectively. Collagenase treatment inactivated the immunostimulation activity of the jellyfish extract. In addition, purified collagen from bovine Achilles' tendon accelerated IgM production of hybridoma cells. These facts mean that collagen has an immunostimulation effect, and that the active substance in jellyfish extract is collagen. PMID:16960386

Sugahara, Takuya; Ueno, Masashi; Goto, Yoko; Shiraishi, Ryusuke; Doi, Mikiharu; Akiyama, Koichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi

2006-09-01

87

The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management  

E-print Network

The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future, eutrophication, climate change, translocation and habitat modification appear to be promoting jellyfish (pelagic jellyfish in check through competition or predation) to a less desirable gelatinous state, with lasting

Hays, Graeme

88

Finding a Dense-Core in Jellyfish graphs Udi Weinsberg  

E-print Network

Finding a Dense-Core in Jellyfish graphs Mira Gonen Dana Ron Udi Weinsberg Avishai Wool§ Abstract to have coined the "jellyfish" term. The authors argued that the Internet topology resembles a jellyfish

Ron, Dana

89

Dangerous jellyfish blooms are predictable.  

PubMed

The potentially fatal Irukandji syndrome is relatively common in tropical waters throughout the world. It is caused by the sting of the Irukandji jellyfish, a family of box jellyfish that are almost impossible to detect in the water owing to their small size and transparency. Using collated medical records of stings and local weather conditions, we show that the presence of Irukandji blooms in coastal waters can be forecast on the basis of wind conditions. On the Great Barrier Reef, blooms largely coincide with relaxation of the prevailing southeasterly trade winds, with average conditions corresponding to near zero alongshore wind on the day prior to the sting. These conditions are consistent with hypotheses long held by local communities and provide a basis for designing management interventions that have the potential to eliminate the majority of stings. PMID:24829278

Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Condie, Scott A; Mansbridge, Jim V; Richardson, Anthony J

2014-07-01

90

Evidence for impacts by jellyfish on North Sea herring recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jellyfish (Scyphozoa) prey on and consume many of the same food items as do larvae of herring Clupea harengus and could therefore have a detrimental impact on larval survival. A reduc- tion in the spawning stock biomass of herring may release jellyfish from competition for prey with herring and exacerbate any impact by jellyfish on herring survival. Both jellyfish abundance

Christopher P. Lynam; Michael R. Heath; Stephen J. Hay; Andrew S. Brierley

2005-01-01

91

Simulation of Piezoelectric Jellyfish Power Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy problem is getting increasingly serious. As such, unused energy recovery technology is crucial for environmental protection, which has been investigated extensively. Several methods have been developed to utilize scavenged energy from the environment, such as waste heat, solar energy, wind energy, and tides energy to convert into useful power. There is a new idea of piezoelectric jellyfish generator which combines the utilization of sea wave and vibration energy. When sea wave passes through the jellyfish, the wave causes the tentacles to vibrate. The tentacles is made of piezoelectric polymer which can convert the strain energy into electrical energy. This paper discusses about the piezoelectric jellyfish's tentacles being disturbed by wave in the sea. We employed the commercial CFD software CFD-ACE+ 2006 to simulate this phenomenon. The parameters including its tentacle length (L) and wave propagating function (Y) are studied which affect the piezoelectric jellyfish capacity to generate power.

Wu, Yeong-Jen; Lai, Wei-Hsiang

92

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

PubMed Central

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2007-01-01

93

Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.  

PubMed

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

2007-01-01

94

40 CFR 725.421 - Introduced genetic material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Naja naja varieties Neurotoxin Notechia scutatus Notexin (phospholipase) Oxyuranus scutellatus Taipoxin Invertebrate toxins Chironex fleckeri Neurotoxin Androctnus australis Neurotoxin Centruroides sculpturatus Neurotoxin...

2012-07-01

95

40 CFR 725.421 - Introduced genetic material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Naja naja varieties Neurotoxin Notechia scutatus Notexin (phospholipase) Oxyuranus scutellatus Taipoxin Invertebrate toxins Chironex fleckeri Neurotoxin Androctnus australis Neurotoxin Centruroides sculpturatus Neurotoxin...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 725.421 - Introduced genetic material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Naja naja varieties Neurotoxin Notechia scutatus Notexin (phospholipase) Oxyuranus scutellatus Taipoxin Invertebrate toxins Chironex fleckeri Neurotoxin Androctnus australis Neurotoxin Centruroides sculpturatus Neurotoxin...

2010-07-01

97

40 CFR 725.421 - Introduced genetic material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Naja naja varieties Neurotoxin Notechia scutatus Notexin (phospholipase) Oxyuranus scutellatus Taipoxin Invertebrate toxins Chironex fleckeri Neurotoxin Androctnus australis Neurotoxin Centruroides sculpturatus Neurotoxin...

2011-07-01

98

40 CFR 725.421 - Introduced genetic material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Naja naja varieties Neurotoxin Notechia scutatus Notexin (phospholipase) Oxyuranus scutellatus Taipoxin Invertebrate toxins Chironex fleckeri Neurotoxin Androctnus australis Neurotoxin Centruroides sculpturatus Neurotoxin...

2014-07-01

99

TWO DIMENSIONAL IMMERSED BOUNDARY SIMULATIONS OF SWIMMING JELLYFISH  

E-print Network

TWO DIMENSIONAL IMMERSED BOUNDARY SIMULATIONS OF SWIMMING JELLYFISH by Haowen Fang B.Eng., Nanjing Simulations Of Swim- ming Jellyfish Examining Committee: Dr. Weiran Sun, Assistant Professor Chair Dr. John iii #12;Abstract The swimming behavior of jellyfish, driven by the periodic contraction of body

Stockie, John

100

A shift to parasitism in the jellyfish symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum  

E-print Network

A shift to parasitism in the jellyfish symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum Joel L. Sachs of cooperation between species is found in corals, hydras and jellyfish that form symbioses with algae evolution, should be selected to parasitize their hosts. We altered algal transmission between jellyfish

Sachs, Joel

101

Diving behaviour of jellyfish equipped with electronic tags  

E-print Network

Diving behaviour of jellyfish equipped with electronic tags GRAEME C. HAYS1*, THOMAS K. DOYLE2 online January 27, 2008 Communicating editor: Roger Harris Jellyfish are one of the most abundant compass jellyfish (Chrysaora hysoscella) (n ¼ 15) off the Dingle coast, Ireland, with miniature time

Hays, Graeme

102

Jellyfish: A Conceptual Model for the AS Internet Georgos Siganos  

E-print Network

Jellyfish: A Conceptual Model for the AS Internet Topology Georgos Siganos U. C. Riverside siganos importance of a node. We propose the jellyfish as a model for the inter-domain Internet topology. We show- serve that the jellyfish has lasting value: it de- scribes the topology for more than six years. 1

Faloutsos, Michalis

103

Philiadium Gregarum versus Aurelia aurita: on propulsion efficiency in jellyfish  

E-print Network

Philiadium Gregarum versus Aurelia aurita: on propulsion efficiency in jellyfish S. Etienne , A jellyfishes, Philiadium Gregarum and Aurelia aurita. The motion is generated by circular muscles that contract and generate a hydrodynamic propulsive jet. This jet is the principal source of thrust of jellyfishes

Cameron, Chris B.

104

JELLYFISHES AND RELATED ANIMALS by Victor L . Loosanoff  

E-print Network

) ) ) ) JELLYFISHES AND RELATED ANIMALS by Victor L . Loosanoff Biologic al Laboratory Bureau ... .. . . . ............ ...... . INTRODUCTION Page 2 2 3 4 Jellyfishes or, as they are often called, "sea nettles " belong to a very larg e about by the aid of tentacles, some by Anthozoa.......................... . . Control of jellyfish

105

Once you click on the Jellyfish link, you are taken to the Home page. Jellyfish does not require a login for searching.  

E-print Network

HOME SEARCHING Once you click on the Jellyfish link, you are taken to the Home page. Jellyfish does clicking once on the TRC report will provide TRC data as shown in window below. To return to Jellyfish main

Chapman, Michael S.

106

Marine antivenoms.  

PubMed

There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

Currie, Bart J

2003-01-01

107

Feeding Currents Generated by Upside Down Jellyfish  

E-print Network

We present fluid dynamics videos of the pulsing dynamics and the resulting fluid flow generated by the upside down jellyfish, Cassiopea spp. Medusae of this genus are unusual in that they typically rest upside down on the ocean floor and pulse their bells to generate feeding currents, only swimming when significantly disturbed. The pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around these upside down jellyfish is investigated using a combination of videography, flow visualization, and numerical simulation. Significant mixing occurs around and directly above the oral arms and secondary mouths. Numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method with a porous layer representing the oral arms agree with the experimental results. The simulations also suggest that the presence of porous oral arms induce net horizontal flow towards the bell. Coherent vortex rings are not seen in the wake above the jellyfish, but starting and stopping vortices are observed before breaking up as they pass through the elaborate oral arms (i...

Rodriguez, Terry; Gyoerkoe, Megan; Miller, Laura

2010-01-01

108

Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations  

PubMed Central

A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term datasets on changes in jellyfish abundance across multiple coastal stations, using linear and logistic mixed models and effect-size analysis to show that there is no robust evidence for a global increase in jellyfish. Although there has been a small linear increase in jellyfish since the 1970s, this trend was unsubstantiated by effect-size analysis that showed no difference in the proportion of increasing vs. decreasing jellyfish populations over all time periods examined. Rather, the strongest nonrandom trend indicated jellyfish populations undergo larger, worldwide oscillations with an approximate 20-y periodicity, including a rising phase during the 1990s that contributed to the perception of a global increase in jellyfish abundance. Sustained monitoring is required over the next decade to elucidate with statistical confidence whether the weak increasing linear trend in jellyfish after 1970 is an actual shift in the baseline or part of an oscillation. Irrespective of the nature of increase, given the potential damage posed by jellyfish blooms to fisheries, tourism, and other human industries, our findings foretell recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face. PMID:23277544

Condon, Robert H.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.; Mianzan, Hermes W.; Bogeberg, Molly; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Decker, Mary Beth; Uye, Shin-ichi; Madin, Laurence P.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Malej, Alenka; Parry, Gregory D.; Eriksen, Elena; Quiñones, Javier; Acha, Marcelo; Harvey, Michel; Arthur, James M.; Graham, William M.

2013-01-01

109

Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations.  

PubMed

A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term datasets on changes in jellyfish abundance across multiple coastal stations, using linear and logistic mixed models and effect-size analysis to show that there is no robust evidence for a global increase in jellyfish. Although there has been a small linear increase in jellyfish since the 1970s, this trend was unsubstantiated by effect-size analysis that showed no difference in the proportion of increasing vs. decreasing jellyfish populations over all time periods examined. Rather, the strongest nonrandom trend indicated jellyfish populations undergo larger, worldwide oscillations with an approximate 20-y periodicity, including a rising phase during the 1990s that contributed to the perception of a global increase in jellyfish abundance. Sustained monitoring is required over the next decade to elucidate with statistical confidence whether the weak increasing linear trend in jellyfish after 1970 is an actual shift in the baseline or part of an oscillation. Irrespective of the nature of increase, given the potential damage posed by jellyfish blooms to fisheries, tourism, and other human industries, our findings foretell recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face. PMID:23277544

Condon, Robert H; Duarte, Carlos M; Pitt, Kylie A; Robinson, Kelly L; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Mianzan, Hermes W; Bogeberg, Molly; Purcell, Jennifer E; Decker, Mary Beth; Uye, Shin-ichi; Madin, Laurence P; Brodeur, Richard D; Haddock, Steven H D; Malej, Alenka; Parry, Gregory D; Eriksen, Elena; Quiñones, Javier; Acha, Marcelo; Harvey, Michel; Arthur, James M; Graham, William M

2013-01-15

110

Jellyfish Body Plans Provide Allometric Advantages beyond Low Carbon Content  

PubMed Central

Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world’s oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity of jellyfish and their propensity to form blooms is facilitated by their unique body plans. PMID:23967331

Pitt, Kylie A.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.; Condon, Robert H.; Mianzan, Hermes; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Uye, Shin-Ichi

2013-01-01

111

Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cubozoans, or box jellyfish, differ from all other cnidarians by an active fish-like behaviour and an elaborate sensory apparatus. Each of the four sides of the animal carries a conspicuous sensory club (the rhopalium), which has evolved into a bizarre cluster of different eyes. Two of the eyes on each rhopalium have long been known to resemble eyes of higher

Dan-E. Nilsson; Lars Gislén; Melissa M. Coates; Charlotta Skogh; Anders Garm

2005-01-01

112

Digital ischaemia: a rare but severe complication of jellyfish sting.  

PubMed

We report a case of digital ischaemia in a 31-year-old man who presented with sudden hand numbness, swelling, and cyanosis 4 days after a jellyfish sting. This is a rare complication of jellyfish sting, characterised by a delayed but rapid downhill course. Despite serial monitoring with prompt fasciotomy and repeated debridement, he developed progressive ischaemia in multiple digits with gangrenous change. He subsequently underwent major reconstructive surgery and aggressive rehabilitation. Although jellyfish stings are not uncommon, no severe jellyfish envenomation has been reported in the past in Hong Kong and there has not been any consensus on the management of such injuries. This is the first local case report of jellyfish sting leading to serious hand complications. This case revealed that patients who sustain a jellyfish sting deserve particular attention to facilitate early detection of complications and implementation of therapy. PMID:25307077

Lam, Stacey C; Hung, Y W; Chow, Esther C S; Wong, Clara W Y; Tse, W L; Ho, P C

2014-10-01

113

Jellyfish patch formation investigated by aerial photography and drifter experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jellyfish patch formation is investigated by conducting a drifter experiment combined with aerial photography of a sustained\\u000a patch of the moon jellyfish in Hokezu Bay, Japan. Jellyfish patches are aggregations of individuals that are caused by a combination\\u000a of swimming (active influence) and advection by currents (passive influence). The drifter experiment involved the injection\\u000a of 49 drifters around a distinct

Shinya Magome; Tomohiro Yamashita; Takeshi Kohama; Atsushi Kaneda; Yuichi Hayami; Satoru Takahashi; Hidetaka Takeoka

2007-01-01

114

A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics

Jifeng Peng; John Dabiri

2008-01-01

115

Jellyfish collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds were engineered from refibrillized collagen of the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum for potential application in cartilage regeneration. The influence of collagen concentration, salinity and temperature on fibril formation was evaluated by turbidity measurements and quantification of fibrillized collagen. The formation of collagen fibrils with a typical banding pattern was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Porous scaffolds from jellyfish collagen, refibrillized under optimized conditions, were fabricated by freeze-drying and subsequent chemical cross-linking. Scaffolds possessed an open porosity of 98.2%. The samples were stable under cyclic compression and displayed an elastic behavior. Cytotoxicity tests with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) did not reveal any cytotoxic effects of the material. Chondrogenic markers SOX9, collagen II and aggrecan were upregulated in direct cultures of hMSCs upon chondrogenic stimulation. The formation of typical extracellular matrix components was further confirmed by quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. PMID:24184178

Hoyer, Birgit; Bernhardt, Anne; Lode, Anja; Heinemann, Sascha; Sewing, Judith; Klinger, Matthias; Notbohm, Holger; Gelinsky, Michael

2014-02-01

116

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

E-print Network

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian Paulyn Cartwright1, Susan L. Halgedahl2, Jonathan R. Hendricks3, Richard D. Jarrard2, Antonio C. Marques4, Allen G. Collins5, Bruce S. Lieberman3* 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary... Paleontol 53: 494–500. 15. Fedonkin MA, Runnegar BN (1992) Proterozoic metazoan trace fossils. In: Schopf JW, Klein C, eds. The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 389–395. 16. Gehling JG, Narbonne GM...

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2007-10-01

117

Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review  

PubMed Central

Jellyfish (cnidarians) have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid) to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials) is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment. PMID:23434796

Cegolon, Luca; Heymann, William C.; Lange, John H.; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

118

Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae  

PubMed Central

The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

2010-01-01

119

Jellyfish: A fast k-mer counter G. Marcais and C. Kingsford  

E-print Network

Jellyfish: A fast k-mer counter G. Marcais and C. Kingsford February 17, 2012 Version 1.1.4 Abstract Jellyfish is a software to count k-mers in DNA sequences. 1 Synopsis jellyfish count [-oprefix] [-mmerlength] [-tthreads] [-shashsize] [- -both-strands] fasta [fasta . . .] jellyfish merge hash1 hash2

Gruner, Daniel S.

120

A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1  

E-print Network

A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1 D. P. Clemens,1 J. M a unique and pro- vocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3:3 Ã? 0:9 ; 104 L, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero

Clemens, Dan

121

Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent articles state that jellyfish populations are increasing, most available evidence shows that jellyfish abundances fluctuate with climatic cycles. Reports of increasing prob- lems with jellyfish, especially in East Asia, are too recent to exclude decadal climate cycles. Jellyfish are infamous for their direct negative effects on human enterprise; specifically, they interfere with tourism by stinging swimmers, fishing by

Jennifer E. Purcell; Shin-ichi Uye; Wen-Tseng Lo

2007-01-01

122

Jellyfish populations in the Mediterranean Sea Lucas BROTz* and Daniel PAULy  

E-print Network

Jellyfish populations in the Mediterranean Sea Lucas BROTz* and Daniel PAULy Sea Around Us Project Sea is home to numerous species of jellyfish, both native and invasive. Some of these jellyfish, which are rarely sampled or studied. In addition, par- ticular species of jellyfish are of high public interest due

Pauly, Daniel

123

Occurrence of organo-arsenicals in jellyfishes and their mucus.  

PubMed

Water-soluble arsenic compound fractions were extracted from seven species of jellyfishes and subjected to analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for arsenicals. A low content of arsenic was found to be the characteristic of jellyfish. Arsenobetaine (AB) was the major arsenic compound without exception in the tissues of the jellyfish species and mucus-blobs collected from some of them. Although the arsenic content in Beroe cucumis, which preys on Bolinopsis mikado, was more than 13 times that in B. mikado, the chromatograms of these two species were similar in the distribution pattern of arsenicals. The nine species of jellyfishes including two species treated in the previous paper can be classified into arsenocholine (AC)-rich and AC-poor species. Jellyfishes belonging to Semaostamae were classified as AC-rich species. PMID:11482664

Hanaoka, K; Ohno, H; Wada, N; Ueno, S; Goessler, W; Kuehnelt, D; Schlagenhaufen, C; Kaise, T; Irgolic, K J

2001-08-01

124

What's on the mind of a jellyfish? A review of behavioural observations on Aurelia sp. jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aurelia sp. (scyphozoa; Moon Jellies) are one of the most common and widely distributed species of jellyfish. Their behaviours include swimming up in response to somatosensory stimulation, swimming down in response to low salinity, diving in response to turbulence, avoiding rock walls, forming aggregations, and horizontal directional swimming. These are not simple reflexes. They are species typical behaviours involving sequences

David J. Albert

2011-01-01

125

Evolution and functional diversity of jellyfish opsins.  

PubMed

Cnidaria are the most basal animal phylum possessing complex eyes [1]. Their eyes predominantly use ciliary photoreceptor cells (c-PRCs) like vertebrates, whereas insect eyes use rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (r-PRCs) [1-4]. These two cell types show not only different cytoarchitectures but distinct phototransduction cascades, which are triggered by the respective types of opsins (e.g., [5]), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins) [6]. Recent reports suggested that the c- and r-PRCs and their respective opsins diverged at least before the deuterostome-protostome split [7-9]. To study the earlier evolution of animal PRCs and opsins, we investigated two hydrozoan jellyfishes. We report here the first-characterized cnidarian opsins. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the cloned 20 jellyfish opsins, together with all the opsins from a hydra and some from a sea anemone, are more closely related to the c-opsins than to any other major opsin subfamily, indicating that the divergence of c- and r-opsins antedates the Cnidaria-Bilateria split. Possible scenarios of animal PRC evolution are discussed. Furthermore, Cladonema opsins show several distinct tissue- and stage-specific expression patterns. The expression of specific opsins in the eyes suggests a role in vision, whereas that in the gonads suggests a role in light-controlled release of gametes. PMID:18160295

Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

2008-01-01

126

A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

2008-11-01

127

Identification of jellyfish from Continuous Plankton Recorder samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analysis of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) long-term data set for the presence of ‘coelenterate’ tissue revealed\\u000a changes in the frequency of jellyfish occurrence in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea; however, the identities of the\\u000a jellyfish were unknown, causing uncertainty in interpreting these findings. To improve the utility of the ‘coelenterate’ data\\u000a from the CPR, 62 CPR

E. J. BaxterA; A. W. Walne; J. E. Purcell; R. McAllen; T. K. Doyle

2010-01-01

128

Isolation and characterization of collagen from rhizostomous jellyfish ( Rhopilema asamushi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the study into the potential development of unused and under-used resources, collagen was isolated from the mesogloea of the rhizostomous jellyfish, Rhopilema asamushi, by limited pepsin digestion and characterized. The yield of this collagen was high (35.2% on a dry weight basis). The primary structure was very similar to that of pepsin-solubilized collagen from edible jellyfish

Takeshi Nagai; Wanchai Worawattanamateekul; Nobutaka Suzuki; Takashi Nakamura; Tatsumi Ito; Kazuhiro Fujiki; Miki Nakao; Tomoki Yano

2000-01-01

129

Subducting Slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constantly improving resolution of geophysical data, seismic tomography and seismicity in particular, shows that the lithosphere does not subduct as a slab of uniform thickness but is rather thinned in the upper mantle and thickened around the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle. This observation has traditionally been interpreted as evidence for the buckling and piling of slabs at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle, where a strong contrast in viscosity may exist and cause resistance to the penetration of slabs into the lower mantle. The distribution and character of seismicity reveal, however, that slabs undergo vertical extension in the upper mantle and compression near the transition zone. In this paper, we demonstrate that during the subduction process, the shape of low viscosity slabs (1 to 100 times more viscous than the surrounding mantle) evolves toward an inverted plume shape that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head is linked to the body of the subducting slab by a thin tail. A complete parametric study reveals that subducting slabs may achieve a variety of shapes, in good agreement with the diversity of natural slab shapes evidenced by seismic tomography. Our work also suggests that the slab to mantle viscosity ratio in the Earth is most likely to be lower than 100. However, the sensitivity of slab shapes to upper and lower mantle viscosities and densities, which remain poorly constrained by independent evidence, precludes any systematic deciphering of the observations.

Loiselet, C.; Braun, J.; Husson, L.; Le Carlier de Veslud, C.; Thieulot, C.; Yamato, P.; Grujic, D.

2010-12-01

130

Subducting slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constantly improving resolution of geophysical data, seismic tomography and seismicity in particular, shows that the lithosphere does not subduct as a slab of uniform thickness but is rather thinned in the upper mantle and thickened around the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle. This observation has traditionally been interpreted as evidence for the buckling and piling of slabs at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle, where a strong contrast in viscosity may exist and cause resistance to the penetration of slabs into the lower mantle. The distribution and character of seismicity reveal, however, that slabs undergo vertical extension in the upper mantle and compression near the transition zone. In this paper, we demonstrate that during the subduction process, the shape of low viscosity slabs (1 to 100 times more viscous than the surrounding mantle) evolves toward an inverted plume shape that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head is linked to the body of the subducting slab by a thin tail. A complete parametric study reveals that subducting slabs may achieve a variety of shapes, in good agreement with the diversity of natural slab shapes evidenced by seismic tomography. Our work also suggests that the slab to mantle viscosity ratio in the Earth is most likely to be lower than 100. However, the sensitivity of slab shapes to upper and lower mantle viscosities and densities, which remain poorly constrained by independent evidence, precludes any systematic deciphering of the observations.

Loiselet, Christelle; Braun, Jean; Husson, Laurent; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Thieulot, Cedric; Yamato, Philippe; Grujic, Djordje

2010-08-01

131

Cubozoan venom-induced cardiovascular collapse is caused by hyperkalemia and prevented by zinc gluconate in mice.  

PubMed

Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC) exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed abundant ~12-nm transmembrane pores in RBC exposed to purified venom porins. C57BL/6 mice injected with venom showed rapid decline in ejection fraction with progression to electromechanical dissociation and electrocardiographic findings consistent with acute hyperkalemia. Recognizing that porin assembly can be inhibited by zinc, we found that zinc gluconate inhibited potassium efflux from RBC exposed to total venom or purified porin, and prolonged survival time in mice following venom injection. These findings suggest that hyperkalemia is the critical event following Chironex fleckeri envenomation and that rapid administration of zinc could be life saving in human sting victims. PMID:23251508

Yanagihara, Angel A; Shohet, Ralph V

2012-01-01

132

Cubozoan Venom-Induced Cardiovascular Collapse Is Caused by Hyperkalemia and Prevented by Zinc Gluconate in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC) exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed abundant ?12-nm transmembrane pores in RBC exposed to purified venom porins. C57BL/6 mice injected with venom showed rapid decline in ejection fraction with progression to electromechanical dissociation and electrocardiographic findings consistent with acute hyperkalemia. Recognizing that porin assembly can be inhibited by zinc, we found that zinc gluconate inhibited potassium efflux from RBC exposed to total venom or purified porin, and prolonged survival time in mice following venom injection. These findings suggest that hyperkalemia is the critical event following Chironex fleckeri envenomation and that rapid administration of zinc could be life saving in human sting victims. PMID:23251508

Yanagihara, Angel A.; Shohet, Ralph V.

2012-01-01

133

Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin) on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA) created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish) and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish) and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees

Naoshi Ohta; Masato Sato; Kiminori Ushida; Mami Kokubo; Takayuki Baba; Kayoko Taniguchi; Makoto Urai; Koji Kihira; Joji Mochida

2009-01-01

134

Vortex motion in the ocean: In situ visualization of jellyfish swimming and feeding flows  

E-print Network

Vortex motion in the ocean: In situ visualization of jellyfish swimming and feeding flows John O present a combination of both qualitative flow visu- alizations of jellyfish in their natural marine jellyfish were observed in a natural habitat off the coast of Mljet, Croatia in a marine lake. Video

Dabiri, John O.

135

Fact Sheet No. 96-5, March 1996 Freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyii,  

E-print Network

Kelly Addy Fact Sheet No. 96-5, March 1996 URI Freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyii, were of jellyfish was ever recorded in RI natural history, Waterman Lake in Glocester/Smithfield in 1990. In 1995 Sprague Reservoir in Smithfield observed thousands of these jellyfish in their respective lakes. After

Rhode Island, University of

136

Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish Tobias Kjellberg Magnus Oskarsson Tobias Palmr Kalle strm  

E-print Network

Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish Tobias Kjellberg Magnus Oskarsson Tobias Palmér Kalle �ström with different box jellyfishes, light conditions and artefacts, forcing the solution to be more of a generic-realtime. 1.4 The jellyfish - Tripedalia cystophora Tripedalia cystophora is a roughly 1 cm sized box

Lunds Universitet

137

Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans  

E-print Network

Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans Brad predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mech- anism of passive energy

Dabiri, John O.

138

Ecosystem Engineers in the Pelagic Realm: Alteration of Habitat by Species Ranging from Microbes to Jellyfish  

E-print Network

Microbes to Jellyfish Denise L. Breitburg,1, * Byron C. Crump, John O. Dabiri and Charles L. Gallegos structure to the environment, but organisms ranging from microbes to jellyfish and finfish that reside the classical category of ecosystem engineer. In addition, planktonic species, such as jellyfish, may indirectly

Dabiri, John O.

139

A New Routing Scheme for Jellyfish and its Performance with HPC Workloads  

E-print Network

A New Routing Scheme for Jellyfish and its Performance with HPC Workloads Xin Yuan Dept Alamos, New Mexico mlang@lanl.gov ABSTRACT The jellyfish topology where switches are connected using with a similar cost. In this work, we propose a new routing scheme for jellyfish that out-performs existing

Pakin, Scott

140

Have jellyfish in the Irish Sea benefited from climate change and overfishing?  

E-print Network

Have jellyfish in the Irish Sea benefited from climate change and overfishing? C . P. LY N A M *, M instability and may benefit nonexploited organisms such as jellyfish. In the Irish Sea, an increase in jellyfish abundance was evident (r2 5 0.29, P 5 0.03) in a 16-year time-series (1994­2009) collected during

Hays, Graeme

141

Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly Ankit Singla, Chi-Yao Hong, Lucian Popa , P. Brighten Godfrey  

E-print Network

Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly Ankit Singla, Chi-Yao Hong, Lucian Popa , P. Brighten designs have rigid struc- ture that interferes with incremental expansion. We present Jellyfish, a high expansion. Somewhat sur- prisingly, Jellyfish is more cost-efficient than a fat-tree, supporting as many

Ratnasamy, Sylvia

142

First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented Linear  

E-print Network

First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented medusozoan cnidarians (jellyfish and hydroids), which are linear and sometimes fragmented. Most medusozoans that box jellyfish (cubozoans) have mtDNAs that consist of many linear chromosomes. Here, we present

Keeling, Patrick

143

Abstract Jellyfish (medusae) are sometimes the most noticeable and abundant members of coastal  

E-print Network

Abstract Jellyfish (medusae) are sometimes the most noticeable and abundant members of coastal the spatial (and temporal) patterns for five jellyfish species (Phylum Cnidaria, Orders Rhizostomeae-counts of jellyfish from ships of opportu- nity, and (2) regular shoreline surveys for stranding events over three

Hays, Graeme

144

High activity and Le vy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish  

E-print Network

High activity and Le´ vy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish Graeme C. Hays1 and a proliferation of jellyfish. Active movements and prey search might be thought to provide a competitive advantage for fish, but here we use data-loggers to show that the frequently occurring coastal jellyfish (Rhizostoma

Hays, Graeme

145

Finding a dense-core in Jellyfish graphs Mira Gonen *, Dana Ron 1  

E-print Network

Finding a dense-core in Jellyfish graphs Mira Gonen *, Dana Ron 1 , Udi Weinsberg, Avishai Wool topology was suggested by Tauro et al. [35]. This work seems to have coined the ``Jellyfish" term. The authors argued that the Internet topology resembles a Jellyfish where the 1389-1286/$ - see front matter Ã?

Wool, Avishai

146

Identification of genetically and oceanographically distinct blooms of jellyfish  

PubMed Central

Reports of nuisance jellyfish blooms have increased worldwide during the last half-century, but the possible causes remain unclear. A persistent difficulty lies in identifying whether blooms occur owing to local or regional processes. This issue can be resolved, in part, by establishing the geographical scales of connectivity among locations, which may be addressed using genetic analyses and oceanographic modelling. We used landscape genetics and Lagrangian modelling of oceanographic dispersal to explore patterns of connectivity in the scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, which occurs en masse at locations in the Irish Sea and northeastern Atlantic. We found significant genetic structure distinguishing three populations, with both consistencies and inconsistencies with prevailing physical oceanographic patterns. Our analyses identify locations where blooms occur in apparently geographically isolated populations, locations where blooms may be the source or result of migrants, and a location where blooms do not occur consistently and jellyfish are mostly immigrant. Our interdisciplinary approach thus provides a means to ascertain the geographical origins of jellyfish in outbreaks, which may have wide utility as increased international efforts investigate jellyfish blooms. PMID:23287405

Lee, Patricia L. M.; Dawson, Michael N; Neill, Simon P.; Robins, Peter E.; Houghton, Jonathan D. R.; Doyle, Thomas K.; Hays, Graeme C.

2013-01-01

147

Ephyra jellyfish as a new model for ecotoxicological bioassays.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was a preliminary investigation on the possibility of using the ephyra of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758), the common moon jellyfish, as an innovative model organism in marine ecotoxicology. A series of sequential experiments have been carried out in laboratory in order to investigate the influence of different culturing and methodological parameters (temperature, photoperiod, ephyrae density and age) on behavioural end-points (% of Frequency of Pulsations) and standardize a testing protocol. After that, the organisms have been exposed to two well known reference toxic compounds (Cadmium Nitrate and SDS) in order to analyse the acute and behavioural responses during static exposure. Results of this work indicate that the proposed behavioural end-point, frequency of pulsations (Fp), is an easily measurable one and can be used coupled with an acute one (immobilization) and that ephyrae of jellyfish are very promising model organisms for ecotoxicological investigation. PMID:23916371

Faimali, M; Garaventa, F; Piazza, V; Costa, E; Greco, G; Mazzola, V; Beltrandi, M; Bongiovanni, E; Lavorano, S; Gnone, G

2014-02-01

148

Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen  

PubMed Central

Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually, and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascular and respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq. Objectives: To describe the immediate and delayed skin reactions to White Jellyfish (Rhizostoma sp.) stings and the types of local treatment used by fishermen. Methods and Materials: 150 fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types of skin reactions, systemic manifestations and kinds of treatments were collected. Results: Overall, 79% of fishermen in all three Marine stations gave a history of having been stung. The common sites of sings were the hands and arms followed by the legs. Most fishermen claimed that stings led to skin reactions within 5 minutes. The presenting complaints were itching, burning sensation, and erythematic wheals. A few days after the sting, new groups of painless and itchy erythematous monomorphic papular rashes developed at the site of the sting in 62% of cases as a delayed type of skin reaction that resolved spontaneously. The local remedies commonly used by the fishermen were seawater, tap water and ice. A few fishermen considered stings as insignificant and did not think there was a need to seek medical help. Conclusions: We conclude that jellyfish causes many stings among fishermen in the Basra region. Their stings lead to immediate and delayed skin reactions. Self-treatment by topical remedies is common. PMID:21483513

Al-Rubiay, KK; Al-Musaoi, HA; Alrubaiy, L; Al-Freje, MG

2009-01-01

149

Current-driven Flow across a Stationary Jellyfish  

E-print Network

We present several dye visualization and numerical simulation fluid dynamics videos of a sessile jellyfish subjected to channel flow. The low resolution video and the high resolution video display the vortex patterns in different channel flows. This description accompanies the video submission V038 to the 2011 APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion.

Hamlet, Christina; Fan, Roger; Dollinger, Makani; Harenber, Steve

2011-01-01

150

The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure and major soluble proteins of the transparent eye lens of two cubomedusan jellyfish,Tripedalia cystophora andCarybdea marsupialis, have been examined. Each species has two complex eyes (one large and one small) on four sensory structures called rhopalia. The lenses consist of closely spaced cells with few organelles. The lens is situated next to the retina, with only an acellular

Joram Piatigorsky; Joseph Horwitz; Toichiro Kuwabara; Charles E. Cutress

1989-01-01

151

Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and the origin of triploblasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larval and polyp stages of extant Cnidaria are bi-layered with an absence of mesoderm and its differentiation products. This anatomy originally prompted the diploblast classification of the cnidarian phylum. The medusa stage, or jellyfish, however, has a more complex anatomy characterized by a swimming bell with a well-developed striated muscle layer. Based on developmental histology of the hydrozoan medusa

Katja Seipel; Volker Schmid

2005-01-01

152

Jellyfish Party: Blowing Soap Bubbles in Mixed Reality Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mixed reality installation named Jellyfish Party, for enjoying playing with soap bubbles. A special feature of this installation is the use of a spirometer sensor to measure the amount and speed of expelled air used to blow virtual soap bubbles.

Yasuhiro Okuno; Hiroyuki Kakuta; Tomohiko Takayama; Kazuhiro Asai

2003-01-01

153

Autonomic neurotoxicity of jellyfish and marine animal venoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venoms and poisons of jellyfish and other marien animals can induce damage to the human nervous and circulatory systems. Clues to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these lesions can be obtained from data of human envenomations and animal experimentation. Because many investigators are unaware that marine animal venoms have autonomic actions, this paper aims to elucidate the broad antagonistic

Joseph W. Burnett; Daniel Weinrich; John A. Williamson; Peter J. Fenner; Linda L. Lutz; David A. Bloom

1998-01-01

154

Marine stingers in far north Queensland.  

PubMed

Two box jellyfish in particular cause problems in tropical Queensland waters. Chironex fleckeri inhabit calm waters close to the shore between November and May. The venom includes three major components: haemolytic dermatonecrotic and myocardial. The dermatonecrotic toxin causes a ladder pattern of whiplash lesions to the skin which ulcerate become necrotic and heal very slowly over months: Neuromuscular paralysis and cardiovascular collapse may be fatal within minutes of envenomation. Emergency treatment comprises inactivation of stinging capsules by vinegar removal of tentacles analgesia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the administration of the specific antivenom. Carukia barnesi ('Irukandji') are found in both coastal and open waters. A patch of erythema with papules at the sting site is characteristically followed 30 min later by the onset of a catecholamine mediated syndrome. Headache and severe abdominal and back pain are usual and may be followed by hypertension, tachyarrhythmias and cardiogenic shock. PMID:8713006

Holmes, J L

1996-05-01

155

The use of pressure immobilization bandages in the first aid management of cubozoan envenomings.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to evaluate whether the application of pressure results in additional release of venom from naturally discharged, vinegar soaked nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. The results show that large quantities of venom are expressed with the application of pressures similar to that applied by compression immobilization bandages. The volume of venom expressed by this pressure was similar to the quantity expressed upon initial natural discharge of the nematocysts. The current recommended practice of applying PIB to cubozoan stings might worsen the envenomation. As the existing data now show that PIB may be detrimental to victims envenomed by cubozoans, we suggest that the current practice of the use of PIB in cubozoan envenomings be discarded until there is direct experimental evidence to support its use. PMID:12368122

Seymour, Jamie; Carrette, Teresa; Cullen, Paul; Little, Mark; Mulcahy, Richard F; Pereira, Peter L

2002-10-01

156

Anticoagulant activity of Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract.  

PubMed

Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract was studied for its anticoagulant activity in vitro. The Jellyfish Tentacle Extract (JFTE) showed very strong fibrinogenolytic activity by cleaving A? and B? chain of fibrinogen molecule. The fibrinogenolytic activity was found to be stronger than some snake venom derived anticoagulants. JFTE also completely liquefied fibrin clots in 24 h. JFTE was found to contain both high and low molecular weight proteins/peptides. The fibrinogenolysis appears to be caused by high molecular weight fractions of the extract. It has been also noted that PMSF significantly reduced fibrinogenolytic activity and heating totally abolished it. Autolytic degradation of the high molecular weight protein was also noted. Autolysis slowed down, but did not abolish the fibrinogenolytic activity of the extract. PMID:22652129

Rastogi, Akriti; Biswas, Sumit; Sarkar, Angshuman; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

2012-10-01

157

High time resolution luminosity profiles of Jellyfish (Super) Sprites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the time history of luminosity and VLF measurements associated with different classes of sprites. In particular we are interested in the larger "jellyfish, or super" sprites that are very bright, very brief duration sprites. Optical observations reveal these sprites are collections of multiple carrot sprites, comprised of both downward and upward propagating streamers. We find the time scales of super sprites are shorter than that for carrot sprites and column sprites. The exponential decrease in sprite luminosity has been related to the conductivity profile assumed for the middle atmosphere by [Barrington-Leigh et. al. (2002), doi: 10.1029/2001JA900117]. We investigate the possibility that the overall brighter and rapid decrease in jellyfish sprite luminosity compared to other types of sprites may be related to changes in the middle atmosphere conductivity, and/or in the driving electrostatic field associated with the causative lightning flash.

McHarg, M. G.; Ahrns, J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Kammae, T.; Haaland, R. K.; Cummer, S. A.; Li, J.; Liu, N.; Yukman, P.

2011-12-01

158

What's on the mind of a jellyfish? A review of behavioural observations on Aurelia sp. jellyfish.  

PubMed

Aurelia sp. (scyphozoa; Moon Jellies) are one of the most common and widely distributed species of jellyfish. Their behaviours include swimming up in response to somatosensory stimulation, swimming down in response to low salinity, diving in response to turbulence, avoiding rock walls, forming aggregations, and horizontal directional swimming. These are not simple reflexes. They are species typical behaviours involving sequences of movements that are adjusted in response to the requirements of the situation and that require sensory feedback during their execution. They require the existence of specialized sensory receptors. The central nervous system of Aurelia sp. coordinates motor responses with sensory feedback, maintains a response long after the eliciting stimulus has disappeared, changes behaviour in response to sensory input from specialized receptors or from patterns of sensory input, organizes somatosensory input in a way that allows stimulus input from many parts of the body to elicit a similar response, and coordinates responding when stimuli are tending to elicit more than one response. While entirely different from that of most animals, the nervous system of Aurelia sp. includes a brain that creates numerous adaptive behaviours that are critical to the survival of these phylogenetically ancient species. PMID:20540961

Albert, David J

2011-01-01

159

Jellyfish swarms, tourists, and the Christ-child  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most remarkable sights in the Western Pacific is a perennial swarm of 1.5 million golden medusae (Mastigias sp.) crowded into a land-locked marine lake in Palau, Micronesia. This 'Jellyfish Lake' became a popular off-gassing stopover for SCUBA divers and a destination in its own right for non-diving tourists in the mid-1980s. Since then, tourism in Palau has

Mike N Dawson; Laura E. Martin; Lolita K. Penland

2001-01-01

160

Jellyfish in ecosystems, online databases, and ecosystem models  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are indications that pelagic cnidar-ians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world,\\u000a or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline\\u000a data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct\\u000a experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem

Daniel Pauly; William Graham; Simone Libralato; Lyne Morissette; M. L. Deng Palomares

161

Jellyfish in ecosystems, online databases, and ecosystem models  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are indications that pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world,\\u000a or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline\\u000a data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct\\u000a experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem

Daniel Pauly; William Graham; Simone Libralato; Lyne Morissette; M. L. Deng Palomares

2009-01-01

162

Biomass of Scyphozoan Jellyfish, and Its Spatial Association with 0-Group Fish in the Barents Sea  

PubMed Central

An 0-group fish survey is conducted annually in the Barents Sea in order to estimate fish population abundance. Data on jellyfish by-catch have been recorded since 1980, although this dataset has never been analysed. In recent years, however, the ecological importance of jellyfish medusae has become widely recognized. In this paper the biomass of jellyfish (medusae) in 0–60 m depths is calculated for the period 1980–2010. During this period the climate changed from cold to warm, and changes in zooplankton and fish distribution and abundance were observed. This paper discusses the less well known ecosystem component; jellyfish medusae within the Phylum Cnidaria, and their spatial and temporal variation. The long term average was ca. 9×108 kg, with some years showing biomasses in excess of 5×109 kg. The biomasses were low during 1980s, increased during 1990s, and were highest in early 2000s with a subsequent decline. The bulk of the jellyfish were observed in the central parts of the Barents Sea, which is a core area for most 0-group fishes. Jellyfish were associated with haddock in the western area, with haddock and herring in the central and coastal area, and with capelin in the northern area of the Barents Sea. The jellyfish were present in the temperature interval 1°Cjellyfish occurring between 4.0–7.0°C. It seems that the ongoing warming trend may be favourable for Barents Sea jellyfish medusae; however their biomass has showed a recent moderate decline during years with record high temperatures in the Barents Sea. Jellyfish are undoubtedly an important component of the Barents Sea ecosystem, and the data presented here represent the best summary of jellyfish biomass and distribution yet published for the region. PMID:22457732

Eriksen, Elena; Prozorkevich, Dmitry; Trofimov, Aleksandr; Howell, Daniel

2012-01-01

163

Hemolytic venoms from marine cnidarian jellyfish - an overview.  

PubMed

Cnidarian jellyfish are viewed as an emergent problem in several coastal zones throughout the world. Recurrent outbreaks pose a serious threat to tourists and bathers, as well as to sea-workers, involving health and economical aspects. As a rule, cnidarian stinging as a consequence of nematocyst firing induces merely local symptoms but cardiovascular or neurological complications can also occur. Hemolysis is a frequent effect of cnidarian stinging; this dangerous condition is known to be caused by several venoms and can sometimes be lethal. At present, the bulk of data concerning hemolytic cnidarian venoms comes from the study of benthic species, such as sea anemones and soft corals, but hemolytic factors were found in venoms of several siphonophore, cubozoan and scyphozoan jellyfish, which are mainly involved in the envenomation of bathers and sea-workers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature concerning the hemolytic venoms from cnidarian jellyfish taking into consideration their importance in human pathology as well as health implications and possible therapeutic measures. PMID:25386336

Mariottini, Gian Luigi

2014-01-01

164

Modeling and control of a jellyfish-inspired AUV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) designs have a serious deficiency in autonomy time due to its ballistic type of construction: a cylindrical body propelled by a rear engine. This type of design does not take complete advantage of the fluid that has to be displaced to move the vehicle forward, reducing the overall system efficiency and consequently its operation time. In order to overcome this limitation, research has focused on understanding of the propulsive mechanisms employed by the natural organisms. Jellyfish is one of the simplest and most relevant model systems as it exhibits one of the lowest cost-of-transport among all the known creatures. The learning and implementation of jellyfish-inspired vehicle design requires an evaluation of the current mathematical modeling approaches in order to adequately describe the dynamics of such a vehicle. This paper develops a time-varying rigid body model for the kinematics and dynamics of an AUV based on jellyfish rowing propulsion. A nonlinear sliding mode controller is also proposed to drive the system.

Faria, Cassio T.; Priya, Shashank; Inman, Daniel J.

2013-04-01

165

Jellyfish monitoring on coastlines using remote piloted aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The term "Jellyfish" refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time.

Barrado, C.; Fuentes, J. A.; Salamí, E.; Royo, P.; Olariaga, A. D.; López, J.; Fuentes, V. L.; Gili, J. M.; Pastor, E.

2014-03-01

166

Signatures of active and passive optimized Lévy searching in jellyfish.  

PubMed

Some of the strongest empirical support for Lévy search theory has come from telemetry data for the dive patterns of marine predators (sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins). The dive patterns of the unusually large jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus do, however, sit outside of current Lévy search theory which predicts that a single search strategy is optimal. When searching the water column, the movement patterns of these jellyfish change over time. Movement bouts can be approximated by a variety of Lévy and Brownian (exponential) walks. The adaptive value of this variation is not known. On some occasions movement pattern data are consistent with the jellyfish prospecting away from a preferred depth, not finding an improvement in conditions elsewhere and so returning to their original depth. This 'bounce' behaviour also sits outside of current Lévy walk search theory. Here, it is shown that the jellyfish movement patterns are consistent with their using optimized 'fast simulated annealing'--a novel kind of Lévy walk search pattern--to locate the maximum prey concentration in the water column and/or to locate the strongest of many olfactory trails emanating from more distant prey. Fast simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a large search space. This new finding shows that the notion of active optimized Lévy walk searching is not limited to the search for randomly and sparsely distributed resources, as previously thought, but can be extended to embrace other scenarios, including that of the jellyfish R. octopus. In the presence of convective currents, it could become energetically favourable to search the water column by riding the convective currents. Here, it is shown that these passive movements can be represented accurately by Lévy walks of the type occasionally seen in R. octopus. This result vividly illustrates that Lévy walks are not necessarily the result of selection pressures for advantageous searching behaviour but can instead arise freely and naturally from simple processes. It also shows that the family of Lévy walkers is vastly larger than previously thought and includes spores, pollens, seeds and minute wingless arthropods that on warm days disperse passively within the atmospheric boundary layer. PMID:25100323

Reynolds, Andy M

2014-10-01

167

An Experimental Investigation of the Feeding Currents Generated by Upside-Down Jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow characteristics of oblate medusan swimmers such as the moon jellyfish (Aurelia) have been examined to understand the bio-fluid mechanics of feeding via unsteady propulsion (see Dabiri et al., J. Exp. Biol., 2005). The upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea) differs from the commonly observed swimming forms of scyphomedusae in that it is naturally found adhered to the muddy bottoms of shallow

Arvind Santhanakrishnan; Laura Miller

2009-01-01

168

The energy density of jellyfish: Estimates from bomb-calorimetry and proximate-composition  

E-print Network

The energy density of jellyfish: Estimates from bomb-calorimetry and proximate-composition Thomas K scyphozoan jellyfish (Cyanea capillata, Rhizostoma octopus and Chrysaora hysoscella). First, bomb). These proximate data were subsequently converted to energy densities. The two techniques (bomb- calorimetry

Hays, Graeme

169

Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large population of a previously unreported jellyfish occurred across the northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) from May through September of 2000. The jellyfish, identified as Phyllorhiza punctata by von Lendenfeld (1884), is not indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico or to the Atlantic Basin. Current theory states that this invasive species was introduced into the Atlantic from the Pacific

William M. Graham; Daniel L. Martin; Darryl L. Felder; Vernon L. Asper; Harriet M. Perry

2003-01-01

170

Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes, Spirocodon saltatrix, Nemopsis dofleini, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora quinquecirrha have been determined. The sequences are highly similar to each other. A fairly high similarity was also found between these jellyfishes and a sea anemone, Anthopleura japonica. PMID:6130512

Hori, H; Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Osawa, S

1982-01-01

171

Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes, Spirocodon saltatrix, Nemopsis dofleini, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora quinquecirrha have been determined. The sequences are highly similar to each other. A fairly high similarity was also found between these jellyfishes and a sea anemone, Anthopleura japonica. PMID:6130512

Hori, H; Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Osawa, S

1982-11-25

172

CONTINUATION AND EXPANSION OF DOCKWATCH VOLUNTEER REPORTING SYSTEMS FOR NUISANCE AND INVASIVE JELLYFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Gather data, using a citizens' monitoring network to track jellyfish occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The dtat will be incorporated into the database that will establish better linkages between jellyfish, transport and bloom cycles. The project will also be used imp...

173

Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pronounced interannual variability in the abundance of medusae of the jellyfish species Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii, and Cyanea capillata (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa) in the North Sea was evident in data arising from the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas International 0-group Gadoid Surveys between 1971 and 1986. Possible climatic forcing of jellyfish abundance, via the North Atlantic

Christopher P. Lynam; Stephen J. Hay; Andrew S. Brierley

2004-01-01

174

JELLYFISH AGGREGATIONS AND LEATHERBACK TURTLE FORAGING PATTERNS IN A TEMPERATE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are obligate predators of gelatinous zooplankton. However, the spatial relationship between predator and prey remains poorly understood beyond sporadic and localized reports. To examine how jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria: Orders Semaeostomeae and Rhizostomeae) might drive the broad-scale distribution of this wide ranging species, we employed aerial surveys to map jellyfish throughout a temperate coastal shelf area bordering

Jonathan D. R. Houghton; Thomas K. Doyle; Mark W. Wilson; John Davenport; Graeme C. Hays

2006-01-01

175

3D simulations of self-propelled, reconstructed jellyfish using vortex methods  

E-print Network

We present simulations of the vortex dynamics associated with the self-propelled motion of jellyfish. The geometry is obtained from image segmentation of video recordings from live jellyfish. The numerical simulations are performed using three-dimensional viscous, vortex particle methods with Brinkman penalization to impose the kinematics of the jellyfish motion. We study two types of strokes recorded in the experiment1. The first type (stroke A) produces two vortex rings during the stroke: one outside the bell during the power stroke and one inside the bell during the recovery stroke. The second type (stroke B) produces three vortex rings: one ring during the power stroke and two vortex rings during the recovery stroke. Both strokes propel the jellyfish, with stroke B producing the highest velocity. The speed of the jellyfish scales with the square root of the Reynolds number. The simulations are visualized in a fluid dynamics video.

Rasmussen, J T; Storti, F; Koumoutsakos, P; Walther, J H

2009-01-01

176

Characterization of ?-N- Acetylhexosaminidase from rhizostomous jellyfish, Rhopilema asamushi , Mesogloea  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-N-Acetylhexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) was purified from rhizostomous jellyfish mesogloea and characterized. Using two purification\\u000a steps, this enzyme was purified up to 27.4-fold with a recovery rate of 46% compared with crude extract. The molecular weight\\u000a of the enzyme was estimated to be about 136 kDa, composed of subunit molecular weights of 68 kDa. The enzyme activity was\\u000a inhibited by SH-reagents, indicating that it

Takeshi Nagai; Yuko Watarai; Nobutaka Suzuki

2001-01-01

177

Clinical toxicology: a tropical Australian perspective.  

PubMed

Tropical Australia has an amazing diversity of venomous fauna, from "the world's most venomous creature," the multi-tentacled (chirodropid) box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri, to aggressive spiders whose venom remains to be characterized. All genera of highly venomous Australasian elapid snakes are present, except for tiger snakes. Most notable is the taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus), with the most efficient "snap-release" biting mechanism of any snake and venom components causing the full constellation of clinical envenoming features: coagulopathy from fibrinogen depletion (procoagulant), neurotoxicity (predominantly presynaptic neurotoxin) and rhabdomyolysis (myotoxin). Brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis and P. nuchalis) now account for most snake bite fatalities in Australia, as a result of severe coagulopathy and a poorly defined early scenario of collapse, postulated to be caused by profound hypotension caused by transient myocardial dysfunction associated with prothrombin activation. Other venomous entities include paralyzing ticks, the blue-ringed octopus, stone fish and other marine animals with venomous spines, paralyzing cone shells, and a wide range of jellyfish including Carukia barnesi and possibly other four-tentacled (carybdeid) box jellyfish causing the Irukandji syndrome. PMID:10688264

Currie, B J

2000-02-01

178

Impact of stinging jellyfish proliferations along south Italian coasts: human health hazards, treatment and social costs.  

PubMed

Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots. PMID:24583831

De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

2014-03-01

179

Evaluation of the effects of various chemicals on discharge of and pain caused by jellyfish nematocysts.  

PubMed

Jellyfish tentacles in contact with human skin can produce pain swelling and redness. The pain is due to discharge of jellyfish nematocysts and associated toxins and discharge can be caused by a variety of mechanical and chemical stimuli. A series of tests were carried out with chemicals traditionally used to treat jellyfish stings e.g. acetic acid ammonia meat tenderizer baking soda and urea to determine if these chemicals stimulated or inhibited nematocyst discharge and if they brought relief to testers who were exposed to jellyfish tentacles. Chrysaora quinquecirrha (sea nettle) Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (sea wasp) and Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-of-war) were used in the study. It was found that many of the chemicals traditionally used to treat jellyfish stings stimulated nematocyst discharge and did not relieve the pain. However there was immediate relief when a common anesthetic lidocaine was sprayed on the skin of testers in contact with jellyfish tentacles. Initial exposure of tentacle suspensions to lidocaine prevented the nematocyst discharge by subsequent exposure to acetic acid ethanol ammonia or bromelain. Thus lidocaine in addition to acting as an anesthetic on skin in contact with jellyfish tentacles inhibited nematocyst discharge possibly by blocking sodium and/or calcium channels of the nematocytes. PMID:20116454

Birsa, Laura M; Verity, Peter G; Lee, Richard F

2010-05-01

180

Cell Proliferation in Cubozoan Jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri  

PubMed Central

Cubozoans (box jellyfish) undergo remarkable body reorganization throughout their life cycle when, first, they metamorphose from swimming larvae to sessile polyps, and second, through the metamorphosis from sessile polyps to free swimming medusae. In the latter they develop complex structures like the central nervous system (CNS) and visual organs. In the present study several aspects of cell proliferation at different stages of the life cycle of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri have been examined through in vivo labeling of cells in the synthetic phase (S phase) of the cell cycle. Proliferation zones were found in metamorphosing polyps, as well as in juvenile medusae, where both the rhopalia and pedalia have enhanced rates of proliferation. The results also indicate a rather fast cell turnover in the rhopalia including the rhopalial nervous system (RNS). Moreover, T. cystophora showed diurnal pattern of cell proliferation in certain body parts of the medusa, with higher proliferation rates at nighttime. This is true for two areas in close connection with the CNS: the stalk base and the rhopalia. PMID:25047715

Gurska, Daniela; Garm, Anders

2014-01-01

181

J3-crystallin of the jellyfish lens: Similarity to saposins  

PubMed Central

J3-crystallin, one of the three major eye-lens proteins of the cubomedusan jellyfish (Tripedalia cystophora), shows similarity to vertebrate saposins, which are multifunctional proteins that bridge lysosomal hydrolases to lipids and activate enzyme activity. Sequence alignment of deduced J3-crystallin indicates two saposin-like motifs arranged in tandem, each containing six cysteines characteristic of this protein family. The J3-crystallin cDNA encodes a putative precursor analogous to vertebrate prosaposins. The J3-crystallin gene has seven exons, with exons 2–4 encoding the protein. Exon 3 encodes a circularly permutated saposin motif, called a swaposin, found in plant aspartic proteases. J3-crystallin RNA was found in the cubomedusan lens, statocyst, in bands radiating from the pigmented region of the ocellus, in the tentacle tip by in situ hybridization, and in the embryo and larva by reverse transcription–PCR. Our data suggest a crystallin role for the multifunctional saposin protein family in the jellyfish lens. This finding extends the gene sharing evolutionary strategy for lens crystallins to the cnidarians and indicates that the putative primordial saposin/swaposin J3-crystallin reflects both the chaperone and enzyme connections of the vertebrate crystallins. PMID:11675486

Piatigorsky, Joram; Norman, Barbara; Dishaw, Larry J.; Kos, Lidia; Horwitz, Joseph; Steinbach, Peter J.; Kozmik, Zbynek

2001-01-01

182

Cell proliferation in cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri.  

PubMed

Cubozoans (box jellyfish) undergo remarkable body reorganization throughout their life cycle when, first, they metamorphose from swimming larvae to sessile polyps, and second, through the metamorphosis from sessile polyps to free swimming medusae. In the latter they develop complex structures like the central nervous system (CNS) and visual organs. In the present study several aspects of cell proliferation at different stages of the life cycle of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri have been examined through in vivo labeling of cells in the synthetic phase (S phase) of the cell cycle. Proliferation zones were found in metamorphosing polyps, as well as in juvenile medusae, where both the rhopalia and pedalia have enhanced rates of proliferation. The results also indicate a rather fast cell turnover in the rhopalia including the rhopalial nervous system (RNS). Moreover, T. cystophora showed diurnal pattern of cell proliferation in certain body parts of the medusa, with higher proliferation rates at nighttime. This is true for two areas in close connection with the CNS: the stalk base and the rhopalia. PMID:25047715

Gurska, Daniela; Garm, Anders

2014-01-01

183

A new record of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa) in Southeastern Anatolia (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first record of the invasive freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester in Kralkizi Dam Lake, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The medusa was found only in August, 2008 when average surface water temperatures were 26.9°C.

Bekleyen, Aysel; Varol, Memet; Gokot, Bulent

2011-03-01

184

Box jellyfish envenomation: case report of effective lemon and oil emulsion treatment.  

PubMed

Box jellyfish are highly venomous and numerous possible treatments for envenomation have already been reported in the published literature. The hand of a 55-year-old scuba diver was stung in the Gulf of Guinea resulting in two crops of coalescing vesicles with intense pain and lymphadenopathy. Traditional therapies such as hot water, cold packs and acetic acid were ineffective. Symptoms were rapidly relieved after the application of a lemon-oil emulsion balm. Treatments for jellyfish envenomation generally aim to either denature the jellyfish venom or prevent the discharge of the venom. Lemon-oil emulsion therapy has not yet been reported in the published literature but may be an economical and novel treatment for box jellyfish envenomation. PMID:24334401

Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Richardson, Clare; Seeburger, Jack

2014-04-01

185

Energy requirements and food supplies of ctenophores and jellyfish in the Patuxent River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of published data for the Patuxent River, Maryland, indicates that for most of the year the total biomass of\\u000a phytoplankton and zooplankton was inadequate to meet the minimum energy needs of ctenophores and jellyfish.

R. J. Miller; Richard B. Williams

1972-01-01

186

Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems  

PubMed Central

Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown. Here we report that jellyfish released substantial quantities of extremely labile C-rich DOM, relative to nitrogen (25.6 ± 31.6 C:1N), which was quickly metabolized by bacterioplankton at uptake rates two to six times that of bulk DOM pools. When jelly-DOM was consumed it was shunted toward bacterial respiration rather than production, significantly reducing bacterial growth efficiencies by 10% to 15%. Jelly-DOM also favored the rapid growth and dominance of specific bacterial phylogenetic groups (primarily ?-proteobacteria) that were rare in ambient waters, implying that jelly-DOM was channeled through a small component of the in situ microbial assemblage and thus induced large changes in community composition. Our findings suggest major shifts in microbial structure and function associated with jellyfish blooms, and a large detour of C toward bacterial CO2 production and away from higher trophic levels. These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms. PMID:21646531

Condon, Robert H.; Steinberg, Deborah K.; del Giorgio, Paul A.; Bouvier, Thierry C.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Graham, William M.; Ducklow, Hugh W.

2011-01-01

187

Jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles use jellyfish for predator avoidance and as a prey collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles of carangid fishes including jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus are known to associate with jellyfishes. The function of this association behavior was studied through rearing experiments\\u000a and underwater visual observations. Association behavior of jack mackerel with moon jellyfish in experimental tanks was more\\u000a frequent in the presence compared to the absence of predators (chub mackerel Scomber japonicus). In the experimental

Reiji Masuda; Yoh Yamashita; Michiya Matsuyama

2008-01-01

188

Human forcing of the copepod–fish–jellyfish triangular trophic relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copepods, the most abundant planktonic metazoans, constitute an intermediate trophic position between phytoplankton and higher\\u000a trophic-level animals such as fish and jellyfish. Fish and jellyfish are adversaries because they often compete for prey copepods\\u000a and also can be prey of each other. The classical food chain represented by phytoplankton–copepod–fish is the main process\\u000a leading to efficient and sustainable production of

Shin-ichi Uye

2011-01-01

189

Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems.  

PubMed

Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown. Here we report that jellyfish released substantial quantities of extremely labile C-rich DOM, relative to nitrogen (25.6 ± 31.6 C:1N), which was quickly metabolized by bacterioplankton at uptake rates two to six times that of bulk DOM pools. When jelly-DOM was consumed it was shunted toward bacterial respiration rather than production, significantly reducing bacterial growth efficiencies by 10% to 15%. Jelly-DOM also favored the rapid growth and dominance of specific bacterial phylogenetic groups (primarily ?-proteobacteria) that were rare in ambient waters, implying that jelly-DOM was channeled through a small component of the in situ microbial assemblage and thus induced large changes in community composition. Our findings suggest major shifts in microbial structure and function associated with jellyfish blooms, and a large detour of C toward bacterial CO(2) production and away from higher trophic levels. These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms. PMID:21646531

Condon, Robert H; Steinberg, Deborah K; del Giorgio, Paul A; Bouvier, Thierry C; Bronk, Deborah A; Graham, William M; Ducklow, Hugh W

2011-06-21

190

A Randomized, Controlled Field Trial for the Prevention of Jellyfish Stings With a Topical Sting Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Background Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacific regions. A new topical jellyfish sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fish prevents 85% of jellyfish stings in laboratory settings. The field effectiveness is unknown. The objective is to evaluate the field efficacy of the jellyfish sting inhibitor, Safe Sea™. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial occurred at the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA and Sapodilla Cayes, Belize. Participants were healthy volunteers planning to snorkel for 30 to 45 minutes. Ten minutes prior to swimming, each participant was directly observed applying a blinded sample of Safe Sea (Nidaria Technology Ltd, Jordan Valley, Israel) to one side of their body and a blinded sample of Coppertone® (Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) to the contralateral side as placebo control. Masked 26 g samples of both Safe Sea SPF15 and Coppertone® SPF15 were provided in identical containers to achieve 2 mg/cm2 coverage. Sides were randomly chosen by participants. The incidence of jellyfish stings was the main outcome measure. This was assessed by participant interview and examination as subjects exited the water. Results A total of 82 observed water exposures occurred. Thirteen jellyfish stings occurred during the study period for a 16% incidence. Eleven jellyfish stings occurred with placebo, two with the sting inhibitor, resulting in a relative risk reduction of 82% (95% confidence interval: 21%–96%; p = 0.02). No seabather’s eruption or side effects occurred. Conclusions Safe Sea is a topical barrier cream effective at preventing >80% jellyfish stings under real-world conditions. PMID:16706948

Boulware, David R.

2007-01-01

191

Vulnerability of larval herring ( Clupea harengus pallasi ) to capture by the jellyfish Aequorea victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gut-content analysis of Aequorea victoria collected in Kulleet Bay, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, in 1983, showed that the jellyfish consumed herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) larvae, primarily yolksac [?8mm notochord length (NL)] and post-yolksac larvae (?12mm NL). Behavioral experiments with laboratory-reared larvae showed that the ability to escape after contact with a jellyfish tentacle increased dramatically from yolksac through pre-metamorphic

J. E. Purcell; T. D. Siferd; J. B. Marliave

1987-01-01

192

Irukandji jellyfish polyps exhibit tolerance to interacting climate change stressors.  

PubMed

Increasing ocean temperatures and strengthening boundary currents have caused the poleward migration of many marine species. Cubozoan jellyfish known to cause Irukandji syndrome have historically been confined to tropical waters but may be expanding into subtropical regions. Here, we examine the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the population dynamics of polyps of an Irukandji jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens, and the formation of statoliths in newly metamorphosed medusae, to determine if this jellyfish could tolerate future conditions predicted for southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Two experiments, examining the orthogonal factors of temperature and pH, were undertaken. Experiment 1 mimicked the current, ca. 2050 and ca. 2100 summer temperature and pH conditions predicted for SEQ using A1F1 scenarios (temperature: 25, 27, 29 °C; pH: 7.9, 7.8, 7.6) and Experiment 2 mimicked current and future winter conditions (18 and 22 °C, pH 7.9, 7.8, 7.6). All polyps in Experiment 1 survived and budded. Fewer polyps budded in the lower pH treatments; however, patterns varied slightly among temperature treatments. Statoliths at pH 7.6 were 24% narrower than those at pH 7.8 and 7.9. Most polyps survived the winter conditions mimicked by Experiment 2 but only polyps in the 22 °C, pH 7.9 treatment increased significantly. The current absence of A. nr mordens medusae in SEQ, despite the polyps' ability to tolerate the current temperature and pH conditions, suggests that ecological, rather than abiotic factors currently limit their distribution. Observations that budding was lower under low pH treatments suggest that rates of asexual reproduction will likely be much slower in the future. We consider that A. nr mordens polyps are likely to tolerate future conditions but are unlikely to thrive in the long term. However, if polyps can overcome potential ecological boundaries and acidification proceeds slowly A. nr mordens could expand polewards in the short term. PMID:24323533

Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Rathjen, Kristen A; Seymour, Jamie E

2014-01-01

193

Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

2013-01-01

194

Characterization and neutralization of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom using polyclonal antibody.  

PubMed

Jellyfish stings have often caused serious health concerns for sea bathers especially in tropical waters. In the coastal areas of Korea, China and Japan, the blooming and stinging accidents of poisonous jellyfish species have recently increased, including Nemopilema nomurai. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) by the immunization of white rabbits with NnV antigen. In the present study, the antibody has been characterized for its neutralizing effect against NnV. At first, the presence of NnV polyclonal antibody has been confirmed from the immunized rabbit serum by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the neutralizing activities of the polyclonal antibody have been investigated using cell-based toxicity test, hemolysis assay, and mice lethality test. When the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with NnV, it shows a high effectiveness in neutralizing the NnV toxicities in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we explored proteomic analyses using 2-D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to illustrate the molecular identities of the jellyfish venom. From this, 18 different protein families have been identified as jellyfish venom-derived proteins; the main findings of which are matrix metalloproteinase-14, astacin-like metalloprotease toxin 3 precursor. It is expected that the present results would have contributed to our understandings of the envenomation by N. nomurai, their treatment and some valuable knowledge on the pathological processes of the jellyfish stinging. PMID:24751365

Kang, Changkeun; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Euikyung

2014-08-01

195

High activity and Lévy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish  

PubMed Central

Over-fishing may lead to a decrease in fish abundance and a proliferation of jellyfish. Active movements and prey search might be thought to provide a competitive advantage for fish, but here we use data-loggers to show that the frequently occurring coastal jellyfish (Rhizostoma octopus) does not simply passively drift to encounter prey. Jellyfish (327 days of data from 25 jellyfish with depth collected every 1 min) showed very dynamic vertical movements, with their integrated vertical movement averaging 619.2 m d?1, more than 60 times the water depth where they were tagged. The majority of movement patterns were best approximated by exponential models describing normal random walks. However, jellyfish also showed switching behaviour from exponential patterns to patterns best fitted by a truncated Lévy distribution with exponents (mean ? = 1.96, range 1.2–2.9) close to the theoretical optimum for searching for sparse prey (?opt ? 2.0). Complex movements in these ‘simple’ animals may help jellyfish to compete effectively with fish for plankton prey, which may enhance their ability to increase in dominance in perturbed ocean systems. PMID:21752825

Hays, Graeme C.; Bastian, Thomas; Doyle, Thomas K.; Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gravenor, Michael B.; Hobson, Victoria J.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Pade, Nicolas G.; Sims, David W.

2012-01-01

196

A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various kinds of actuations for biomimetic robots, the electromagnetic actuation (EMA) method has been regarded as the one with the most potential. This paper proposes a jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an EMA system in three-dimensional (3D) space. The jellyfish-like mini-robot has four flexible fins, each of which is equipped with a permanent magnet for electromagnetic actuation; the robot’s body is 17 mm long and 0.5 mm thick. Our EMA system was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in a desired direction in 3D space, which could bend the fins of the jellyfish-like mini-robot. Therefore, a cyclic change in the uniform magnetic field, in the EMA system, would synchronize the fluctuation of the fins and could generate a propulsion force for the robot, in the desired direction. In order to maximize the propulsion force of the jellyfish-like mini-robot, the waveform and frequency of the input current in the EMA system are optimized. Consequently, our jellyfish-like mini-robot was able to generate maximum propulsion force when a square waveform input current (13 A magnitude and 10 Hz frequency) was applied to the EMA system. Finally, the jellyfish-like mini-robot with the EMA system was able to perform various 3D swimming motions.

Ko, Youngho; Na, Sungyoung; Lee, Youngwoo; Cha, Kyoungrae; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

2012-05-01

197

Juveniles of threadsail filefish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer , can survive and grow by feeding on moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted feeding experiments on threadsail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer juveniles for 16 days to evaluate the efficacy of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita as a prey item. Four treatments, each with 40 individuals, were prepared to compare fish growth performance. The treatments\\u000a consisted of filefish that were starved (control) (S), fed only jellyfish (J), fed only krill (K), and fed both jellyfish

Y. Miyajima; R. Masuda; A. Kurihara; R. Kamata; Y. Yamashita; T. Takeuchi

2011-01-01

198

Complete mitochondrial genome of the jellyfish, Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).  

PubMed

We sequenced 16,775 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the jellyfish Chrysaora quinquecirrha and characterized them. C. quinquecirrha has 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with 3 tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met) as shown in Aurelia sp. nov. Both have another two PCGs such as helicase and orf363 with telomeres at both ends. The PCGs of C. quinquecirrha shows anti-G bias on 2nd and 3rd positions of PCGs as well as anti-C bias on 1st and 3rd positions of PCGs. PMID:23488924

Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jin; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

2014-02-01

199

A simple visual system without neurons in jellyfish larvae.  

PubMed Central

Earlier detailed studies of cnidarian planula larvae have revealed a simple nervous system but no eyes or identifiable light sensing structures. Here, we describe the planula of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, and report that these larvae have an extremely simple organization with no nervous system at all. Their only advanced feature is the presence of 10-15 pigment-cup ocelli, evenly spaced across the posterior half of the larval ectoderm. The ocelli are single cell structures containing a cup of screening pigment filled with presumably photosensory microvilli. These rhabdomeric photoreceptors have no neural connections to any other cells, but each has a well-developed motor-cilium, appearing to be the only means by which light can control the behaviour of the larva. The ocelli are thus self-contained sensory-motor entities, making a nervous system superfluous. PMID:14667350

Nordström, Karin; Wallén, Rita; Seymour, Jamie; Nilsson, Dan

2003-01-01

200

Current-oriented swimming by jellyfish and its role in bloom maintenance.  

PubMed

Cross-flows (winds or currents) affect animal movements [1-3]. Animals can temporarily be carried off course or permanently carried away from their preferred habitat by drift depending on their own traveling speed in relation to that of the flow [1]. Animals able to only weakly fly or swim will be the most impacted (e.g., [4]). To circumvent this problem, animals must be able to detect the effects of flow on their movements and respond to it [1, 2]. Here, we show that a weakly swimming organism, the jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, can orientate its movements with respect to currents and that this behavior is key to the maintenance of blooms and essential to reduce the probability of stranding. We combined in situ observations with first-time deployment of accelerometers on free-ranging jellyfish and simulated the behavior observed in wild jellyfish within a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our results show that jellyfish can actively swim countercurrent in response to current drift, leading to significant life-history benefits, i.e., increased chance of survival and facilitated bloom formation. Current-oriented swimming may be achieved by jellyfish either directly detecting current shear across their body surface [5] or indirectly assessing drift direction using other cues (e.g., magnetic, infrasound). Our coupled behavioral-hydrodynamic model provides new evidence that current-oriented swimming contributes to jellyfish being able to form aggregations of hundreds to millions of individuals for up to several months, which may have substantial ecosystem and socioeconomic consequences [6, 7]. It also contributes to improve predictions of jellyfish blooms' magnitude and movements in coastal waters. PMID:25619761

Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian Christopher; Chalumeau, Julien; Bastian, Thomas; Armstrong, Claire Denise; Vandenabeele, Sylvie; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Hays, Graeme Clive

2015-02-01

201

Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742

Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

2011-01-01

202

Rise and fall of jellyfish in the eastern Bering Sea in relation to climate regime shifts Richard D. Brodeur a,*, Mary Beth Decker b  

E-print Network

Rise and fall of jellyfish in the eastern Bering Sea in relation to climate regime shifts Richard D North Pacific Ocean a b s t r a c t A steep increase in jellyfish biomass, primarily Chrysaora examined the relationships between jellyfish biomass and temperature, ice cover, atmospheric variables

203

Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly

Jun Shoji; Takaya Kudoh; Hideyuki Takatsuji; Osamu Kawaguchi; Akihide Kasai

2010-01-01

204

Identification of TIR-Domain Containing Genes and Proteins in the Moon (Aurelia Aurita) and Comb Jellyfish (Mnemiopsis Leidyi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in Drosophila and their subsequent discovery in humans has piqued the scientific community's interest in their evolution. Marine invertebrates are now starting to become model organisms for the evolution of immunity and for immunological disease therapeutics. This study sought to determine the identification of a TLR receptor in the comb jellyfish and moon jellyfish

Christine M. Turcotte

2011-01-01

205

Role of Thyroxine in Space-Developed Jellyfish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System was previously used to determine the effects of the space environment on the development and behavior of tiny (1-2 mm) jellyfish ephyrae during the SLS-1 and IML-2 missions. Results from the SLS-1 experiment included the discovery that statolith numbers were significantly reduced in Earth-formed ephyrae flown for nine days in space as compared with ground-based controls. In addition, upon return to Earth, six times more ephyrae which had developed in space than those developed on Earth had pulsing abnormalities, indicating that either these animals did not form their neuromuscular structures normally while in space or they were unable to adapt to the Ig environment upon return to Earth. The metamorphosis process, which enables the formation of ephyrae from polyps is influenced by a hormone, Jf-T4 Oellyfish thyroxine) which is synthesized following iodine administration. Two groups of polyps in space, however, formed ephyrae without iodine administration indicating that Jf-T4 synthesis, utilization, or excretion was different in. the ephyrae. Increased synthesis or build-up in the media of the hormone may also be linked to the increased demineralization of statoliths found in space-exposed ephyrae. In previous experiments, we found that externally administered thyroxine causes increased demineralization of statoliths on Earth. Abnormal pulsina in ephyrae following return to Earth during the SLS-1 mission may also be traced to increased Jf-T4 levels. Thyroxine is known to be important to the normal development and function of the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles in higher animals. For this third Jellyfish-in-Space experiment, we proposed to quantitate the levels of Jf- T4 and of T4 receptors in space-developed ephyrae and media and to compare these levels with those of animals developing and at Ig in space and on Earth. We expected to be able to determine whether Jf-T4 synthesis and/or secretion is different in space-flownjellyfish than in controls and to determine which cells (nerve, muscle, lithocytes, etc.)may have enhanced Jf-T4 levels. However, NASA deselected this experiment in August, 1997.

Spangenberg, Dorothy B.

1997-01-01

206

Interactions of cnidarian toxins with the immune system.  

PubMed

Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus to penetrate the human skin, whereas others rarely come into contact with human beings. Only a small, almost negligible percentage of the vast wealth of cnidarian toxins has been studied in detail. Many polypeptide cnidarian toxins are immunogenic, and cross-reactivity between several jellyfish venoms has been reported. Cnidarians also possess components of innate immunity, and some of those components have been preserved in evolution. On the other hand, cnidarian toxins have already been used for the design of immunotoxins to treat cancer, whereas other cnidarian toxins can modulate the immune system in mammals, including man. This review will focus on a short overview of cnidarian toxins, on the innate immunity of cnidarians, and on the mode of action of cnidarian toxins which can modulate the immune system in mammals. Emphasis is palced on those toxins which block voltage activated potassium channels in the cells of the immune system. PMID:21824078

Suput, Dusan

2011-10-01

207

Numerical simulations of bell contractions of upside down jellyfish using the immersed boundary method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsatile jet propulsion is one of the simplest forms of locomotion utilized by macroscopic organisms. Jellyfish use contractions of their bells to form vortex rings that facilitate feeding and locomotion. Once they grow to about 2 cm in diameter, the upside-down jellyfish (genus Cassiopea) situates itself on the ocean substratum with its oral arms towards the sun. These organisms primarily utilize zooanthellae for photosynthetic feeding, while also pulsing their bells to generate feeding currents and to move short distances. Preliminary numerical simulations are presented here which model the motion of the jellyfish as they pulse on the ocean floor. The motion of the bell is measured and fit to a mathematical model using video. The bell motion is used as an input in numerical simulations. Ultimately, contraction of muscle fibers which induce bell contractions will be simulated across Reynolds numbers using the immersed boundary method.

Hamlet, Christina; Miller, Laura

2009-11-01

208

The extract of the jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata promotes neurotoxic effects.  

PubMed

Phyllorhiza punctata (P. punctata) is a jellyfish native to the southwestern Pacific. Herewith we present the biochemical and pharmacological characterization of an extract of the tentacles of P. punctata. The tentacles were subjected to three freeze-thaw cycles, homogenized, ultrafiltered, precipitated, centrifuged and lyophilized to obtain a crude extract (PHY-N). Paralytic shellfish poisoning compounds such as saxitoxin, gonyautoxin-4, tetrodotoxin and brevetoxin-2, as well as several secretory phospholipase A(2) were identified. PHY-N was tested on autonomic and somatic neuromuscular preparations. In mouse vas deferens, PHY-N induced phasic contractions that reached a peak of 234?±?34.7% of control twitch height, which were blocked with either 100?? m of phentolamine or 1?m m of lidocaine. In mouse corpora cavernosa, PHY-N evoked a relaxation response, which was blocked with either L-N(G) -Nitroarginine methyl ester (0.5?m m) or 1?m m of lidocaine. PHY-N (1, 3 and 10??g ml(-1) ) induced an increase in tonus of the biventer-cervicis neuromuscular preparation that was blocked with pre-treatment of galamine (10?? m). Administration of 6?mg kg(-1) PHY-N intramuscularly produced death in broilers by spastic paralysis. In conclusion, PHY-N induces nerve depolarization and nonspecifically increases neurotransmitter release. PMID:21319174

Carneiro, Raquel Felipe Vasconcelos; Nascimento, Nilberto Robson Falcão do; Costa, Paula Priscila Correia; Gomes, Victor Martins; de Souza, Alex Jardelino Felizardo; de Oliveira, Simone Cristina Buzzo; Dos Santos Diz Filho, Eduardo Britto; Zara, Fernando José; Fonteles, Manassés Claudino; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Santos, Cláudia Ferreira

2011-11-01

209

Protective Effect of Tetracycline against Dermal Toxicity Induced by Jellyfish Venom  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity. Further, it is also well known that there is a positive correlation between the inflammatory reaction of dermal tissues and their tissue metalloproteinase activity. Based on these, the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of jellyfish envenomation. Methodology and Principal Findings Tetracycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor) has been examined for its activity to reduce or prevent the dermal toxicity induced by Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom (NnV) using in vitro and in vivo models. HaCaT (human keratinocyte) and NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast) incubated with NnV showed decreases in cell viability, which is associated with the inductions of metalloproteinase-2 and -9. This result suggests that the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as tetracycline, may prevent the jellyfish venom-mediated local tissue damage. In vivo experiments showed that comparing with NnV-alone treatment, tetracycline pre-mixed NnV demonstrated a significantly reduced progression of dermal toxicity upon the inoculation onto rabbit skin. Conclusions/Significance It is believed that there has been no previous report on the therapeutic agent of synthetic chemical origin for the treatment of jellyfish venom-induced dermonecrosis based on understanding its mechanism of action except the use of antivenom treatment. Furthermore, the current study, for the first time, has proposed a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for skin damages caused by jellyfish stings. PMID:23536767

Kang, Changkeun; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kwak, Jeongsoo; Jung, Hongseok; Yoon, Won Duk; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

2013-01-01

210

Changes in the small-jellyfish community in recent decades in Jiaozhou Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used long term monitoring data to evaluate changes in abundance and species dominance of small-jellyfish (collected with zooplankton net whose bell diameter was less than 5 cm) between 1991 and 2009 in the Jiaozhou Bay, China. Zooplankton samples were vertically towed with conical plankton net from near-bottom to surface, identified microscopically, and mapped in time-space using Grapher 7.0 and Surfer 8.0. Results show that the abundance of small-jellyfish throughout the bay had been increasing during 2001-2009 on average of 15.2 ind./m3, almost 5 times higher than that between 1991 and 2000. The occurrence of peak abundance shifted from spring to summer after 2000, and two peaks appeared in spring and summer, respectively, after 2005. Both the abundance and the frequency of blooms of small-jellyfish increased after 2000 in the bay. In addition, the biodiversity of jellyfish has increased significantly in recent years with a change in dominant species. Several new dominant species appeared after 2000, including Rathkae octopunctata in winter, Phialidium hemisphaericum in spring, summer, and autumn, Phialucium carolinae in spring, and Pleurobrachia globosa in summer and autumn, while some previous dominant species throughout the 1990s ( Eirene ceylonensis, Zanclea costata, Lovenella assimilis, and Muggiaea atlantica ) were no longer dominant after 2000. The abundance of small-jellyfish was positively correlated with the density of dinoflagellates, and the abundance of zooplankton. We believe that the changes in smalljellyfish abundance and species composition were the result of eutrophication, aquaculture and coastal construction activities around the bay. Concurrently, seawater warming and salinity decrease in recent decades promoted the growth and reproduction of small-jellyfish in the bay.

Sun, Song; Li, Yinghong; Sun, Xiaoxia

2012-07-01

211

Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific debate on whether the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks is related to a true rise in their abundance, have outlined the lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different data sets produced within the EU program EUROBASIN, which have been assembled with the aim of presenting an up to date overview of the diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, Cnidaria and Ctenophora were collected in the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between 59-68° N Lat and 62° W-5° E Long. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of Cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation with different water masses and with the bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where populations tend to be more diversified due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparisons of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise show that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009-2012, blooms of Cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, in contrast with what was previously hypothesized, the CPR is able to detect blooms of meroplanktonic and holoplanktonic hydrozoans and scyphozoans. Combining different types of data, key jellyfish taxa for the spring-summer period were identified in the northern North Atlantic regions. Key species for the central and southern North Atlantic could be inferred based on Cnidarian blooms identified by the CPR survey, although this should be confirmed further by comparison with quantitative data. The identification by DNA barcoding of 23 jellyfish specimens collected during the EUROBASIN cruises contributes to increasing the still very limited number of jellyfish sequences available on GenBank. All observations presented here can be downloaded from PANGAEA (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.835732).

Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

2014-11-01

212

Recurrent dermatitis and dermal hypersensitivity following a jellyfish sting: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Jellyfish envenomation often causes an immediate painful vesiculopapular eruption. Less commonly it can cause a type IV allergic hypersensitivity that manifests with delayed or recurrent cutaneous lesions at the primary site or distant from the primary site. These secondary reactivations may be related to high antijellyfish immunoglobulin levels, intracutaneously sequestered antigen, or cross-reacting venom. Immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus and topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy decrease this recurrent dermatitis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a recurrent jellyfish dermatitis lasting more than 1 year after the initial envenomation. The dermatitis finally resolved after treatment with tacrolimus and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy. PMID:24495001

Loredana Asztalos, Manuela; Rubin, Adam I; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Groft MacFarlane, Caroline; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

2014-01-01

213

A bio-inspired bell kinematics design of a jellyfish robot using ionic polymer metal composites actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the re-creation of the bell deformation cycle of the Aequorea victoria jellyfish. It focuses on the design, fabrication, and characterization of the bio-inspired bell kinematics of an IPMC actuated robotic jellyfish. The shape and bell kinematics of this underwater vehicle are based on the Aequorea victoria jellyfish. This medusa is chosen as a model system based on a comparative bell kinematics study that is conducted among different jellyfish species. Aequorea victoria is known by its low swimming frequency, small bell deformation, and high Froude efficiency (95%). Different methods of implementing the actuators underneath the bell with smaller IPMC actuators are investigated to replicate the natural jellyfish's bell deformation. Results demonstrates that proper placement of the IPMC actuators results in bell configuration that more accurately represents the deformation properties of the natural jellyfish. Smaller IPMC actuators are used to achieve the desired deformation and thus the power consumption is reduced by 70% compared to previous generations. A biomimetic jellyfish robot prototype is built, and its ability to swim and produce thrust with smaller IPMC actuators is shown. The robot swam with four actuators swam at an average speed 0.77 mm/s and consumed 0.7 W. When eight actuators were used the average speed increased to 1.5 mm/s with a power consumption of 1.14 W.

Najem, Joseph; Leo, Donald J.

2012-04-01

214

Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

2010-02-01

215

Detection of microvasculature alterations by synchrotron radiation in murine with delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome.  

PubMed

Using the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata, we have previously established a delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) model, which is meaningful for clinical interventions against jellyfish stings. However, the mechanism of DJES still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore its potential mechanism by detecting TE-induced microvasculature alterations in vivo and ex vivo. Using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, we, for the first time, directly observed the blood vessel alterations induced by jellyfish venom in vivo and ex vivo. Firstly, microvasculature imaging of whole-body mouse in vivo indicated that the small blood vessel branches in the liver and kidney in the TE-treated group, seemed much thinner than those in the control group. Secondly, 3D imaging of kidney ex vivo showed that the kidneys in the TE-treated group had incomplete vascular trees where distal vessel branches were partly missing and disorderly disturbed. Finally, histopathological analysis found that obvious morphological changes, especially hemorrhagic effects, were also present in the TE-treated kidney. Thus, TE-induced microvasculature changes might be one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ dysfunctions in DJES. In addition, the methods we employed here will probably facilitate further studies on developing effective intervention strategies against DJES. PMID:24508769

Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Huo, Hua; Wang, Tao; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Yuanlin; Xiao, Liang; Ren, Yuqi; Zhang, Liming

2014-04-01

216

Learning from jellyfish: Fluid transport in muscular pumps at intermediate Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically inspired hydrodynamic propulsion and maneuvering strategies promise the advancement of medical implants and minimally invasive clinical tools. We have chosen juvenile jellyfish as a model system for investigating fluid dynamics and morphological properties underlying fluid transport by a muscular pump at intermediate Reynolds numbers. Recently we have described how natural variations in viscous forces are balanced by changes in jellyfish body shape (phenotypic plasticity), to the effect of facilitating efficient body-fluid interaction. Complementing these studies in our live model organisms, we are also engaged in engineering an artificial jellyfish, that is, a jellyfish-inspired construct of a flexible plastic sheet actuated by a monolayer of rat cardiomyocytes. The main challenges here are (1) to derive a body shape and deformation suitable for effective fluid transport under physiological conditions, (2) to understand the mechanical properties of the muscular film and derive a design capable of the desired deformation, (3) to master the proper alignment and timely contraction of the muscle component needed to achieve the desired deformation, and (4) to evaluate the performance of the design.

Nawroth, Janna; Dabiri, John

2010-11-01

217

Novel Proteinaceous Toxins from the Box Jellyfish (Sea Wasp) Carybdea rastoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer and autumn, the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni is one of the most bothersome stinging pests to swimmers and bathers on the Japanese coast. Two labile but potent hemolytic toxins from the tentacles of Carybdea rastoni were isolated in their active forms using newly developed purification methods. The molecular masses of the isolated C. rastoni toxin-A and

Hiroshi Nagai; Kyoko Takuwa; Masahiro Nakao; Emiko Ito; Masami Miyake; Masatoshi Noda; Terumi Nakajima

2000-01-01

218

The jellyfish green fluorescent protein: A new tool for studying ion channel expression and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods are described for using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for ion channel expression. GFP fluorescence can be used to identify the transfected cells, and to estimate the relative levels of ion channel expression, in cotransfection experiments. A GFP-NMDAR1 chimera can be constructed that produces a functional, fluorescent receptor subunit. These methods should facilitate

John Marshall; Raymond Molloy; Guy W. J Moss; James R Howe; Thomas E Hughes

1995-01-01

219

Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned

John O. Dabiri; Sean P. Colin; John H. Costello; Morteza Gharib

2005-01-01

220

Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans  

PubMed Central

Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views, that the jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is one of the most energetically efficient propulsors on the planet, exhibiting a cost of transport (joules per kilogram per meter) lower than other metazoans. We estimate that reduced metabolic demand by passive energy recapture improves the cost of transport by 48%, allowing jellyfish to achieve the large sizes required for sufficient prey encounters. Pressure calculations, using both computational fluid dynamics and a newly developed method from empirical velocity field measurements, demonstrate that this extra thrust results from positive pressure created by a vortex ring underneath the bell during the refilling phase of swimming. These results demonstrate a physical basis for the ecological success of medusan swimmers despite their simple body plan. Results from this study also have implications for bioinspired design, where low-energy propulsion is required. PMID:24101461

Gemmell, Brad J.; Costello, John H.; Colin, Sean P.; Stewart, Colin J.; Dabiri, John O.; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

2013-01-01

221

Biologically active polypeptides in the venom of the jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tropical jellyfish, Rhopilema nomadica (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) has recently invaded the eastern Mediterranean. Its painful stings have been the bane of bathers and fishermen from Egypt to Turkey. This paper reports on the presence of haemolytic activity and ?-chymotrypsin-like serine protease activity in the venom of the R. nomadica nematocysts. In addition, the presence of phospholipase A2 activity, which has

Laura Gusmani; Massimo Avian; Bella Galil; Pierluigi Patriarca; Giandomenico Rottini

1997-01-01

222

Partial purification and characterization of a hemolysin (CAH1) from Hawaiian box jellyfish ( Carybdea alata) venom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized a novel hemolytic protein from the venom of the Hawaiian box jellyfish (Carybdea alata). Hemolysis of sheep red blood cells was used to quantitate hemolytic potency of crude venom extracted from isolated nematocysts and venom after fractionation and purification procedures. Hemolytic activity of crude venom was reduced or lost after exposure to the proteolytic enzymes

John J. Chung; Lal A. Ratnapala; Ian M. Cooke; Angel A. Yanagihara

2001-01-01

223

Neutralization of toxic effects of different crude jellyfish venoms by an extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br.  

PubMed

An extract (IPA) of the plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br., previously shown to be clinically effective toward dermatitis caused by venomous jellyfishes, was studied as to its ability to neutralize toxic activities of jellyfish venoms. Different venoms exhibited different degrees of activity. When IPA was incubated with active venoms, it inhibited the actions of all jellyfish venoms tested, with IC50 values in the range of 0.3-0.8 mgIPA/mg venom for proteolytic action, and with about 10 times lower IC50 values for the neutralization of haemolytic action. These activities of IPA support the previously reported effectiveness in the treatment of dermatitis caused by jellyfish sting. PMID:1684405

Pongprayoon, U; Bohlin, L; Wasuwat, S

1991-10-01

224

Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 ?g C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 ?g C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 ?g C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 ?g C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong

2013-11-01

225

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

226

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

2009-01-01

227

Efficacy of Venom from Tentacle of Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Nemopilema nomurai) against the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera  

PubMed Central

Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7?d was 74.23%. PMID:25162008

Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Dong, Xiangli; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

2014-01-01

228

Nonparametric Threshold Model of Zero-Inflated Spatio-Temporal Data with Application to Shifts in Jellyfish Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific interest in studying the spatial distribution of species abundance in relation to environmental\\u000a variability. Jellyfish in particular have received considerable attention in the literature and media due to regional population\\u000a increases and abrupt changes in distribution. Jellyfish distribution and abundance data, like many biological datasets, are\\u000a characterized by an excess of zero counts or nonstationary processes, which hampers

Hai Liu; Lorenzo Ciannelli; Mary Beth Decker; Carol Ladd; Kung-Sik Chan

2011-01-01

229

Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.  

PubMed

Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market. PMID:25393326

Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

2014-12-17

230

Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: A numerical study of simplified jellyfish  

E-print Network

The Scallop Theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number = 0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward veloc...

Herschlag, Gregory

2010-01-01

231

Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes.  

PubMed

Jellyfishes have functionally replaced several overexploited commercial stocks of planktivorous fishes. This is paradoxical, because they use a primitive prey capture mechanism requiring direct contact with the prey, whereas fishes use more efficient visual detection. We have compiled published data to show that, in spite of their primitive life-style, jellyfishes exhibit similar instantaneous prey clearance and respiration rates as their fish competitors and similar potential for growth and reproduction. To achieve this production, they have evolved large, water-laden bodies that increase prey contact rates. Although larger bodies are less efficient for swimming, optimization analysis reveals that large collectors are advantageous if they move through the water sufficiently slowly. PMID:21921197

Acuña, José Luis; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Colin, Sean

2011-09-16

232

Predation on fish larvae by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita under low dissolved oxygen concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that low dissolved oxygen concentrations have the potential to\\u000a enhance the predation rate on fish larvae by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita which is increasing in abundance in the coastal waters of Japan. Larvae of the red sea bream Pagrus major in four size classes (2.9, 4.1, 6.2 and 8.6 mm in standard

Jun Shoji; Reiji Masuda; Yoh Yamashita; Masaru Tanaka

2005-01-01

233

Distribution and abundance of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and its zooplankton food in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita Linnaeus, 1758) in the Black Sea was determined from plankton samples collected above the anoxic zone (maximum depth 200?m)\\u000a in the summer, winter and spring during 1991–1995. Distribution was patchy. Average biomass ranged from 98 to 380?g?m?2, and abundance varied from 2 to 14 individuals m?2. Biomass and abundance peaked in late spring

E. Mutlu

2001-01-01

234

Segmentation methods for visual tracking of deep-ocean jellyfish using a conventional camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vision algorithm that enables automated jellyfish tracking using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The discussion focuses on algorithm design. The introduction provides a novel performance-assessment tool, called segmentation efficiency, which aids in matching potential vision algorithms to the jelly-tracking task. This general-purpose tool evaluates the inherent applicability of various algorithms to particular

Jason Rife; Stephen M. Rock

2003-01-01

235

Biomimetic jellyfish-inspired underwater vehicle actuated by ionic polymer metal composite actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a biomimetic jellyfish robot that uses ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) as flexible actuators for propulsion. The shape and swimming style of this underwater vehicle are based on the Aequorea victoria jellyfish, which has an average swimming speed of 20 mm s-1 and which is known for its high swimming efficiency. The Aequorea victoria is chosen as a model system because both its bell morphology and kinematic properties match the mechanical properties of IPMC actuators. This medusa is characterized by its low swimming frequency, small bell deformation during the contraction phase, and high Froude efficiency. The critical components of the robot include the flexible bell that provides the overall shape and dimensions of the jellyfish, a central hub and a stage used to provide electrical connections and mechanical support to the actuators, eight distinct spars meant to keep the upper part of the bell stationary, and flexible IPMC actuators that extend radially from the central stage. The bell is fabricated from a commercially available heat-shrinkable polymer film to provide increased shape-holding ability and reduced weight. The IPMC actuators constructed for this study demonstrated peak-to-peak strains of ˜0.7% in water across a frequency range of 0.1-1.0 Hz. By tailoring the applied voltage waveform and the flexibility of the bell, the completed robotic jellyfish with four actuators swam at an average speed 0.77 mm s-1 and consumed 0.7 W. When eight actuators were used the average speed increased to 1.5 mm s-1 with a power consumption of 1.14 W.

Najem, Joseph; Sarles, Stephen A.; Akle, Barbar; Leo, Donald J.

2012-09-01

236

Evolutionary aspects of developmentally regulated helix-loop-helix transcription factors in striated muscle of jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins in cell differentiation was shown to be conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, exemplified by the function of MyoD in striated muscle differentiation. In phylogeny striated muscle tissue appears first in jellyfish and the question of its evolutionary position is controversially discussed. For this reason we have studied the developmental role of myogenic bHLH

Peter Müller; Katja Seipel; Nathalie Yanze; Susanne Reber-Müller; Ruth Streitwolf-Engel; Michael Stierwald; J. ürg Spring; Volker Schmid

2003-01-01

237

Nutrient cycling and the biogeochemistry of manganese, iron. and zinc in Jellyfish Lake, Palau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxic waters in Jellyfish Lake, a stagnant marine lake in Palau, are depleted in N03-, POd3-, dissolved Si, Mn, Fe, and Zn, while the underlying anoxic waters are significantly enriched in these species and NH,. NH, and Pod3 regeneration and dissolved sulfide production in the anoxic zone yield a stoichiometry of C,,,N,,P for organic matter undergoing recycling in the

WILLIAM M. LANDING; WILLIAM C. BURNETT; W. BERRY LYONS; WILLIAM H. OREM

1991-01-01

238

Transient expression and stable transformation of soybean using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] suspension cultures were bombarded with five different gene constructions encoding the jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) green fluorescent protein (GFP). These constructions had altered codon usage compared to the native GFP gene and mutations\\u000a that increased the solubility of the protein and\\/or altered the native chromophore. All of the constructions produced green\\u000a fluorescence in soybean cultures

T. Ponappa; A. E. Brzozowski; J. J. Finer

1999-01-01

239

Purification and properties of a cytolytic toxin in venom of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A haemolytic toxin was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and FPLC gel filtration from the nematocysts of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis. Sheep red cells, but not human or rabbit red cells, were susceptible to lysis by the toxin. The toxin is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 102–107 kDa, is heat labile, highly unstable in polar media, inactivated

Giandomenico Rottini; Laura Gusmani; Elisabetta Parovel; Massimo Avian; Pierluigi Patriarca

1995-01-01

240

Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin) on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA) created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish) and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish) and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C) group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA)-only group (H group); two qniumucin-only groups (M groups); and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups). One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA. PMID:19995451

2009-01-01

241

Lessons learned from the jellyfish: Fluid transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically inspired hydrodynamic propulsion and maneuvering strategies promise the advancement of medical implants and novel robotic tools. We have chosen juvenile jellyfish as a model system for investigating fluid dynamics and morphological properties underlying fluid transport by an elastic system at intermediate Reynolds numbers. Recently we have described how natural variations in viscous forces are balanced by changes in jellyfish body shape (phenotypic plasticity), to the effect of facilitating efficient body-fluid interaction. Complementing these studies in our live model organisms, we are also engaged in engineering a synthetic jellyfish, that is, a rhythmically actuated elastomer capable of generating efficient feeding and propulsion currents. The main challenges here are (1) to derive a body shape and deformation suitable for effective fluid transport under physiological fluid conditions, (2) to understand the mechanical properties of actuator and elastomer to derive a design capable of the desired deformation, (3) to establish adequate 3D kinematics of power and recovery stroke, and (4) to evaluate the performance of the design.

Nawroth, Janna; Dabiri, John

2011-11-01

242

The Jellyfish: smart electro-active polymers for an autonomous distributed sensing node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Navy has recently placed emphasis on deployable, distributed sensors for Force Protection, Anti-Terrorism and Homeland Defense missions. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has embarked on the development of a self-contained deployable node that is composed of electro-active polymers (EAP) for use in a covert persistent distributed surveillance system. Electro-Active Polymers (EAP) have matured to a level that permits their application in energy harvesting, hydrophones, electro-elastic actuation and electroluminescence. The problem to resolve is combining each of these functions into an autonomous sensing platform. The concept presented here promises an operational life several orders of magnitude beyond what is expected of a Sonobuoy due to energy conservation and harvesting, and at a reasonable cost. The embodiment envisioned is that of a deployed device resembling a jellyfish, made in most part of polymers, with the body encapsulating the necessary electronic processing and communications package and the tentacles of the jellyfish housing the sonar sensors. It will be small, neutrally buoyant, and will survey the water column much in the manner of a Cartesian Diver. By using the Electro-Active Polymers as artificial muscles, the motion of the jellyfish can be finely controlled. An increased range of detection and true node autonomy is achieved through volumetric array beamforming to focus the direction of interrogation and to null-out extraneous ambient noise.

Blottman, John B.; Richards, Roger T.

2006-05-01

243

A GLIMPSE of the Southern Jellyfish Nebula and Its Massive YSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Spitzer/IRAC images obtained under the GLIMPSE Legacy Survey, we have identified a unique and provocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish Nebula is characterized by a fan of narrow tendrils with extreme length-to-width ratios that emanate from the vicinity of a bright infrared point source embedded in a smaller resolved nebula. From CO observations of the Nebula's morphologically associated molecular cloud, we have derived a kinematic distance of 5.7+/-0.8 kpc and a cloud mass of 3.2+/-0.9×103 Msolar. The tendril-like ropes of the Nebula have widths of ~0.1 pc and lengths of up to ~2 pc. We have integrated the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of the point source to establish it as a massive young stellar object (MYSO), most likely forming alone, but possibly masking fainter cluster members. The shape of the SED is consistent with the shape of a late Class 0 SED model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3.3+/-0.9×104 Lsolar, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) spectral type of B0. Given the curious nature of this nebula, we suspect its peculiar IR-bright structure is directly related to its current state of star formation.

Mercer, E. P.; Clemens, D. P.; Rathborne, J. M.; Meade, M. R.; Babler, B. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B. A.; Watson, C.; Wolfire, M. G.; Wolff, M. J.; Bania, T. M.; Benjamin, R. A.; Cohen, M.; Dickey, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Mathis, J. S.; Stolovy, S. R.; Uzpen, B.; Churchwell, E. B.

2007-02-01

244

Feeding currents of the upside down jellyfish in the presence of background flow.  

PubMed

The upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea spp.) is an ideal organism for examining feeding and exchange currents generated by bell pulsations due to its relatively sessile nature. Previous experiments and numerical simulations have shown that the oral arms play an important role in directing new fluid into the bell from along the substrate. All of this work, however, has considered the jellyfish in the absence of background flow, but the natural environments of Cassiopea and other cnidarians are dynamic. Flow velocities and directions fluctuate on multiple time scales, and mechanisms of particle capture may be fundamentally different in moving fluids. In this paper, the immersed boundary method is used to simulate a simplified jellyfish in flow. The elaborate oral arm structure is modeled as a homogenous porous layer. The results show that the oral arms trap vortices as they form during contraction and expansion of the bell. For constant flow conditions, the vortices are directed gently across the oral arms where particle capture occurs. For variable direction flows, the secondary structures change the overall pattern of the flow around the bell and appear to stabilize regions of mixing around the secondary mouths. PMID:22936161

Hamlet, Christina L; Miller, Laura A

2012-11-01

245

Current Biology 24, 111, February 3, 2014 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.003 Regulation of Polyp-to-Jellyfish  

E-print Network

://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.003 Article Regulation of Polyp-to-Jellyfish Transition in Aurelia aurita Bjo machinery controlling transition of the sessile polyp into a free-swimming jellyfish consists of two parts of the strobilation hormone of Aurelia. Conclusions: Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish

246

Jellyfish collagen stimulates production of TNF-? and IL-6 by J774.1 cells through activation of NF-?B and JNK via TLR4 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

We previously reported that jellyfish collagen stimulates both the acquired and innate immune responses. In the acquired immune response, jellyfish collagen enhanced immunoglobulin production by lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, in the innate immune response jellyfish collagen promoted cytokine production and phagocytotic activity of macrophages. The facts that jellyfish collagen plays several potential roles in stimulating cytokine production by macrophages have further attracted us to uncover its mechanisms. We herein describe that the cytokine production-stimulating activity of jellyfish collagen was canceled by a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor. Moreover, jellyfish collagen stimulated phosphorylation of inhibitor of ?B? (I?B?), promoted the translocation of nucleus factor-?B (NF-?B), and activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A JNK inhibitor also abrogated the cytokine production-stimulating activity of jellyfish collagen. These results suggest that jellyfish collagen may facilitate cytokine production by macrophages through activation of NF-?B and JNK via the TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:24291243

Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Shiraishi, Ryusuke; Doi, Mikiharu; Sugahara, Takuya

2014-03-01

247

Detection of common antigenic sites in lethal proteins of non-related animal venoms.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing specific coelenterate lethal toxins were used to determine the presence of homologous antigenic sites on toxin proteins of a rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), a hornet (Vespa orientalis) and the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). An anti-Portuguese man-o'war toxin antibody was found useful for isolating a C. d. terrificus toxin. PMID:6623490

Russo, A J; Cobbs, C S; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

1983-01-01

248

Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).  

PubMed

In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

2014-01-01

249

Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging  

PubMed Central

Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

2013-01-01

250

Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish umbrella on histological and immunity changes of mice photoaging.  

PubMed

Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

2013-01-01

251

Phospholipase A2 in cnidaria.  

PubMed

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme present in snake and other venoms and body fluids. We measured PLA2 catalytic activity in tissue homogenates of 22 species representing the classes Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. High PLA2 levels were found in the hydrozoan fire coral Millepora sp. (median 735 U/g protein) and the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis (693 U/g) that cause skin irritation upon contact. High levels of PLA2 activity were also found in the acontia of the sea anemone Adamsia carciniopados (293 U/g). Acontia are long threads containing nematocysts and are used in defense and aggression by the animal. Tentacles of scyphozoan and cubozoan species had high PLA2 activity levels: those of the multitentacled box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri contained 184 U/g PLA2 activity. The functions of cnidarian PLA2 may include roles in the capture and digestion of prey and defense of the animal. The current observations support the idea that cnidarian PLA2 may participate in the sting site irritation and systemic envenomation syndrome resulting from contact with cnidarians. PMID:15581805

Nevalainen, Timo J; Peuravuori, Heikki J; Quinn, Ronald J; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Benzie, John A H; Fenner, Peter J; Winkel, Ken D

2004-12-01

252

The marine biologist--Bob Endean.  

PubMed

Bob Endean was a dedicated marine biologist with an extensive knowledge of coral reef communities in the Great Barrier Reef and fauna in subtropical Queensland waters. He commenced a study of venomous and poisonous marine animals dangerous to man at a time when the field was new, employing a variety of techniques to investigate the venom apparatus, mode of delivery of venom or toxin, mode of toxic action on excitable tissues, and biochemistry of venom or toxin. Determination of the pharmacological properties of crude venom from Conus marine snails advanced characterization of conotoxins by later workers. A study of four types of nematocysts from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri provided information as to their structure, function, and mechanism of discharge; myotoxins T1 and T2 were isolated from microbasic mastigophores. Endean studied poisonous stonefish (Synanceia trachynis) and, with Ann Cameron, scorpionfish (Notesthes robusta); investigations of ciguatera and of paralytic shellfish poisoning were initiated. He organized the collection of Australian frogs which led to the isolation of caerulein by Erspamer in Italy. Endean highlighted the ecological danger of the population explosion of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) and provided the impetus for the creation of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. PMID:16952385

Hawgood, Barbara J

2006-12-01

253

Speciation and isotopic composition of sulfur in sediments from Jellyfish Lake, Palau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Jellyfish Lake, Palau, is a meromictic marine lake with high organic productivity, low reactive Fe content, and anoxic bottom waters. Sediment samples from Jellyfish Lake were examined for the distribution of sulfur species and their isotopic signatures in order to gain a better understanding of sedimentary sulfur incorporation in Fe-poor environments. Surface samples were taken along a transect from a near-shore site to the center of the lake, and include a sample below oxic water, a sample below the chemocline layer, and samples below anoxic waters. Three additional samples were taken from a core, 2 m long, collected near the lake center. Sulfur to organic carbon weight ratios in all samples were lower than the expected value of 0.36 for normal marine sediment, probably because the lake water is deficient in reactive Fe to form iron sulfides. Total sulfur contents in the surface sediments indicated no changes with distance from shore; however, the sulfur content of the surface sample at the chemocline layer may be slightly higher. Total sulfur content increased with depth in the core and is inversely related to organic carbon content. Organic sulfur is the major sulfur species in the samples, followed in descending order by sulfate, disulfides and monosulfides. Sulfate sulfur isotope ??34S-values are positive (from +20.56 to +12.04???), reflecting the marine source of sulfate in Jellyfish Lake. Disulfide and monosulfide ??34S-values are negative (from -25.07 to -7.60???), because of fractionation during bacterial reduction of sulfate. Monosulfide ??34S-values are somewhat higher than those of disulfides, and they are close to the ??34S-values of organic sulfur. These results indicate that most of the organic sulfur is formed by reaction of bacteriogenic monosulfides, or possibly monosulfide-derived polysulfides, with organic matter in the sediment. ?? 1993.

Bates, A.L.; Spiker, E. C.; Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.

1993-01-01

254

Development studies of Aurelia (Jellyfish) ephyrae which developed during the SLS-1 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aurelia polyps (scyphistomae) and ephyrae were exposed to microgravity for nine days aboard the space shuttle during the SLS-1 mission. During strobilation, polyps segment transversely and each segment develops into an ephyra. Polyps were induced to strobilate at 28°C, using iodine or thyroxine, at L(Launch)-48h, L-24h, and L+8h. Ephyrae developed in the groups tested in space and on Earth. The number of ephyrae formed per polyp was slightly higher in the L+8h groups as compared with those induced at L-24h and L-48h. On Earth, iodine is used by jellyfish to synthesize jellyfish-thyroxine (JfT 4), needed for ephyra production. Since iodine-treated polyps strobilated and formed ephyrae in space, it appears that jellyfish can synthesize Jf-T4 in space. Indeed, two groups of polyps not given inducer formed ephryae in space, presumably due to enhanced Jf-T4 synthesis, utilization or accumulation. Some ephyrae that formed in space were also fixed in space on Mission Day (MD) 8; others were fixed post-flight. Examination of living ephyrae with the light microscope and fixed ones with the Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes revealed that those which developed in space were morphologically very similar to those which developed on Earth. Quantitation of arm numbers determined that there were no significant differences between space and Earth-developed ephyrae. Pulsing abnormalities, however, were found in greater numbers (18.3%) in space-developed ephyrae than in Earth-developed controls (2.9%). These abnormalities suggest abnormal development of the graviceptors, the neuromuscular system, or a defect in the integration between these systems in apparently microgravity-sensitive animals.

Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; McCombs, R.; Lowe, B. T.; Sampson, M.; Slusser, J.

1994-08-01

255

Development studies of Aurelia (jellyfish) ephyrae which developed during the SLS-1 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aurelia polyps (scyphistomae) and ephyrae were exposed to microgravity for nine days aboard the space shuttle during the SLS-1 mission. During strobilation, polyps segment transversely and each segment develops into an ephyra. Polyps were induced to strobilate at 28 C, using iodine or thyroxine, at L(Launch)-48h, L-24h, and L+8h. Ephyrae developed in the groups tested in space and on Earth. The number of ephyrae formed per polyp was slightly higher in the L+8h groups as compared with those induced at L-24h and L-48h. On Earth, iodine is used by jellyfish to synthesize jellyfish-thyroxine (Jf T(sub 4)), needed for ephyra production. Since iodine-treated polyps strobilated and formed ephyrae in space, it appears that jellyfish can synthesize Jf-T(sub 4) in space. Indeed, two groups of polyps not given inducer formed ephryae in space, presumably due to enhanced Jf-T(sub 4) synthesis, utilization or accumulation. Some ephyrae that formed in space were also fixed in space on Mission Day (MD) 8; others were fixed post-flight. Examination of living ephyrae with the light microscope and fixed ones with the Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes revealed that those which developed in space were morphologically very similar to those which developed on Earth. Quantitation of arm numbers determined that there were no significant differences between space and Earth-developed ephyrae. Pulsing abnormalities, however, were found in greater number (18.3%) in space-developed ephyrae than in Earth-developed controls (2.9%). These abnormalities suggest abnormal development of the graviceptors, the neuromuscular system, or a defect in the integration between these systems in apparently microgravity-sensitive animals.

Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Mccombs, R.; Lowe, B. T.; Sampson, M.; Slusser, J.

1994-01-01

256

Ecosystem relevance of variable jellyfish biomass in the Irish Sea between years, regions and water types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the abundance and distribution of taxa is essential to assess their contribution to ecosystem processes. For marine taxa that are difficult to study or have long been perceived of little ecological importance, quantitative information is often lacking. This is the case for jellyfish (medusae and other gelatinous plankton). In the present work, 4 years of scyphomedusae by-catch data from the 2007-2010 Irish Sea juvenile gadoid fish survey were analysed with three main objectives: (1) to provide quantitative and spatially-explicit species-specific biomass data, for a region known to have an increasing trend in jellyfish abundance; (2) to investigate whether year-to-year changes in catch-biomass are due to changes in the numbers or in the size of medusa (assessed as the mean mass per individual), and (3) to determine whether inter-annual variation patterns are consistent between species and water masses. Scyphomedusae were present in 97% of samples (N = 306). Their overall annual median catch-biomass ranged from 0.19 to 0.92 g m-3 (or 8.6 to 42.4 g m-2). Aurelia aurita and Cyanea spp. (Cyanea lamarckii and Cyanea capillata) made up 77.7% and 21.5% of the total catch-biomass respectively, but species contributions varied greatly between sub-regions and years. No consistent pattern was detected between the distribution and inter-annual variations of the two genera, and contrasting inter-annual patterns emerged when considering abundance either as biomass or as density. Significantly, A. aurita medusae were heavier in stratified than in mixed waters, which we hypothesize may be linked to differences in timing and yield of primary and secondary productions between water masses. These results show the vulnerability of time-series from bycatch datasets to phenological changes and highlight the importance of taking species- and population-specific distribution patterns into account when integrating jellyfish into ecosystem models.

Bastian, Thomas; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Beggs, Steven E.; Hays, Graeme C.; Doyle, Thomas K.

2014-08-01

257

Antihypertensive Effect of Long-Term Oral Administration of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Collagen Peptides on  

E-print Network

Abstract: Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p> 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p> 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs ’ kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP.

Renovascular Hypertension; Yongliang Zhuang; Liping Sun; Yufeng Zhang; Gaoxiang Liu

2012-01-01

258

Indomethacin induction of metamorphosis from the asexual stage to sexual stage in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.  

PubMed

We found while screening a chemical library that indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, induced strobilation (metamorphosis from the asexual to sexual stage) in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita. Indomethacin initiated strobilation in a dose-dependent manner, but was not involved in the progression of strobilation. Pharmacological experiments suggested that indomethacin could induce strobilation independently of prostaglandin biosynthesis. PMID:22785488

Kuniyoshi, Hisato; Okumura, Izumi; Kuroda, Rie; Tsujita, Natsumi; Arakawa, Kenji; Shoji, Jun; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

259

A report on a Moon Jellyfish Aurelia aurita bloom in Sishili Bay, Northern Yellow Sea of China in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, an increasing number of reports on blooms of Moon Jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) have occurred in the northern coast of China. Throughout the summer of 2009, we studied the occurrence of an A. aurita bloom in relation to environmental variables in the Yantai Sishili Bay of the Northern Yellow Sea. The mean abundance of A. aurita was 0.62

Zhijun Dong; Dongyan Liu; Yujue Wang; Baoping Di; Xiukai Song; Yajun Shi

2012-01-01

260

Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer from aequorin to a fluorophore: an artificial jellyfish for applications in multianalyte detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, the green light emission observed in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is a result of a non-radiative energy transfer from the excited-state aequorin to the green fluorescent protein. In this work, we have modified the photoprotein aequorin by attaching selected fluorophores at a unique site on the protein. This will allow for in vitro transfer of bioluminescent energy from

Sapna K. Deo; Mara Mirasoli; Sylvia Daunert

2005-01-01

261

In vivo transfection of testicular germ cells and transgenesis by using the mitochondrially localized jellyfish fluorescent protein gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to introduce foreign DNA into spermatogenic cells in the testis by injection of the DNA encoding jellyfish fluorescent proteins, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) into the seminiferous tubules and in vivo electroporation. We obtained fluorescent spermatozoa only when using the gene of the YFP protein fused to a mitochondrial localization signal peptide. Intracytoplasmic injection

Zhenyong Huang; Masaru Tamura; Takayuki Sakurai; Shinichiro Chuma; Tetsuichiro Saito; Norio Nakatsuji

2000-01-01

262

Conservation of Brachyury, Mef2, and Snail in the Myogenic Lineage of Jellyfish: A Connection to the Mesoderm of Bilateria  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major difference between simple metazoans such as cnidarians and all the bilaterian animals is thought to involve the invention of mesoderm. The terms diploblasts and triploblasts are therefore, often used to group prebilaterian and bilaterian animals, respectively. However, jellyfish contain well developed striated and smooth muscle tissues that derive from the entocodon, a mesoderm-like tissue formed during medusa development.

Jürg Spring; Nathalie Yanze; Christoph Jösch; Arnoud M. Middel; Brigitte Winninger; Volker Schmid

2002-01-01

263

THE PARAMETERS AND PROPERTIES OF A GROUP OF ELECTRICALLY COUPLED NEURONES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF A HYDROZOAN JELLYFISH  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Swimming of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is controlled by a network of large, electrically coupled, motor neurones in the inner nerve- ring (Fig. 3). Recordings from pairs of neurones, even at widely separated positions, display essentially the same electrical activity (Fig. 1). 2. Electrical coupling between neurones is via gap-junctions and is very strong, giving the network a

A. N. SPENCER

264

The Homeobox Gene Otx of the Jellyfish Podocoryne carnea: Role of a Head Gene in Striated Muscle and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many bilaterian animals members of the Otx gene family are expressed in head or brain structures. Cnidarians, however, have no clearly homologous head and no distinct brain; but an Otx homolog from the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea is highly conserved in sequence and domain structure. Sequence similarities extend well beyond the homeodomain and Podocoryne Otx can be aligned over its

Peter Müller; Nathalie Yanze; Volker Schmid; Jürg Spring

1999-01-01

265

Presence of trans -6-Hexadecenoic acid in the White Jellyfish Aurelia aurita Lamarck and in a Caribbean gorgonian  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual fatty acid,trans-6-hexadecenoic, previously found in the lipids of marine turtles, the ocean sunfish and a sea anemone, is also present in\\u000a the lipids of the white jellyfish and in a common Caribbean sublittoral gorgonian.

S. N. Hooper; R. G. Ackman

1972-01-01

266

JetSum: SMA actuator based undersea unmanned vehicle inspired by jellyfish bio-mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, we reported an undersea unmanned vehicle (UUV) termed as JetSum, inspired by the locomotion of medusa jellyfish, [12]. The propulsion of JetSum was based on shape memory alloy (SMA) wires replicating the contraction-relaxation cycle of natural jellyfish locomotion. In this paper, we report modified design of JetSum that addresses problems related to electrical isolation and power consumption. The modifications lead to significant improvement in functionality, providing implementation of a full continuous bell, bolstering critical sealing junctions, and reducing the overall power requirement. A LabVIEW controller program was developed to automate and optimize the driving of JetSum enabling reduction in power consumption for full contraction of SMA. JetSum locomotion in underwater conditions was recorded by using a high-speed camera and analyzed with image processing techniques developed in MatLab. The results show that JetSum was able to achieve velocity of 7 cm/s with power consumption of 8.94 W per cycle.

Bressers, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank

2010-04-01

267

Ciguatera poisoning after ingestion of imported jellyfish: diagnostic application of serum immunoassay.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning is an important public health problem wherever humans consume tropical and subtropical fish. It accounts for over half of fish-related poisonings in the United States but is uncommonly diagnosed and underreported. Produced by dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin accumulates up the food chain in herbivorous and carnivorous fishes. Cnidaria jellyfish and related invertebrates) have not previously been associated with direct ciguatera intoxication in humans. We report the first case of ciguatera fish poisoning associated with cnidarian ingestion. A 12-year-old Tongan female presented to our Emergency Department with mid-abdominal pain, nausea, change in mental status, and new-onset movement disorder after ingestion of jellyfish imported from American Samoa. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by strongly positive serum identification of ciguatoxin and related polyether toxins (including okadaic acid) with a rapid extraction method (REM) and highly reliable solid-phase immunobead assay (S-PIA) performed by the Food Toxicology Research Group, University of Arizona. Ciguatera pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis (including consideration of palytoxin poisoning), and treatment are briefly reviewed. We emphasize the growing incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning outside "high-risk" areas. In regions with immigrant populations, privately imported exotic fish may be toxin vectors. Marine species other than carnivorous fish are now suspect in human ciguatera intoxication. Reliable tests can aid in premarket fish testing, diagnosis, and follow-up of ciguatera fish poisoning. The global prevalence of marine toxins demands fishermen, consumers, and physicians maintain a high index of suspicion for ciguatera fish poisoning. PMID:11990093

Zlotnick, B A; Hintz, S; Park, D L; Auerbach, P S

1995-08-01

268

An Experimental Investigation of the Feeding Currents Generated by Upside-Down Jellyfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow characteristics of oblate medusan swimmers such as the moon jellyfish (Aurelia) have been examined to understand the bio-fluid mechanics of feeding via unsteady propulsion (see Dabiri et al., J. Exp. Biol., 2005). The upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea) differs from the commonly observed swimming forms of scyphomedusae in that it is naturally found adhered to the muddy bottoms of shallow ocean waters. While they swim when disturbed, these organisms prefer to otherwise attach their bell surface to the floor and direct their oral arms upwards. Prey capture is accomplished by pulsatile contractions of the bell. The flow generated by the unsteady pulsations is examined using a combination of DPIV and morphological measurements. The phase-averaged flow field closely resembles a blowing jet centered about the body, with fluid entrainment occurring near the bell surface. Reversed flow regions are identified during both the contraction and relaxation phases. The effect of changing bell diameter on the jet as well as the production of flow structures is investigated. A qualitative comparison of the flow field between these organisms and swimming medusae will be presented.

Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura

2009-11-01

269

Ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance by Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance was studied in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus to compare its life-history strategy with two other common pelagic fishes, jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Cruise swimming speed of E. japonicus increased allometrically from 1·4 to 3·9 standard length (L(S) ) per s (L(S) s(-1) ) from early larval to metamorphosing stage. Burst swimming speed also increased from 6·1 to 28 L(S) s(-1) in these stages. Cruise speed was inferior to that of S. japonicus, as was burst speed to that of T. japonicus. Engraulis japonicus larvae were highly vulnerable to predation by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and were readily eaten until they reached 23 mm L(S) , but not at 26 mm L(S) . Schooling behaviour (indicated by parallel swimming) started at c. 17 mm L(S) . Average distance to the nearest neighbour was shorter than values reported in other pelagic fishes. The relatively low predator avoidance capability of E. japonicus may be compensated for by their transparent and thus less conspicuous body, in addition to their early maturation and high fecundity. PMID:21539545

Masuda, R

2011-05-01

270

Temporal properties of the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora.  

PubMed

Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) are visually orientating animals which possess a total of 24 eyes of 4 morphological types; 2 pigment cup eyes (pit eye and slit eye) and 2 lens eyes [upper lens-eye (ule) and lower lens-eye (lle)]. In this study, we use electroretinograms (ERGs) to explore temporal properties of the two lens eyes. We find that the ERG of both lens eyes are complex and using sinusoidal flicker stimuli we find that both lens eyes have slow temporal resolution. The average flicker fusion frequency (FFF) was found to be approximately 10 Hz for the ule and 8 Hz for the lle. Differences in the FFF and response patterns between the two lens eyes suggest that the ule and lle filter information differently in the temporal domain and thus are tuned to perform different visual tasks. The data collected in this study support the idea that the visual system of box jellyfish is a collection of special purpose eyes. PMID:20131056

O'Connor, Megan; Nilsson, Dan-E; Garm, Anders

2010-03-01

271

Modeling and optimization of IPMC actuator for autonomous jellyfish vehicle (AJV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionomeric Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators generate high flexural strains at small voltage amplitudes of 2-5V. IPMCs bend toward the anode when a potential drop is applied across its thickness. The actuation mechanism is due to the motion of ions inside it; which requires a form of hydration to dissociate and mobilize the charges. In our group IPMCs are developed either water based or Ionic Liquid based which is also known as the dry IPMCs. This combination of small voltage requirement with operation in both dry and underwater conditions makes the IPMCs a viable alternative for an Autonomous Jellyfish Vehicle (AJV). In this study, we estimate the mechanical properties of IPMC actuator having curved geometry using FEM model to match the experimental deformation. We combine the results from an electric model to estimate charge accumulated on electrode surface with piezoelectric model to estimate stress due to this charge accumulation. In the last step, the results are integrated with a structural model to simulate the actuator deformation. We have designed an AJV with embedded IPMC actuators using these properties to achieve the curvature of relaxed and contracted Jellyfish (Aurelia Aurita). Bio-mimetic deformation profile was achieved by using structural mechanics of beams with large deformation with only application of +/- 0.8V to optimized beam within 8.1% error norm in relaxed state and 21.3% in contracted state, with only -0.24% to 0.26% maximum flexural strain at maximum curvature point in contracted state.

Joshi, Keyur B.; Akle, Barbar J.; Leo, Donald J.; Priya, Shashank

2011-04-01

272

Cell death in relation to DNA damage after exposure to the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts.  

PubMed

Studies on the toxicity of Mediterranean jellyfish have gained attention owing to their weak toxic properties. Our research has been mainly performed on the Scyphomedusae. Pelagia noctiluca is a scyphozoan jellyfish which causes a danger to sea bathers and fishery damages in the Mediterranean Sea. To check whether the cytotoxicity of Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts was associated to DNA lesions, we have looked for DNA fragmentation by means of the Comet and chromosome aberration assays. To specify cell death pathway, we have investigated caspase-3 activation. Our results have shown that nematocysts reduced cell viability and induced DNA fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum effect at 150 000 nematocysts mL(-1). The high percentage of chromosome aberrations also emphasized the genotoxic character of Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts in Vero cells. This fragmentation was correlated to apoptosis induction which was confirmed by caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, the present report has suggested that Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts were able to promote apoptosis in Vero cells and therefore may be useful in cancer therapy. PMID:22331667

Ayed, Yosra; Bouaziz, Chayma; Brahmi, Dalel; Zaid, Chiraz; Abid, Salwa; Bacha, Hassen

2014-03-01

273

A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot actuated by an iris mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot (JetPRo) is designed, fabricated, and characterized with the objective of creating a fast-swimming uncrewed undersea vehicle. JetPRo measures 7.9 cm in height, 5.7 cm in diameter and is designed to mimic the proficient jetting propulsion mechanism used by the hydromedusa Sarsia tubulosa, which measures approximately 1 cm in diameter. In order to achieve the uniform-bell contraction used by S. tubulosa, we develop a novel circumferential actuation technique based on a mechanical iris diaphragm. When triggered, this mechanism induces a volumetric change of a deformable silicone cavity to expel a jet of fluid and produces positive thrust. A theoretical jetting model is used to optimize JetPRo’s gait for maximum steady-state swimming velocity, a result achieved by minimizing the timing between the contraction and relaxation phases. We validate this finding empirically and quantify the swimming performance of the robot using video tracking and time resolved digital particle image velocimetry. JetPRo was able to produce discrete vortex rings shed before pinch off and swim upwards with a maximum steady-state velocity of 11.6 cm s-1, outperforming current state-of-the-art robotic jellyfish in velocity as well as diameter-normalized velocity.

Marut, Kenneth; Stewart, Colin; Michael, Tyler; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

2013-09-01

274

Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye).  

PubMed

Annual outbreaks of the Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye) in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are regarded as a nuisance. Thus, utilizing this jellyfish species is of great significance to reduce harm to fisheries and marine environments. The yield of the acid-soluble collagens (ASCs) from the C. nozakii umbrella was 13.0% (dry weight) and that of the pepsin-solubilised collagens (PSCs) was 5.5% (dry weight). The SDS-PAGE patterns of the ASCs and PSCs differed from that of type I collagen, which indicate the presence of (?1)3. The denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagens was approximately 23.8°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASCs and PSCs retained their helical structures and the As, Pb, and Hg content of the collagens, detected by ICP-MS, were considerably lower than the national standards. The results suggest that collagens isolated from C. nozakii can potentially be used as an alternative source of collagen for use in various applications. PMID:24360414

Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Rui; Huang, Lei; Song, Yujie; Regenstein, Joe M

2014-05-01

275

The HOX-like gene Cnox2Pc is expressed at the anterior region in all life cycle stages of the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine jellyfish Podocoryne carnea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) has a metagenic life cycle consisting of a larva, a colonial polyp and a free-swimming jellyfish (medusa).\\u000a To study the function of HOX genes in primitive diploblastic animals we screened a library of P. carnea cDNA using PCR primers derived from the most conserved regions in helix 1 and helix 3 of the

Liria M. Masuda-Nakagawa; H. Gröer; Birgit L. Aerne; Volker Schmid

2000-01-01

276

Polyspermy block in jellyfish eggs: collaborative controls by Ca(2+) and MAPK.  

PubMed

Jellyfish eggs neither undergo apparent cortical reaction nor show any significant change in the membrane potential at fertilization, but nevertheless show monospermy. Utilizing the perfectly transparent eggs of the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae, here we show that the polyspermy block is accomplished via a novel mechanism: a collaboration between Ca(2+) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In Cytaeis, adhesion of a sperm to the animal pole surface of an egg was immediately followed by sperm-egg fusion and initiation of an intracellular Ca(2+) rise from this site. The elevated Ca(2+) levels lasted for several minutes following the sperm-egg fusion. The Ca(2+) rise proved to be necessary and sufficient for a polyspermy block, as inhibiting a Ca(2+) rise with EGTA promoted polyspermy, and conversely, triggering a Ca(2+) rise by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) or excess K(+) immediately abolished the egg's capacity for sperm-egg fusion. A Ca(2+) rise at fertilization or by artificial stimulations evoked dephosphorylation of MAPK in eggs. The eggs in which phosphorylated MAPK was maintained by injection of mRNA for MAPK kinase kinase (Mos), like intact eggs, exhibited a Ca(2+) rise at fertilization or by IP3 injection, and shut down the subsequent sperm-egg fusion. However, the Mos-expressing eggs became capable of accepting sperm following the arrest of Ca(2+) rise. In contrast, addition of inhibitors of MAPK kinase (MEK) to unfertilized eggs caused MAPK dephosphorylation without elevating Ca(2+) levels, and prevented sperm-egg fusion. Rephosphorylation of MAPK by injecting Mos mRNA after fertilization recovered sperm attraction, which is known to be another MAPK-dependent event, but did not permit subsequent sperm-egg fusion. Thus, it is possible that MAPK dephosphorylation irreversibly blocks sperm-egg fusion and reversibly suppresses sperm attraction. Collectively, our data suggest that both the fast and late mechanisms dependent on Ca(2+) and MAPK, respectively, ensure a polyspermy block in jellyfish eggs. PMID:24809798

Arakawa, Mio; Takeda, Noriyo; Tachibana, Kazunori; Deguchi, Ryusaku

2014-08-01

277

Long-term fluctuations in circalunar Beach aggregations of the box jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with links to environmental variability.  

PubMed

The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998- Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG). Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Change-Point Analysis (CPA), and General Regression Models (GRM) were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998-2001; 2006-2011) and decrease (2001-2006). Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach. PMID:24194856

Chiaverano, Luciano M; Holland, Brenden S; Crow, Gerald L; Blair, Landy; Yanagihara, Angel A

2013-01-01

278

Long-Term Fluctuations in Circalunar Beach Aggregations of the Box Jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with Links to Environmental Variability  

PubMed Central

The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8–12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998– Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG). Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Change-Point Analysis (CPA), and General Regression Models (GRM) were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8–12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998–2001; 2006–2011) and decrease (2001–2006). Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach. PMID:24194856

Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Holland, Brenden S.; Crow, Gerald L.; Blair, Landy; Yanagihara, Angel A.

2013-01-01

279

Antioxidant activity of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and hydroxyl radical averting capacity methods.  

PubMed

The giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (reaching sizes of up to 2 m diameter and 150 kg), which forms dense blooms, has caused extensive damage to fisheries by overloading trawl nets, while its toxic nematocysts cause dermatological symptoms. Giant jellyfish are currently discarded on the grounds of pest control. However, the giant jellyfish is considered to be edible and is part of Chinese cuisine. Therefore, we investigated whether any benefits for human health may be derived from consumption of the jellyfish in order to formulate medicated diets. Antioxidant activity of Nemopilema nomurai was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) methods. Based on the results, the ORAC value of the giant jellyfish freeze-dried sample was 541 µmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and the HORAC value was 3,687 µmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g. On the other hand, the IC50 value of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measured by using the electron spin resonance method was 3.3%. In conclusion, the results suggest that the freeze-dried powder of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is a potentially beneficial food for humans. PMID:21667028

Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Ogawa, Shinya; Fukuda, Kyoko; Nagatsuka, Norie; Nagao, Keiko; Ueno, Shunshiro

2011-01-01

280

Complete mitochondrial genome of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).  

PubMed

We sequenced 16,971 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. nov. and characterized it by comparing with Aurelia aurita. They had 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with three tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met). Both have another two PCGs, orf969 and orf324 with telomeres at both ends. After comparison of Aurelia sp. nov. with Aurelia aurita, we found low-protein similarity of orf969 (59%) and orf324 (75%), respectively, while the other 13 PCGs showed 80% to 98% protein similarities. PMID:23488923

Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seong

2014-02-01

281

Pelagia benovici sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): a new jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

A bloom of an unknown semaestome jellyfish species was recorded in the North Adriatic Sea from September 2013 to early 2014. Morphological analysis of several specimens showed distinct differences from other known semaestome species in the Mediterranean Sea and unquestionably identified them as belonging to a new pelagiid species within genus Pelagia. The new species is morphologically distinct from P. noctiluca, currently the only recognized valid species in the genus, and from other doubtful Pelagia species recorded from other areas of the world. Molecular analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA genes corroborate its specific distinction from P. noctiluca and other pelagiid taxa, supporting the monophyly of Pelagiidae. Thus, we describe Pelagia benovici sp. nov. Piraino, Aglieri, Scorrano & Boero. PMID:24870334

Piraino, Stefano; Aglieri, Giorgio; Martell, Luis; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Melli, Valentina; Milisenda, Giacomo; Scorrano, Simonetta; Boero, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

282

A Case of Delayed Flare-up Allergic Dermatitis Caused by Jellyfish Sting.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old boy, taking lessons at a yacht school at Enoshima in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, recognized a linear eruption on his left lower leg during practice in August 2012. As it gradually enlarged, he visited a local medical clinic. The eruption initially improved with topical treatment but exacerbated in October of the same year. Although topical treatment was started again, there was minimal improvement, so the patient visited our hospital in December. At his first visit, he had a hard linear nodule on his left lower leg, and papules with excoriation were scattered over the lower limbs. Considering eczema, topical steroid treatment and occlusive dressing technique were started but the nodule remained. Based on the clinical course, clinical features, and laboratory findings, the lesion was considered to be delayed flare-up allergic dermatitis caused by a jellyfish sting [1]. PMID:25248421

Manabe, Yasuaki; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Kawai, Mayu; Ota, Tami; Ikoma, Norihiro; Ozawa, Akira; Horita, Takushi

2014-01-01

283

Exploring vortex enhancement and manipulation mechanisms in jellyfish that contributes to energetically efficient propulsion.  

PubMed

The ability of animals to propel themselves efficiently through a fluid medium is ecologically advantageous. Flexible components that influence vortex interactions are widespread among animal propulsors. However the mechanisms by which vortices are enhanced and appropriately positioned for thrust generation are still poorly understood. Here, we describe how kinematic propulsor movements of a jellyfish can enhance and reposition a vortex ring that allows the recapture of wake energy for secondary thrust generation and efficient locomotion. We use high-speed video and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to resolve kinematics simultaneously with fluid structures. These results provide new insight into how animals can manipulate fluid structures to reduce metabolic energy demands of swimming muscles and may have implications in bio-inspired design. PMID:25346796

Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P

2014-01-01

284

The lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsalmus sp. are slow and color-blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae, possess an impressive total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Compared to\\u000a other cnidarians they also have an elaborate behavioral repertoire, which for a large part seems to be visually guided. Two\\u000a of the four types of cubomedusean eyes, called the upper and the lower lens eye, are camera type eyes with spherical fish-like

A. Garm; M. M. Coates; R. Gad; J. Seymour; D.-E. Nilsson

2007-01-01

285

pH-responsive inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecular hydrogels with jellyfish-like switchable chromic luminescence.  

PubMed

A unique type of novel supramolecular hybrid hydrogel based on the co-assembly of the anionic polyoxometalate and the cationic ABA triblock copolymer via electrostatic interaction was reported to show jellyfish-like switchable chromic luminescence. The hydrogel undergoes reversible sol-gel transition in response to pH changes, and simultaneously exhibits an unprecedented luminescent chromism from weak green to strong white. PMID:25001843

Wei, Haibing; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Jinlong; Guan, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Xinhua

2014-08-25

286

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Protein Toxin from the Hawaiian Box Jellyfish (Sea Wasp) Carybdea alata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1830 (Cubozoa) is distributed widely in the tropics. The sting of C. alata causes severe pain and cutaneous inflammation in humans. We successfully isolated C. alata toxin-A (CaTX-A, 43 kDa) and -B (CaTX-B, 45 kDa) for the first time from the tentacle of C. alata collected at a site along the Hawaiian

Hiroshi Nagai; Kyoko Takuwa; Masahiro Nakao; Bryan Sakamoto; Gerald L Crow; Terumi Nakajima

2000-01-01

287

Stable isotope and biochemical fractionation in the marine pelagic food chain: the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca and net zooplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our field study we analyzed the C and H isotopic and biochemical (C, N, P, protein, lipid, carbohydrate) composition of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (collected from the Gulf of Trieste in 1985 to 1986) and its presumed diet-net zooplankton. The mean d 13C (-18.8‰) and d D (-58.4‰) ratios of P. noctiluca showed enrichment in heavy isotopes relative to

A. Malej; J. Faganeli; J. Pezdi?

1993-01-01

288

Plastic Jellyfish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

Moseley, Christine

2000-01-01

289

Diversity, Phylogeny and Expression Patterns of Pou and Six Homeodomain Transcription Factors in Hydrozoan Jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi  

PubMed Central

Formation of all metazoan bodies is controlled by a group of selector genes including homeobox genes, highly conserved across the entire animal kingdom. The homeobox genes from Pou and Six classes are key members of the regulation cascades determining development of sensory organs, nervous system, gonads and muscles. Besides using common bilaterian models, more attention has recently been targeted at the identification and characterization of these genes within the basal metazoan phyla. Cnidaria as a diploblastic sister group to bilateria with simple and yet specialized organs are suitable models for studies on the sensory organ origin and the associated role of homeobox genes. In this work, Pou and Six homeobox genes, together with a broad range of other sensory-specific transcription factors, were identified in the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Phylogenetic analyses of Pou and Six proteins revealed cnidarian-specific sequence motifs and contributed to the classification of individual factors. The majority of the Craspedacusta sowerbyi Pou and Six homeobox genes are predominantly expressed in statocysts, manubrium and nerve ring, the tissues with sensory and nervous activities. The described diversity and expression patterns of Pou and Six factors in hydrozoan jellyfish highlight their evolutionarily conserved functions. This study extends the knowledge of the cnidarian genome complexity and shows that the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish is generally rich in homeodomain transcription factors employed in the regulation of sensory and nervous functions. PMID:22558464

Hroudova, Miluse; Vojta, Petr; Strnad, Hynek; Krejcik, Zdenek; Ridl, Jakub; Paces, Jan; Vlcek, Cestmir; Paces, Vaclav

2012-01-01

290

Jellyfish Support High Energy Intake of Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Video Evidence from Animal-Borne Cameras  

E-print Network

The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of lowenergy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08–3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83–100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera’s field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJNd 21 but were as high as 167,797 kJNd 21 corresponding to turtles consuming

Susan G. Heaslip; Sara J. Iverson; W. Don Bowen; Michael C. James

291

A method for eradicating amphipod parasites (hyperiidae) from host jellyfish, Chrysaora fuscescens (Brandt, 1835), in a closed recirculating system.  

PubMed

On 2 December 2006, a heavy infestation of the parasitic hyperiid amphipods Hyperia medusarum and Lestrigonus shoemakeri was discovered in the sea nettles (Chrysaora fuscescens) exhibit at the Tennessee Aquarium. Pretreatment trials that exposed moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and sea nettles to therapeutic levels of diflubenzuron confirmed that the treatment would be tolerated by these species of jellyfish. The exhibit tank was dosed with a 0.03 mg/L concentration of diflubenzuron for 7 days, after which the medication was removed by filtration. An arbitrarily chosen subset from the sea nettle exhibit was sampled regularly over the next 8 wk to monitor the parasite population. The average number of amphipods per jellyfish sampled decreased throughout the treatment and sampling period. No live amphipods were observed 6 wk after the start of treatment, and no negative side effects were observed in the sea nettles. The use of diflubenzuron to eradicate hyperiid parasites from scyphomedusae is a safe and useful option when properly applied in a controlled environment. PMID:19368258

Crossley, Sharyl M G; George, Anna L; Keller, Christian J

2009-03-01

292

First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented Linear Architecture and Insights into Telomere Evolution  

PubMed Central

Animal mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) are typically single circular chromosomes, with the exception of those from medusozoan cnidarians (jellyfish and hydroids), which are linear and sometimes fragmented. Most medusozoans have linear monomeric or linear bipartite mitochondrial genomes, but preliminary data have suggested that box jellyfish (cubozoans) have mtDNAs that consist of many linear chromosomes. Here, we present the complete mtDNA sequence from the winged box jellyfish Alatina moseri (the first from a cubozoan). This genome contains unprecedented levels of fragmentation: 18 unique genes distributed over eight 2.9- to 4.6-kb linear chromosomes. The telomeres are identical within and between chromosomes, and recombination between subtelomeric sequences has led to many genes initiating or terminating with sequences from other genes (the most extreme case being 150 nt of a ribosomal RNA containing the 5? end of nad2), providing evidence for a gene conversion–based model of telomere evolution. The silent-site nucleotide variation within the A. moseri mtDNA is among the highest observed from a eukaryotic genome and may be associated with elevated rates of recombination. PMID:22117085

Smith, David Roy; Kayal, Ehsan; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Collins, Allen G.; Pirro, Stacy; Keeling, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

293

Design and development of bio-inspired underwater jellyfish like robot using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the design and development of an underwater Jellyfish like robot using Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs) as propulsion actuators. For this purpose, IPMCs are manufactured in several variations. First the electrode architecture is controlled to optimize the strain, strain rate, and stiffness of the actuator. Second, the incorporated diluents species are varied. The studied diluents are water, formamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methyimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EmI-Tf) ionic liquid. A water based IPMC demonstrates a fast strain rate of 1%/s, but small peak strain of 0.3%, and high current of 200mA/cm2, as compared to an IL based IPMC which has a slow strain rate of 0.1%/s, large strain of 3%, and small current of 50mA/cm2. The formamide is proved to be the most powerful with a strain rate of approximately 1%/s, peak strain larger than 5%, and a current of 150mA/cm2. The IL and formamide based samples required encapsulation for shielding the diluents from being dissolved in the surrounding water. Two Jellyfish like robots are developed each with an actuator with different diluents. Several parameters on the robot are optimized, such as the input waveform to the actuators, the shape and material of the belly. The finesse ratio of the shape of the robotic belly is compared with biological jellyfish such as the Aurelia-Aurita..

Akle, Barbar; Najem, Joseph; Leo, Donald; Blottman, John

2011-04-01

294

Diversity, phylogeny and expression patterns of Pou and Six homeodomain transcription factors in hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi.  

PubMed

Formation of all metazoan bodies is controlled by a group of selector genes including homeobox genes, highly conserved across the entire animal kingdom. The homeobox genes from Pou and Six classes are key members of the regulation cascades determining development of sensory organs, nervous system, gonads and muscles. Besides using common bilaterian models, more attention has recently been targeted at the identification and characterization of these genes within the basal metazoan phyla. Cnidaria as a diploblastic sister group to bilateria with simple and yet specialized organs are suitable models for studies on the sensory organ origin and the associated role of homeobox genes. In this work, Pou and Six homeobox genes, together with a broad range of other sensory-specific transcription factors, were identified in the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Phylogenetic analyses of Pou and Six proteins revealed cnidarian-specific sequence motifs and contributed to the classification of individual factors. The majority of the Craspedacusta sowerbyi Pou and Six homeobox genes are predominantly expressed in statocysts, manubrium and nerve ring, the tissues with sensory and nervous activities. The described diversity and expression patterns of Pou and Six factors in hydrozoan jellyfish highlight their evolutionarily conserved functions. This study extends the knowledge of the cnidarian genome complexity and shows that the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish is generally rich in homeodomain transcription factors employed in the regulation of sensory and nervous functions. PMID:22558464

Hroudova, Miluse; Vojta, Petr; Strnad, Hynek; Krejcik, Zdenek; Ridl, Jakub; Paces, Jan; Vlcek, Cestmir; Paces, Vaclav

2012-01-01

295

Behavior of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in the East China Sea and East\\/Japan Sea during the summer of 2005: A numerical model approach using a particle-tracking experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of physical processes in the distribution of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in the northern East China (ECS) Yellow (YS) and East\\/Japan (EJS) seas in summer 2005 was simulated by a Lagrangian particle-tracking experiment based on ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System). The particles representing jellyfish were released in the western YS between the Shandong Peninsula and the Changjiang

Jae-Hong Moon; Ig-Chan Pang; Joon-Yong Yang; Won Duk Yoon

2010-01-01

296

Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), leading to an increase in [Ca2+]c, instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system. PMID:23999662

Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Liu, Guoyan; Zheng, Jiemin; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

2013-01-01

297

Crude Venom from Nematocysts of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca as a Tool to Study Cell Physiology.  

PubMed

Marine animals represent a good model for toxicological investigations, being a source of novel bioactive substances considered as a suitable research tool. Among stinging animals, Cnidarians possess specialized cells, termed nematocytes, containing an inverted tubule and toxins, synergistically responsible for mechanisms of defence and predation. Such compounds include proteins and secondary metabolites with toxic action. To elucidate the effects of Cnidarian venom upon cell targets, this short review reports on the biological activity of venom extracted from nematocysts of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, whose "blooming" is well known in the Mediterranean Sea. The effects on erythrocytes and on cultured cells, from both mammals and invertebrates, along with in vivo studies, are here being considered. What is known about the biological activity of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom accounts for a notable effect at different levels, suggesting that cell damage may be due to a pore formation mechanism on cell membrane target leading to osmotic lysis, and /or to oxidative stress events. In this light, the study of venom activity may contribute to i) validate suitable biological assays for venom testing; ii) elucidate cell function features; iii) understand the pathophysiology of envenoming. PMID:25353952

Morabito, Rossana; La Spada, Giuseppina; Crupi, Rosalia; Esposito, Emanuela; Marino, Angela

2014-10-28

298

Downward particulate organic carbon export and jellyfish blooms in southeastern Hudson Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term sediment trap was deployed at 100 m (station AN03; 55°24'N; 77°55'W; water depth = 136 m) from October 2005 to August 2007 to monitor downward carbon export in southeastern Hudson Bay in the Canadian subarctic region. Elevated particulate organic carbon (POC) and total fluxes during fall 2005 and 2006 were the result of wind-induced resuspension of settled POC. The absence of a significant increase in POC fluxes in summer 2006 in contrast to summer 2007 suggests variation in the processes regulating carbon export in southeastern Hudson Bay. Large quantities of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Aglantha digitale were collected in the sediment trap during fall 2006 and summer 2007. The large collection of A. digitale during fall 2006 corresponds to the seasonal descent of the population, while the large abundance during summer 2007 remains unexplained. The increased POC fluxes in summer 2007 and the large occurrence of A. digitale in 2006 and 2007 may be early signs of environmental changes in southeastern Hudson Bay, however more sampling is needed to capture the variability of the ecosystem.

Lalande, Catherine; Fortier, Louis

2011-12-01

299

Synthesis and characterization of polypyrrole composite actuator for jellyfish unmanned undersea vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigated two geometries of conductive polymer-metal composite actuators: stripe and axial. The stripe actuator design consisted of gold coated poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membrane with polypyrrole film grown potentiodynamically on top and bottom in sandwich structure. For axial type actuator, a gold coated core substrate was used which can be easily dissolved after polymerization of pyrrole. Synthesis of all samples was conducted using cyclic voltammometry technique. Results indicate that axial type actuator consisting of 0.25 M Pyrrole, 0.10 M TBAP and 0.5 M KCl in aqueous solution exhibits strain up to 6% and 18 kPa blocking stress for applied potential of 6V DC after 80 sec stimulation time. The axial type of actuator also exhibits rotary motion under DC voltage in electrolytic media. Experimental data was used to establish stress-strain and energy density-time response relationships. The stripe actuator with dimensions of 20mm length, 5mm width and 63?m thickness exhibited 2.8 mm transversal deflection at 7V and 0.2 Hz. Potential applications of conducting polymer based actuators include biometric jellyfish and expressive robotic head.

Tadesse, Yonas; Brennan, Jaclyn; Smith, Colin; Long, Timothy E.; Priya, Shashank

2010-04-01

300

Analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic activities of the venom prepared from the Mediterranean jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskal, 1775)  

PubMed Central

Background Toxins derived from jellyfishes have been exploited as a model for the development of new drug promising applications to treat neurodegenerative diseases. The present work is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca and then to screen the analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic (anti-BuChE) activities of the crude venom and its fractions. Methods Sephadex G75 gel was used to separate crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca, which led to some fractions. In addition, in vivo analgesic and in vitro plasma antibutyrylcholinestrasic activities were carried out with Pelagia crude venom and its fractions respectively. Results The crude venom and its fractions displayed analgesic and anti-BuChE activities at different doses without inducing acute toxicity. Fraction 2 possesses the highest analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic properties. The crude venom and fraction 1 had shown to possess less significant inhibitory activity against analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic models. Conclusions Based on this study, the crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca is found to be a useful tool for probing pharmacological activity. The purification and the determination of chemical structures of compounds of active fractions of the venom are under investigation. PMID:22691546

2012-01-01

301

Construction of chitin/PVA composite hydrogels with jellyfish gel-like structure and their biocompatibility.  

PubMed

High strength chitin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels (RCP) were constructed by adding PVA into chitin dissolved in a NaOH/urea aqueous solution, and then by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) and freezing-thawing process. The RCP hydrogels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state (13)C NMR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and compressive test. The results revealed that the repeated freezing/thawing cycles induced the bicrosslinked networks consisted of chitin and PVA crystals in the composite gels. Interestingly, a jellyfish gel-like structure occurred in the RCP75 gel with 25 wt % PVA content in which the amorphous and crystalline PVA were immobilized tightly in the chitin matrix through hydrogen bonding interaction. The freezing/thawing cycles played an important role in the formation of the layered porous PVA networks and the tight combining of PVA with the pore wall of chitin. The mechanical properties of RCP75 were much higher than the other RCP gels, and the compressive strength was 20× higher than that of pure chitin gels, as a result of broadly dispersing stress caused by the orderly multilayered networks. Furthermore, the cell culture tests indicated that the chitin/PVA composite hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility and safety, showing potential applications in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25077674

He, Meng; Wang, Zhenggang; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yanteng; Duan, Bo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lina

2014-09-01

302

Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20 %, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity, suggesting that jellyfish blooms can induce durable changes in the bacterial community structure in coastal lagoons. PMID:25408076

Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

2014-11-20

303

Clearance rates of ephyrae and small medusae of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita offered different types of prey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prey selection and knowledge of the amounts of water processed by the early stages of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita may at certain times of the year be crucial for understanding the plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems with mass occurrences of this jellyfish. In the present study we used two different methods ("clearance method" and "ingestion-rate method") to estimate the amount of water cleared per unit of time of different types and sizes of prey organisms offered to A. aurita ephyrae and small medusae. The mean clearance rates of medusae, estimated with Artemia sp. nauplii as prey by both methods, agreed well, namely 3.8 ± 1.4 l h - 1 by the clearance method and 3.2 ± 1.1 l h - 1 by the ingestion-rate method. Both methods showed that copepods (nauplii and adults) and mussel veligers are captured with considerably lower efficiency, 22 to 37% and 14 to 30%, respectively, than Artemia salina nauplii. By contrast, the water processing rates of ephyrae measured by the clearance method with A. salina nauplii as prey were 3 to 5 times lower than those measured by the ingestion-rate method. This indicates that the prerequisite of full mixing for using the clearance method may not have been fulfilled in the ephyrae experiments. The study demonstrates that the predation impact of the young stages of A. aurita is strongly dependent on its developmental stage (ephyra versus medusa), and the types and sizes of prey organisms. The estimated prey-digestion time of 1.3 h in a steady-state feeding experiment with constant prey concentration supports the reliability of the ingestion-rate method, which eliminates the negative "container effects" of the clearance method, and it seems to be useful in future jellyfish studies, especially on small species/younger stages in which both type and number of prey can be easily and precisely assessed.

Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Madsen, Caroline V.

2011-01-01

304

Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): video evidence from animal-borne cameras.  

PubMed

The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83-100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1) but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1) corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1) (up to 840 kg • d(-1)) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish • d(-1). Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1) equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to southward migration. PMID:22438906

Heaslip, Susan G; Iverson, Sara J; Bowen, W Don; James, Michael C

2012-01-01

305

Vertical distribution of Aurelia labiata (Scyphozoa) jellyfish in Roscoe Bay is similar during flood and ebb tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of the jellyfish, Aurelia labiata, was assessed during flood and ebb tides in April, May, June, and August 2009 in Roscoe Bay (British Columbia, Canada). Assessments were made at locations along the entire length of the bay. The average tide change was 3.7 m. The vertical position of medusae (in 2 m intervals) did not differ significantly during ebb ( N = 17) and flood tides ( N = 18) in 6 and 8 m water columns. These results indicate that A. labiata do not use tidally synchronized vertical migration to maintain their location or presence in Roscoe Bay.

Albert, David J.

2010-10-01

306

Jellyfish Support High Energy Intake of Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Video Evidence from Animal-Borne Cameras  

PubMed Central

The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n?=?19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08–3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83–100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p?=?0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p?=?0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ•d?1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ•d?1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass•d?1 (up to 840 kg•d?1) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish•d-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass•d?1 equating to an average energy intake of 3–7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to southward migration. PMID:22438906

Heaslip, Susan G.; Iverson, Sara J.; Bowen, W. Don; James, Michael C.

2012-01-01

307

Setting the Pace: New Insights into Central Pattern Generator Interactions in Box Jellyfish Swimming  

PubMed Central

Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multiple types of behaviour. The four swim CPGs are directly regulated by visual input. In this study, we addressed the question of how the four pacemaker centres of this radial symmetric cnidarian interact. We based our investigation on high speed camera observations of the timing of swim pulses of tethered animals (Tripedalia cystophora) with one or four rhopalia, under different simple light regimes. Additionally, we developed a numerical model of pacemaker interactions based on the inter pulse interval distribution of animals with one rhopalium. We showed that the model with fully resetting coupling and hyperpolarization of the pacemaker potential below baseline fitted the experimental data best. Moreover, the model of four swim pacemakers alone underscored the proportion of long inter pulse intervals (IPIs) considerably. Both in terms of the long IPIs as well as the overall swim pulse distribution, the simulation of two CPGs provided a better fit than that of four. We therefore suggest additional sources of pacemaker control than just visual input. We provide guidelines for future research on the physiological linkage of the cubozoan CPGs and show the insight from bilaterian CPG research, which show that pacemakers have to be studied in their bodily and nervous environment to capture all their functional features, are also manifest in cnidarians. PMID:22073288

Stöckl, Anna Lisa; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2011-01-01

308

Mitochondrial Genome of the Freshwater Jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi and Phylogenetics of Medusozoa  

PubMed Central

The 17,922 base pairs (bp) nucleotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi (Hydrozoa,Trachylina, Limnomedusae) has been determined. This sequence exhibits surprisingly low A+T content (57.1%), containing genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, a small and a large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. Mitochondrial ancestral medusozoan gene order (AMGO) was found in the C. sowerbyi, as those found in Cubaia aphrodite (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae), discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. The genes of C. sowerbyi mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities, whereby transcription proceeds toward the ends of the DNA molecule. Identical inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) flank the ends of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, a characteristic typical of medusozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs) of 354 and 1611 bp in length were found downstream of the large subunit rRNA gene, similar to the two ORFs of ORF314 and polB discovered in the linear mtDNA of C. aphrodite, discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. Phylogenetic analyses of C. sowerbyi and other cnidarians were carried out based on both nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 mitochondrial energy pathway genes. Our working hypothesis supports the monophyletic Medusozoa being a sister group to Octocorallia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Within Medusozoa, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that Staurozoa may be the earliest diverging class and the sister group of all other medusozoans. Cubozoa and coronate Scyphozoa form a clade that is the sister group of Hydrozoa plus discomedusan Scyphozoa. Hydrozoa is the sister group of discomedusan Scyphozoa. Semaeostomeae is a paraphyletic clade with Rhizostomeae, while Limnomedusae (Trachylina) is the sister group of hydroidolinans and may be the earliest diverging lineage among Hydrozoa. PMID:23240028

Zou, Hong; Zhang, Jin; Li, Wenxiang; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang

2012-01-01

309

Epidemiology of Jellyfish Stings Presented to an American Urban Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cnidarian, or jellyfifish, stings are a common malady in tropical Emergency Departments. There are limited studies examining cnidarian stings in the United States. The team investigated the epidemiology and treatments for jellyfish stings presenting to an urban emergency department (ED) in Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Methods The team performed a retrospective chart analysis of stings presented between 2000 and 2008. A total of 116 patients were identified. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, incident characteristics, patient arrival condition, and treatments given in the emergency department. Results The median age was 24 years (range 9–85). Of patients 58% were men, 64% were Hawai‘i non-residents, and 23 % arrived between the hours of 10pm and 2 am. Emergency Medical System transported 64%, and 65% arrived with normal vital signs. Twenty-four different types of IV/PO medications were administered and patients received up to 5 different medications per visit. Intravenous medications were given to 64%. All patients were eventually discharged home from the ED. Discussion Risk factors for cnidarian stings include being men, being a Hawai‘i non-resident, and nighttime ocean activities. Stings were treated with various medications and routes suggesting that there is no current standard of care for stings. This study suggests that there is a need for public health interventions tailored to tourists. Prevention and education of home treatment could decrease the cost of health care by decreasing ambulance transports and total number of ED visits for a non-urgent disease. PMID:22162597

Onizuka, Neil

2011-01-01

310

Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its {sup 15}N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3{sub 10}-helix and two {alpha}-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two {alpha}-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the 'functional dyad' required for the high-affinity interaction with the K{sup +}-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Panteleev, Pavel V.; Balandin, Sergey V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gizatullina, Albina K.; Altukhov, Dmitry A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation) [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokryakov, Vladimir N. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation) [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2012-12-07

311

Jellyfish Lake, Palau: Regeneration of C, N, Si, and P in anoxic marine lake sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment cores from Jellyfish Lake were processed under an inert atmosphere and the pore waters extracted and analyzed for the following parameters: pH, titration alkalinity (TA), Cl-, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, Ca2-, Mg2+, SO42-, and H2S. Additionally, in one set of pore-water samples (core 10), the ??13C of the ??CO2 was also determined. The TA, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, and H2S increased with depth in the pore waters above anoxic bottom-water values. H2S values increased to 3.8 ??M. In one case, both H4SiO4 and PO43- concentrations increased to a maximum value and then decreased with depth, suggesting removal into solid phases. The H4SiO4 concentrations are equal to or greater than pore-water values observed in sediments underlying upwelling areas. PO43- concentrations are, in general, lower than pore-water values from terrigenous nearshore areas but higher than nearshore carbonate pore-water values from Florida Bay or Bermuda. The Ca2+, Cl-, and Mg2+: Cl- ratios show slight decreases in the top 15-20 cm, suggesting that authigenic carbonate may be forming. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the pore waters are saturated with respect to CaCO3 due to the very high TAs. The ??13C measurements of the pore-water ??CO2 are from a shorter core. These measurements reach their most negative concentration at 72 cm and then become slightly heavier. This change is accompanied by a decrease in TA, suggesting the onset of methanogenesis at this location in this core.

Lyons, W.B.; Lent, R.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chin, P.; Landing, W.M.; Orem, W.H.; McArthur, J.M.

1996-01-01

312

[Molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.) based on partial sequencing of mitochondrial 16S rDNA and COI].  

PubMed

Taking the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. commonly found in our coastal sea areas as test object, its genome DNA was extracted, the partial sequences of mt-16S rDNA (650 bp) and mt-COI (709 bp) were PCR-amplified, and, after purification, cloning, and sequencing, the sequences obtained were BLASTn-analyzed. The sequences of greater difference with those of the other jellyfish were chosen, and eight specific primers for the mt-16S rDNA and mt-COI of Aurelia sp. were designed, respectively. The specificity test indicated that the primer AS3 for the mt-16S rDNA and the primer AC3 for the mt-COI were excellent in rapidly detecting the target jellyfish from Rhopilema esculentum, Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, Acromitus sp., and Aurelia sp., and thus, the techniques for the molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish were preliminarily established, which could get rid of the limitations in classical morphological identification of Aurelia sp. , being able to find the Aurelia sp. in the samples more quickly and accurately. PMID:23755504

Wang, Jian-Yan; Zhen, Yu; Wang, Guo-shan; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang

2013-03-01

313

Observations on the Trophic Significance of Jellyfishes in Mississippi Sound with Quantitative Data on the Associative Behavior of Small Fishes with Medusae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic interrelationships of jellyfishes to other organisms in Mississippi Sound were investigated from March 1968 to March 1969. Ctenophores and, to a lesser extent, hydromedusae constitute the most important group of predators affecting zooplankton populations in this estuary due to: (1) extreme local abundance, and (2) voracious feeding habits. Evidence is presented that ctenophores and medusae constitute important food

Philip J. Phillips; W. David Burke; Elizabeth J. Keener

1969-01-01

314

Intracellular Ca(2+) overload induced by extracellular Ca(2+) entry plays an important role in acute heart dysfunction by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.  

PubMed

The exact mechanism of acute heart dysfunction caused by jellyfish venom remains unclear for the moment. In the present study, we examined the problem caused by the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata at the levels of whole animal, isolated heart, primarily cultured cardiomyocytes, and intracellular Ca(2+). The heart indexes, including HR, APs, LVPs, and MMLs, were all decreased significantly by TE in both whole animal and Langendorff-perfused isolated heart model. Imbalance of cardiac oxygen supply and demand also took place. In both Ca(2+)-containing and Ca(2+)-free bathing solutions, TE could cause obvious cytoplasmic Ca(2+) overload in NRVMs, but the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) increased faster, Ca(2+) overload peaks arrived earlier, and the morphological changes were more severe under the extracellular Ca(2+)-containing condition. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers, as well as the inhibitor of ryanodine receptor (ryanodine), could improve the viability of NRVMs. Moreover, diltiazem significantly inhibited the acute heart dysfunction caused by TE in both Langendorff isolated heart model and whole animal. These results suggested that intracellular Ca(2+) overload induced by extracellular Ca(2+) entry plays an important role in acute heart failure by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata. Inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) influx is a promising antagonistic alternative for heart damage by jellyfish venom. PMID:24563080

Zhang, Lin; He, Qian; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Beilei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

2014-09-01

315

Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

2014-05-01

316

Abrupt Changes in the Marmara Pelagic Ecosystem during the recent jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla invasion and mucilage events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, meteorological and hydrographical conditions as well as chemical and biological parameters have been examined for the period 2005-2009 to determine the impact and cause of the massive mucilage phenomenon observed in the Sea of Marmara in October 2007. Results showed that there is a decrease pattern in chl concentration as well as both phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances from August till October in 2007 whilst the jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla had bloom levels. This period coincided with the maximum intensity of pelagic fishing throughout the years. Nitrogen/phosphate ratio increased prior to the mucilage formation. Invasive Liriope tetraphylla abundance increased exponentially in August and died in masses as a result of starvation and meteorological / oceanographic conditions. In October, following the mucilage matter production another new species for the region Gonyaulax fragilis was observed in high abundance through the basin. It is worthy to note that during basin wide samplings conducted in the Sea of Marmara in both 2005 and 2006, high abundances of Liriope tetraphylla have been detected particularly at the northern parts where no mucilage event was observed. We suggest that overfishing in the Sea of Marmara provided a ground for the establishment of the invasive jellyfish and accompanying mucilage event was due to by synergic combinations of several factors.

Erkan Kideys, Ahmet; Yüksek, Ahsen; Sur, Halil Ibrahim

2013-04-01

317

Lipid peroxidation is another potential mechanism besides pore-formation underlying hemolysis of tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.  

PubMed

This study was performed to explore other potential mechanisms underlying hemolysis in addition to pore-formation of tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A dose-dependent increase of hemolysis was observed in rat erythrocyte suspensions and the hemolytic activity of TE was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, which was attenuated by Ca2+ channel blockers (Diltiazem, Verapamil and Nifedipine). Direct intracellular Ca2+ increase was observed after TE treatment by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the Ca2+ increase could be depressed by Diltiazem. The osmotic protectant polyethylenglycol (PEG) significantly blocked hemolysis with a molecular mass exceeding 4000 Da. These results support a pore-forming mechanism of TE in the erythrocyte membrane, which is consistent with previous studies by us and other groups. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important marker of lipid peroxidation, increased dose-dependently in rat erythrocytes after TE treatment, while in vitro hemolysis of TE was inhibited by the antioxidants ascorbic acid-Vitamin C (Vc)-and reduced glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, in vivo hemolysis and electrolyte change after TE administration could be partly recovered by Vc. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation is another potential mechanism besides pore-formation underlying the hemolysis of TE, and both Ca2+ channel blockers and antioxidants could be useful candidates against the hemolytic activity of jellyfish venoms. PMID:23303301

Wang, Tao; Wen, Xiao-Juan; Mei, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Qian-Qian; He, Qian; Zheng, Jie-Min; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Li-Ming

2013-01-01

318

Lipid Peroxidation Is another Potential Mechanism besides Pore-Formation Underlying Hemolysis of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to explore other potential mechanisms underlying hemolysis in addition to pore-formation of tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A dose-dependent increase of hemolysis was observed in rat erythrocyte suspensions and the hemolytic activity of TE was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, which was attenuated by Ca2+ channel blockers (Diltiazem, Verapamil and Nifedipine). Direct intracellular Ca2+ increase was observed after TE treatment by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the Ca2+ increase could be depressed by Diltiazem. The osmotic protectant polyethylenglycol (PEG) significantly blocked hemolysis with a molecular mass exceeding 4000 Da. These results support a pore-forming mechanism of TE in the erythrocyte membrane, which is consistent with previous studies by us and other groups. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important marker of lipid peroxidation, increased dose-dependently in rat erythrocytes after TE treatment, while in vitro hemolysis of TE was inhibited by the antioxidants ascorbic acid—Vitamin C (Vc)—and reduced glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, in vivo hemolysis and electrolyte change after TE administration could be partly recovered by Vc. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation is another potential mechanism besides pore-formation underlying the hemolysis of TE, and both Ca2+ channel blockers and antioxidants could be useful candidates against the hemolytic activity of jellyfish venoms. PMID:23303301

Wang, Tao; Wen, Xiao-Juan; Mei, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Qian-Qian; He, Qian; Zheng, Jie-Min; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Li-Ming

2013-01-01

319

The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata  

PubMed Central

To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3?, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B), decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (%) had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity. PMID:21731547

Xiao, Liang; Liu, Sihua; He, Qian; Wang, Qianqian; Ye, Xuting; Liu, Guoyan; Nie, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

2011-01-01

320

Cardiovascular Effect Is Independent of Hemolytic Toxicity of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have confirmed that the crude tentacle-only extract (cTOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cyaneidae) exhibits hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities simultaneously. So, it is quite difficult to discern the underlying active component responsible for heart injury caused by cTOE. The inactivation of the hemolytic toxicity from cTOE accompanied with a removal of plenty of precipitates would facilitate the separation of cardiovascular component and the investigation of its cardiovascular injury mechanism. In our research, after the treatment of one-step alkaline denaturation followed by twice dialysis, the protein concentration of the treated tentacle-only extract (tTOE) was about 1/3 of cTOE, and SDS-PAGE showed smaller numbers and lower density of protein bands in tTOE. The hemolytic toxicity of tTOE was completely lost while its cardiovascular toxicity was well retained. The observations of cardiac function, histopathology and ultrastructural pathology all support tTOE with significant cardiovascular toxicity. Blood gas indexes and electrolytes changed far less by tTOE than those by cTOE, though still with significant difference from normal. In summary, the cardiovascular toxicity of cTOE can exist independently of the hemolytic toxicity and tTOE can be employed as a better venom sample for further purification and mechanism research on the jellyfish cardiovascular toxic proteins. PMID:22905209

Qianqian, Wang; Sihua, Liu; Yang, Wang; Guoyan, Liu; Jia, Lu; Xuting, Ye; Liming, Zhang

2012-01-01

321

New family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton.  

PubMed

Molecular analyses have revealed many cryptic species in the oceans, often permitting small morphological differences to be recognized as diagnosing species, but less commonly leading to consideration of cryptic ecology. Here, based on analyses of three nuclear DNA sequence markers (ribosomal 18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1]), two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and ribosomal 16S), and 55 morphological features, we revise the classification of the enigmatic jellyfish genus Drymonema. We describe a new scyphozoan family, Drymonematidae, elevating the previous subfamily Drymonemidae to accommodate three species: the type species D. dalmatinum from the Mediterranean region, for which we identify a neotype; the western South Atlantic species D. gorgo; and a new species, D. larsoni from the western Atlantic and Caribbean, which also is described here. This revision emphasizes the remarkable morphological disparity of Drymonematidae from all other scyphomedusae, including allometric growth of the bell margin distal of the rhopalia, an annular zone of tentacles on the subumbrella, and ontogenetic loss of gastric filaments. Anatomical innovations are likely functionally related to predatory specialization on large gelatinous zooplankton, most notably the phylogenetically younger moon jellyfish Aurelia, indicating evolution of the feeding niche in Drymonematidae. This family-level revision contributes to the growing body of evidence that scyphomedusae are far more taxonomically rich, their biogeography is a more detailed mosaic, and their phenotypes are more nuanced than traditionally thought. Ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, past or future, are likely to be commensurately diverse. PMID:21183445

Bayha, Keith M; Dawson, Michael N

2010-12-01

322

The medical zoologist--Ronald Vernon Southcott.  

PubMed

Dr Ronald Vernon Southcott (1918-1998) was amongst the greatest of the Australian doctor-naturalists. His toxinological contributions included the description and naming of the box-jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, the first definitive study (1950-1957) of the toxinology, taxonomy and biology of Australian scorpions; and the first observations in Australia of the introduced fiddleback spider, Loxosceles. His research into the medical effects of toxic fungi, poisonous plants and Australian insects was extensive. He was a founding member of the International Society on Toxinology and served on the Toxicon Editorial Board for more than 30 years. He also made extensive contributions to acarology, and to the taxonomy of mites, specifically the sub-families and genera of the Erythraeoidea. This prodigious output was achieved by one who, with the exception of war service (1942-1946), almost never travelled outside South Australia, was almost entirely self-funded and worked from his home laboratory. With Dr. P.D. Scott and C.J. Glover, he was also the authority on the fish of South Australia. Dr. Southcott was also a medical epidemiologist and senior medical administrator (1949-1978) with the Australian Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs. He served for 30 years as an Honorary Consultant in Toxicology to the Adelaide Children's Hospital. As a zoologist and botanist of astounding breadth, he worked indefatigably in a voluntary capacity for the South Australian Museum, of which he was Museum Board Chairman from 1974 to 1982. In the pantheon of the great doctor-naturalists who have worked in Australia, he stands with Robert Brown and Thomas Lane Bancroft. PMID:16934849

Pearn, John

2006-12-01

323

Settlement of Planulae of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto Hydrophilic Polycarbonate Plates Modified by Atmospheric Plasma Treatment  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC) plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24465603

Tomaru, Akiko; Sasaki, Ryota; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

2014-01-01

324

First evidence of inbreeding, relatedness and chaotic genetic patchiness in the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).  

PubMed

Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments. PMID:24977703

Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

2014-01-01

325

First Evidence of Inbreeding, Relatedness and Chaotic Genetic Patchiness in the Holoplanktonic Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria)  

PubMed Central

Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments. PMID:24977703

Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

2014-01-01

326

A numerical study of the effects of bell pulsation dynamics and oral arms on the exchange currents generated by the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea spp  

E-print Network

Mathematical and experimental studies of the flows generated by jellyfish have focused primarily on mechanisms of swimming. More recent work has also considered the fluid dynamics of feeding from currents generated during swimming. Here the benthic lifestyle of the upside down jellyfish (Cassiopea spp.) is capitalized upon to explore the fluids dynamics of feeding uncoupled from swimming. A mathematical model is developed to capture the fundamental characteristics of the motion of the unique concave bell shape. Given the prominence of the oral arms, this structure is included and modeled as a porous layer that perturbs the flow generated by bell contractions. The immersed boundary method is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem. Velocity fields obtained from live organisms using digital particle image velocimetry were used to validate the numerical simulations. Parameter sweeps were used to numerically explore the effects of changes in pulse dynamics and the properties of the oral arms indepen...

Hamlet, Christina; Miller, Laura A

2010-01-01

327

Effects of turbidity on survival of larval ayu and red sea bream exposed to predation by jack mackerel and moon jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of turbidity on the survival of red sea bream Pagrus major and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel juveniles) or tactile (moon jellyfish) predators. The experiments were\\u000a conducted in 30-l tanks with three different levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50, or 300 ppm kaolin. Predators

Ryosuke Ohata; Reiji Masuda; Masahiro Ueno; Yuichi Fukunishi; Yoh Yamashita

2011-01-01

328

Ontogeny of anti-predator behavior in hatchery-reared jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus larvae and juveniles: patchiness formation, swimming capability, and interaction with jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations of larval and juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus were conducted to elucidate their life-history traits with emphasis on the interaction with the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Jack mackerel were raised from naturally spawned fertilized eggs and they attained 10.3±0.7 (mean±standard deviation) mm\\u000a in body length (BL) by 30 days post hatching (dph) and 26.6±1.8 mm

Reiji Masuda

2006-01-01

329

Interannual variability in the Northern California Current food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern California Current (NCC) is a seasonally productive and open ecosystem. It is home to both a diverse endemic community and to seasonally transient species. Productivity and food web structure vary seasonally, interannually, and decadally due to variability in coastal upwelling, climate-scale physical processes, and the migratory species entering the system. The composition of the pelagic community varies between years, including changes to mid-trophic level groups that represent alternate energy-transfer pathways between lower and upper trophic levels (forage fishes, euphausiids, jellyfish). Multiple data sets, including annual spring and summer mesoscale surveys of the zooplankton, pelagic fish, and seabird communities, were used to infer NCC trophic network arrangements and develop end-to-end models for each of the 2003-2007 upwelling seasons. Each model was used to quantify the interannual variability in energy-transfer efficiency from bottom to top trophic levels. When each model was driven under an identical nutrient input rate, substantial differences in the energy available to each functional group were evident. Scenario analyses were used to examine the roles of forage fishes, euphausiids, and jellyfish (small gelatinous zooplankton and large carnivorous jellyfish) as alternate energy transfer pathways. Euphausiids were the more important energy transfer pathway; a large proportion of the lower trophic production consumed was transferred to higher trophic levels. In contrast, jellyfish acted as a production loss pathway; little of the production consumed was passed upwards. Analysis of the range of ecosystem states observed interannually and understanding system sensitivity to variability among key trophic groups improves our ability to predict NCC ecosystem response to short- and long-term environmental change.

Ruzicka, James J.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Emmett, Robert L.; Steele, John H.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Morgan, Cheryl A.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Wainwright, Thomas C.

2012-09-01

330

First Report of a Peroxiredoxin Homologue in Jellyfish: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Functional Characterization of CcPrx4 from Cyanea capillata  

PubMed Central

We first identified and characterized a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx), designated as CcPrx4, from the cDNA library of the tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The full-length cDNA sequence of CcPrx4 consisted of 884 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a mature protein of 247 amino acids. It showed a significant homology to peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) with the highly conserved F-motif (93FTFVCPTEI101), hydrophobic region (217VCPAGW222), 140GGLG143 and 239YF240, indicating that it should be a new member of the Prx4 family. The deduced CcPrx4 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.3. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CcPrx4 mRNA could be detected in all the jellyfish tissues analyzed. CcPrx4 protein was cloned into the expression vector, pET-24a, and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant CcPrx4 protein was purified by HisTrap High Performance chelating column chromatography and analyzed for its biological function. The results showed that the purified recombinant CcPrx4 protein manifested the ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage, suggesting that CcPrx4 protein may play an important role in protecting jellyfish from oxidative damage. PMID:24413803

Ruan, Zengliang; Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Beilei; Zhou, Yonghong; Lu, Jia; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

2014-01-01

331

First report of a peroxiredoxin homologue in jellyfish: molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of CcPrx4 from Cyanea capillata.  

PubMed

We first identified and characterized a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx), designated as CcPrx4, from the cDNA library of the tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The full-length cDNA sequence of CcPrx4 consisted of 884 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a mature protein of 247 amino acids. It showed a significant homology to peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) with the highly conserved F-motif (93FTFVCPTEI101), hydrophobic region (217VCPAGW222), 140GGLG143 and 239YF240, indicating that it should be a new member of the Prx4 family. The deduced CcPrx4 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.3. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CcPrx4 mRNA could be detected in all the jellyfish tissues analyzed. CcPrx4 protein was cloned into the expression vector, pET-24a, and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant CcPrx4 protein was purified by HisTrap High Performance chelating column chromatography and analyzed for its biological function. The results showed that the purified recombinant CcPrx4 protein manifested the ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage, suggesting that CcPrx4 protein may play an important role in protecting jellyfish from oxidative damage. PMID:24413803

Ruan, Zengliang; Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Beilei; Zhou, Yonghong; Lu, Jia; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

2014-01-01

332

Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita  

PubMed Central

The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 ?g/?L for fetal and 2.28 ?g/?L for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

2013-01-01

333

Density and sound speed of two gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophore (Mnemiopsis leidyi) and lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata).  

PubMed

The density and sound speed of two coastal, gelatinous zooplankton, Mnemiopsis leidyi (a ctenophore) and Cyanea capillata (lion's mane jellyfish), were measured. These parameters are important inputs to acoustic scattering models. Two different methods were used to measure the density of individual animals: one used a balance and graduated cylinder to determine the mass and displacement volume of the animal, the other varied the density of the solution the animal was immersed in. When the same animal was measured using both methods, density values were within 1% of each other. A travel-time difference method was used to measure the sound speed within the animals. The densities of both zooplankton slightly decreased as the animals increased in length, mass, and volume. The ratio of animal density and sound speed to the surrounding seawater (g and h, respectively) are reported for both animals. For Mnemiopsis leidyi ranging in length from 1 to 5 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.007 (+/-0.001). For Cyanea capillata ranging in bell diameter from 2 to 11 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and single value of h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.0004. PMID:17614513

Warren, Joseph D; Smith, Joy N

2007-07-01

334

Behavior of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in the East China Sea and East/Japan Sea during the summer of 2005: A numerical model approach using a particle-tracking experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of physical processes in the distribution of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in the northern East China (ECS) Yellow (YS) and East/Japan (EJS) seas in summer 2005 was simulated by a Lagrangian particle-tracking experiment based on ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System). The particles representing jellyfish were released in the western YS between the Shandong Peninsula and the Changjiang River mouth from May to July 2005, and then tracked. Particles released in May-June in the Changjiang mouth moved mostly east-northeastward to the Korea/Tsushima Strait, and thereafter they moved to the Tsugaru Strait along the west coast of Japan from summer to fall. About 80% of the particles entered the EJS in this period. However, most of the particles from the northern Changjiang distributed in the YS, drifting anticlockwise, and thus only about 13% of the total particles entered the EJS area. The particle-tracking analysis shows that the observed distributions of the giant jellyfish in the northern ECS and EJS are quite similar to those of particles driven by wind forcing and ambient along-shelf currents in this area. The results with and without wind conditions differ fundamentally. With wind forcing, the eastward summer movement of the particles was enhanced; this determined the spatial distribution pattern of the particles and jellyfish in the waters around the Korean Peninsula. Moreover the particle distribution over time strongly suggests the Changjiang mouth as one of the jellyfish seeding places. The results show that a particle-tracking experiment can be used to determine jellyfish drift and that wind forcing and along-shelf currents are the factors determining the distribution.

Moon, Jae-Hong; Pang, Ig-Chan; Yang, Joon-Yong; Yoon, Won Duk

2010-02-01

335

Box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) in Waikiki: their influx cycle plus the analgesic effect of hot and cold packs on their stings to swimmers at the beach: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.  

PubMed

The study measured the analgesic effect of hot and cold packs on box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings to Waikiki swimmers at the beach. Analysis of data showed a minimal trend toward pain relief 10 minutes after the application of hot packs, particularly when the initial pain was mild to moderate. Cold packs showed no clinically significant relief of pain, compared to the control. Data tracking shows that most box jellyfish appear in Waikiki waters on the 9th or 10th day after the full moon. PMID:11383098

Thomas, C S; Scott, S A; Galanis, D J; Goto, R S

2001-04-01

336

First Report of a Thioredoxin Homologue in Jellyfish: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Antioxidant Activity of CcTrx1 from Cyanea capillata  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxins (Trx proteins) are a family of small, highly-conserved and ubiquitous proteins that play significant roles in the resistance of oxidative damage. In this study, a homologue of Trx was identified from the cDNA library of tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and named CcTrx1. The full-length cDNA of CcTrx1 was 479 bp with a 312 bp open reading frame encoding 104 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the putative CcTrx1 protein harbored the evolutionarily-conserved Trx active site 31CGPC34 and shared a high similarity with Trx1 proteins from other organisms analyzed, indicating that CcTrx1 is a new member of Trx1 sub-family. CcTrx1 mRNA was found to be constitutively expressed in tentacle, umbrella, oral arm and gonad, indicating a general role of CcTrx1 protein in various physiological processes. The recombinant CcTrx1 (rCcTrx1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified by affinity chromatography. The rCcTrx1 protein was demonstrated to possess the expected redox activity in enzymatic analysis and protection against oxidative damage of supercoiled DNA. These results indicate that CcTrx1 may function as an important antioxidant in C. capillata. To our knowledge, this is the first Trx protein characterized from jellyfish species. PMID:24824597

Zhou, Yonghong; Wang, Qianqian; Chang, Yinlong; Wang, Beilei; Zheng, Jiemin; Zhang, Liming

2014-01-01

337

Spatial distribution of the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea sp. within fringing coral reef environments of the Northern Red Sea: implications for its life cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zooxanthellate mangrove jellyfish Cassiopea sp. represents a prominent invasive species and a potential bioindicator for nutrient monitoring in coral reefs. However, information about its spatial distribution in combination with abundance, habitat specificity and life cycle elements is barely available. This study, therefore, presents the results of field surveys conducted within four different benthic habitat types (coral reef, seagrass meadow, reef-sand transition and sand flat) in the Northern Red Sea. Cassiopea sp. exhibited a highly patchy distribution within the entire study area with mean abundance of 1.6 ± 0.3 animals m-2 and benthic coverage of 3.2%. Within coral reef habitats, maximum abundance of up to 31 animals m-2 and benthic coverage of up to 20% were detected. Additionally, this study revealed that 65% of all observed Cassiopea specimens were associated with the commensalistic crustacean mysid Idiomysis tsurnamali. Cassiopea abundance and size as well as association patterns with mysids differed between most of the surveyed habitats. In summary, the findings of the present study (1) characterize Cassiopea as one of the key organisms in investigated benthic habitats, (2) indicate active habitat selection by the jellyfish and (3) may hint to an unexplored life cycle of Cassiopea with central role of seagrass meadows providing cues for larval settlement and metamorphosis in the absence of mangroves.

Niggl, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian

2010-12-01

338

Impairment of the cell-to-matrix adhesion and cytotoxicity induced by the Mediterranean jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca venom and its fractions in cultured glioblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited source of new active substances in the field of the development of bioactive products. In our study, we have investigated the efficiency of the venom from the Mediterranean jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca and its fractions for anti-proliferative and anti-cell adhesion to cell–extracellular matrix activities. Results Our experiments have indicated that the separation of the Mediterranean jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca crude venom extract by sephadex G-75 chromatography led to four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4). Among the four fractions F1 and F3 were cytotoxic against U87 cells with IC50 values of 125 and 179??g/ml respectively. The venom, F1, F2 and F 3 showed significant anti-proliferative activity in time-dependent manner. Our results also suggest that these fractions and the venom are able to inhibit cell adhesion to fibrinogen in dose-dependent manner. This inhibition is reliant on its ability to interact with integrins. Conclusions To conclude, we have demonstrated for the first time that Pelagia noctiluca venom and its fractions especially (F1 and F2) display potent anti-tumoral properties. Separation by sephadex G-75 chromatography give rise to more active fractions than the crude venom extract. The purification and the determination of chemical structures of compounds of these active fractions are under investigation. Overall, Pelagia noctiluca venom may has the potential to serve as a template for future anticancer-drug development. PMID:22741917

2012-01-01

339

Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentrations on behavior and predation rates on red sea bream Pagrus major larvae by the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and by juvenile Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shift in outcomes of predator-prey interactions in plankton community may occur at sublethal dissolved oxygen concentrations that commonly occur in coastal waters. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate how a decline in dissolved oxygen concentration alters the predation rate on fish larvae by two estuarine predators. Behavior and consumption of larval fish by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (103.1±12.4 mm in

J. Shoji; R. Masuda; Y. Yamashita; M. Tanaka

2005-01-01

340

Snakes, Jellyfish and Spiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our knowledge of animal and human physiological processes owes much to over a century of study of natural toxins. The neurotoxins\\u000a of kraits (bungarotoxins from Bungarus spp.) and cobras (Naja spp.) have helped define the acetylcholine receptor and neuromuscular transmission. Axonal trafficking and sodium channels\\u000a have been studied using tetrodotoxin from the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena spp.) and puffer fish (fugu).

Bart J. Currie

341

Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

2014-01-01

342

jShaw1, a low-threshold, fast-activating K(v)3 from the hydrozoan jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated potassium (K(v)) channels work in concert with other ion channels to determine the frequency and duration of action potentials in excitable cells. Little is known about K(v)3 channels from invertebrates, but those that have been characterized generally display slow kinetics. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of jShaw1, the first K(v)3 isolated from a cnidarian, the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus, in comparison with mouse K(v)3.1 and K(v)3.2. Using a two-electrode voltage clamp on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the channels, we compared steady-state and kinetic properties of macroscopic currents. jShaw1 is fast activating, and opens at potentials approximately 40 mV more hyperpolarized than the mouse K(v)3 channels. There is an inverse relationship between the number of positive charges on the voltage sensor and the half-activation voltage of the channel, contrary to what would be expected with the simplest model of voltage sensitivity. jShaw1 has kinetic characteristics that are substantially different from the mammalian K(v)3 channels, including a much lower sensitivity of early activation rates to incremental voltage changes, and a much faster voltage-dependent transition in the last stages of opening. jShaw1 opening kinetics were affected little by pre-depolarization voltage, in contrast to both mouse channels. Similar to the mouse channels, jShaw1 was half-blocked by 0.7 mmol l(-1) tetraethyl ammonium and 5 mmol l(-1) 4-aminopyridine. Comparison of sequence and functional properties of jShaw1 with the mouse and other reported K(v)3 channels helps to illuminate the general relationship between amino acid sequence and electrophysiological activity in this channel family. PMID:21865525

Sand, Rheanna M; Atherton, Donna M; Spencer, Andrew N; Gallin, Warren J

2011-09-15

343

Devin, Alligators, Jellyfish, and Me.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a first-grade teacher used the "hypothesis-test" approach with Devin, a first grader who struggled as a reader and writer. Points out that, when she started working with Devin, she wanted to understand his difficulties, but by the end, she realized that it was her curriculum, not his difficulties, that needed to be in the foreground.…

Tsuchiyama, Elaine

1997-01-01

344

Biological Invasions by Marine Jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparatively little research has been conducted on the ecology of invasive organisms in marine ecosystems when balanced against\\u000a their terrestrial counterparts (Carlton and Geller 1993). Perhaps rates of invasions in marine systems are simply lower than\\u000a in other systems, but more likely lack of scrutiny, difficulty with taxonomic resolution, and unusual life-history characters\\u000a of marine organisms cause the vast majority

William M. Graham; Keith M. Bayha

345

For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

1989-01-01

346

A rapid and repeatable method for venom extraction from cubozoan nematocysts.  

PubMed

Various comparative studies into the biological activity and relative toxicity of cubozoan venoms have been investigated, in particular the venom from the potentially lethal cubozoan Chironex fleckeri. Efficient and reliable extraction of venom from nematocysts is essential before any research into venom toxicity can be conducted and previous cited methods of extraction have varied greatly, each with their own associated problems. A new standardised technique for the recovery of venom from nematocysts of cubozoans is investigated to decrease the variation displayed between authors due to differing extraction techniques. The use of a mini bead mill beater, as investigated in this trial, allows for the rapid extraction of venom from nematocysts and is devoid of the previously isolated problems experienced with other methods of venom isolation, such as excessive heat build up. PMID:15246760

Carrette, T; Seymour, J

2004-08-01

347

Stokesian jellyfish: viscous locomotion of bilayer vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent advances in vesicle engineering, we consider theoretically the locomotion of shape-changing bilayer vesicles at low Reynolds number. By modulating their volume and membrane composition, the vesicles can be made to change shape quasi-statically in thermal equilibrium. When the control parameters are tuned appropriately to yield periodic shape changes which are not time-reversible, the result is a net swimming motion over one cycle of shape deformation. For two classical vesicle models (spontaneous curvature and bilayer coupling), we determine numerically the sequence of vesicle shapes through an enthalpy minimization, as well as the fluid-body interactions by solving a boundary integral formulation of the Stokes equations. For both models, net locomotion can be obtained either by continuously modulating fore-aft asymmetric vesicle shapes, or by crossing a continuous shape-transition region and alternating between fore-aft asymmetric and fore-aft symmetric shapes. The obtained hydrodynamic efficiencies are similar to that of other low Reynolds number biological swimmers, and suggest that shape-changing vesicles might provide an alternative to flagella-based synthetic microswimmers.

Evans, Arthur A.; Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

348

Stokesian jellyfish: Viscous locomotion of bilayer vesicles  

E-print Network

Motivated by recent advances in vesicle engineering, we consider theoretically the locomotion of shape-changing bilayer vesicles at low Reynolds number. By modulating their volume and membrane composition, the vesicles can be made to change shape quasi-statically in thermal equilibrium. When the control parameters are tuned appropriately to yield periodic shape changes which are not time-reversible, the result is a net swimming motion over one cycle of shape deformation. For two classical vesicle models (spontaneous curvature and bilayer coupling), we determine numerically the sequence of vesicle shapes through an enthalpy minimization, as well as the fluid-body interactions by solving a boundary integral formulation of the Stokes equations. For both models, net locomotion can be obtained either by continuously modulating fore-aft asymmetric vesicle shapes, or by crossing a continuous shape-transition region and alternating between fore-aft asymmetric and fore-aft symmetric shapes. The obtained hydrodynamic e...

Evans, Arthur A; Lauga, Eric

2010-01-01

349

Propulsion in Cubomedusae: Mechanisms and Utility  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae. PMID:23437122

Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Katija, Kakani; Seymour, Jamie; Kiefer, Kristen

2013-01-01

350

Propulsion in cubomedusae: mechanisms and utility.  

PubMed

Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae. PMID:23437122

Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H; Katija, Kakani; Seymour, Jamie; Kiefer, Kristen

2013-01-01

351

Significant envenomation by Aurelia aurita, the moon jellyfish.  

PubMed

The case of a patient envenomated by Aurelia aurita, who developed significant local cutaneous lesions and immunospecific serum antibodies is reported. The lesions required more than ten days to heal. The patient developed significant cross-reacting antibodies to Chrysaora quinquecirrha antigens. PMID:2896399

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J; Larsen, J B

1988-01-01

352

A blooming jellyfish in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean  

PubMed Central

A long-term time series of plankton records collected by the continuous plankton recorder (CPR) Survey in the northeast Atlantic indicates an increased occurrence of Cnidaria since 2002. In the years 2007 and 2008, outbreaks of the warm-temperate scyphomedusa, Pelagia noctiluca, appeared in CPR samples between 45° N to 58° N and 1° W to 26° W. Knowing the biology of this species and its occurrence in the adjacent Mediterranean Sea, we suggest that P. noctiluca may be exploiting recent hydroclimatic changes in the northeast Atlantic to increase its extent and intensity of outbreaks. In pelagic ecosystems, Cnidaria can affect fish recruitment negatively. Since P. noctiluca is a highly venomous species, outbreaks can also be detrimental to aquaculture and make bathing waters unusable, thus having profound ecological and socio-economic consequences. PMID:20375044

Licandro, P.; Conway, D. V. P.; Daly Yahia, M. N.; Fernandez de Puelles, M. L.; Gasparini, S.; Hecq, J. H.; Tranter, P.; Kirby, R. R.

2010-01-01

353

Organization of the ectodermal nervous structures in jellyfish: scyphomedusae.  

PubMed

Antibodies to ?- or ?-tubulin and to the bioactive peptide FMRFamide were used to investigate the organization of the ectodermal nervous structures in five species of scyphomedusae. Within the swim system, morphological evidence, including a developmental sequence, suggests that the tubulin-immunoreactive nerve net in the subumbrella is the Giant Fiber Nerve Net (Motor Nerve Net) that directly activates the swim musculature, and the FMRFamide-immunoreactive nerve net is the Diffuse Nerve Net that serves a sensory function and also enhances swim muscle activity. Similar dual labeling was found in other structures, including those involved in feeding and protective reactions (pedalia and tentacles, radial strips of smooth muscle), and in the exumbrella, where the networks were associated with batteries of nematocysts. In addition, FMRFamide immuno-staining in the rhopalia and rhopalial niches suggests that sensory components of these networks may aid in the gravitational sense of scyphomedusae. PMID:24648205

Satterlie, Richard A; Eichinger, Justin M

2014-02-01

354

Jellyfish: A Conceptual Model for the AS Internet Topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several novel concepts and tools have revolution- ized our understanding of the Internet topology. Most of the existing efforts attempt to develop accurate analytical models. In this paper, our goal is to develop an effective conceptual model: a model that can be easily drawn by hand, while at the same time, it captures significant macro- scopic properties. We build the

Georgos Siganos; U. C. Riverside; Sudhir L Tauro; Michalis Faloutsos

355

Central control of swimming in the cubomedusan jellyfish Carybdea rastonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Swimming in the cubomedusaCarybdea rastonii is controlled by a subumbrellar nerve net. Neurons that make up this net, including “giant” neurons, make random synaptic contacts with each other and with the circular subumbrellar swimming muscles (Figs. 1–3).2.Extracellularly recorded swimming impulses originate in the rhopalia and spread throughout the subumbrellar nerve net, initiating contractions of the subumbrellar musculature (Fig. 4).3.Intracellular recordings

Richard A. Satterlie

1979-01-01

356

Neuronal control of swimming in jellyfish: a comparative story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swim-control systems of hydrozoan and scyphozoan medusae show distinct differences despite similarity in the mechanics of swimming in the two groups. This dichotomy was first demonstrated by G.J. Romanes at the end of the 19th century, yet his results still accurately highlight differences in the neuronal control systems in the two groups. A review of current information on swim-control

Richard A. Satterlie

2002-01-01

357

Trophic relationships of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester 1880  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medusae of the hydrozoan Craspedacusta sowerbyi appear in September in a variety of ponds and lakes in Wisconsin. Short term laboratory feeding trials in about 1 liter of water indicate that the medusae (11.6-mm diam) consume zooplankton ranging in size from about 0.2 to 2.0 mm and kill but do not eat nekton up to 8.8 mm long. Clearance

STANLEY I. DODSON; SCOTT D. COOPER

1983-01-01

358

Graviceptor development in jellyfish ephyrae in space and on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graviceptor (rhopalium) development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae which developed on Earth and in space during the nine-day NASA SLS-1 mission was compared. The space-developed ephyrae made graviceptors which were morphologically similar to those of their ground-based controls. Rhopalia of both groups developed statocysts with statoliths, ocelli, ciliated mechanoreceptor cells, and immature touch-plates with one type of hair cell. The number of rhopalia formed per arm of ephyrae of both groups revealed no significant differences. The number of statoliths formed per rhopalium was statistically higher in ephyrae which were induced to form in space with iodine than in L(Launch)+8h controls. Statolith numbers were not significantly different between Earth-formed control ephyrae and those formed from polyps induced on Earth and then sent into space 24h and 48h later. Statolith loss from rhopalia was significantly enhanced in the space-maintained ephyrae in artificial sea water (ASW) as compared to their controls. Ephyrae formed through thyroxine treatment and those maintained in thyroxine in space had statolith numbers comparable to thyroxine-treated controls. Pulsing abnormalitities seen in some space-developed ephyrae suggest that some space-formed ephyrae may have developed abnormal rhopalia because normal rhopalia development and function is necessary for normal pulsing.

Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Philput, C.; Lowe, B.

1994-01-01

359

Graviceptor development in jellyfish ephyrae in space and on earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graviceptor (rhopalium) development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae which developed on Earth and in space during the nine-day NASA SLS-1 mission was compared. The space-developed ephyrae made graviceptors which were morphologically similar to those of their ground-based controls. Rhopalia of both groups developed statocysts with statoliths, ocelli, ciliated mechanoreceptor cells, and immature touch-plates with one type of hair cell. The number of rhopalia formed per arm of ephyrae of both groups revealed no significant differences. The number of statoliths formed per rhopalium was statistically higher in ephyrae which were induced to form in space with iodine than in L(Launch)+8h controls. Statolith numbers were not significantly different between Earth-formed control ephyrae and those formed from polyps induced on Earth and then sent into space 24h and 48h later. Statolith loss from rhopalia was significantly enhanced in the space-maintained ephyrae in ASW as compared to their controls. Ephyrae formed through thyroxine treatment and those maintained in thyroxine in space had statolith numbers comparable to thyroxine-treated controls. Pulsing abnormalities seen in some space-developed ephyrae suggest that some space-formed ephyrae may have developed abnormal rhopalia because normal rhopalia development and function is necessary for normal pulsing.

Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Philput, C.; Lowe, B.

1994-08-01

360

Spatial aggregations of the swarming jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Adriatic Sea, the spatial distribution and aggregation aspects of swarning Pelagia noctiluca (Forskål, 1775) were studied by SCUBA divers from August 1984 to November 1985. Medusae were asually distributed in the upper 20- to 30-m layer. Dense aggregations caused by wind, currents and tidal phenomena occurred only in shallow coastal waters. Maximum population densities of swarms drifting freely

D. Zavodnik

1987-01-01

361

sponge-like ancestor jellyfish-like ancestor  

E-print Network

are usually recessive (the normal allele can do the job) Gain-of-function mutations are usually dominant (one-of-function (inactive gene product) Dominant mutations usually mean a gain-of-function (over- or ectopic expression...) the distinction between loss-of-function and gain-of-function has revolutionized the interpretation of mutant

Montpellier II, Université

362

Adults feed both during the day and at night, often div-ing hundreds of metres to the deep scattering layer  

E-print Network

. Subjects were presented with visual cues (a plastic jellyfish; white plastic shapes [circle, square jellyfish, Cyanea capillata; moon jellyfish, Au- relia aurita; and a ctenophore, Ocyropsis sp., introduced

Milton, Sarah

363

Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of

Victoria Welch; Jean Pol Vigneron; Virginie Lousse; Andrew Parker

2006-01-01

364

Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological variation in qualitative and quantitative features is compared among species of Aurelia defined a priori using molecular criteria. Macro-morphological features were more numerous than previously implied (28 cf. 17), most were variable (26 of 28), and all species were morphologically distinguishable using univariate, multivariate and phylogenetic statistics. However, due to discrepant morphological descriptions, Aurelia spp. 3, 4, and 6

M. N. Dawson

2003-01-01

365

Distribution, abundance, and predation effects of epipelagic ctenophores and jellyfish in the western Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is undergoing changes at an unprecedented rate because of global climate change. Especially poorly-studied in arctic waters are the gelatinous zooplankton, which are difficult to study using traditional oceanographic methods. A distinct zooplanktivore community was characterized in the surface 100 m by use of a Remotely Operated Vehicle, net collections, and SCUBA diving. The large scyphomedusa, Chrysaora melanaster, was associated with the warm Pacific water at ˜35-75 m depth. A diverse ctenophore community lived mainly above the C. melanaster layer, including Dryodora glandula, a specialized predator of larvaceans, Beroe cucumis, a predator of other ctenophores, and the extremely fragile Bolinopsis infundibulum, which was the most abundant species. Gut content analyses showed that Mertensia ovum selectively consumed the largest copepods ( Calanus spp.) and amphipods ( Parathemisto libellula); B. infundibulum consumed smaller copepods and pteropods ( Limacina helicina). Large copepods were digested by M. ovum in ˜12 h at -1.5 to 0 °C, but by B. infundibulum in only ˜4 h. We estimated that M. ovum consumed an average of ˜2% d -1 of the Calanus spp. copepods and that B. infundibulum consumed ˜4% d -1 of copepods <3 mm prosome length. These are significant consumption rates given that Calanus spp. have life-cycles of 2 or more years and are eaten by vertebrates including bowhead whales and arctic cod.

Purcell, Jennifer E.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Whitledge, Terry E.

2010-01-01

366

Jellyfish and Ctenophore Blooms Coincide with Human Proliferations and Environmental Perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations have been concentrated along and exploiting the coastal zones for millennia. Of regions with the highest human impacts on the oceans ( Halpern et al. 2008 ), 6 of the top 10 have recently experienced blooms or problems with jellies. I review the time lines of human population growth and their effects on the coastal environment. I explore evidence suggesting that human activities - specifically, seafood harvest, eutrophication, hard substrate additions, transport of nonindigenous species, aquaculture, and climate change - may benefit jelly populations. Direct evidence is lacking for most of these factors; however, numerous correlations show abundant jellies in areas with warm temperatures and low forage fish populations. Jelly populations fluctuate in ˜10- and ˜20-year cycles in concert with solar and climate cycles. Global warming will provide a rising baseline against which climate cycles will cause fluctuations in jelly populations. The probable acceleration of anthropogenic effects may lead to further problems with jellies.

Purcell, Jennifer E.

2012-01-01

367

Jellyfish and ctenophore blooms coincide with human proliferations and environmental perturbations.  

PubMed

Human populations have been concentrated along and exploiting the coastal zones for millennia. Ofregions with the highest human impacts on the oceans (Halpern et al. 2008), 6 of the top 10 have recently experienced blooms or problems with jellies. I review the time lines of human population growth and their effects on the coastal environment. I explore evidence suggesting that human activities--specifically, seafood harvest, eutrophication, hard substrate additions, transport ofnonindigenous species, aquaculture, and climate change--may benefit jelly populations. Direct evidence is lacking for most of these factors; however, numerous correlations show abundant jellies in areas with warm temperatures and low forage fish populations. Jelly populations fluctuate in approximately 10- and approximately 20-year cycles in concert with solar and climate cycles. Global warming will provide a rising baseline against which climate cycles will cause fluctuations in jelly populations. The probable acceleration of anthropogenic effects may lead to further problems with jellies. PMID:22457974

Purcell, Jennifer E

2012-01-01

368

Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of locomotory cilia. The colors arising from the narrow band-gap reflection are shown to be highly saturated and, as a function of the incidence angle, cover a wide range of the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained.

Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Parker, Andrew

2006-04-01

369

Stokesian jellyfish: viscous locomotion of bilayer vesicles Arthur A. Evans,*a  

E-print Network

, such as those relevant in describing the swimming of fish and flying of birds, fluid motion at low Reynolds-based synthetic microswimmers. I. Introduction The preeminence of viscous dissipation over inertial effects at low asymmetrically-distributed chemical reactions to swim in a viscous fluid.33,34 In the same spirit, we consider

Lauga, Eric

370

Rock preference of planulae of jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) for settlement in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planulae of Aurelia aurita were exposed to 11 types of rocks (basalt, gabbro, granite, rhyolite, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss, quartzite, marble and schist) to examine their attachment preference among rock material and position. Numbers of attached polyps was the highest on marble and the least on limestone. Their preference with regard to settling position was the same among the rocks, showing the highest density of polyps on the underside (88.5%) compared to upper (23.6%) and perpendicular sides (10.3%) of rock. The results showed that while position preference is more important than rock property, higher numbers of polyps were observed in rocks with a medium surface hardness.

Yoon, Won Duk; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Han, Changhoon; Park, Won Gyu

2014-06-01

371

Jellyfish: Evidence of extreme ram-pressure stripping in massive galaxy clusters  

E-print Network

Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intra-cluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at $z>0.3$. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster...

Ebeling, Harald; Edge, Alastair C

2013-01-01

372

Jellyfish and other cnidarian envenomations cause pain by affecting TRPV1 channels  

PubMed Central

Cnidarian envenomations cause a burning-pain sensation of which the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Activation of TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, leads to cell depolarisation and pain. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for desensitization-dependent TRPV1 activation in cnidarian envenomations. Cnidarian venom induced a nociceptive reactivity, comparable to capsaicin, in laboratory rats, which could be reduced by the selective TRPV1 antagonist, BCTC. These findings are the first to explain at least part of the symptomology of cnidarian envenomations and provide insights into the design of more effective treatments for this global public health problem. PMID:17010344

Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Karlsson, Evert; Tytgat, Jan

2007-01-01

373

The Mesoderm Specification Factor Twist in the Life Cycle of Jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Twist is highly conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates and plays a major role in mesoderm specification of triploblasts. The presence of a Twist homologue in diploblasts such as the cnidarian Podocoryne carnea raises questions on the evolution of mesoderm, the third cell layer characteristic for triploblasts. Podocoryne Twist is expressed in the early embryo

Jürg Spring; Nathalie Yanze; Arnoud M. Middel; Michael Stierwald; Hans Gröger; Volker Schmid

2000-01-01

374

Further observations on the biology of the sea nettle and jellyfishes in Chesapeake Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sessile or polyp stage ofChrysaora quinquecirrha, the sea nettle, is likely to be found in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries on the hard substrates wherever salinities from\\u000a 7 to 20% occur. From experimental studies in field and laboratory, we found that the planulae, larval stage of the sea nettle,\\u000a set on oyster shells which were placed off the CBL

David G. Cargo; Leonard P. Schultz

1967-01-01

375

Jellyfish: Evidence of Extreme Ram-pressure Stripping in Massive Galaxy Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intracluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Using Hubble Space Telescope snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey, all featuring M F606W < -21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at z > 0.2 and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-10491, -10875, -12166, and -12884.

Ebeling, H.; Stephenson, L. N.; Edge, A. C.

2014-02-01

376

Acoustic investigations on bearded goby and jellyfish in the northern Benguela ecosystem .  

E-print Network

??Historically the nutrient rich Benguela ecosystem supported large stocks of commercially important fish which sustained the Namibian fishing sector. Recently, non-exploited species i.e. bearded goby… (more)

Uumati, Martha

2013-01-01

377

First record of encysted metacercariae in hydrozoan jellyfishes and ctenophores of the southern Atlantic.  

PubMed

Three species of pelagic coelenterates and ctenophores captured in Mar del Plata port, Buenos Aires, Argentina, were examined for digenean parasites. Encysted metacercariae were observed and collected. Cysts were found in the mesoglea of the hydromedusae Phialidium sp. and Liriope tetraphylla, and in the ectenophore Mnemiopsis macradyi. The morphology of the worms resembles that of the lepocreadiid digeneans. This is the first record for a metacercaria encysted in hydromedusae or ctenophores. PMID:8604116

Martorelli, S R

1996-04-01

378

Jellyfish Lake, Palau: early diagenesis of organic matter in sediments of an anoxic marine lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major postdepositional change in the sedimentary organic matter is carbohydrate biodegradation. Lignin and aliphatic substances are preserved in the sediments. Dissolved organic matter in pore waters is primarily composed of carbohydrates, reflecting the degradation of sedimentary carbohydrates. Rate constants for organic carbon degradation and sulfate reduction in sediments of the lake are about 10?? lower than in other anoxic sediments. This may reflect the vascular plant source and partly degraded nature of the organic matter reaching the sediments of the lake. -from Authors

Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.; Landing, W.M.; Lyons, W.B.; Showers, W.

1991-01-01

379

The conserved mitochondrial gene distribution in relatives of Turritopsis nutricula, an immortal jellyfish  

PubMed Central

Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom. Therefore, the animal is having prime importance in basic biological, aging, and biomedical researches. However, till date, the genome of this organism has not been sequenced and even there is no molecular phylogenetic study to reveal its close relatives. Here, using phylogenetic analysis based on available 16s rRNA gene and protein sequences of Cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COI or COX1) of T. nutricula, we have predicted the closest relatives of the organism. While we found Nemopsis bachei could be closest organism based on COX1 gene sequence; T. dohrnii may be designated as the closest taxon to T. nutricula based on rRNA. Moreover, we have figured out four species that showed similar root distance based on COX1 protein sequence. PMID:25352727

Devarapalli, Pratap; Kumavath, Ranjith N; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

2014-01-01

380

The conserved mitochondrial gene distribution in relatives of Turritopsis nutricula, an immortal jellyfish.  

PubMed

Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom. Therefore, the animal is having prime importance in basic biological, aging, and biomedical researches. However, till date, the genome of this organism has not been sequenced and even there is no molecular phylogenetic study to reveal its close relatives. Here, using phylogenetic analysis based on available 16s rRNA gene and protein sequences of Cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COI or COX1) of T. nutricula, we have predicted the closest relatives of the organism. While we found Nemopsis bachei could be closest organism based on COX1 gene sequence; T. dohrnii may be designated as the closest taxon to T. nutricula based on rRNA. Moreover, we have figured out four species that showed similar root distance based on COX1 protein sequence. PMID:25352727

Devarapalli, Pratap; Kumavath, Ranjith N; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

2014-01-01

381

Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage, 40(4), 1912-1920.  

E-print Network

: JELLYFISH Janet and her neighbor are kayaking in a part of the ocean with lots of jellyfish. Janet the jellyfish don't sting and are totally harmless. B. It is not safe to swim in the ocean because the jellyfish sting, and their stings are fatal. A. Since Janet read information that said the ocean's jellyfish

Saxe, Rebecca

382

Bell Pettigrew Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

such as jellyfish. On this basis, two subphyla are classified: the Medusozoa, in which a medusa occurs in the life. Some scyphozoan jellyfish (e.g. the lion's mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata ) can reach over 2 metres.g. jellyfish ). The sea wasp is one of the world's most dangerous jellyfish. It kills several people each year

Brierley, Andrew

383

marine environment SUMMER 2005 Issue 2  

E-print Network

HARBOUR SEAL TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON MOON JELLYFISH ICONOGRAPHY AND JELLYFISH EVOLUTION ANGLERFISH FEEDING IN THE SHETLANDS JELLYFISH INVADE POWER STATIONS CTENOPHORES IN THE BLACK SEA HUMAN JELLYFISH INTERACTIONS UNIQUE THE PURPLE CLAM Reproduction in sharks and rays The complex world of siphonophores JELLYFISH MAY BENEFIT FROM

Dunn, Casey

384

Protein-protein complexation in bioluminescence  

E-print Network

systems of marine organisms, including bacteria, jellyfish and soft corals, with particular focus) from the jellyfish Clytia gregaria, solved by means of X- ray crystallography, NMR mapping, 1952; Lee, 2008). Bioluminescent organisms such as bacteria, fireflies, jellyfish, worms, fungi

Zhijie, Liu

385

ICES J. mar. Sci., 52: 575581. 1995 Medusae, siphonophores, and ctenophores as planktivorous  

E-print Network

serious declines, it is relevant to recognize that the carnivorous "jellyfishes" are ubiquitous, feeding, fisheries, hydromedusae jellyfish Mnemiopsis, Nanomia, scyphomedusae, siphonophores, submersibles either by fishes or jellyfishes, will be discussed here. I hope to convince the reader that in fact

Carrington, Emily

386

Biomechanics Phenotypic plasticity in  

E-print Network

Biomechanics Phenotypic plasticity in juvenile jellyfish medusae facilitates effective animal and altered functionality. Previous studies have indicated that Scyphozoan jellyfish ontogeny accommo- dates; ontogeny; jellyfish 1. INTRODUCTION The swimming and feeding performance of marine ani- mals depends

Dabiri, John O.

387

BUREAU' OF COMMERCIAL FISHE_..__ UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR  

E-print Network

---------------------------------------------- 77 Jellyfish----------------------------------------------- 79 Environment: Marine, the Anadromous Fish Act of 1965, and the Jellyfish Act of 1966. Information presented is intended to provide

388

Jellyfish Support High Energy Intake of Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Video Evidence from Animal-Borne Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of

Susan G. Heaslip; Sara J. Iverson; W. Don Bowen; Michael C. James

2012-01-01

389

Transport of inertial particles by Lagrangian coherent structures: application to predator-prey interaction in jellyfish feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a dynamical systems approach to identify coherent structures from often chaotic motions of inertial particles in open flows. We show that particle Lagrangian coherent structures (pLCS) act as boundaries between regions in which particles have different kinematics. They provide direct geometric information about the motion of ensembles of inertial particles, which is helpful to understand their transport. As

J. O. D ABIRI

390

Morphological differences between, and reproductive isolation of, two populations of the jellyfish Cyanea in Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two populations of Cyanea, one in the Niantic River estuary and the other in the adjacent Niantic Bay portion of Long Island Sound, were studied for more than a decade. The estuary and the bay are connected by a narrow channel: this and hydrographic features constrain transport between them. Specimens from each site exhibit morphological and seasonal differences comparable to

Robert H. Brewer

1991-01-01

391

Reproduction of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae), in 2006-2008 as peripherally-transported populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the sexual maturation process, release of spermatozoa or eggs and oocyte diameter of the rhizostomid medusae Nemopilema nomurai using samples collected from August 2006 to June 2008 from the waters around Korea and Japan, including peripheral areas outside the species’ usual habitat. Immature medusae were observed from June to October only in the western sector of the study area. The onset of spermatozoa and egg release occurred in September and October, respectively, and peaked in December and January. Medusae migrated eastward from source areas with the Tsushima Warm Current, where they formed gametes and spawned. Peak position and maximum oocyte diameter increased as the gonads developed according to the size-frequency distribution of oocytes. No fertilized eggs or embryos were found in the gonads. The correlation was analyzed with bell diameter, maximum oocyte diameter, sampling date, surface water temperature and gonad color to estimate which environmental factors and maturation indices were related to the maturation stage of females. Maturation stage correlated well with maximum oocyte diameter, which correlated negatively with surface water temperature. There was no significant correlation between bell diameter and maturation stage. Therefore, bell diameter was inappropriate for determining maturation index. Sex could not be distinguished clearly by gonad color. However, light pink gonads were more prevalent in males and various deep colors such as orange and brown were more frequent in female medusae.

Iguchi, Naoki; Lee, Hye Eun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Suam

2010-06-01

392

Laboratory and in situ investigations of factors affecting the growth and survivorship of the Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia sp1  

E-print Network

air saturated waters (Kideys and Romanova, 2001). Other hypoxicair saturated controls and in the Experiment 1 low-oxygen treatment and less than 1 ephyrae day -1 in hypoxicair-saturated controls are statistically distinct from those of the low oxygen treatment in Experiment 1 and both of the hypoxic

Cawood, Alison Michelle

2012-01-01

393

Characterization and expression analysis of an ancestor-type Pax gene in the hydrozoan jellyfish Podocoryne carnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized a Pax gene from the hydrozoan Podocorynecarnea. It is most similar to cnidarian Pax-B genes and encodes a paired domain, a homeodomain and an octapeptide. Expression analysis demonstrates the presence of Pax-B transcripts in eggs, the ectoderm of the planula larva and in a few scattered cells in the apical polyp ectoderm. In developing and mature medusae, Pax-B

Hans Gröger; Patrick Callaerts; Walter J. Gehring; Volker Schmid

2000-01-01

394

Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) is a cosmopolitan species, having been reported from a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. It has been extensively studied over the last 100 years or so, and examination of the literature reveals three striking features: (1) the presence of populations in a wide range of environmental conditions; (2) large inter-population

Cathy H. Lucas

2001-01-01

395

Evolution of Paired Domains: Isolation and Sequencing of Jellyfish and Hydra Pax Genes Related to Pax5 and Pax6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pax proteins are a family of transcription factors with a highly conserved paired domain; many members also contain a paired-type homeodomain and\\/or an octapeptide. Nine mammalian Pax genes are known and classified into four subgroups: Pax-1\\/9, Pax-2\\/5\\/8, Pax-3\\/7, and Pax-4\\/6. Most of these genes are involved in nervous system development. In particular, Pax-6 is a key regulator that controls eye

Hongmin Sun; Andrei Rodin; Yihong Zhou; Douglas P. Dickinson; Donald E. Harper; David Hewett-Emmett; Wen-Hsiung Li

1997-01-01

396

Hydrobiologia 451: 5568, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Claudia E of jellyfish are occurring in response to some of the cumulative effects of these impacts. The issue-term increases in native jellyfish populations. A different phenomenon is demonstrated by jellyfish whose

Carrington, Emily

397

Identify key design elements of desired function  

E-print Network

design Biomimetic design Optimal design 1mm a e 10m f 100m 1mm Jellyfish ephyra b c d Jellyfish muscle Medusoid muscle 1mm 1mm Supplementary Fig. 2 Jellyfish-inspired Medusoid muscle and body design. a, Muscle architecture in juvenile jellyfish showing radial and circular fiber orientations. Note: Composite image

Dabiri, John O.

398

UNIVERSIT PARIS DIDEROT -PARIS VII COLE DOCTORALE MATIRE CONDENSE ET INTERFACES  

E-print Network

morphogenesis of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. The gastrovascular system of this jellyfish is a branched network viscoelastic gel, which structure and mechanical properties evolve during jellyfish development. These changes enhanced in the endoderm, at the tip of a growing canal, during each muscular contraction of the jellyfish

Boyer, Edmond

399

This article was published as part of the 2009 Green Fluorescent Protein issue  

E-print Network

.1 It is now well appreciated that, aside from the jellyfish found in the Bay of Naples (Pulmo marinus) first of the jellyfish began with Osamu Shimomura's studies of the Aequorea jellyfish in the early 1960's victoria. They observed that when the circumoral ring on the underside of the jellyfish, which contains

Jiang, Wen

400

Vortex Rings in Bio-inspired and Biological Jet Propulsion Paul S. Krueger1, a  

E-print Network

. Abstract. Pulsed-jets are commonly used for aquatic propulsion, such as squid and jellyfish locomotion and jellyfish among others. Recent investigations of squid and jellyfish locomotion have demonstrated vortex ring formation during pulsed jet propulsion for several squids and jellyfishes. Parallel studies

Hynes, Wayne L.

401

Oceana Magazine Summer 2012: Ask Dr. Pauly: Are the Oceans Jellifying?  

E-print Network

Oceana Magazine Summer 2012: Ask Dr. Pauly: Are the Oceans Jellifying? Nomura jellyfish, pictured television and newspaper reports have been filled with stories about jellyfish outbreaks in recent years. People notice jellyfish more these days ­ or is it the jellyfish that notice more people? In any case

Pauly, Daniel

402

Introduction The invention of mesoderm was crucial to the evolution of  

E-print Network

(sea anemones, corals, jellyfishes and hydras) promises to be an especially informative outgroup), Scyphozoa (true jellyfishes) and Cubozoa (box jellyfishes). Most medusozoans display a biphasic life cycle where an asexual polyp phase alternates with a sexually reproducing medusa (jellyfish) phase. The medusa

Finnerty, John R.

403

Transparent Animals Snke Johnsen  

E-print Network

TRAN JELLYFISH'S MAW is the four-pointed area vis- ible in the center of this overhead image of punc relation of the jellyfish. JELLYFISH'S MAW is the four-pointed area vis- ible in the center hy- dromedusa, a close relation of the jellyfish. G

Johnsen, Sönke

404

Impact of Denial of Service Attacks on Ad Hoc Imad Aad Jean-Pierre Hubaux Edward W. Knightly  

E-print Network

the damage that difficult-to-detect attackers can cause. The first attack we study, called the JellyFish devastating effects. The second is the Black Hole attack, which has effects similar to the JellyFish to as JellyFish (JF). Previously studied attackers disobey protocol rules; on the contrary, JellyFish conform

Knightly, Edward W.

405

Questioning the Rise of Gelatinous Zooplankton in the World's Oceans Author(s): Robert H. Condon, William M. Graham, Carlos M. Duarte, Kylie A. Pitt, Cathy H.  

E-print Network

by "nuisance" jellyfish. We question this current paradigm by presenting a broad overview of gelatinous zooplankton blooms. Keywords: bloom, media, jellyfish, salp, global synthesis by "nuisance" jellyfish. We of contempo- rary gelatinous zooplankton blooms? What is the human perception of changes in jellyfish

Adolphs, Ralph

406

February 26, 2004 Volume 1, Issue 6  

E-print Network

the scholarships. More... URI oceanographer awarded NSF grant to study the function of jellyfish in coastal an $860,400 National Science Foundation grant to study the ecological function of small jellyfish

Rhode Island, University of

407

CHAPTER 7NOAA Research & Development CHAPTER 7 NOAA RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

jellyfish, seasonally inhabit the Chesapeake Bay from late spring to early autumn. Their sting is painful, and knowing where and when to expect these jellyfish helps people avoid them. Daily and three- day forecasts

408

Defense against Routing Disruption Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

E-print Network

, including protocol-compliant (also known as "JellyFish") attacks. Index Terms--Denial-of-Service Attacks difficult to defend against. In [1], Aad et al. refer to such attacks as "JellyFish" (JF) attacks. While

409

MARINE ECOLOGY -PROGRESS SENES Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.  

E-print Network

of population density of symbiotic algae in a tropical.marine jellyfish (Mastigiassp.) L. Muscatine', F. P. ~ i, Washington 99324, USA ABSTRACT: Marine jellyfish Mastiglas sp. are abundant in marine lakes in Belau, Western

410

Often researchers have the stereotype of not being able to talk about their research  

E-print Network

'i division of research & graduate studies Let's Talk Science! Study jellyfish? Those stinging things of jellyfish-human interactions and much is conducted along the Neuse River Estuary in Eastern North Carolina

411

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser  

E-print Network

of jellyfishes, where they find both shelter and food (Jones 1960, Noble 1963, Thiel 1970, Brodeur 1998 kinds of crustaceans are known to associate with jellyfishes, including shrimps (Bruce 1972, Marliave

Thuesen, Erik V.

412

Marine animal stings or bites  

MedlinePLUS

... stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. Almost 2000 species of animals found in the ... stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish , Portuguese Man-of-War, stingray , stonefish , scorpion fish , ...

413

August 2012 Volume 9, Issue 2  

E-print Network

, identifying and measuring dozens of species of jellyfish and crustaceans. The plankton images on Plankton identify interesting new behaviors in jellyfish, such as the first reported documentation of a small

414

BioMed Central Page 1 of 11  

E-print Network

Hughes* - thomas.hughes@yale.edu *Corresponding author Abstract Background: The jellyfish green The discovery that the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) can form a functional fluorophore without other

415

United States Dep~rtment of the. Interior Fish and '.Ji l dlife Service  

E-print Network

_hl_·c_a~g~o~~~~~.,~I_ll_.__________________~~__________.________~July 1944 SEA Nl!;TTU1) OR JELLYFISHES Sea nettles and jellyfi.shes are strange-looking, free tropical waters. The nUlT,erous tentacles hanginr; from the um- brella- like body of a jellyfish give~anisms to vvhich the jellyfishes belong is called by scientists Coelenterates , the term l:leaning that in all

416

Resource Requirements of the Pacific Leatherback Turtle T. Todd Jones1,2  

E-print Network

tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924­1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.16106 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0­3.76106 ) equivalent to 4.26108 megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0­7.46108 ). Model and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.16106 t of jellyfish or 2.26108 MJ per year

Pauly, Daniel

417

A new species of Pseudomacrochiron Reddiah, 1969 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Macrochironidae) associated with scyphistomae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) off Japan.  

PubMed

A new species of the Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Pseudomacrochiron aureliae n. sp., is described based on adult specimens extracted from the gastrovacular cavity of the scyphistomae of Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) collected in the Seto Inland Sea and Ise Bay off the coast of Japan. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: a caudal ramus with a length to width ratio of 3.1; an accessory flagellum on caudal setae II, III and VI; three apical setae on the maxillule; only setae I and II on the maxillary basis; two short spines on the female maxilliped claw (endopod); an armature of III, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of I, II, 2 on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of II, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 4; and a short free exopodal segment of leg 5 (length to width ratio of 1.4) armed with a long seta and short spine. P. aureliae n. sp. is the first member of the genus reported from off Japan and from the scyphistomae of its scyphozoan host. PMID:22183922

Tang, Danny; Yasuda, Akira; Yamada, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Kazuya

2012-02-01

418

An Extracellular Matrix Protein of Jellyfish Homologous to Mammalian Fibrillins Forms Different Fibrils Depending on the Life Stage of the Animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody generated against the isolated extracellular matrix (ECM) of the medusa Podocoryne carnea M. Sarz (Coelenterata, Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) stains a fibrillar component of the Podocoryne ECMs in immunohistochemical preparations. The antigen shows a different staining pattern according to the type of ECMs from the animals life cycle. In ontogeny the epitope first appears after gastrulation in the planula

Susanne Reber-Müller; Thomas Spissinger; Peter Schuchert; Jürg Spring; Volker Schmid

1995-01-01

419

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser  

E-print Network

.d.r.houghton@swansea.ac.uk Developing a simple, rapid method for identifying and monitoring jellyfish aggregations from the air Jonathan and aggregations of jellyfish that occur close to the surface. In light of this, we tested the utility of aer- ial surveys to provide baseline data for 3 poorly understood scyphozoan jellyfish found throughout British

Hays, Graeme

420

A report of 49 cases of cnidarian envenoming from southeastern Brazilian coastal waters  

E-print Network

-nine accidents caused by jellyfish (Cnidaria) were observed during a period of 5 years on the southeastern coast with unidentified jellyfish presented intense pain, linear plaques and systemic symptoms. The five cases on accidents caused by jellyfish, in this country, and scarce clinical or epidemiological data are available up

Morandini, Andre C.

421

INTRODUCTION Animalfluid interactions have been hypothesized as a principal  

E-print Network

in the context of biological propulsion. Jellyfish provide a unique perspective on the evolution of propulsion (DPIV) (Willert and Gharib, 1992). We selected seven species of hydrozoan jellyfish for this comparative speed of the seven co-occurring species of free-swimming jellyfish. Using this new data, we demonstrate

Dabiri, John O.

422

This article was published as part of the 2009 Green Fluorescent Protein issue  

E-print Network

the first isolation and characterisation of GFP from jellyfish to its now widespread use throughout the Life protein (aequorin) from the jellyfish Aequorea victorea. Shortly afterwards, he identified another protein and co-workers collected 85 000 jellyfish off Friday Harbor in Washington on the West Coast of North

Jackson, Sophie

423

TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in two  

E-print Network

Hydrozoa Á Jellyfish Á Oligos Á San Francisco Estuary Two species of hydromedusae, Maeotias marginata (SFE). Non-native jellyfish and other hydroids can have severe effects on the ecosystems they invade (Purcell and Arai 2001). Addi- tionally, jellyfish blooms are increasing globally (Mills 2001) and can

May, Bernie

424

Ecology, 87(8), 2006, pp. 19671972 2006 by the the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

Ecology, 87(8), 2006, pp. 1967­1972 � 2006 by the the Ecological Society of America JELLYFISH remains poorly understood beyond sporadic and localized reports. To examine how jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria species, we employed aerial surveys to map jellyfish throughout a temperate coastal shelf area bordering

Hays, Graeme

425

Feeding of Dermochelys coriacea on Medusae in the Northwest Atlantic  

E-print Network

of the digestive tract of the leatherback is consistent with a stenophagous diet of jellyfish. Numerous keratinized of leatherbacks and concentrations of jellyfish have been described (Leary, 1957; Collard, 1990: Grant et al). Here we report on nine detailed observations of leatherbacks feeding on jellyfish in waters off Nova

Myers, Ransom A.

426

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Stranding events provide indirect insights into the  

E-print Network

and persistence of jellyfish medusae (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) Jonathan David Roy Houghton Ã? Thomas K. Doyle Ã? John B.V. 2007 Abstract It is becoming increasingly evident that jellyfish (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) play understood scyphozoan jellyfish (Rhizos- toma octopus; Chrysaora hysoscella; Cyanea cap- illata) found

Hays, Graeme

427

itats have not been dearly revealed . In no case is the diet of the hatchlings well known although it is assume d  

E-print Network

a diet of jellyfish (Schypho- medusidae) and tunicates, together with crustacean parasites and symbiotic fish that are associated with th e jellyfish (Brongersma 1969, Bleakney 1965) . This diet is reflected, contain crabs and jellyfish as wel l as shrimp. The guts of 10 olive ridleys captured 30 t o 50 km off

Prestwich, Ken

428

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 (2009) 204105 (9pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/21/20/204105  

E-print Network

)), e.g. adult moon jellyfish and bluegill sunfish [1­3]. Non-biological applications of the method have for jellyfish-like locomotion, with swimming Reynolds number of order 1. The self-propulsion of the model. It is shown that a series of ridges in front of the jellyfish in the forward-time FTLE field transport slender

Dabiri, John O.

429

C O M M E N T A R Y A View Through the Waves  

E-print Network

their distance from perceived predators on shore. A submerged box jellyfish (Figure 2) navigates and controls its jellyfish have 24 eyes of four different types, includ- ing a set dedicated to survey the air- borne scene). FIGURE 2 A box jellyfish where the enlarged region re- veals one of its upward-looking eyes (courtesy

Schechner, Yoav Yosef

430

Migration cues and timing in leatherback sea turtles  

E-print Network

to consume jellyfish. Although little is known about the temporal or spatial distributions of the leatherback's gelat- inous prey, jellyfish abundance has been linked to environ- mental factors (reviewed in Purcell 2005). Regional ocean temperatures predict abundance in several species of jellyfish (Purcell

Myers, Ransom A.

431

Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation in Domesticated Goldfish, Carassius Richard Beckwitt; Seiji Aoyagi  

E-print Network

. The associationbetween young whit- ing, Gadus merlangus, and the jelly-fish Cyanea cap- illata. Sarsia 3:47-55. FAHAY. Pub. 34:l-316. MANSUETTI, 1963. Symbiotic behavior betweenR. small fishes and jellyfishes, with new., AND R. T. COONEY. sociation of walleyepollock, Theragra chalcogramma, with the jellyfish, Cyanea. Copeia

Beckwitt, Richard

432

50 CFR 217.84 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ii) Large concentrations of fish, jellyfish, and/or large Sargassum rafts are...delay would continue until the fish, jellyfish, and/or Sargassum rafts that cause...birds, large concentrations of fish or jellyfish, and large Sargassum mats. The...

2012-10-01

433

Distribution, extent of inter-annual variability and diet of the bloom-forming  

E-print Network

REVIEW Distribution, extent of inter-annual variability and diet of the bloom-forming jellyfish Sustainability, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK Jellyfish (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa that one particularly large (up to 30 kg wet weight) bloom forming jellyfish is Rhizostoma spp. Given

Hays, Graeme

434

Fluorescent Protein Applications in Microscopy  

E-print Network

protein from the jellyfish Aequorea aequorea. A. aequorea normally emits a greenish lumi- nescence from the light organs around the rim of the jellyfish. During the isolation of the luminescence system-hydroxybenzyl imidazolone. GFP was even crystallized in 1974 using protein isolated from tens of thousands of jellyfish

Straight, Aaron

435

Check List 5(1): 133138, 2009. ISSN: 1809-127X  

E-print Network

Check List 5(1): 133­138, 2009. ISSN: 1809-127X LISTS OF SPECIES 133 Neritic Jellyfishes (Cnidaria of this study was to perform a survey of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa) on the coast of Rio of large jellyfish, and new records of the following cubozoan and scyphozoan species were verified

Morandini, Andre C.

436

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser  

E-print Network

Published October 22 INTRODUCTION Available evidence suggests that jellyfish blooms are increasing globally Norwegian fjords the deep-sea jellyfish Periphylla periphylla has reached densities several orders, it is essential to take into account the dif- ferent search strategies of fish and jellyfish. Compared to visual

Aksnes, Dag L.

437

mixing. His result neither strongly dismissed nor supported the idea, but for decades after-  

E-print Network

videos obtained by scuba divers in shoals of jellyfish (Fig. 1), dye releases clearly showtheprocess(seeSupplementaryInforma- tion1 ). One wonders what the jellyfish made of all this, but that would be another story. The relevance to mixing, however, can be simply described. Suppose a jellyfish is in cold water, and swims

438

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser  

E-print Network

Published December 19 INTRODUCTION Blooms of jellyfish, often referring to pelagic cnidarians distributions (Richardson et al. 2009, Brotz et al. 2012, Purcell 2012). Jellyfish mass occurrence and apparent shifts from fish- to jellyfish-dominated systems have been linked to numerous factors such as fisheries

Aksnes, Dag L.

439

Volume 11, Number 8 20 August 2010  

E-print Network

Subducting slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's mantle Christelle Loiselet Géosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head

Husson, Laurent

440

Algorithms for Molecular Biology Fall Semester, 2001 Lecture 8: December 27, 2001  

E-print Network

]) Phylogeny in a nut shell. A: The most recent common ancestor of the bird and the jellyfish. At this point the two lineages diverged or split. X: The portion of history the bird and the jellyfish share. Their linages were one during that time. B: The most recent common ancestor of the bird, jellyfish and fern. Y

Shamir, Ron

441

FIGURE 1 Five species of Stauromedusae. (A) Two Haliclystus sp. attached to eelgrass (San Juan Island, Washington), tentacle spread  

E-print Network

of Washington YAYOI M. HIRANO Chiba University, Japan Stauromedusae are small jellyfishes that spend column like most other jellyfish. Because of their attached, benthic lifestyle, they seem in some ways-swimming, planktonic scyphozoan jellyfish to which, until recently, they have been considered more closely related

Carrington, Emily

442

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser  

E-print Network

· www.int-res.com *E-mail: rick.brodeur@noaa.gov Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea a dramatic increase in jellyfish biomass over the eastern Bering Sea shelf since the early 1990s, which explore the impact of this jellyfish increase on zoo- plankton and fish communities based on field data

443

Fluid Mechanics 25 March 2009  

E-print Network

: application to predator­prey interaction in jellyfish feeding J. PENG1 AND J. O. DABIRI1,2 1 Bioengineering jellyfish Aurelia aurita uses its body motion to generate a flow that transports small plankton such as copepods to its vicinity for feeding. With the flow field generated by the jellyfish measured

Dabiri, John O.

444

Illuminating plant biology: using fluorescent proteins for  

E-print Network

publication date 21January 2010 Abstract First discovered in jellyfish, fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been the Pacific Ocean jellyfish Aequorea victoria [2], the use of GFP and its subsequent fluo- rescent derivatives with UV or blue light, the original jellyfish-derived GFP is excited to emit green light as fluorescence

Jackson, David

445

DEFORMOTION Deforming Motion, Shape Average and the Joint  

E-print Network

average" in order to track moving and deforming objects through time. Fig. 1. A jellyfish is "moving while direction while "locally deforming." The jellyfish in Fig. 1 is just another example to illustrate the same our intuition? For instance, in Fig. 6, how do we describe the "motion" of a jellyfish? Or in Fig. 5

Soatto, Stefano

446

John W. Hayse Grice Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

that scyphozoan jellyfish were the domi- nant prey, but fish collected by spear or net had stomach contents domi 1980s suggested that Atlantic spadefish might eat Stomolophus meleagris, the cannonball jellyfish, and Contribution No. 274 of the South Carolina Marine Resources Re- search Institute. nonball jellyfish as bait

447

This article was published as part of the 2009 Green Fluorescent Protein issue  

E-print Network

Aequorea victoria jellyfish green FP (avGFP), were an obscure and poorly understood biochemical oddity been the first to identify the presence of avGFP in extracts of Aequorea jellyfish.1 Chalfie chromophore and could thus be functionally expressed in animals other than jellyfish.3 Tsien is, arguably

Campbell, Robert E.

448

50 CFR 217.84 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ii) Large concentrations of fish, jellyfish, and/or large Sargassum rafts are...delay would continue until the fish, jellyfish, and/or Sargassum rafts that cause...birds, large concentrations of fish or jellyfish, and large Sargassum mats. The...

2013-10-01

449

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26, 091108 (2014) (d) (e) (f)  

E-print Network

generated by induced drift and periodic boundary layer shedding. (a) Just after release, the jellyfish-propulsion creates a complex wake pattern: Induced drift forms the central pole of fluid trailing the jellyfish-up and shedding during a single stroke cycle. (a) At t=0, the extended jellyfish bell is coated by a boundary

Dabiri, John O.

450

AUTOMATED ROBOTIC TRACKING OF GELATINOUS ANIMALS IN THE A DISSERTATION  

E-print Network

behaviors and environmental stimuli. Automating the jellyfish-tracking task will give biologists jellyfish-tracking technology and discusses its successful demonstration as a pilot-assist for a remotely robots, called autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). A key challenge in enabling jellyfish

Stanford University

451

Today's New Reason To Believe October 2003  

E-print Network

31 A recently discovered design feature for box jellyfish provides another example of supernatural creation. One of the five different cell types comprising this jellyfish colony (so-called because the jellyfish is an aggregate of cells that display loose organization) has both a photoreceptor

West, Stuart

452

792 VOLUME 30 NUMBER 8 AUGUST 2012 nature biotechnology l e t t e r s  

E-print Network

. We report the construction of a freely swimming jellyfish from chemically dissociated rat tissue simulations and experiments to match key determinants of jellyfish propulsion and feeding performance to survive. Jellyfish represent a unique test case for design-based tissue engineer- ing of a functional

Dabiri, John O.

453

1. Arias, E.E., and Walter, J.C. (2007). Strength in numbers: preventing  

E-print Network

: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.06.029 Comparative Biomechanics: The Jellyfish Paradox Resolved Studying the mechanics of swirling water has solved a mystery about the evolution of body shape and size in jellyfish. Matthew J. McHenry A jellyfish is generally regarded as a stinging nuisance that is to be avoided at all

Dabiri, John O.

454

University of Rhode Island inAdvance December 20, 2007  

E-print Network

.m. More... Artificial jellyfish, explosives sensor, seabed battery among projects being developed When of widely-distributed underwater sensors, they imagined attaching the sensors to artificial jellyfish with URI oceanographers and a Providence College expert in jellyfish locomotion to explore this novel idea

Rhode Island, University of

455

The First Mutant of the Aequorea Victoria Green Fluorescent Protein That Forms a Red Chromophore  

E-print Network

ReceiVed February 27, 2008 ABSTRACT: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a jellyfish, Aequorea Victoria of the jellyfish A. Victoria where GFP played a role of secondary emitter transforming blue light from). In particular, a yellow FP and a purple CP from hydroid jellyfishes were characterized. Between 1994 and 1999

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

456

New records of scyphomedusae from Pakistan coast: Catostylus perezi and Pelagia  

E-print Network

. mosaicus in Pakistan assuming it to be of C. perezi. Keywords: jellyfish, Rhizostomeae, Semaeostomeae, medusae, North Arabian Sea Submitted 18 April 2013; accepted 8 June 2013 I N T R O D U C T I O N Jellyfish, aquaculture and tourism (Purcell et al., 2007). Among the cnidarian jellyfish groups (known as medusozoans

Morandini, Andre C.

457

Cause of injury: Contact with tentacles which con-tain stinging cells that inject venom into the skin.  

E-print Network

JELLYFISH Cause of injury: Contact with tentacles which con- tain stinging cells that inject venom. Prevention: Take care when swimming in areas known to have jellyfish. Tentacles of some species may trail a great distance from the body. Rubber diving suits give protec- tion. Avoid touching jellyfish washed up

458

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser  

E-print Network

harmful algal blooms (HABs) and red tides (Noctiluca spp.), as well as the role of jellyfish fish species. Jellyfish act as a buffer in eutrophicated and overfished systems, as they retain enrichment in promoting HAB species, Noctiluca and jellyfish. These fundamental con- straints, which

Chittka, Lars

459

Early evolution of a homeobox gene: the parahox gene Gsx in the Cnidaria and the Bilateria  

E-print Network

, jellyfishes, and hydras) is an extremely ancient lineage of animals with a relatively simple body plan jellyfishes (Schier- water and Kuhn 1998; G. Kwong, P. Burton, M. Mazza, O. Chaga, and J. Finnerty, unpublished data), and the hydrozoan jellyfish Podocoryne (Yanze et al. 2001). Un- fortunately

Finnerty, John R.

460

Quantification of Cyclic Motion of Marine Animals from Computer Vision Aaron M. Plotnik and Stephen M. Rock  

E-print Network

has successfully tracked jellyfish in Monterey Bay, California as part of a joint project between control system, performance gains could be achieved by incorporation of such information. Jellyfish animals such as jellyfish in Monterey Bay, California. This experimental system is part of a joint project

461

DOI: 10.1126/science.1190708 , 333 (2010);329Science  

E-print Network

of the pelagic fisheries off southwest Africa in the late 1960s, jellyfish biomass has increased the success of these fish. In particular, body-tissue isotope signatures reveal that gobies consume jellyfish of the ecosystem, and it became dom- inated by jellyfish, bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus), horse mackerel

Childress, Michael J.

462

OIMB GK12 CURRICULUM grade 60 minutes  

E-print Network

Point on jellies and anemones ! Optional Jelly worksheet http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/invertebrates/jellyfish call them jellies instead of jellyfish because they are not a kind of fish. Jellies are in a group called a medusa. What we think of as "jellyfish" is this medusa phase. Most jellies capture their prey

463

HYDROMEDUSAE CLAUDIA E. MILLS  

E-print Network

Hydromedusae are jellyfishes in the phylum Cnidaria (class Hydrozoa), most of which are born from bottom these little jellyfishes can be quite common. Seaweeds may require inspection by using a low-power microscope to discover these tiny jellyfish crawling on the surface, and individual blades of algae may bear numbers

Carrington, Emily

464

GFP variants for multispectral imaging of living cells. Jim Haseloff  

E-print Network

the jellyfish green fluorescent protein for use as a directly visible gene marker in Arabidopsis, and developed jellyfish Aequorea victoria shares none of these problems, and there has been much interest in using, with glowing points around the margin of the jellyfish umbrella. Light arises from yellow tissue masses

Franks, Robert

465

Illinois' State FossilTullimonstrum gregarium The ancient landscape  

E-print Network

with relatives of modern shrimps, jellyfish, squid, sharks, and other marine animals. Rivers that meandered of a soft-bodied animal like the Tully monster or a jellyfish being preserved as a fossil are very small other marine animals such as jellyfish and shrimp, perhaps piercing their prey with their "teeth

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

466

Released upon receipt but intenfled f o r use  

E-print Network

, 1932 By Charles Fitzhugh Talman, Authority on Meteorology. JELLYFISH TH;4: More people than Hamlet have is extensively repreeented in heavenly scenery. Among the rarer cloud creatures I s the jellyfish. This is R resemblance of such a dloud t o a jellyfish %s so striking that one meteorologist Borne years ago urged

467

Hydrobiologia The International Journal of Aquatic  

E-print Network

's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;JELLYFISH+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract The study of ``jellyfish blooms'' provides important data toward determining of ``jellyfish blooms'' can be biased, considering convenience rather than biological reasoning. Keywords

Morandini, Andre C.

468

36 CFR 7.27 - Dry Tortugas National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spiny lobster (Panulirus guttatus ). (10) Marine life means: (i) Sponges, sea anenomes, corals, jellyfish, sea cucumbers, starfish, sea urchins, octopus, crabs, shrimp, barnacles, worms, conch; and (ii) Other...

2010-07-01

469

Study of the Diversity of Endosymbiotic Bacteria in the Demospongiae Sponge Cinachyrella australiensis by Resin Sectioning Technique.  

E-print Network

??Symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and invertebrates are widespread in marine environments. Many jellyfishes, corals, and sponges often contain bacterial symbionts. Sponges are by far the… (more)

Lin, Ying-Ya

2013-01-01

470

50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 217 GREENLING: Kelp 194 Rock 191 Whitespot 192 Grenadier, giant 214 Grenadier (rattail) 213 Jellyfish (unspecified) 625 Lamprey, Pacific 600 Lingcod 130 Lumpsucker 216 Pacific flatnose 260 Pacific...

2010-10-01

471

^2 1-76 (1969) Vild!. Scrv. Cjrc.  

E-print Network

Act of 19GA 1 Anadromous Fish Act of 1965 1 Jellyfish Act of 1966 1 Distribution of Federal funds 2 Sturgeon 52 Others 52 Xll #12;Jellyfish 53 Shellfish 5^ Clam 54, Crab 55 Lobster 56 Mussel 56 Oyster 57

472

In situ detrimental impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms on zooplankton in the East China Sea.  

PubMed

Large-scale algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, its impacts on the zooplankton in situ are still under not well understood. During a spring P. donghaiense bloom (April-May 2013) along the northern coast of Fujian Province (120°-121°30?E, 26°30?-28°N), we found that the bloom decreased the abundance of copepods and had no significant effect on chaetognaths and small jellyfish. However, the abundance of small jellyfish increased over the course of the study. The zooplankton community changed from being copepod and small jellyfish- to small jellyfish-dominated during the bloom. In the bloom areas, the copepod Calanus sinicus showed higher mortality and lower egg production rates (EPR) than those in the non-bloom areas. The results suggested that P. donghaiense blooms had detrimental effects on the structure of zooplankton community and the recruitments of C. sinicus. PMID:25242234

Lin, Jia-Ning; Yan, Tian; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Wang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

2014-11-15

473

OSU's Art & Literary Magazine / Fall `12 OSU's Art & Literary Magazine  

E-print Network

____________________________________ Chanel Gao Changes _________________________________________________ Susana Rodriguez Jellyfish evenings when I was an immortal On a bike, when the moon crept up my sky And turned my world two-tone, far

Escher, Christine

474

Glowing Bacteria! Purpose: To use your knowledge about  

E-print Network

1 Glowing Bacteria! Purpose: To use your knowledge about genetic transformation to successfully fluorescent protein (GFP) was originally isolated from Aequora victoria, a bioluminescent jellyfish. The p, agar plates, ampicillin, arabinose Procedures: ALWAYS USE ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE WHEN HANDLING BACTERIA

Rose, Michael R.

475

21 CFR 123.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...forms of aquatic animal life (including, but not limited to, alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, where such animal life is...

2013-04-01

476

21 CFR 123.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...forms of aquatic animal life (including, but not limited to, alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, where such animal life is...

2011-04-01

477

21 CFR 123.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...forms of aquatic animal life (including, but not limited to, alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, where such animal life is...

2014-04-01

478

21 CFR 123.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forms of aquatic animal life (including, but not limited to, alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, where such animal life is...

2010-04-01

479

21 CFR 123.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...forms of aquatic animal life (including, but not limited to, alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, where such animal life is...