Sample records for jellyfish chironex fleckeri

  1. Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Hartwick, R; Callanan, V; Williamson, J

    1980-01-12

    Laboratory tests indicate that methylated spirits, widely espoused as a first-aid treatment for jellyfish stings, causes massive discharge of nematocysts in living tentacles of the box-jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. This action, together with demonstrated hazards of flammability and intoxication, casts doubt on this substance as a treatment for Chironex stings. In an attempt to find a substitute which will be effective in inactivating unfired nematocysts in the tentacles adhering to sting victims, a number of substances were tested in the laboratory. Weak solutions of acetic acid, as well as commerical vinegar, were found to inactivate the penetrating nematocysts of Chironex rapidly and completely. Most other substances tested proved less effective, and some actually stimulated the firing of nematocysts. PMID:6102347

  2. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Diane L; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis). The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome. PMID:23236347

  3. Techniques applicable for purifying Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) venom.

    PubMed

    Othman, I; Burnett, J W

    1990-01-01

    A survey of several techniques to isolate a purified lethal factor from the tentacles of Chironex fleckeri was completed. Heterologous band patterns were obtained from specific eluates after gel filtration, ion exchange, immunoaffinity and hydrophobic chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed a dense band at 24,000 mol. wt in many of these fractions. Isoelectric focusing of the crude venom resulted in considerable loss of activity but indicated significant purification in the fractions having a pI of 5.2-6.8. These fractions were also immunologically active against sera from a convalescing post-evenomation patient. The primary difficulties encountered in jellyfish venom purification are the lack of stability and the tendency of the active toxins to adhere to each other and to various support matrices. PMID:1977211

  4. Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Brinkman; James Burnell

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most abundant proteins found in the nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri have been identified as C. fleckeri toxin-1 (CfTX-1) and toxin-2 (CfTX-2). The molecular masses of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, are approximately 43 and 45kDa, respectively, and both proteins are strongly antigenic to commercially available box jellyfish antivenom and rabbit polyclonal antibodies

  5. Partial purification of box jellyfish ( Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Bloom; Joseph W. Burnett; Philip Alderslade

    1998-01-01

    Chironex fleckeri, the northern Australian box jellyfish produces one of, if not, the most potent animal venoms. Study of the venom has been hampered by the limits of the animals' range and the venom's thermolability. Using retained lethality and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NPAGE), we show that lyophilization of autolysis isolated nematocysts is an effective method of transporting the venom.

  6. The Mechanism Underlying the Cardiotoxic Effect of the Toxin from the Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Mustafa; E. White; K. Hongo; I. Othman; C. H. Orchard

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of the toxin from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. Papillary muscles isolated from the hearts of ferrets and ventricular myocytes isolated from the hearts of ferrets and rats were used. Force, intracellular [Ca2+], and membrane potential were monitored in the papillary muscles; contraction, intracellular [Ca2+], intracellular [Na+], and membrane currents were

  7. A cell-based assay for screening of antidotes to, and antivenom against Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicki Konstantakopoulos; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2009-01-01

    IntroductionChironex fleckeri is a large box jellyfish that has been labelled the ‘most venomous animal’ in the world. We have recently shown that the primary effect of C. fleckeri venom in vivo is cardiovascular collapse. This study utilised a cell-based assay to examine the effects of C. fleckeri venom on the proliferation of a rat aortic smooth muscle cell line.

  8. The effects of antivenom and verapamil on the haemodynamic actions of Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J; Williams, D; Sutherland, S K

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of antivenom and verapamil against Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom was investigated in monitored mechanically ventilated piglets. Chironex fleckeri tentacle extract alone, a mixture of tentacle extract with antivenom, and verapamil before tentacle extract were administered intravenously to groups of animals. Tentacle extract caused severe systemic hypotension, cardiac dysrrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, haemolysis and hyperkalaemia. These effects were prevented by pre-incubation of tentacle extract with antivenom. Verapamil did not prevent any effect of venom, exacerbated cardiovascular collapse and increased mortality. We conclude that antivenom neutralizes the cardiovascular, haemolytic and hyperkalaemic effects of box jellyfish venom. Verapamil does not prevent any of these effects and is contra-indicated for treatment of envenomation. PMID:9513666

  9. Acute management of serious envenomation by box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    PubMed

    Williamson, J A; Le Ray, L E; Wohlfahrt, M; Fenner, P J

    Two cases of serious envenomation by the northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) are reported. The first-aid measures and the subsequent management and follow-up of patients are discussed. In addition to its known life-saving effects, the early administration of the specific antivenom appears to be the best treatment for the savage pain of the sting, and may also result in a reduction of subsequent skin scarring. PMID:6150421

  10. Response of the box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) cardiotoxin to intravenous administration of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1983-08-20

    Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, has been shown to be effective in delaying death in mice after intravenous challenge with box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom. Death from a challenge of up to three mouse-lethal doses of venom was significantly delayed after the prior intravenous administration of verapamil (P = 0.003). A smaller dose of verapamil could "rescue" mice previously envenomed with 1.25 mouse-lethal doses (P = 0.0001). These data suggest that verapamil injections should be added to the first-aid procedures performed on the beach for victims of box-jellyfish stings. PMID:6135976

  11. Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

    2007-11-01

    Two of the most abundant proteins found in the nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri have been identified as C. fleckeri toxin-1 (CfTX-1) and toxin-2 (CfTX-2). The molecular masses of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, are approximately 43 and 45 kDa, respectively, and both proteins are strongly antigenic to commercially available box jellyfish antivenom and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The amino acid sequences of mature CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 (436 and 445 residues, respectively) share significant homology with three known proteins: CqTX-A from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, CrTXs from Carybdea rastoni and CaTX-A from Carybdea alata, all of which are lethal, haemolytic box jellyfish toxins. Multiple sequence alignment of the five jellyfish proteins has identified several short, but highly conserved regions of amino acids that coincide with a predicted transmembrane spanning region, referred to as TSR1, which may be involved in a pore-forming mechanism of action. Furthermore, remote protein homology predictions for CfTX-2 and CaTX-A suggest weak structural similarities to pore-forming insecticidal delta-endotoxins Cry1Aa, Cry3Bb and Cry3A. PMID:17688901

  12. Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing the haemolytic activity of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extracts.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Comis, A; Marshall, M; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

    1993-09-01

    1. Three monoclonal antibodies have been produced which neutralize in vitro the haemolytic activity present in tentacle extracts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri). 2. Two of these monoclonal antibodies bound specifically to a component of relative molecular mass 50,000 in tentacle extract on Western blots. 3. This binding only occurred when the extracts were electrophoresed under non-reducing conditions. 4. The third monoclonal antibody did not display binding to Western blots of tentacle extract under any of our experimental conditions. PMID:8104761

  13. Stabilization of lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom.

    PubMed

    Comis, A; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

    1989-01-01

    The stability of both the lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extract was assessed after various extraction procedures. Both activities were higher when no buffers or water were used during the initial extraction. Also, when the extract was first filtered through a Sep-pak C18 cartridge, the residual lethal titre, after incubation for 24 hr at room temperature, was increased 16-fold and hemolysis was increased 2.6-fold. Evidence for proteolytic activity in the extract was also obtained and monitored by size exclusion HPLC. PMID:2567076

  14. Partial purification of cytolytic venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

    2008-04-01

    Venom proteins from the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri were fractionated by size-exclusion and cation-exchange chromatography. Using sheep erythrocyte haemolysis as an indicator of cytolytic activity, two major cytolysins, with native molecular masses of approximately 370 and 145kDa, and one minor cytolysin ( approximately 70kDa) were isolated. SDS-PAGE and western blot protein profiles revealed that the 370kDa haemolysin is composed of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 subunits ( approximately 43 and 45kDa, respectively); the most abundant proteins found in C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The 145kDa haemolysin predominately contains two other major proteins ( approximately 39 and 41kDa), which are not antigenic towards commercially available box jellyfish antivenom or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against whole C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts or CfTX-1 and -2. The kinetics of CfTX-1 and -2 haemolytic activities are temperature dependent and characterised by a pre-lytic lag phase ( approximately 6-7min) prior to initiation of haemolysis. Significant amino acid sequence homology between the CfTX proteins and other box jellyfish toxins suggest that CfTX-1 and -2 may also be lethal and dermonecrotic. Therefore, further in vivo and in vitro studies are required to investigate the potential roles of CfTX-1 and -2 in the lethal effects of C. fleckeri venom. PMID:18243272

  15. Fatal envenomation by Chironex fleckeri, the north Australian box jellyfish: the continuing search for lethal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lumley, J; Williamson, J A; Fenner, P J; Burnett, J W; Colquhoun, D M

    1988-05-16

    A child with severe envenomation by Chironex fleckeri presented in cardiac arrest at a hospital between 15 and 20 min after the sting was sustained. Resuscitation was not successful. Objective confirmation of C. fleckeri as the cause of death is described. Four metres of tentacle contact in this case represents the smallest-measured fatal C. fleckeri sting that has been recorded so far. The mechanism of this death was toxic and not allergic. The available clinical information suggests direct myocardial interference, but does not exclude a respiratory hypoxic element. A more widespread venom-induced functional disruption of the cell membrane is postulated, with a resultant dysfunction in several vital organ systems that were acting in concert. Early, vigorous and sustained resuscitation that is performed as a first-aid measure offers the best hope of prehospital survival after a massive C. fleckeri sting, which is the most explosive envenomation process that is presently known to humans. In-hospital resuscitation from unresponsive circulatory arrest should now involve intravenously-administered verapamil (or its equivalent) and additional box-jellyfish antivenom, while the patient is being monitored. PMID:2897074

  16. An in vivo examination of the stability of venom from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Winter, K L; Isbister, G K; Seymour, J E; Hodgson, W C

    2007-05-01

    We have previously characterised the pharmacological activity of a number of jellyfish venoms with a particular emphasis on the profound cardiovascular effects. It has been suggested that jellyfish venoms are difficult to work with and are sensitive to pH, temperature and chemical changes. The current study aimed to examine the working parameters of the venom of the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri to enable fractionation and isolation of the toxins with cardiovascular activity. C. fleckeri venom was made up fresh each day and subjected to a number of different environments (i.e. a pH range of 5-9 and a temperature range of 4-30 degrees C). In addition, the effect of freeze drying and reconstituting the venom was investigated. Venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetised rats. This biphasic response was not significantly effected by preparation of the venom at a pH of 5, 7 or 9. Similarly, venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.) did not display a loss of activity when exposed to temperatures of 4, 20 or 30 degrees C for 1.5h. However, the cardiovascular activity was abolished by boiling the venom. Freeze drying, and then reconstituting, the venom did not significantly affect its cardiovascular activity. However, repeated freeze drying and reconstituting of extracted venom resulted in a significantly loss of activity. This study provides a more detailed knowledge of the parameters in which C. fleckeri venom can be used and, while supporting some previous studies, contradicts some of the perceived problems of working with the venom. PMID:17215014

  17. Partial purification of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D A; Burnett, J W; Alderslade, P

    1998-08-01

    Chironex fleckeri, the northern Australian box jellyfish produces one of, if not, the most potent animal venoms. Study of the venom has been hampered by the limits of the animals' range and the venom's thermolability. Using retained lethality and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NPAGE), we show that lyophilization of autolysis isolated nematocysts is an effective method of transporting the venom. In addition, Sephadex G-200 chromatography, spin concentration, and NPAGE fail to demonstrate the presence of a 600 kDa protein to which the bulk of the lethal activity has been ascribed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary electrophoresis of crude venom yields several protein bands with a molecular weight range of 30-200 kDa. Freeze-thaw studies show a loss of activity and NPAGE bands after two freeze thaw cycles. PMID:9690776

  18. Toxins from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Endean, R; Monks, S A; Cameron, A M

    1993-04-01

    Two myotoxins (T1 and T2) with mol. wts of approximately 600,000 and 150,000, respectively, and a haemolysin (T3) with a mol. wt of approximately 70,000 were isolated from the crude nematocyst venom of C. fleckeri by the use of Sephadex G-200 chromatography. A neurotoxic fraction (T4) and a haemolytic fraction (T5) containing proteins with apparent mol. wts of approximately 150,000 and 70,000, respectively, were also isolated by Sephadex chromatography from crude extracts of tentacular material from which nematocysts had been removed. The three nematocyst toxins and the two toxic fractions from tentacle extracts were lethal to mice on i.v. injection. After SDS-PAGE the myotoxins T1 and T2 yielded similar major bands corresponding with mol. wts different from those yielded by T3 and the toxic tentacle fractions. T1 and T2 appeared to be comprised of aggregations of subunits with mol. wts of approximately 18,000. On HPLC, crude nematocyst venom and the nematocyst toxins T1 and T2 lost their myotoxic properties. The need for thorough removal of extraneous tentacular material from isolated nematocysts, the need for effective rupture of nematocysts, the need to counter the lability of the nematocyst venom and the need to use myotoxicity as a criterion of venom activity if the active components of the venom are to be purified and characterized are emphasized. PMID:8099238

  19. Pharmacologically distinct cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish ( Chironex fleckeri) venom and a tentacle-only extract in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharmaine Ramasamy; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2005-01-01

    Using a recently developed technique to extract jellyfish venom from nematocysts, the present study investigated the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom and tentacle extract (devoid of nematocysts). In anaesthetised rats, venom (10?g\\/kg, i.v.) produced a transient pressor response (23±4mmHg) followed, in two of five animals, by cardiovascular collapse. Tentacle extract (100?g\\/kg, i.v.) produced a more prolonged hypertensive

  20. An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L. Winter; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Tamara Jacoby; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2009-01-01

    Although CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) remains the primary treatment for Chironex fleckeri envenoming, there has been considerable debate regarding its clinical effectiveness. Animal studies have shown that AV is largely ineffective in preventing C. fleckeri-induced cardiovascular collapse. This study examined the effectiveness of CSL box jellyfish AV (ovine IgG), raised against ‘milked’ venom, and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies (Ab)

  1. The mechanism underlying the cardiotoxic effect of the toxin from the jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, M R; White, E; Hongo, K; Othman, I; Orchard, C H

    1995-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of the toxin from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. Papillary muscles isolated from the hearts of ferrets and ventricular myocytes isolated from the hearts of ferrets and rats were used. Force, intracellular [Ca2+], and membrane potential were monitored in the papillary muscles; contraction, intracellular [Ca2+], intracellular [Na+], and membrane currents were monitored in the isolated myocytes. Application of the toxin to these preparations resulted in a large increase in intracellular [Ca2+] and the adverse symptoms of Ca2+ overload (aftercontractions, spontaneous contractions, a decrease in developed force, and an increase in resting force). The response of papillary muscles to the toxin was not inhibited by blockers of Ca2+ or Na+ channels or by inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, Na+/K+ ATPase, or Na+/H+ exchange. The response to the toxin was, however, blocked by prior exposure to a solution which contained no Na+ and by Ni2+. In the isolated myocytes, as well as an increase in intracellular [Ca2+], the toxin also caused an increase in intracellular [Na+] and the appearance of a current which was inward at negative potentials and reversed at about -10 mV. These data can be explained by the toxin increasing Na+ influx into the cell. The increase in intracellular [Na+] will then increase intracellular [Ca2+] via the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism, thus producing the observed Ca2+ overload. PMID:7645014

  2. Effects of verapamil and CSL antivenom on Chironex fleckeri (Box-jellyfish) induced mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Bloom; Jose Burnett

    1999-01-01

    Intravenous verapamil prolonged survival in mice challenged with intravenous Chironex fleckeri venom prepared from clarified nematocyst suspensions. Ovoid antivenom protected mice who had been challenged but only over a limited dose range. Verapamil also enhanced the beneficial effect of ovine antivenom but again was most active only over a restricted dose range. This data suggests that there may be an,

  3. Distributional ecology and behaviour of the early life stages of the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Hartwick

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory observations on reared life stages of Chironex fleckeri (Cubozoa: Chirodropidae) have been combined with field sampling and observations to outline the life cycle of the species and the spatial and temporal distribution of populations in Queensland, Australia. A seasonal alternation of polypoid and medusoid generations from winter to summer respectively is accompanied by a shift in preferred habitat from

  4. Effects of verapamil and CSL antivenom on Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D A; Burnett, J W; Hebel, J R; Alderslade, P

    1999-11-01

    Ovine antivenom prolonged survival in mice challenged with intravenous Chironex fleckeri venom over a limited dose range. Verapamil enhanced the beneficial effect of ovine antivenom. This data suggests that there may be an, as yet undefined, optimal antivenom dose for humans and that verapamil, used in combination with antivenom is an effective agent. PMID:10482395

  5. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharmaine Ramasamy; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2004-01-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts, the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) and adjunct therapies, verapamil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), were investigated against the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom in anaesthetised rats.C. fleckeri venom (30 ?g\\/kg; i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse within 4 min

  6. Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom proteins: expansion of a cnidarian toxin family that elicits variable cytolytic and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Diane L; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2014-02-21

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (?40 kDa) and CfTX-B (?42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 ?g kg(-1)) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml(-1)) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (?-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving ?-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  7. Partial purification of cytolytic venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Brinkman; James Burnell

    2008-01-01

    Venom proteins from the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri were fractionated by size-exclusion and cation-exchange chromatography. Using sheep erythrocyte haemolysis as an indicator of cytolytic activity, two major cytolysins, with native molecular masses of ?370 and 145kDa, and one minor cytolysin (?70kDa) were isolated. SDS-PAGE and western blot protein profiles revealed that the 370kDa haemolysin is composed of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2

  8. Growth, development and temporal variation in the onset of six Chironex fleckeri medusae seasons: a contribution to understanding jellyfish ecology.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Matthew; Seymour, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, toxicity and commercial, industrial and medical impacts jellyfish present, many aspects of their ecology remain poorly understood. Quantified here are important ecological parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C. fleckeri medusae were collected across seven seasons (1999, 2000, 2003, 2005-07 and 2010), with growth rates, temporal variation in the medusae season onset and differences in population structure between estuarine and coastal habitats quantified. With a mean of 2 September ± 2 d (mean ± 95% confidence limits), the earliest date of metamorphosis was temporally constrained between seasons, varying by only 7 d (30 August to 5 September). Juvenile medusae appeared to be added over an extended period, suggesting polyp metamorphosis was an ongoing process once it commenced. At a maximum of 3 ± 0.2 mm d(-1) IPD, medusae growth to an asymptotic size of ~190 mm IPD was rapid, yet, with the oldest medusae estimated to be ~78 d in age, medusae did not appear to accumulate along the coastline. Furthermore, a greater proportion of juveniles were observed along the coastline, with estuarine populations typified by larger medusae. With key aspects of C. fleckeri's ecology now quantified, medusae season management protocols can be further developed. PMID:22384009

  9. Clinical implications of research on the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    Currie, B

    1994-11-01

    Despite several decades of laboratory research, many anecdotal clinical publications and successful production of antivenom, the active components of Chironex fleckeri venom and their mechanisms of toxicity remain poorly elucidated. Conflicting results of animal experiments and venom studies and the lack of controlled clinical trials necessitate caution in formulating protocols of clinical management. Of particular note are that in severe envenomation (1) clinical deterioration can occur within minutes and cardiac support must be emphasised in addition to respiratory support; (2) larger doses of antivenom may be appropriate; and (3) recommendations of therapy with verapamil and other cardioactive drugs remain controversial. PMID:7886690

  10. Pharmacologically distinct cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom and a tentacle-only extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-02-15

    Using a recently developed technique to extract jellyfish venom from nematocysts, the present study investigated the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom and tentacle extract (devoid of nematocysts). In anaesthetised rats, venom (10 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient pressor response (23+/-4 mmHg) followed, in two of five animals, by cardiovascular collapse. Tentacle extract (100 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a more prolonged hypertensive effect (31+/-3 mmHg) without cardiovascular collapse. Prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) did not have any significant effect on the cardiovascular effects produced by venom. However, prazosin significantly attenuated the pressor response produced by tentacle extract. Ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not have any significant effect on the cardiovascular response of the anaesthetised rat to venom (10 microg/kg, i.v.; 25+/-1 mmHg). Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to compare the two jellyfish samples used in the present study. In addition to ensuring reproducibility of future studies and allow comparison with previous research. We show, for the first time, that a pure venom sample extracted from C. fleckeri nematocysts and a tentacle extract have cardiovascular effects in the anaesthetised rat which are different and pharmacologically distinct. PMID:15603916

  11. Serious envenomation by the Northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    PubMed

    Williamson, J A; Callanan, V I; Hartwick, R F

    1980-01-12

    Serious envenomation of an adult pregnant woman by a box-jellyfish (Chironex flecteri) in North Queensland is reported. Quick thinking and resuscitation by bystanders which was followed by early hospital treatment resulted in a successful outcome both for mother and for fetus. A brief review of the historic background of box-jellyfish envenomation is given, and some specific problems concerning the management and prevention of envenomation from this unique animal are described. On-the-spot resuscitation takes absolute priority, and the advent of specific antivenom is a major advance. Avoidance of fetal stings in the future is possible by simple preventive measures. The role of the Surf Life Saving Association of Australia in the prevention and treatment of such problems is highlighted, and, as a result of recent research, possible changes in the management of box-jellyfish envenomations are predicted. PMID:6102346

  12. Rapid short term and gradual permanent cardiotoxic effects of vertebrate toxins from Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) venom.

    PubMed

    Chaousis, Stephanie; Smout, Michael; Wilson, David; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie

    2014-03-01

    The vertebrate cardiotoxic components of the venom produced by the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, have not previously been isolated. We have uncovered for the first time, three distinct cytotoxic crude fractions from within the vertebrate cardiotoxic peak of C. fleckeri venom by monitoring viability of human muscle cells with an impedance based assay (ACEA xCELLigence system) measuring cell detachment as cytotoxicity which was correlated with a reduction in cell metabolism using a cell proliferation (MTS) assay. When the effects of the venom components on human cardiomyocytes and human skeletal muscle cells were compared, two fractions were found to specifically affect cardiomyocytes with distinct temporal profiles (labelled Crude Toxic Fractions (CTF), ? and ?). A third fraction (CTF-?) was toxic to both muscle cell types and therefore not cardio specific. The vertebrate, cardio specific CTF-? and CTF-?, presented distinct activities; CTF-? caused rapid but short term cell detachment and reduction in cell metabolism with enhanced activity at lower concentrations than CTF-?. This activity was not permanent, with cell reattachment and subsequent increased metabolism of heart muscle cells observed when exposed to all but the highest concentrations of CTF-? tested. The cytotoxic effect of CTF-? took twice as long to act on the cells compared to CTF-?, however, the activity was permanent. Furthermore, we showed that the two fractions combined have a synergistic effect causing a much stronger and faster cell detachment (death) when combined than the sum of the individual effects of each toxin. These data presented here improves the current understanding of the toxic mechanisms of the Australian box jellyfish, C. fleckeri, and provides a basis for in vivo research of these newly isolated toxic fractions. PMID:24462661

  13. The in vitro effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.) venoms: efficacy of box jellyfish antivenom.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoff K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2003-05-01

    The pharmacological and biochemical isolation of cnidarian venoms has been hindered by difficulties with both extracting pure venom from nematocysts and venom stability. The development of a new technique to extract active, pure venom of Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. has enabled identify both neurotoxic and myotoxic activity in their venoms. These activities are similar, but not identical in each species. Venom (50 micro g/ml) from both species significantly inhibited indirect and direct twitches of the chick biventer nerve-muscle preparation. Pre-incubation with 1U/ml box jellyfish antivenom did not have any significant effect on venom-induced reductions of indirect twitches. However, this activity was markedly attenuated by prior addition of 5U/ml antivenom, albeit to a lesser degree for Chiropsalmus sp. In contrast, prior addition of 5U/ml box jellyfish antivenom did not neutralise the myotoxic activity of C. fleckeri venom (50 micro g/ml), although it did inhibit the myotoxicity produced by Chiropsalmus sp. venom (50 micro g/ml). Antivenom (5U/ml) added 1h after the addition of C. fleckeri venom (50 micro g/ml) had no effect on the indirect or direct twitches of the skeletal muscle preparation. However, it partially restored the reduction in indirect twitch height caused by Chiropsalmus sp. venom (50 micro g/ml). Myotoxicity was confirmed in muscle preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin.Therefore, although antivenom was able to neutralize the neurotoxic effects of both species, and the myotoxic effects of Chiropsalmus sp., when added prior to venom, it was unable to reverse the effects after venom addition. This suggests that antivenom is unlikely to be useful in the treatment of neurotoxic or myotoxic effects in patients, although these effects are rarely seen clinically. PMID:12727274

  14. Firing the Sting: Chemically Induced Discharge of Cnidae Reveals Novel Proteins and Peptides from Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) Venom

    PubMed Central

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Nouwens, Amanda; Cribb, Bronwen W.; Whitehead, Darryl; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Ali, Syed A.; Wagstaff, Simon C.; Koludarov, Ivan; Alewood, Paul; Hansen, Jay; Fry, Bryan G.

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarian venom research has lagged behind other toxinological fields due to technical difficulties in recovery of the complex venom from the microscopic nematocysts. Here we report a newly developed rapid, repeatable and cost effective technique of venom preparation, using ethanol to induce nematocyst discharge and to recover venom contents in one step. Our model species was the Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), which has a notable impact on public health. By utilizing scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, we examined nematocyst external morphology before and after ethanol treatment and verified nematocyst discharge. Further, to investigate nematocyst content or “venom” recovery, we utilized both top-down and bottom-up transcriptomics–proteomics approaches and compared the proteome profile of this new ethanol recovery based method to a previously reported high activity and recovery protocol, based upon density purified intact cnidae and pressure induced disruption. In addition to recovering previously characterized box jellyfish toxins, including CfTX-A/B and CfTX-1, we recovered putative metalloproteases and novel expression of a small serine protease inhibitor. This study not only reveals a much more complex toxin profile of Australian box jellyfish venom but also suggests that ethanol extraction method could augment future cnidarian venom proteomics research efforts. PMID:25793725

  15. Firing the sting: chemically induced discharge of cnidae reveals novel proteins and peptides from box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom.

    PubMed

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Casewell, Nicholas R; Yanagihara, Angel A; Nouwens, Amanda; Cribb, Bronwen W; Whitehead, Darryl; Jackson, Timothy N W; Ali, Syed A; Wagstaff, Simon C; Koludarov, Ivan; Alewood, Paul; Hansen, Jay; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-03-01

    Cnidarian venom research has lagged behind other toxinological fields due to technical difficulties in recovery of the complex venom from the microscopic nematocysts. Here we report a newly developed rapid, repeatable and cost effective technique of venom preparation, using ethanol to induce nematocyst discharge and to recover venom contents in one step. Our model species was the Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), which has a notable impact on public health. By utilizing scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, we examined nematocyst external morphology before and after ethanol treatment and verified nematocyst discharge. Further, to investigate nematocyst content or "venom" recovery, we utilized both top-down and bottom-up transcriptomics-proteomics approaches and compared the proteome profile of this new ethanol recovery based method to a previously reported high activity and recovery protocol, based upon density purified intact cnidae and pressure induced disruption. In addition to recovering previously characterized box jellyfish toxins, including CfTX-A/B and CfTX-1, we recovered putative metalloproteases and novel expression of a small serine protease inhibitor. This study not only reveals a much more complex toxin profile of Australian box jellyfish venom but also suggests that ethanol extraction method could augment future cnidarian venom proteomics research efforts. PMID:25793725

  16. Cardiotoxic effects of venom fractions from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri on human myocardiocytes.

    PubMed

    Saggiomo, Silvia L A; Seymour, Jamie E

    2012-09-01

    An investigation into the cardiotoxic effects in human cardiomyocytes of different fractions (as produced from an FPLC) of the venom from Chironex fleckeri showed that whole venom caused cardiac cell death in minutes, measured as cell detachment using xCELLigence technology. However, only one fraction of the venom was responsible for this effect. When all extracted venoms were recombined a similar result was seen for the toxic fraction, however these effects were slower than unfractionated venom alone even though the concentrations were similar. The difference in the results between fractioned and unfractionated venom may have been caused by compounds remaining in the FPLC column, which may interact with the toxic fraction to cause rapid cell detachment or death. PMID:22560886

  17. A pharmacological investigation of the venom extract of the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, in cardiac and vascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Richard J A; Angus, James A; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E

    2012-02-25

    The pharmacology of Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, unpurified (crude) nematocyst venom extract (CVE) was investigated in rat isolated cardiac and vascular tissues and in anaesthetised rats. In small mesenteric arteries CVE (0.01-30 ?g/ml) caused contractions (EC(50) 1.15±0.19 ?g/ml) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.1 ?M), bosentan (10 ?M), CGRP(8-37) (1 ?M) or tetrodotoxin (1 ?M). Box jellyfish antivenom (5-92.6 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve with no change in the maximum. In the presence of l-NAME (100 ?M) the sensitivity and maximum response to CVE were increased, whilst MgSO(4) (6 mM) decreased both parameters. CVE (1-10 ?g/ml) caused inhibition of the contractile response to electrical sympathetic nerve stimulation. Left atrial responses to CVE (0.001-30 ?g/ml) were bi-phasic, composed of an initial positive inotropy followed by a marked negative inotropy and atrial standstill. CVE (0.3 ?g/ml) elicited a marked decrease in right atrial rate followed by atrial standstill at 3 ?g/ml. These responses were unaffected by 1 ?M of propranolol, atropine or CGRP(8-37). Antivenom (54 and 73 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve and prevented atrial standstill in left and right atria. The effects of CVE do not appear to involve autonomic nerves, post-synaptic ?(1)- or ?(1)-adrenoceptors, or muscarinic, endothelin or CGRP receptors, but may occur through direct effects on the cardiac and vascular muscle. Box jellyfish antivenom was effective in attenuating CVE-induced responses in isolated cardiac and vascular tissues. PMID:22154831

  18. The effectiveness of antivenom in countering the actions of box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst toxins in mice.

    PubMed

    Endean, R; Sizemore, D J

    1988-01-01

    The neutralizing ability of commercially available antivenom prepared against 'milked' box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom was tested intravenously in mice against crude nematocyst venom obtained by crushing isolated nematocysts and against each of two lethal toxins (T1 and T2) present in this venom. The in vitro neutralizing ability of the antivenom against crude venom was reduced markedly compared with its reported neutralizing ability against 'milked' venom whilst the in vivo neutralizing ability of the antivenom tested in both prophylactic and rescue experiments involving crude nematocyst venom was reduced approximately threefold. When tested in vitro and prophylactically in vivo the neutralizing ability of the antivenom was much more pronounced against T2 than against T1. This finding was in accord with the view that T1 was absent from the 'milked' venom against which the antivenom was prepared. Doses of crude venom in excess of twice the lethal dose killed mice within 2-3 min emphasizing the need for speed in the administration of antivenom. PMID:2903586

  19. The in vitro effects of two chirodropid ( Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.) venoms: efficacy of box jellyfish antivenom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharmaine Ramasamy; Geoff K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacological and biochemical isolation of cnidarian venoms has been hindered by difficulties with both extracting pure venom from nematocysts and venom stability. The development of a new technique to extract active, pure venom of Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. has enabled identify both neurotoxic and myotoxic activity in their venoms. These activities are similar, but not identical in each

  20. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2004-05-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts, the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) and adjunct therapies, verapamil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), were investigated against the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom in anaesthetised rats. C. fleckeri venom (30 microg/kg; i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse within 4 min of administration. Prophylactic treatment of anaesthetised rats with CSL box jellyfish AV (3000 U/kg; i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response, but prevented cardiovascular collapse in four out of 10 animals. Administration of verapamil (20mM@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) either alone or in combination with AV, did not have any effect on the C. fleckeri venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent hypotension or cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, the administration of verapamil negated the partially protective effects of AV. Concurrent artificial respiration of animals with the above treatments did not attenuate the C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular effects. MgSO(4) (0.05-0.07M@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) alone did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, although combined AV and MgSO(4) administration could not inhibit the transient pressor effect following the administration of C. fleckeri venom, it prevented cardiovascular collapse in all animals. We show for the first time, the cardiovascular effects of a C. fleckeri venom sample free of tentacular contamination and the potential of MgSO(4) as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of potentially fatal C. fleckeri envenomings. PMID:15109889

  1. An in vivo examination of the stability of venom from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Winter; G. K. Isbister; J. E. Seymour; W. C. Hodgson

    2007-01-01

    We have previously characterised the pharmacological activity of a number of jellyfish venoms with a particular emphasis on the profound cardiovascular effects. It has been suggested that jellyfish venoms are difficult to work with and are sensitive to pH, temperature and chemical changes. The current study aimed to examine the working parameters of the venom of the Australian box jellyfish

  2. Envenomation by the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri : how nematocysts discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Endean; J. F. Rifkin; L. Y. M. Daddow

    1991-01-01

    The capsules of isolated mastigophores of C. fleckeri were impermeable to water and neutral red dye. After air drying, ca 30% discharged, most everting fully, when exposed to distilled water or sodium citrate but in a seawater medium only partial discharge was induced. The capsular contents of discharging mastigophores dyed strongly red with neutral red and showed metachromasy with toluidine

  3. Separation of two myotoxins from nematocysts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    PubMed

    Endean, R

    1987-01-01

    Two myotoxins, both lethal to mice by i.v. injection, were obtained by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 of material released from isolated microbasic mastigophores of C. fleckeri. Both toxins elicit contractures of skeletal (diaphragm) musculature of the rat and of smooth (ileum and vas deferens) and atrial musculature of the guinea-pig, although consistent differences in the parameters of the contractures of each muscle type elicited by the two toxins are shown. Moreover, one toxin, with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000, also elicits activity on crustacean (barnacle) musculature, whilst the other toxin, with a molecular weight of approximately 600,000, elicits no activity in barnacle musculature at the concentrations tested. The toxins are labile when released from nematocysts and they lose all myotoxic activity within 3 days at 5 degrees C. They can also be isolated chromatographically from crude extracts of the contents of mixed nematocysts of C. fleckeri. They are considered to be the principal toxins injected by C. fleckeri during nematocyst discharge and appear to be different from the C. fleckeri toxins described by other workers. PMID:2887047

  4. A pharmacological and biochemical examination of the geographical variation of Chironex fleckeri venom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L. Winter; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Sheena McGowan; Nicki Konstantakopoulos; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2010-01-01

    Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) are found in the northern tropical waters of Australia. Although C. fleckeri have a wide geographical distribution and are able to swim large distances, adults tend to stay in small restricted areas. Clinical data shows that deaths from envenoming have not been recorded in Western Australia, yet numerous fatalities have occurred in Northern Territory and Queensland

  5. An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom.

    PubMed

    Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Jacoby, Tamara; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2009-06-01

    Although CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) remains the primary treatment for Chironex fleckeri envenoming, there has been considerable debate regarding its clinical effectiveness. Animal studies have shown that AV is largely ineffective in preventing C. fleckeri-induced cardiovascular collapse. This study examined the effectiveness of CSL box jellyfish AV (ovine IgG), raised against 'milked' venom, and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies (Ab) raised against nematocyst-derived venom. A venom dose of 30microg/kg, i.v., which causes an initial presser response (34+/-5mmHg; n=7) followed by cardiovascular collapse, was used in all experiments. A bolus dose of AV (3000U/kg, i.v.) or Ab (12mg; i.e. an equivalent protein 'load' to 3000U/kg AV), administered 15min prior to a bolus dose of venom, did not significantly attenuate the effects of venom. The venom response was also not significantly attenuated when AV (3000U/kg) was given as a bolus dose 10-60min prior to venom infusion. However, when the venom was incubated with either AV (3000U/kg) or Ab (12mg) for 3h prior to infusion, the effect of the venom was almost abolished. The results of this study demonstrate that antibodies raised against both 'milked' and nematocyst-derived venom are able to neutralise the cardiovascular collapse produced by the venom. However, large amounts of AV are required and must be preincubated with the venom to be protective. This indicates a very rapid action of the toxin(s) and that AV is unlikely to be clinically effective because it cannot be administered early enough. PMID:19429250

  6. A functional comparison of the venom of three Australian jellyfishChironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana—on cytosolic Ca 2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Bailey; Anthony J. Bakker; Jamie E. Seymour; Jacqueline A. Wilce

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms produce a wide spectrum of envenoming syndromes in humans ranging from minor local irritation to death. Here, the effects of Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana venoms on ventricular myocyte cytosolic Ca2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality are compared for the first time. All three venoms caused a large, irreversible elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in myocytes as

  7. Preliminary Observations on the Response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to Different Colors of Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LISA-ANN GERSHWIN; PETER DAWES

    2008-01-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked

  8. Toxinological and immunological studies of capillary electrophoresis fractionated Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) fishing tentacle and Chironex fleckeri Southcott nematocyst venoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A Bloom; F. F. Y Radwan; J. W Burnett

    2001-01-01

    Repeated runs of capillary electrophoresis (CE) were used to study partially-purified jellyfish nematocyst venom protein in concentrations sufficient to perform toxinological assays. Nematocyst venoms from Chironex fleckeri (Cf) and Chysaora quinquecirrha were processed. The CE eluate was divided into quadrants by scanning protein content. The fourth fraction of both jellyfish venoms, contained proteins with the smallest molecular weight components, which

  9. A functional comparison of the venom of three Australian jellyfish--Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana--on cytosolic Ca2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Paul M; Bakker, Anthony J; Seymour, Jamie E; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2005-02-01

    Cnidarian venoms produce a wide spectrum of envenoming syndromes in humans ranging from minor local irritation to death. Here, the effects of Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana venoms on ventricular myocyte cytosolic Ca2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality are compared for the first time. All three venoms caused a large, irreversible elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in myocytes as measured using the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent probe Indo-1. The L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist verapamil had no effect on Ca2+ influx whilst La3+, a non-specific channel and pore blocker, inhibited the effect. Haemolytic activity was observed for all venoms, with C. xaymacana venom displaying the greatest activity. These activities are consistent with the presence of a pore-forming toxin existing in the venoms which has been demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy in the case of C. fleckeri. The venom of C. fleckeri was found to be more lethal against Artemia sp. than the venom of the other species, consistent with the order of known human toxicities. This suggests that the observed lytic effects may not underlie the lethal effects of the venom, and raises the question of how such potent activities are dealt with by envenomed humans. PMID:15626372

  10. Verapamil potentiation of Chironex (box-jellyfish) antivenom.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Othman, I B; Endean, R; Fenner, P J; Callanan, V I; Williamson, J A

    1990-01-01

    'Rescue' experiments were performed on mice to compare the efficacy of i.v. verapamil, box-jellyfish antivenom, and a combination of both agents to counter the effects of toxic material extracted from the tentacles of Chironex fleckeri. In each of three series of experiments, four sets of mice were injected with doses of Chironex tentacle extracts containing approximately 4 mg/ml protein which were equivalent to twice the LD50. Three of these groups also received verapamil alone, antivenom alone, or a combination of both treatments. The combination therapy of drug and antivenom was superior to either agent alone. Treatment of verapamil alone appeared to be equivalent to that with only antivenom. PMID:1971128

  11. Purification of Chironex fleckeri venom components using Chironex immunoaffinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Naguib, A M; Bansal, J; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1988-01-01

    A comparison of the purification of the nematocyst venom of Chironex fleckeri by affinity immunochromatography using 13 different monoclonal antibodies was made. Varying degrees of purification of mouse lethal factor, hemolysin and dermonecrotic factors, as well as antigen positive proteins were achieved with each of the monoclonal antibodies. Although the protein curves of the chromatography were similar, each of the monoclonal antibody columns had a distinctive pharmacological and SDS-PAGE profile. At least two hemolysins (120,000 and 70,000 molecular weight), two dermonecrotic principles (120,000, less than 120,000) and three lethal factors (120,000, 70,000 and 14,500 molecular weight) were detected. The degree to which aggregation and fragmentation affects the molecular weights of these proteins is not known. It appears that multiple pharmacological activities are present within the same molecule since it is only with great difficulty that a pharmacological activity can be assigned to a specific molecular weight. PMID:2900563

  12. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red. PMID:18723637

  13. Venom and cnidome ontogeny of the cubomedusae Chironex fleckeri.

    PubMed

    McClounan, S; Seymour, J

    2012-12-15

    This is the first study to explore venom and cnidome variation of individual cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri, of different ages and from different regional locations in relation to feeding ecology. As medusae matured the proportion of mastigophores (those nematocysts containing the lethal venom component) in the cnidome increased, along with proportion of the vertebrate toxic fraction, in the venom profile. This switch in cnidome and venom occurred at the seven to ten tentacle stage. Whole venom was found to be toxic specifically to vertebrate cardiac cells, as opposed to vertebrate skeletal cells, and dose dependent, along with the vertebrate toxic fraction. The venom and cnidome ontogeny, along with venom toxicity, is correlated with C. fleckeri's known feeding ecology. Large and mature C. fleckeri feed predominantly on vertebrates, and have a greater proportion of mastigophores in their cnidome along with more vertebrate toxic fraction in their venom, compared to when they are young and small feeding on invertebrates. PMID:23010166

  14. The in vitro vascular effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie) venoms.

    PubMed

    Winter, Kelly L; Fernando, Ross; Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Seymour, Jamie E; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2007-01-10

    Clinical observations suggest a primary cardiotoxic role in fatal Chironex fleckeri stings. The limited research available indicates that Chiropsella bronzie venom acts in a similar manner although appears to be less potent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the vascular effects of C. fleckeri and C. bronzie venoms using rat isolated aorta. Both venoms produced a sustained contraction of endothelium-denuded aorta which was not significantly affected by prazosin or box jellyfish antivenom. Felodipine significantly reduced the contractile response to C. fleckeri venom but not C. bronzie venom. Both venoms produced an initial relaxation (Phase 1), followed by a sustained contraction (Phase 2), in pre-contracted endothelium-intact aorta. Removal of the endothelium significantly inhibited both phases of the response. NOLA significantly inhibited Phase 1, but not Phase 2, of the response to both venoms. Atropine, HOE 140 or BQ 123 did not have any significant inhibitory effect on either phase. In conclusion, neither C. fleckeri nor C. bronzie venoms appear to contain components with activity at alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Antivenom was ineffective in reversing the effects of the venom suggesting it is incapable of completely neutralising nematocyst-derived venom. Determining the mechanism of action of these venoms will allow for the development of better treatment strategies. PMID:17141433

  15. The structure and function of the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri Southcott, 1956.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, J; Endean, R

    1983-01-01

    Microbasic p-mastigophores, euryteles of two size groups, holotrichous isorhizas and atrichous isorhizas, comprise the cnidom of Chironex fleckeri, a cubozoan that has been responsible for several human fatalities. In its undischarged state each microbasic mastigophore of C. fleckeri consists of a capsule containing matrix and an inverted tube possessing a smooth-walled butt which is loosely coiled helically and which narrows to form a thread that is tightly coiled helically and markedly pleated. Both butt and thread carry three helices of spines and contain a granular matrix. During discharge, the proximal butt spines form initially a piercing stylet. Granular material from the butt and thread is released prior to the release of capsular material. Each eurytele possesses a tube with a butt composed of three bulbs, the middle bulb bearing long spines. Each holotrichous isorhiza possesses a coiled tube bearing small spines along its length. Each atrichous isorhiza exhibits a tube that is devoid of spines and loosely folded in the undischarged condition. The probable role of each type of nematocyst is inferred from its structure and features that enable the ready separation of the nematocysts of C. fleckeri from those of scyphozoan jellyfish are discussed. PMID:6138157

  16. Toxinological and immunological studies of capillary electrophoresis fractionated Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) fishing tentacle and Chironex fleckeri Southcott nematocyst venoms.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D A; Radwan, F F; Burnett, J W

    2001-01-01

    Repeated runs of capillary electrophoresis (CE) were used to study partially-purified jellyfish nematocyst venom protein in concentrations sufficient to perform toxinological assays. Nematocyst venoms from Chironex fleckeri (Cf) and Chysaora quinquecirrha were processed. The CE eluate was divided into quadrants by scanning protein content. The fourth fraction of both jellyfish venoms, contained proteins with the smallest molecular weight components, which were responsible for the highest hemolysins and the humoral and cell-mediated immunological activity. Cytotoxic Cf lethal factor activity against human liver cells was widely dispersed throughout both venoms but more prominent in fraction 4. A V(beta) receptor human T-cell repertoire was not species-specific for either crude or fractionated jellyfish nematocyst venom. PMID:11166676

  17. The structure and function of the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri Southcott, 1956

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rifkin; R. Endean

    1983-01-01

    Microbasic p-mastigophores, euryteles of two size groups, holotrichous isorhizas and atrichous isorhizas, comprise the cnidom of Chironex fleckeri, a cubozoan that has been responsible for several human fatalities. In its undischarged state each microbasic mastigophore of C. fleckeri consists of a capsule containing matrix and an inverted tube possessing a smooth-walled butt which is loosely coiled helically and which narrows

  18. The in vitro vascular effects of two chirodropid ( Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie) venoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L. Winter; Ross Fernando; Sharmaine Ramasamy; Jamie E. Seymour; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2007-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest a primary cardiotoxic role in fatal Chironex fleckeri stings. The limited research available indicates that Chiropsella bronzie venom acts in a similar manner although appears to be less potent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the vascular effects of C. fleckeri and C. bronzie venoms using rat isolated aorta. Both venoms produced a sustained

  19. A pharmacological and biochemical examination of the geographical variation of Chironex fleckeri venom.

    PubMed

    Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; McGowan, Sheena; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2010-02-15

    Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) are found in the northern tropical waters of Australia. Although C. fleckeri have a wide geographical distribution and are able to swim large distances, adults tend to stay in small restricted areas. Clinical data shows that deaths from envenoming have not been recorded in Western Australia, yet numerous fatalities have occurred in Northern Territory and Queensland waters. One explanation for this discrepancy is a geographical variation in venom composition. This study examined the pharmacological and biochemical profiles of C. fleckeri venom from different geographical locations and seasons. Venoms were screened for cytotoxicity using a rat aortic smooth muscle cell line (A7r5). While all venoms caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, differences were seen in the potency of venoms from Mission Beach and Weipa, when collected in different seasons, as indicated by IC(50) values. Similarly venoms collected within the same season, from different locations around Australia, displayed marked differences in venom composition as shown by size exclusion HPLC and SDS-PAGE profiles which indicated the absence or reduced quantity of 'peaks' in some venoms. Based on IC(50) data obtained from the cell assay, the effects of the most potent (i.e. from Weipa in 2006) and the least potent (i.e. from Broome in 2007) venoms were examined in anesthetised rats. Both venoms at 10 microg/kg (i.v.) caused a transient hypertensive phase followed by cardiovascular collapse. However, at 4 microg/kg (i.v.) venom from Weipa 2006 caused a transient hypertensive phase followed by a transient decrease in MAP while venom from Broome 2007 only caused a small transient increase in MAP. This study demonstrates that there is considerable geographical variation in the composition of C. fleckeri venoms which is most distinct between specimens from western and eastern Australia and may explain the geographical variation in reported deaths. PMID:19945518

  20. A pharmacological study of the toxin of a Cnidarian, Chironex fleckeri Southcott

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Shirley E.; Turner, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the pharmacological actions of toxic preparations obtained from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri Southcott. Two toxin preparations were used. One was a tentacle extract which was partially purified by Sephadex gel filtration; the second was obtained by a process analogous to snake milking, and is probably similar in composition to the material injected into victims. 2. All preparations were extremely toxic; death in animals, following minimally lethal doses, occurred in minutes. Respiratory arrest of central origin appeared to be the terminal event in all species tested. This was accompanied by marked signs of cardiotoxicity. The heart was slowed, irregular, and showed varying degrees of conduction delay. Terminally it showed atrioventricular block. 3. Blood pressure changes were biphasic. An initial rise in carotid pressure was followed by a profound fall; a second rise to an above normal level frequently followed this. These blood pressure oscillations were damped down by prior treatment with hexamethonium but the hypertensive response remained. 4. Blood samples taken before terminal apnoea showed a variable degree of haemolysis and a raised K+ level. 5. Experiments with isolated organ preparations suggested that the toxin had a non-specific lytic effect on cells, but did not contain pharmacologically active substances of small molecular weight such as 5-hydroxytryptamine. 6. It is suggested that the toxin(s) act by altering membrane permeability; the signs at death may reflect the sensitivity of the target organs to such a change. ImagesFIG. 1. PMID:4390195

  1. Partial purification of Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp) venom by immunochromatography with antivenom.

    PubMed

    Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1986-01-01

    Chironex fleckeri crude venom was partially purified using immobilized commercially available ovoid antivenom. The antibody preparation reacted with lethal, hemolytic, dermonecrotic and mouse writhing (pain) factors in the crude venom. The lethal activity was purified five fold, while the specific eluate contained lower quantities of hemolytic, dermonecrotic and mouse writhing activities than did the crude venom. PMID:2872735

  2. Nematocyst ratio and prey in two Australian cubomedusans, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Carrette; P Alderslade; J Seymour

    2002-01-01

    This study examined differences in the nematocyst ratios between two species of Australian cubozoans. In Chiropsalmus sp., a species that feeds exclusively on shrimp, no changes in the ratio of the three groups of nematocyst present in the cnidome were detected with size of the individual animals. In Chironex fleckeri, the ratio of different types of nematocysts in the cnidome

  3. Quantifying movement of the tropical Australian cubozoan Chironex fleckeri using acoustic telemetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Gordon; J. E. Seymour

    2009-01-01

    Cubomedusae are considered to have superior swimming abilities compared to other pelagic cnidarians, yet many of the theories\\u000a describing such behaviours are based on anecdotal evidence, sting records or opportunistic sightings, rather than quantitative\\u000a data. Acoustic telemetry was used to document the movements of adult Chironex fleckeri medusae within both coastal and estuarine habitats. The rate at which tagged medusae

  4. Quantifying movement of the tropical Australian cubozoan Chironex fleckeri using acoustic telemetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Gordon; J. E. Seymour

    Cubomedusae are considered to have superior swimming abilities compared to other pelagic cnidarians, yet many of the theories\\u000a describing such behaviours are based on anecdotal evidence, sting records or opportunistic sightings, rather than quantitative\\u000a data. Acoustic telemetry was used to document the movements of adult Chironex fleckeri medusae within both coastal and estuarine habitats. The rate at which tagged medusae

  5. Temperature effects on box jellyfish venom: a possible treatment for envenomed patients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa J Carrette; Paul Cullen; Peter L Peiera; Jamie E Seymour

    Objective: To determine the effect of temperature on lethality of venom from Chironex fleckeri (the potentially fatal box jellyfish). Design: Venom extracted from nematocysts of mature Chironex fleckeri specimens was exposed to temperatures between 4°C and 58°C for periods of two, five or 20 minutes, and then injected into freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) to assess lethality. Main outcome measure: Venom

  6. Nematocyst ratio and prey in two Australian cubomedusans, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.

    PubMed

    Carrette, T; Alderslade, P; Seymour, J

    2002-11-01

    This study examined differences in the nematocyst ratios between two species of Australian cubozoans. In Chiropsalmus sp., a species that feeds exclusively on shrimp, no changes in the ratio of the three groups of nematocyst present in the cnidome were detected with size of the individual animals. In Chironex fleckeri, the ratio of different types of nematocysts in the cnidome for small animals (less than 40 mm) was similar to that of Chiropsalmus sp. However, with an increase in body size in C. fleckeri, the nematocyst ratio changed, with mastigophores (nematocysts believed to hold the lethal venom component for prey) increasing in proportion. The change in cnidome ratio is correlated with a change in the prey of C. fleckeri with increased size. Small C. fleckeri appeared to feed exclusively on prawns, medium sized animals fed on fish and prawns and large animals fed predominantly on fish. An increase in the proportion of mastigophores (and presumably the lethal venom component) in the cnidome of C. fleckeri may also be responsible for why this species has caused numerous human fatalities, while the Australian Chiropsalmus sp. has not. PMID:12419505

  7. Warmer Waters in the Northern Territory-Herald an Earlier Onset to the Annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger Season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan P. Jacups

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Chironex fleckeri occurs annually in northern Australia occurred long ago, possibly before written records were available by local indigenous\\u000a people, however, to date the precision of this yearly phenomenon is still not fully understood. Sea surface temperature (SST)\\u000a appears to be a determining factor signaling the “arrival” of C. fleckeri each year. Anthropogenic climate change modeling predicts

  8. In vitro effects on human heart and skeletal cells of the venom from two cubozoans, Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Peter; Seymour, Jamie E

    2013-12-15

    Although Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi cause significant human envenomation, research into their effects in human models or human cells has been limited. In this in vitro study we have presented data that shows that although C. fleckeri is highly cytotoxic to human cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, C. barnesi is not cytotoxic at all concentrations tested to both cardiac and skeletal muscles cells. We also demonstrate that in vitro C. fleckeri venom cardiocytotoxic activity is significantly attenuated when heated to 44 °C for 20 min. There is a similar attenuation with skeletal cells at 46 °C. PMID:24176926

  9. Immunochromatographic purification of a nematocyst toxin from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp).

    PubMed

    Olson, C E; Pockl, E E; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1984-01-01

    A cardiotoxin from "milked venom" of the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) was purified by immunochromatography on an immobilized mouse monoclonal anti-Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) venom antibody column. The 20,000 molecular weight toxin caused bradycardia followed by cell lysis when applied to cultured chick embryonic cardiocytes at concentrations higher than 1.7 micrograms protein per ml and was lethal to mice at 0.04 micrograms protein per g. The toxin affected ion permeability in lipid bilayer membranes by forming monovalent cation channels. PMID:6084344

  10. Comparison of the statolith structures of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria, Cubozoa) and Periphylla periphylla (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): a phylogenetic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sötje; F. Neues; M. Epple; W. Ludwig; A. Rack; M. Gordon; R. Boese; H. Tiemann

    2011-01-01

    The rhopalia and statocysts of Periphylla periphylla (Péron and Lesueur in Ann Mus Hist Nat Marseille 14:316–366,1809) and Chironex fleckeri Southcott (Aust J Mar Freshw Res 7(2):254–280 1956) were examined histologically and showed several homologous characteristics. Differences in sensory area distribution could\\u000a be connected to a slightly different functionality of equilibrium sensing. In P. periphylla, the statoliths (crystals) grow independently

  11. Warmer waters in the Northern Territory--herald an earlier onset to the annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger season.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P

    2010-08-01

    The discovery that Chironex fleckeri occurs annually in northern Australia occurred long ago, possibly before written records were available by local indigenous people, however, to date the precision of this yearly phenomenon is still not fully understood. Sea surface temperature (SST) appears to be a determining factor signaling the "arrival" of C. fleckeri each year. Anthropogenic climate change modeling predicts global rises in SST. Rises in SST may result in an earlier "arrival" of C. fleckeri during the dry season, possibly necessitating extension of the official Northern Territory stinger season to commence in September (currently October through to June). This short report presents data to support this hypothesis, facilitating policy makers with an environmental cue upon which changes to current stinger season can be based--prior to painful and potentially life-threatening presentations. PMID:20376549

  12. Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms in fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. Kintner; Jamie E. Seymour; Susan L. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    The North Queensland chirodropid box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. share similar nematocyst composition and the same prey of Acetes australis shrimps in their early medusa stages; however, as C. fleckeri individuals reach larger size, the animals add fish to their diet and their complement of nematocyst types changes, allowing larger doses of venom to be delivered to prey.

  13. Australian venomous jellyfish, envenomation syndromes, toxins and therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Tibballs

    2006-01-01

    The seas and oceans around Australia harbour numerous venomous jellyfish. Chironex fleckeri, the box jellyfish, is the most lethal causing rapid cardiorespiratory depression and although its venom has been characterised, its toxins remain to be identified. A moderately effective antivenom exists which is also partially effective against another chirodropid, Chiropsalmus sp. Numerous carybdeids, some unidentified, cause less severe illness, including

  14. Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Paul M; Little, Mark; Jelinek, George A; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2003-01-01

    Interest in envenoming syndromes caused by Australian jellyfish has been intense since the deaths in early 2002 of two tourists in Queensland, attributed to the Irukandji syndrome. We review current knowledge of these envenoming syndromes, mechanisms of venom action and therapy, focusing on the deadly box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and the array of jellyfish thought to cause the Irukandji syndrome. Current understanding of jellyfish venom activity is very limited, and many treatments are unproven and based on anecdote. PMID:12492389

  15. Cardiovascular effects of toxins isolated from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri Southcott

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Shirley E.; Turner, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    1. Two unstable high molecular weight toxins have been isolated from tentacles of Chironex fleckeri by exclusion chromatography. Both are cardiotoxic; the lower molecular weight fraction is also a potent haemolysin. 2. Both toxins reduce the rate, amplitude of contraction and coronary flow in the isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart. Relative to the mouse lethal dose the haemolytic fraction is less potent in this preparation than the purely cardiotoxic fraction. 3. Both toxins cause a rise in arterial pressure in anaesthetized rats and rabbits by a direct action on the vascular musculature. This is followed by hypotension, bradycardia and cardiac irregularity. An increase in respiratory rate is followed by apnoea of variable duration, which is associated with a rise in arterial pressure. Animals frequently show arterial pressure oscillations with periods of apnoea interspersed with hyperpnoea. 4. The carotid occlusion reflex is depressed during hypotensive periods after both toxins, although (-)-noradrenaline can still elicit a marked pressor response. Bilateral cervical vagotomy has but little effect on the response to either toxin, save to prevent hyperpnoea, but radical denervation of sinoaortic afferents reduces the arterial pressure fall after the initial hypertensive response, suggesting that this fall is due to a combination of baroreceptor stimulation and a fall in cardiac output. Blood pressure oscillations are still seen, possibly due to central stimulation by hypercapnia. 5. Interference with the efferent arm of the vasomotor reflex arc with hexamethonium, bretylium or phenoxybenzamine either abolishes or markedly reduces the blood pressure oscillations without affecting the initial hypertensive response. 6. The cardiovascular effects of the two toxins are thought to be due to direct vasoconstriction, cardiotoxicity, baroreceptor stimulation and possibly depression of the vasomotor centre. The resultant disordering of the feed-back system regulating vasomotor tone leads to the characteristic arterial pressure oscillations. PMID:4396129

  16. Exploring the therapeutic potential of jellyfish venom.

    PubMed

    Daly, Norelle L; Seymour, Jamie; Wilson, David

    2014-10-01

    The venom of certain jellyfish has long been known to be potentially fatal to humans, but it is only recently that details of the proteomes of these fascinating creatures are emerging. The molecular contents of the nematocysts from several jellyfish species have now been analyzed using proteomic MS approaches and include the analysis of Chironex fleckeri, one of the most venomous jellyfish known. These studies suggest that some species contain toxins related to peptides and proteins found in other venomous creatures. The detailed characterization of jellyfish venom is likely to provide insight into the diversification of toxins and might be a valuable resource in drug design. PMID:25406009

  17. Cutaneous light microscopic and ultrastructural changes in a fatal case of jellyfish envenomation.

    PubMed

    Strutton, G; Lumley, J

    1988-08-01

    A 5-year-old male suffered fatal envenomation from a jellyfish subsequently identified as Chironex fleckeri. Contact with the tentacles of the jellyfish had produced characteristic whiplash-like weals on the skin. At autopsy, skin from these areas was taken and later studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Both studies identified numerous nematocysts penetrating the epidermis and papillary dermis in the region of the sting. PMID:2903186

  18. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish ( Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharmaine Ramasamy; Geoffrey K. Isbister; Jamie E. Seymour; Wayne C. Hodgson

    2005-01-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150?g\\/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44±4mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000U\\/kg, i.v.) did not have any

  19. Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A; Turner, Helen C; Winkel, Ken

    2011-10-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  20. Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

    PubMed Central

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  1. First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia. Response to a newly differentiated species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, P J; Williamson, J A; Burnett, J W; Rifkin, J

    1993-04-01

    Vinegar has been shown to inhibit neomatocyst discharge in Chironex fleckeri, the deadly north Australian box-jellyfish, and application of vinegar has become accepted first aid, not only for box-jellyfish stings, but also for stings by other Australian jellyfish. However, in a newly differentiated species of Physalia in Australian waters, which causes severe envenomation, vinegar was found to cause discharge in up to 30% of neomatocysts. In treating these stings, the use of vinegar is not recommended as it may increase envenomation. Stings from the single-tentacled Physalia utriculus (the "bluebottle") are not severe, tentacles with unfired nematocysts rarely adhere to the victim's skin and vinegar dousing is not required. Vinegar treatment is therefore an unnecessary step in the first aid management of any Physalia sting but remains an essential first aid treatment for all cubozoan (box) jellyfish tested to date. PMID:8469205

  2. Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms in fish.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Anna H; Seymour, Jamie E; Edwards, Susan L

    2005-11-01

    The North Queensland chirodropid box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. share similar nematocyst composition and the same prey of Acetes australis shrimps in their early medusa stages; however, as C. fleckeri individuals reach larger size, the animals add fish to their diet and their complement of nematocyst types changes, allowing larger doses of venom to be delivered to prey. This study demonstrated that the venoms of the two species differ as well: despite similar effects previously documented in crustacean prey models, the two had widely different cardiac and lethal effects in fish, with C. fleckeri being substantially more potent in its ability to cause death. Comparisons between the venom delivery abilities of the two species showed that the change in nematocysts of C. fleckeri cannot alone account for its ontogenetic shift to prey fish; instead, its prey ecology clearly necessitates it having venom capable of acting efficiently to cause death in fish. Although this venom is almost certainly produced at greater metabolic cost to the animal than the less-lethal venom of Chiropsalmus sp., owing to its greater molecular protein complexity, it confers the advantage of increased caloric intake from fish prey, facilitating larger size and potentially greater reproductive output of C. fleckeri over Chiropsalmus sp. PMID:16165181

  3. Successful use of Chironex antivenom by members of the Queensland Ambulance Transport Brigade.

    PubMed

    Fenner, P J; Williamson, J A; Blenkin, J A

    We report the first administration in Australia by ambulance officers of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories' Chironex fleckeri antivenom, in two separate, major, potentially life-threatening Chironex envenomations. In both cases, the antivenom was effective in helping to relieve signs and symptoms (including pain). This antivenom still is the most specific part of the treatment of a major Chironex fleckeri sting after stabilization of the airway, breathing and circulation. The additional use of verapamil may contribute to the prevention of some of the cardiac complications that result from the direct effects of the Chironex venom. PMID:2574410

  4. Dose and time dependence of box jellyfish antivenom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of the currently available box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom has been subject of debate for many years. To assess whether the box jellyfish antivenom has the ability to attenuate venom-induced damage at cellular level, the present study analyzed the dose and time dependence of the antivenom in a cell-based assay. Methods Different doses of antivenom were added to venom and subsequently administered to cells and the cell index was measured using xCelligence Technology (ACEA Biosciences). Similarly, antivenom and venom were incubated over different time periods and cell survival measured as stated above. For both experiments, the cell index was plotted as a measure of cell survival against the dose or incubation time and significance was determined with the use of a one-way ANOVA with a LSD post hoc test. Results Increasing concentrations of antivenom significantly augmented cell survival, with a concentration of approximately five times the currently recommended dose for human envenomation, causing the first significant increase in cell survival compared venom alone. Further, cell survival improved with increasing incubation time of venom and antivenom prior to addition to the cells, indicating that box jellyfish antivenom requires approximately 70 minutes to neutralize C. fleckeri venom. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the currently recommended dose of antivenom requires adjustment, and more importantly, a human trial to test the effects of higher concentrations is also necessary. Further, antivenom has delayed neutralizing effects (i.e. after 70 minutes) which underlines the eminence of immediate and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in victims suffering from a C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular collapse. PMID:25161664

  5. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-03-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44+/-4 mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000 U/kg, i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced hypertensive response nor the subsequent cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular response of animals receiving venom after the infusion of MgSO4 (50-70 mM @ 0.25 ml/min, i.v.; n=5) alone, or in combination with AV (n=5), was not significantly different from rats receiving venom alone. Prior administration of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.; n=4) or ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.; n=4) did not significantly attenuate the hypertensive response nor prevent the cardiovascular collapse induced by venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.). In contrast to previous work examining C. fleckeri venom, administration of AV alone, or in combination with MgSO4, was not effective in preventing cardiovascular collapse following the administration of Chiropsalmus sp. venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming. PMID:15683870

  6. Autonomic neurotoxicity of jellyfish and marine animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Weinrich, D; Williamson, J A; Fenner, P J; Lutz, L L; Bloom, D A

    1998-04-01

    Venoms and poisons of jellyfish and other marine animals can induce damage to the human nervous and circulatory systems. Clues to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these lesions can be obtained from data of human envenomations and animal experimentation. Because many investigators are unaware that marine animal venoms have autonomic actions, this paper aims to elucidate the broad antagonistic or toxic effects these compounds have on the autonomic nervous system. Marine venoms can affect ion transport of particularly sodium and calcium, induce channels or pores in neural and muscular cellular membranes, alter intracellular membranes of organelles and release mediators of inflammation. The box jellyfish, particularly Chironex fleckeri, in the Indo-Pacific region, is the world's most venomous marine animal and is responsible for autonomic disorders in patients. The symptoms induced by these venoms are vasospasm, cardiac irregularities, peripheral neuropathy, aphonia, ophthalmic abnormalities and parasympathetic dysautonomia. Cases of Irukandji syndrome, caused by the jellyfish Carukia barnesi, have symptoms that mimic excessive catecholamine release. Coelenterate venoms can also target the myocardium, Purkinje fiber, A-V node or aortic ring. Actions on nerves, as well as skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle occur. Recent studies indicate that the hepatic P-450 enzyme family may be injured by these compounds. The multiplicity of these venom activities means that a thorough understanding of the sting pathogenesis will be essential in devising effective therapies. PMID:9613803

  7. Australian venomous jellyfish, envenomation syndromes, toxins and therapy.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James

    2006-12-01

    The seas and oceans around Australia harbour numerous venomous jellyfish. Chironex fleckeri, the box jellyfish, is the most lethal causing rapid cardiorespiratory depression and although its venom has been characterised, its toxins remain to be identified. A moderately effective antivenom exists which is also partially effective against another chirodropid, Chiropsalmus sp. Numerous carybdeids, some unidentified, cause less severe illness, including Carybdea rastoni whose toxins CrTX-A and CrTX-B are large proteins. Carukia barnesi, another small carybdeid is one cause of the 'Irukandji' syndrome which includes delayed pain from severe muscle cramping, vomiting, anxiety, restlessness, sweating and prostration, and occasionally severe hypertension and acute cardiac failure. The syndrome is in part caused by release of catecholamines but the cause of heart failure is undefined. The venom contains a sodium channel modulator. Two species of Physalia are present and although one is potentially lethal, has not caused death in Australian waters. Other significant genera of jellyfish include Tamoya, Pelagia, Cyanea, Aurelia and Chyrosaora. PMID:16928389

  8. The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence. PMID:17070882

  9. Is sleep's 'supreme mystery' unraveling? An evolutionary analysis of sleep encounters no mystery; nor does life's earliest sleep, recently discovered in jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kavanau, J Lee

    2006-01-01

    Biotelemetry has revealed daily 15-h behavioral sleep periods in a cubomedusan jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Its sleep is expected to be phylogenetically most primitive, since jellyfish possess only two germ layers. They belong to the phylum Cnidaria, the 'simplest' multicellular organisms with an organized nervous system. Cubomedusae have a complex visual system with 24 eyes of four different types, each type specialized for a different task. Input to these eyes during visually guided fast-swimming predation requires enormous amounts of neural processing, possibly nearly saturating the capacity of their comparatively simple nervous system. These heavy neural demands may account for the need for fifteen hours of sleep. C. fleckeri is the only animal known for which sleep may be either present or absent, dependent on lifestyle. Limited knowledge of behavior of some other cubomedusae suggests that they also possess this faculty. The finding of sleep in C. fleckeri supports current proposals of sleep's origin and basic function. Evolutionary analyses link sleep to a conflict produced by excessive processing demands on multifunctional neural circuitry for detailed focal vision by complex lensed eyes. The conflict arises between the enormous demands of complex visual analysis and needs for split-second control of actions, on the one hand, and non-urgent processing of memories of ongoing and stored events, on the other. Conflict is resolved by deferring the non-urgent processing to periods of sleep. Without sleep, selection would favor the evolution of circuitry 'dedicated' to single or but few tasks, with corresponding lesser efficiency. Had complex lensed eyes of medusae originated as a consequence of selection for increased mating success of males pursuing females, it could have occurred before the evolution of fast-swimming bilateral (three-germ-layered) prey. But if it was a consequence of selection for increased prey-hunting success, the origin of such eyes probably awaited the coexistence of bilateral prey. PMID:16213664

  10. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

    2011-03-25

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100?g/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1?M), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1?M), propranolol (1?M), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1?M). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100?g/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100?g/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07?g/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3?M), ?-conotoxin GVIA (0.1?M) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3?M). TTX (0.1?M), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3?M) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release. PMID:21237252

  11. Cubozoan jellyfish envenomation syndromes and their medical treatment in northern Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Fenner; P. F. S. Cornelius; R. G. Hughes; E. A. Robson

    1991-01-01

    The stings of Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi and two unidentified carybdeids cause severe or fatal symptoms to swimmers in tropical Australia. The cubozoans and their envenomation syndromes are described. First-aid and medical treatment are reviewed, and safety precautions to prevent envenomation are recommended.

  12. JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes M. L. D. Palomares Æ D. Pauly Published online: 15 and methods have been used to study the growth of jellyfish, with the result that few generalities have that this situation can be overcome by length-frequency analysis (LFA), applied to jellyfish bell diameter (i

  13. Cardiovascular actions of the venom from the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi) jellyfish: effects in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues in vitro and in pigs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Tibballs, James; Molenaar, Peter; Lambert, Gavin; Coles, Peter; Ross-Smith, Mark; Wiltshire, Carolyn; Fenner, Peter J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Hawdon, Gabrielle M; Wright, Christine E; Angus, James A

    2005-09-01

    1. We have investigated the cardiovascular pharmacology of the crude venom extract (CVE) from the potentially lethal, very small carybdeid jellyfish Carukia barnesi, in rat, guinea-pig and human isolated tissues and anaesthetized piglets. 2. In rat and guinea-pig isolated right atria, CVE (0.1-10 microg/mL) caused tachycardia in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), a response almost completely abolished by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1 micromol/L). In paced left atria from guinea-pig or rat, CVE (0.1-3 microg/mL) caused a positive inotropic response in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L). 3. In rat mesenteric small arteries, CVE (0.1-30 microg/mL) caused concentration-dependent contractions that were unaffected by 0.1 micromol/L TTX, 0.3 micromol/L prazosin or 0.1 micromol/L omega-conotoxin GVIA. 4. Neither the rat right atria tachycardic response nor the contraction of rat mesenteric arteries to CVE were affected by the presence of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom (92.6 units/mL). 5. In human isolated driven right atrial trabeculae muscle strips, CVE (10 microg/mL) tended to cause an initial fall, followed by a more sustained increase, in contractile force. In the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), CVE only caused a positive inotropic response. In separate experiments in the presence of propranolol (0.2 micromol/L), the negative inotropic effect of CVE was enhanced, whereas the positive inotropic response was markedly decreased. 6. In anaesthetized piglets, CVE (67 microg/kg, i.v.) caused sustained tachycardia and systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Venous blood samples demonstrated a marked elevation in circulating levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. 7. We conclude that C. barnesi venom may contain a neural sodium channel activator (blocked by TTX) that, in isolated atrial tissue (and in vivo), causes the release of transmitter (and circulating) catecholamines. The venom may also contain a 'direct' vasoconstrictor component. These observations explain, at least in part, the clinical features of the potentially deadly Irukandji syndrome. PMID:16173936

  14. Reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following stinging attributed to the box jelly fish (Chironex fleckeri).

    PubMed

    Chand, R P; Selliah, K

    1984-10-01

    Following a box jelly fish sting, a 52 year old Chinese fisherman developed acute abdominal distension, inability to pass urine and failure of erection. Examination revealed gaseous abdominal distension and a distended urinary bladder. Absence of lachrimation and absence of changes in the R-R interval in the ECG during breathing and carotid sinus massage gave further evidence of parasympathetic dysautonomia. The patient made a complete recovery. The case highlights the occurrence of reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following box jelly fish sting. PMID:6152151

  15. Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth

    E-print Network

    Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth Developers: Kim Banta, Steve Heyer, Shari Main (teachers jellyfish data accurately !" Analyze data to answer questions Oregon State Science Standards addressed. Material list for the unit: !" Thermometers !" Salinity gauges (constructed by students) !" Jellyfish nets

  16. Jellyfish as food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Peggy Hsieh; Fui-Ming Leong; Jack Rudloe

    2001-01-01

    Jellyfish have been exploited commercially by Chinese as an important food for more than a thousand years. Semi-dried jellyfish represent a multi-million dollar seafood business in Asia. Traditional processing methods involve a multi-phase processing procedure using a mixture of salt (NaCl) and alum (AlK[SO4]2c12 H2O) to reduce the water content, decrease the pH, and firm the texture. Processed jellyfish have

  17. JELLYFISH BLOOMS Increasing jellyfish populations: trends in Large Marine

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    JELLYFISH BLOOMS Increasing jellyfish populations: trends in Large Marine Ecosystems Lucas Brotz there are various indications and claims that jellyfish (i.e., scyphozoans, cubozoans, most hydrozoans, ctenophores never been pre- sented. Because this is mainly due to scarcity of quantitative time series of jellyfish

  18. The use of pressure immobilization bandages in the first aid management of cubozoan envenomings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Seymour; Teresa Carrette; Paul Cullen; Mark Little; Richard F Mulcahy; Peter L Pereira

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate whether the application of pressure results in additional release of venom from naturally discharged, vinegar soaked nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. The results show that large quantities of venom are expressed with the application of pressures similar to that applied by compression immobilization bandages. The volume of venom expressed by this pressure

  19. Venomous pelagic coelenterates: chemistry, toxicology, immunology and treatment of their stings.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1987-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed since our last review article on the toxicology of venomous pelagic coelenterates was published (Burnett and Calton, 1977). Investigation on important medusae and the chemistry of their nematocyst venoms have been expanding. The venomous jellyfish discussed here include the Portuguese man-o'war, (Physalia physalis), the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha), the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri and/or Chiropsalmus quadrigatus), the cabbage head jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris), the lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), the Irukandji jellyfish (Carukia barnesi), the Moreton Bay Carybdeid medusa (Morbakka), and the mauve blubber (Pelagia noctiluca). PMID:2888220

  20. Recurrent dermatitis from jellyfish envenomation.

    PubMed Central

    Menahem, S.; Shvartzman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation can cause an immediate local skin reaction, which is usually a painful linear vesiculourticarial eruption. Persistent, delayed, or recurrent dermatitis is less common. Because jellyfish sting reactions and their management are unfamiliar to family physicians, we describe a case of recurrent local dermatitis after jellyfish envenomation and suggest appropriate treatment. Images Figure 1 PMID:7888824

  1. Jellyfish fisheries in southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Omori; Eiji Nakano

    2001-01-01

    A few large jellyfish species in the order Rhizostomeae constitute an important food in Chinese cooking. For more than 1700 years, they have been exploited along the coasts of China. Such jellyfish became an important fishery commodity of Southeast Asian countries in the 1970s with increasing demand from the Japanese market. Recently, Japan has imported 5400–10?000 tons of jellyfish products

  2. Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1986-01-01

    Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

  3. Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly

    E-print Network

    Singla, Ankit; Popa, Lucian; Godfrey, P Brighten

    2011-01-01

    Industry experience indicates that the ability to incrementally expand data centers is essential. However, existing high-bandwidth network designs have rigid structure that interferes with incremental expansion. We present Jellyfish, a high-capacity network interconnect, which, by adopting a random graph topology, yields itself naturally to incremental expansion. Somewhat surprisingly, Jellyfish is more cost-efficient than a fat-tree: A Jellyfish interconnect built using the same equipment as a fat-tree, supports as many as 25% more servers at full capacity at the scale of a few thousand nodes, and this advantage improves with scale. Jellyfish also allows great flexibility in building networks with different degrees of oversubscription. However, Jellyfish's unstructured design brings new challenges in routing, physical layout, and wiring. We describe and evaluate approaches that resolve these challenges effectively, indicating that Jellyfish could be deployed in today's data centers.

  4. Photoreceptors of cubozoan jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki J. Martin

    2004-01-01

    The anatomically sophisticated visual system of the cubozoan jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis is described. Individual cubomedusae have eight complex eyes, each with a cornea, lens, and retina of ciliated photoreceptor\\u000a cells, eight slit ocelli, and eight dimple ocelli. The photoreceptor cells of the complex eyes are bipolar and resemble vertebrate\\u000a rod cells. Each photoreceptor has an outer cylindrical light-receptive segment that

  5. Are Jellyfish Populations Increasing Worldwide Rachel Chudnow

    E-print Network

    Worm, Boris

    Are Jellyfish Populations Increasing Worldwide (and Why?) By Rachel Chudnow Submitted in partial of jellyfish Figure 2. Map of systems used for analysis of jellyfish population trends and correlations between jellyfish abundance and possible variables causing observed change. Figure 3. Interannual variation

  6. Prediction of an Epitope-based Computational Vaccine Strategy for Gaining Concurrent Immunization Against the Venom Proteins of Australian Box Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md. Jibran; Ashraf, Kutub Uddin Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Australian Box Jellyfish (C. fleckeri) has the most rapid acting venom known to in the arena of toxicological research and is capable enough of killing a person in less than 5 minutes inflicting painful, debilitating and potentially life-threatening stings in humans. It has been understood that C. fleckeri venom proteins CfTX-1, 2 and HSP70-1 contain cardiotoxic, neurotoxic and highly dermatonecrotic components that can cause itchy bumpy rash and cardiac arrest. Subjects and Methods: As there is no effective drug available, novel approaches regarding epitope prediction for vaccine development were performed in this study. Peptide fragments as nonamers of these antigenic venom proteins were analyzed by using computational tools that would elicit humoral and cell mediated immunity, were focused for attempting vaccine design. By ranking the peptides according to their proteasomal cleavage sites, TAP scores and IC50<250 nM, the predictions were scrutinized. Furthermore, the epitope sequences were examined by in silico docking simulation with different specific HLA receptors. Results: Interestingly, to our knowledge, this is the maiden hypothetical immunization that predicts the promiscuous epitopes with potential contributions to the tailored design of improved safe and effective vaccines against antigenic venom proteins of C. fleckeri which would be effective especially for the Australian population. Conclusion: Although the computational approaches executed here are based on concrete confidence which demands more validation and in vivo experiments to validate such in silico approach. PMID:24403734

  7. Immunostimulation effect of jellyfish collagen.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Takuya; Ueno, Masashi; Goto, Yoko; Shiraishi, Ryusuke; Doi, Mikiharu; Akiyama, Koichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi

    2006-09-01

    Certain edible large jellyfishes belonging to the order Rhizostomeae are consumed in large quantities in China and Japan. The exumbrella part of the edible jellyfish Stomolophus nomurai was cut and soaked in dilute hydrochloric acid solution (pH 3.0) for 12 h, and heated at 121 degrees C for 20 min. The immunostimulation effects of the jellyfish extract were examined. The jellyfish extract enhanced IgM production of human hybridoma HB4C5 cells 34-fold. IgM and IgG production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were also accelerated, 2.8- and 1.4-fold respectively. Moreover, production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by human PBL was stimulated 100- and 17-fold respectively. Collagenase treatment inactivated the immunostimulation activity of the jellyfish extract. In addition, purified collagen from bovine Achilles' tendon accelerated IgM production of hybridoma cells. These facts mean that collagen has an immunostimulation effect, and that the active substance in jellyfish extract is collagen. PMID:16960386

  8. The medical zoologist—Ronald Vernon Southcott

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Pearn

    2006-01-01

    Dr Ronald Vernon Southcott (1918–1998) was amongst the greatest of the Australian doctor-naturalists. His toxinological contributions included the description and naming of the box-jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, the first definitive study (1950–1957) of the toxinology, taxonomy and biology of Australian scorpions; and the first observations in Australia of the introduced fiddleback spider, Loxosceles. His research into the medical effects of toxic

  9. Anaphylaxis caused by ingestion of jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kazuko; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Mori, Toshie; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Although anaphylaxis caused by foods is well known, an immediate allergic reaction due to jellyfish ingestion has never been reported. We report a 32-year-old Japanese female, who developed anaphylaxis after eating salt-preserved jellyfish. The patient was a surfer and had frequently been stung by jellyfish. Thirty minutes after eating salted jellyfish, she showed wheals and oral stinging sensation and 60 minutes later when she was dancing the hula, she showed an asthma-like attack, hypotension, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Prick-to-prick test for the salted jellyfish produced a positive reaction as strong as that induced by histamine. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IgE antibodies in the patient serum reacted with an approximately 200 kDa protein in extracts from tentacle and umbrella of living jellyfish and in extract from the salted jellyfish, as well as a 25 kDa protein only in extracts from living jellyfish. This patient is considered to be the first reported case of anaphylaxis caused by intake of jellyfish. It is speculated that the patient was first sensitized through the skin by jellyfish stings and then jellyfish intake induced generalized attack of anaphylaxis. The 200 kDa unknown jellyfish protein may be the causative allergen. PMID:23797480

  10. How Do Jellyfish Turn?: Neuromuscular Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kara Sue Thomas; Richard A. Satterlie

    We are continuing an investigation of the muscle architecture of cubomedusae primarily through a thorough biomechanical and neurophysiological study of swim mechanics in these agile jellyfish. Through the immunohistochemical localization of actin, FMRFamide, and ? and ?-tubulin, we have shown that the subumbrellar nerve net of the jellyfish's bell is less dense than in the velarium of the jellyfish. Also

  11. The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future, eutrophication, climate change, translocation and habitat modification appear to be promoting jellyfish (pelagic jellyfish in check through competition or predation) to a less desirable gelatinous state, with lasting

  12. Pain from bluebottle jellyfish stings.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; McGee, Richard G; Webster, Angela C

    2015-07-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with severe pain after a jellyfish sting at a New South Wales beach. Bluebottle (Physalia) jellyfish was deemed the most likely cause considering her geographical location. The Australian Resuscitation Council Guideline (2010) suggests immersing in water as hot as can be tolerated for 20?min for treating pain from jellyfish stings. This guideline was written based on past case reports, books and randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a search to assess the most current evidence for relief of pain from Bluebottle jellyfish stings, which yielded two systematic reviews and seven RCTs. Both systematic reviews had similar conclusions, with one of the RCTs used in both reviews showing the most relevance to our presenting patient in terms of demographics, location and jellyfish type. This journal club article is an appraisal of this RCT by Loten et?al. and the validity of its conclusion that hot water immersion is most effective for the relief of pain from Bluebottle stings. PMID:26135148

  13. Jellyfish galaxies at low redshift

    E-print Network

    Poggianti, B M; Omizzolo, A; Gullieuszik, M; Bettoni, D; Moretti, A; Paccagnella, A; Jaffe', Y L; Vulcani, B; Fritz, J; Couch, W; D'Onofrio, M

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish galaxies are galaxies that exhibit tentacles of debris material suggestive of gas stripping. We have conducted the first systematic search for jellyfish galaxies at low-z (z=0.04-0.07) in different environments. We have visually inspected B and V-band images and identified 241+153 candidates in 41+31 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 99 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. This large sample is well suited for follow-up studies of the gas and for a detailed analysis of the environments where such episodes of gas stripping occur. We present here the atlas of jellyfish candidates, a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Jellyfish candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Interestingly, convincing cases of jellyfish candidates are also found ...

  14. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other. PMID:26065904

  15. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I; Klevjer, Thor A; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other. PMID:26065904

  16. Finding a Dense-Core in Jellyfish graphs Udi Weinsberg

    E-print Network

    Ron, Dana

    Finding a Dense-Core in Jellyfish graphs Mira Gonen Dana Ron Udi Weinsberg Avishai Wool§ Abstract to have coined the "jellyfish" term. The authors argued that the Internet topology resembles a jellyfish

  17. [Dermatotoxicity of the Adriatic jellyfish].

    PubMed

    Kokelj, F; Stinco, G; Del Negro, P

    1990-12-01

    We have tested the dermatotoxicity of some purified nematocysts preparations of Aurelia aurita, Chrysaora hysoscella, Rhizostoma pulmo, in 25 volunteers by means of scratch-patch test. Our results show the validity of the method used for nematocyst purification. The few skin reactions obtained confirm the low dermototoxicity of the jellyfish studied. PMID:2091981

  18. Dangerous jellyfish blooms are predictable.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Condie, Scott A; Mansbridge, Jim V; Richardson, Anthony J

    2014-07-01

    The potentially fatal Irukandji syndrome is relatively common in tropical waters throughout the world. It is caused by the sting of the Irukandji jellyfish, a family of box jellyfish that are almost impossible to detect in the water owing to their small size and transparency. Using collated medical records of stings and local weather conditions, we show that the presence of Irukandji blooms in coastal waters can be forecast on the basis of wind conditions. On the Great Barrier Reef, blooms largely coincide with relaxation of the prevailing southeasterly trade winds, with average conditions corresponding to near zero alongshore wind on the day prior to the sting. These conditions are consistent with hypotheses long held by local communities and provide a basis for designing management interventions that have the potential to eliminate the majority of stings. PMID:24829278

  19. Evidence for impacts by jellyfish on North Sea herring recruitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Lynam; Michael R. Heath; Stephen J. Hay; Andrew S. Brierley

    2005-01-01

    Jellyfish (Scyphozoa) prey on and consume many of the same food items as do larvae of herring Clupea harengus and could therefore have a detrimental impact on larval survival. A reduc- tion in the spawning stock biomass of herring may release jellyfish from competition for prey with herring and exacerbate any impact by jellyfish on herring survival. Both jellyfish abundance

  20. Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulyn Cartwright; Susan L. Halgedahl; Jonathan R. Hendricks; Richard D. Jarrard; Antonio C. Marques; Allen G. Collins; Bruce S. Lieberman; Stuart Humphries

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian

  1. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    PubMed

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726

  2. Jellyfish Modulate Bacterial Dynamic and Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom - forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish - enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to ‘jellyfish - associated’ and ‘free - living’ bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in bacterial population dynamics and nutrient pathways following jellyfish blooms which have important implications for ecology of coastal waters. PMID:22745726

  3. Simulation of Piezoelectric Jellyfish Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yeong-Jen; Lai, Wei-Hsiang

    The energy problem is getting increasingly serious. As such, unused energy recovery technology is crucial for environmental protection, which has been investigated extensively. Several methods have been developed to utilize scavenged energy from the environment, such as waste heat, solar energy, wind energy, and tides energy to convert into useful power. There is a new idea of piezoelectric jellyfish generator which combines the utilization of sea wave and vibration energy. When sea wave passes through the jellyfish, the wave causes the tentacles to vibrate. The tentacles is made of piezoelectric polymer which can convert the strain energy into electrical energy. This paper discusses about the piezoelectric jellyfish's tentacles being disturbed by wave in the sea. We employed the commercial CFD software CFD-ACE+ 2006 to simulate this phenomenon. The parameters including its tentacle length (L) and wave propagating function (Y) are studied which affect the piezoelectric jellyfish capacity to generate power.

  4. Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  5. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  6. Mineral Composition of Fresh and Cured Jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiguang Liu; Lei Guo; Huahua Yu; Pengcheng Li

    The inorganic constituents of fresh and cured jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum), including Zn, Co, Ni, Ba, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Al, Sr, Mo, Cr, Cd, Pb, Si, V, Ti, Na, K, Li, and Rb, were determined by\\u000a using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The fresh and cured jellyfish were treated by lyophilization\\u000a and microwave digestion in turn. Zn, Co,

  7. Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian

    E-print Network

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2007-10-01

    and sea anemones, and Medusozoa, including scyphozoans (true jellyfish), cubozoans (box jellies), hydrozoans (hydroids, Hydra, and hydromedusae) and staurozoans (stalked medusae) [2]. Typically, medusozoan cnidarians have a pelagic, predatory jellyfish... the umbrellar margin. Due to the limited number of preserved characters it is difficult to determine how these specimens should be classified within Medusozoa. However, members of the hydrozoan family Narco- medusae do possess similar relative umbrella...

  8. Clarifying the identity of the Japanese Habu-kurage, Chironex yamaguchii, sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHERYL LEWIS; BASTIAN BENTLAGE

    Here we describe the new species Chironex yamaguchii (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. This highly venomous cubomedusa, commonly referred to as Habu-kurage in Japan, is the culprit for several fatalities in Japanese waters. The scientific name adopted for this species in the literature is Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, but our taxonomic investigations show that this represents a case of mistaken

  9. Philiadium Gregarum versus Aurelia aurita: on propulsion efficiency in jellyfish

    E-print Network

    Cameron, Chris B.

    Philiadium Gregarum versus Aurelia aurita: on propulsion efficiency in jellyfish S. Etienne , A jellyfishes, Philiadium Gregarum and Aurelia aurita. The motion is generated by circular muscles that contract and generate a hydrodynamic propulsive jet. This jet is the principal source of thrust of jellyfishes

  10. TWO DIMENSIONAL IMMERSED BOUNDARY SIMULATIONS OF SWIMMING JELLYFISH

    E-print Network

    Stockie, John

    TWO DIMENSIONAL IMMERSED BOUNDARY SIMULATIONS OF SWIMMING JELLYFISH by Haowen Fang B.Eng., Nanjing Simulations Of Swim- ming Jellyfish Examining Committee: Dr. Weiran Sun, Assistant Professor Chair Dr. John iii #12;Abstract The swimming behavior of jellyfish, driven by the periodic contraction of body

  11. Jellyfish: A Conceptual Model for the AS Internet Georgos Siganos

    E-print Network

    Faloutsos, Michalis

    Jellyfish: A Conceptual Model for the AS Internet Topology Georgos Siganos U. C. Riverside siganos importance of a node. We propose the jellyfish as a model for the inter-domain Internet topology. We show- serve that the jellyfish has lasting value: it de- scribes the topology for more than six years. 1

  12. A shift to parasitism in the jellyfish symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum

    E-print Network

    Sachs, Joel

    A shift to parasitism in the jellyfish symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum Joel L. Sachs of cooperation between species is found in corals, hydras and jellyfish that form symbioses with algae evolution, should be selected to parasitize their hosts. We altered algal transmission between jellyfish

  13. Diving behaviour of jellyfish equipped with electronic tags

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Diving behaviour of jellyfish equipped with electronic tags GRAEME C. HAYS1*, THOMAS K. DOYLE2 online January 27, 2008 Communicating editor: Roger Harris Jellyfish are one of the most abundant compass jellyfish (Chrysaora hysoscella) (n ¼ 15) off the Dingle coast, Ireland, with miniature time

  14. Once you click on the Jellyfish link, you are taken to the Home page. Jellyfish does not require a login for searching.

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    HOME SEARCHING Once you click on the Jellyfish link, you are taken to the Home page. Jellyfish does clicking once on the TRC report will provide TRC data as shown in window below. To return to Jellyfish main

  15. Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations.

    PubMed

    Condon, Robert H; Duarte, Carlos M; Pitt, Kylie A; Robinson, Kelly L; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Mianzan, Hermes W; Bogeberg, Molly; Purcell, Jennifer E; Decker, Mary Beth; Uye, Shin-ichi; Madin, Laurence P; Brodeur, Richard D; Haddock, Steven H D; Malej, Alenka; Parry, Gregory D; Eriksen, Elena; Quiñones, Javier; Acha, Marcelo; Harvey, Michel; Arthur, James M; Graham, William M

    2013-01-15

    A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term datasets on changes in jellyfish abundance across multiple coastal stations, using linear and logistic mixed models and effect-size analysis to show that there is no robust evidence for a global increase in jellyfish. Although there has been a small linear increase in jellyfish since the 1970s, this trend was unsubstantiated by effect-size analysis that showed no difference in the proportion of increasing vs. decreasing jellyfish populations over all time periods examined. Rather, the strongest nonrandom trend indicated jellyfish populations undergo larger, worldwide oscillations with an approximate 20-y periodicity, including a rising phase during the 1990s that contributed to the perception of a global increase in jellyfish abundance. Sustained monitoring is required over the next decade to elucidate with statistical confidence whether the weak increasing linear trend in jellyfish after 1970 is an actual shift in the baseline or part of an oscillation. Irrespective of the nature of increase, given the potential damage posed by jellyfish blooms to fisheries, tourism, and other human industries, our findings foretell recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face. PMID:23277544

  16. Feeding Currents Generated by Upside Down Jellyfish

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Terry; Gyoerkoe, Megan; Miller, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the pulsing dynamics and the resulting fluid flow generated by the upside down jellyfish, Cassiopea spp. Medusae of this genus are unusual in that they typically rest upside down on the ocean floor and pulse their bells to generate feeding currents, only swimming when significantly disturbed. The pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around these upside down jellyfish is investigated using a combination of videography, flow visualization, and numerical simulation. Significant mixing occurs around and directly above the oral arms and secondary mouths. Numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method with a porous layer representing the oral arms agree with the experimental results. The simulations also suggest that the presence of porous oral arms induce net horizontal flow towards the bell. Coherent vortex rings are not seen in the wake above the jellyfish, but starting and stopping vortices are observed before breaking up as they pass through the elaborate oral arms (i...

  17. Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan-E. Nilsson; Lars Gislén; Melissa M. Coates; Charlotta Skogh; Anders Garm

    2005-01-01

    Cubozoans, or box jellyfish, differ from all other cnidarians by an active fish-like behaviour and an elaborate sensory apparatus. Each of the four sides of the animal carries a conspicuous sensory club (the rhopalium), which has evolved into a bizarre cluster of different eyes. Two of the eyes on each rhopalium have long been known to resemble eyes of higher

  18. Do resonating bells increase jellyfish swimming performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    A current question in swimming and flight is whether or not driving flexible appendages at their resonant frequency results in faster or more efficient locomotion. It has been suggested that jellyfish swim faster and/or more efficiently when the bell is driven at its resonant frequency. Previous work has modeled the jellyfish bell as a damped harmonic oscillator, and this simplified model suggests that work done by the bell is maximized when force is applied at the resonant frequency of the bell. We extend the idea of resonance phenomena of the jellyfish bell to a fluid structure interaction framework using the immersed boundary method. We first examine the effects of the bending stiffness of the bell on its resonant frequency. We then further our model with the inclusion of a ``muscular'' spring that connects the two sides of a 2D bell and drives it near its resonant frequency. We use this muscular spring to force the bell at varying frequencies and examine the work done by these springs and the resulting swimming speed. We finally augment our model with a flexible, passive bell margin to examine its role in propulsive efficiency.

  19. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cegolon, Luca; Heymann, William C.; Lange, John H.; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish (cnidarians) have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid) to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials) is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment. PMID:23434796

  20. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

  1. A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1

    E-print Network

    Clemens, Dan

    A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1 D. P. Clemens,1 J. M a unique and pro- vocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3:3 Æ 0:9 ; 104 L, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero

  2. Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E. Purcell; Shin-ichi Uye; Wen-Tseng Lo

    2007-01-01

    Although recent articles state that jellyfish populations are increasing, most available evidence shows that jellyfish abundances fluctuate with climatic cycles. Reports of increasing prob- lems with jellyfish, especially in East Asia, are too recent to exclude decadal climate cycles. Jellyfish are infamous for their direct negative effects on human enterprise; specifically, they interfere with tourism by stinging swimmers, fishing by

  3. Jellyfish: A fast k-mer counter G. Marcais and C. Kingsford

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    Jellyfish: A fast k-mer counter G. Marcais and C. Kingsford February 17, 2012 Version 1.1.4 Abstract Jellyfish is a software to count k-mers in DNA sequences. 1 Synopsis jellyfish count [-oprefix] [-mmerlength] [-tthreads] [-shashsize] [- -both-strands] fasta [fasta . . .] jellyfish merge hash1 hash2

  4. Occurrence of organo-arsenicals in jellyfishes and their mucus.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, K; Ohno, H; Wada, N; Ueno, S; Goessler, W; Kuehnelt, D; Schlagenhaufen, C; Kaise, T; Irgolic, K J

    2001-08-01

    Water-soluble arsenic compound fractions were extracted from seven species of jellyfishes and subjected to analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for arsenicals. A low content of arsenic was found to be the characteristic of jellyfish. Arsenobetaine (AB) was the major arsenic compound without exception in the tissues of the jellyfish species and mucus-blobs collected from some of them. Although the arsenic content in Beroe cucumis, which preys on Bolinopsis mikado, was more than 13 times that in B. mikado, the chromatograms of these two species were similar in the distribution pattern of arsenicals. The nine species of jellyfishes including two species treated in the previous paper can be classified into arsenocholine (AC)-rich and AC-poor species. Jellyfishes belonging to Semaostamae were classified as AC-rich species. PMID:11482664

  5. Evolution and functional diversity of jellyfish opsins.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Cnidaria are the most basal animal phylum possessing complex eyes [1]. Their eyes predominantly use ciliary photoreceptor cells (c-PRCs) like vertebrates, whereas insect eyes use rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (r-PRCs) [1-4]. These two cell types show not only different cytoarchitectures but distinct phototransduction cascades, which are triggered by the respective types of opsins (e.g., [5]), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins) [6]. Recent reports suggested that the c- and r-PRCs and their respective opsins diverged at least before the deuterostome-protostome split [7-9]. To study the earlier evolution of animal PRCs and opsins, we investigated two hydrozoan jellyfishes. We report here the first-characterized cnidarian opsins. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the cloned 20 jellyfish opsins, together with all the opsins from a hydra and some from a sea anemone, are more closely related to the c-opsins than to any other major opsin subfamily, indicating that the divergence of c- and r-opsins antedates the Cnidaria-Bilateria split. Possible scenarios of animal PRC evolution are discussed. Furthermore, Cladonema opsins show several distinct tissue- and stage-specific expression patterns. The expression of specific opsins in the eyes suggests a role in vision, whereas that in the gonads suggests a role in light-controlled release of gametes. PMID:18160295

  6. Isolation and characterization of collagen from rhizostomous jellyfish ( Rhopilema asamushi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Wanchai Worawattanamateekul; Nobutaka Suzuki; Takashi Nakamura; Tatsumi Ito; Kazuhiro Fujiki; Miki Nakao; Tomoki Yano

    2000-01-01

    As a part of the study into the potential development of unused and under-used resources, collagen was isolated from the mesogloea of the rhizostomous jellyfish, Rhopilema asamushi, by limited pepsin digestion and characterized. The yield of this collagen was high (35.2% on a dry weight basis). The primary structure was very similar to that of pepsin-solubilized collagen from edible jellyfish

  7. Subducting slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiselet, Christelle; Braun, Jean; Husson, Laurent; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Thieulot, Cedric; Yamato, Philippe; Grujic, Djordje

    2010-08-01

    The constantly improving resolution of geophysical data, seismic tomography and seismicity in particular, shows that the lithosphere does not subduct as a slab of uniform thickness but is rather thinned in the upper mantle and thickened around the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle. This observation has traditionally been interpreted as evidence for the buckling and piling of slabs at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle, where a strong contrast in viscosity may exist and cause resistance to the penetration of slabs into the lower mantle. The distribution and character of seismicity reveal, however, that slabs undergo vertical extension in the upper mantle and compression near the transition zone. In this paper, we demonstrate that during the subduction process, the shape of low viscosity slabs (1 to 100 times more viscous than the surrounding mantle) evolves toward an inverted plume shape that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head is linked to the body of the subducting slab by a thin tail. A complete parametric study reveals that subducting slabs may achieve a variety of shapes, in good agreement with the diversity of natural slab shapes evidenced by seismic tomography. Our work also suggests that the slab to mantle viscosity ratio in the Earth is most likely to be lower than 100. However, the sensitivity of slab shapes to upper and lower mantle viscosities and densities, which remain poorly constrained by independent evidence, precludes any systematic deciphering of the observations.

  8. Subducting Slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiselet, C.; Braun, J.; Husson, L.; Le Carlier de Veslud, C.; Thieulot, C.; Yamato, P.; Grujic, D.

    2010-12-01

    The constantly improving resolution of geophysical data, seismic tomography and seismicity in particular, shows that the lithosphere does not subduct as a slab of uniform thickness but is rather thinned in the upper mantle and thickened around the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle. This observation has traditionally been interpreted as evidence for the buckling and piling of slabs at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle, where a strong contrast in viscosity may exist and cause resistance to the penetration of slabs into the lower mantle. The distribution and character of seismicity reveal, however, that slabs undergo vertical extension in the upper mantle and compression near the transition zone. In this paper, we demonstrate that during the subduction process, the shape of low viscosity slabs (1 to 100 times more viscous than the surrounding mantle) evolves toward an inverted plume shape that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head is linked to the body of the subducting slab by a thin tail. A complete parametric study reveals that subducting slabs may achieve a variety of shapes, in good agreement with the diversity of natural slab shapes evidenced by seismic tomography. Our work also suggests that the slab to mantle viscosity ratio in the Earth is most likely to be lower than 100. However, the sensitivity of slab shapes to upper and lower mantle viscosities and densities, which remain poorly constrained by independent evidence, precludes any systematic deciphering of the observations.

  9. Predation by the phyllosoma larva of Ibacus novemdentatus on various kinds of venomous jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kaori; Sato, Riki; Hirai, Atsushi; Ishii, Haruto; Akiba, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yuji

    2012-02-01

    The phyllosoma, a larva of spiny and slipper lobsters, has an exceptionally flat body and long appendages. It is known to associate with several species of cnidarian jellyfish, a behavior that is not rare in crustaceans. Indeed, phyllosomas clinging onto jellyfish have been observed both in the laboratory and in the natural environment. Wild phyllosomas have been found to contain jellyfish tissues in their hepatopancreas and feces, suggesting that the larvae utilize jellyfish as a food source; however, how they capture jellyfish and what species of jellyfish they prefer have rarely been investigated. The few previous studies conducted have suggested that phyllosomas have a high specificity for jellyfish (preying on only a few species); in contrast, the results of our study indicate that specificity is low. We show that phyllosomas prey on a variety of jellyfish species including deadly stinging types, on a variety of jellyfish developmental stages, and on various parts of the jellyfish body. When making contact with a jellyfish, phyllosomas first cling onto its exumbrella, feed on its tentacles or oral arms, and then consume the exumbrella. Phyllosomas may be capable of defending themselves against any types of nematocyst sting, and it is likely that they have evolved to utilize venomous jellyfish as a food in the open sea, where food may be scarce. PMID:22426626

  10. Vortex motion in the ocean: In situ visualization of jellyfish swimming and feeding flows

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    Vortex motion in the ocean: In situ visualization of jellyfish swimming and feeding flows John O present a combination of both qualitative flow visu- alizations of jellyfish in their natural marine jellyfish were observed in a natural habitat off the coast of Mljet, Croatia in a marine lake. Video

  11. Abstract Jellyfish (medusae) are sometimes the most noticeable and abundant members of coastal

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Abstract Jellyfish (medusae) are sometimes the most noticeable and abundant members of coastal the spatial (and temporal) patterns for five jellyfish species (Phylum Cnidaria, Orders Rhizostomeae-counts of jellyfish from ships of opportu- nity, and (2) regular shoreline surveys for stranding events over three

  12. Fact Sheet No. 96-5, March 1996 Freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyii,

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Kelly Addy Fact Sheet No. 96-5, March 1996 URI Freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyii, were of jellyfish was ever recorded in RI natural history, Waterman Lake in Glocester/Smithfield in 1990. In 1995 Sprague Reservoir in Smithfield observed thousands of these jellyfish in their respective lakes. After

  13. Have jellyfish in the Irish Sea benefited from climate change and overfishing?

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Have jellyfish in the Irish Sea benefited from climate change and overfishing? C . P. LY N A M *, M instability and may benefit nonexploited organisms such as jellyfish. In the Irish Sea, an increase in jellyfish abundance was evident (r2 5 0.29, P 5 0.03) in a 16-year time-series (1994­2009) collected during

  14. Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly Ankit Singla, Chi-Yao Hong, Lucian Popa , P. Brighten Godfrey

    E-print Network

    Ratnasamy, Sylvia

    Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly Ankit Singla, Chi-Yao Hong, Lucian Popa , P. Brighten designs have rigid struc- ture that interferes with incremental expansion. We present Jellyfish, a high expansion. Somewhat sur- prisingly, Jellyfish is more cost-efficient than a fat-tree, supporting as many

  15. First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented Linear

    E-print Network

    Keeling, Patrick

    First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented medusozoan cnidarians (jellyfish and hydroids), which are linear and sometimes fragmented. Most medusozoans that box jellyfish (cubozoans) have mtDNAs that consist of many linear chromosomes. Here, we present

  16. Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans Brad predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mech- anism of passive energy

  17. High activity and Le vy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    High activity and Le´ vy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish Graeme C. Hays1 and a proliferation of jellyfish. Active movements and prey search might be thought to provide a competitive advantage for fish, but here we use data-loggers to show that the frequently occurring coastal jellyfish (Rhizostoma

  18. Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish Tobias Kjellberg Magnus Oskarsson Tobias Palmr Kalle strm

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet

    Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish Tobias Kjellberg Magnus Oskarsson Tobias Palmér Kalle Åström with different box jellyfishes, light conditions and artefacts, forcing the solution to be more of a generic-realtime. 1.4 The jellyfish - Tripedalia cystophora Tripedalia cystophora is a roughly 1 cm sized box

  19. A New Routing Scheme for Jellyfish and its Performance with HPC Workloads

    E-print Network

    Pakin, Scott

    A New Routing Scheme for Jellyfish and its Performance with HPC Workloads Xin Yuan Dept Alamos, New Mexico mlang@lanl.gov ABSTRACT The jellyfish topology where switches are connected using with a similar cost. In this work, we propose a new routing scheme for jellyfish that out-performs existing

  20. Identification of genetically and oceanographically distinct blooms of jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patricia L. M.; Dawson, Michael N; Neill, Simon P.; Robins, Peter E.; Houghton, Jonathan D. R.; Doyle, Thomas K.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2013-01-01

    Reports of nuisance jellyfish blooms have increased worldwide during the last half-century, but the possible causes remain unclear. A persistent difficulty lies in identifying whether blooms occur owing to local or regional processes. This issue can be resolved, in part, by establishing the geographical scales of connectivity among locations, which may be addressed using genetic analyses and oceanographic modelling. We used landscape genetics and Lagrangian modelling of oceanographic dispersal to explore patterns of connectivity in the scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, which occurs en masse at locations in the Irish Sea and northeastern Atlantic. We found significant genetic structure distinguishing three populations, with both consistencies and inconsistencies with prevailing physical oceanographic patterns. Our analyses identify locations where blooms occur in apparently geographically isolated populations, locations where blooms may be the source or result of migrants, and a location where blooms do not occur consistently and jellyfish are mostly immigrant. Our interdisciplinary approach thus provides a means to ascertain the geographical origins of jellyfish in outbreaks, which may have wide utility as increased international efforts investigate jellyfish blooms. PMID:23287405

  1. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish - metagenesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S; Riascos, José M

    2015-01-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) "metagenesis" which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed. PMID:26153534

  2. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish – metagenesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed. PMID:26153534

  3. Cubozoan venom-induced cardiovascular collapse is caused by hyperkalemia and prevented by zinc gluconate in mice.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Angel A; Shohet, Ralph V

    2012-01-01

    Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC) exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed abundant ~12-nm transmembrane pores in RBC exposed to purified venom porins. C57BL/6 mice injected with venom showed rapid decline in ejection fraction with progression to electromechanical dissociation and electrocardiographic findings consistent with acute hyperkalemia. Recognizing that porin assembly can be inhibited by zinc, we found that zinc gluconate inhibited potassium efflux from RBC exposed to total venom or purified porin, and prolonged survival time in mice following venom injection. These findings suggest that hyperkalemia is the critical event following Chironex fleckeri envenomation and that rapid administration of zinc could be life saving in human sting victims. PMID:23251508

  4. Autonomic neurotoxicity of jellyfish and marine animal venoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Burnett; Daniel Weinrich; John A. Williamson; Peter J. Fenner; Linda L. Lutz; David A. Bloom

    1998-01-01

    Venoms and poisons of jellyfish and other marien animals can induce damage to the human nervous and circulatory systems. Clues to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these lesions can be obtained from data of human envenomations and animal experimentation. Because many investigators are unaware that marine animal venoms have autonomic actions, this paper aims to elucidate the broad antagonistic

  5. Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubiay, KK; Al-Musaoi, HA; Alrubaiy, L; Al-Freje, MG

    2009-01-01

    Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually, and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascular and respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq. Objectives: To describe the immediate and delayed skin reactions to White Jellyfish (Rhizostoma sp.) stings and the types of local treatment used by fishermen. Methods and Materials: 150 fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types of skin reactions, systemic manifestations and kinds of treatments were collected. Results: Overall, 79% of fishermen in all three Marine stations gave a history of having been stung. The common sites of sings were the hands and arms followed by the legs. Most fishermen claimed that stings led to skin reactions within 5 minutes. The presenting complaints were itching, burning sensation, and erythematic wheals. A few days after the sting, new groups of painless and itchy erythematous monomorphic papular rashes developed at the site of the sting in 62% of cases as a delayed type of skin reaction that resolved spontaneously. The local remedies commonly used by the fishermen were seawater, tap water and ice. A few fishermen considered stings as insignificant and did not think there was a need to seek medical help. Conclusions: We conclude that jellyfish causes many stings among fishermen in the Basra region. Their stings lead to immediate and delayed skin reactions. Self-treatment by topical remedies is common. PMID:21483513

  6. Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and the origin of triploblasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Seipel; Volker Schmid

    2005-01-01

    The larval and polyp stages of extant Cnidaria are bi-layered with an absence of mesoderm and its differentiation products. This anatomy originally prompted the diploblast classification of the cnidarian phylum. The medusa stage, or jellyfish, however, has a more complex anatomy characterized by a swimming bell with a well-developed striated muscle layer. Based on developmental histology of the hydrozoan medusa

  7. The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joram Piatigorsky; Joseph Horwitz; Toichiro Kuwabara; Charles E. Cutress

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure and major soluble proteins of the transparent eye lens of two cubomedusan jellyfish,Tripedalia cystophora andCarybdea marsupialis, have been examined. Each species has two complex eyes (one large and one small) on four sensory structures called rhopalia. The lenses consist of closely spaced cells with few organelles. The lens is situated next to the retina, with only an acellular

  8. Jellyfish Party: Blowing Soap Bubbles in Mixed Reality Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Okuno; Hiroyuki Kakuta; Tomohiko Takayama; Kazuhiro Asai

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a mixed reality installation named Jellyfish Party, for enjoying playing with soap bubbles. A special feature of this installation is the use of a spirometer sensor to measure the amount and speed of expelled air used to blow virtual soap bubbles.

  9. Current-driven Flow across a Stationary Jellyfish

    E-print Network

    Hamlet, Christina; Fan, Roger; Dollinger, Makani; Harenber, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We present several dye visualization and numerical simulation fluid dynamics videos of a sessile jellyfish subjected to channel flow. The low resolution video and the high resolution video display the vortex patterns in different channel flows. This description accompanies the video submission V038 to the 2011 APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion.

  10. Project Jelly-Fish: B.R.N.O. Observations of Semiregular Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, P.

    2006-06-01

    Brno Regional Network of Observers (BRNO) is a group which prefers to observe eclipsing binary stars. A team called the Jelly-Fish has been formed within BRNO for the purpose of observing variable stars other than eclipsing binaries. The observations by Jelly-Fish members are predominantly visual; CCD observing has started only recently and such observations are not yet included in our statistics. Jelly-Fish has about twenty members at this moment. This paper presents preliminary results based on Jelly-Fish observations of S Camelopardalis, AU Camelopardalis, WZ Cassiopeiae, RS Cygni, T Persei, RU Persei, and R Ursae Minoris.

  11. Jellyfish in ecosystems, online databases, and ecosystem models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pauly; William Graham; Simone Libralato; Lyne Morissette; M. L. Deng Palomares

    2009-01-01

    There are indications that pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world,\\u000a or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline\\u000a data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct\\u000a experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem

  12. Jellyfish in ecosystems, online databases, and ecosystem models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pauly; William Graham; Simone Libralato; Lyne Morissette; M. L. Deng Palomares

    There are indications that pelagic cnidar-ians and ctenophores (‘jellyfish’) have increased in abundance throughout the world,\\u000a or that outbreaks are more frequent, although much uncertainty surrounds the issue, due to the scarcity of reliable baseline\\u000a data. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the individual increases or outbreaks that are better documented, but direct\\u000a experimental or manipulative studies at the ecosystem

  13. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-05-15

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116). PMID:25881821

  14. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael J; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-06-30

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  15. Hemolytic venoms from marine cnidarian jellyfish – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian jellyfish are viewed as an emergent problem in several coastal zones throughout the world. Recurrent outbreaks pose a serious threat to tourists and bathers, as well as to sea-workers, involving health and economical aspects. As a rule, cnidarian stinging as a consequence of nematocyst firing induces merely local symptoms but cardiovascular or neurological complications can also occur. Hemolysis is a frequent effect of cnidarian stinging; this dangerous condition is known to be caused by several venoms and can sometimes be lethal. At present, the bulk of data concerning hemolytic cnidarian venoms comes from the study of benthic species, such as sea anemones and soft corals, but hemolytic factors were found in venoms of several siphonophore, cubozoan and scyphozoan jellyfish, which are mainly involved in the envenomation of bathers and sea-workers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature concerning the hemolytic venoms from cnidarian jellyfish taking into consideration their importance in human pathology as well as health implications and possible therapeutic measures. PMID:25386336

  16. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Michael J.; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-01-01

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  17. Modeling and control of a jellyfish-inspired AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Cassio T.; Priya, Shashank; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    Current autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) designs have a serious deficiency in autonomy time due to its ballistic type of construction: a cylindrical body propelled by a rear engine. This type of design does not take complete advantage of the fluid that has to be displaced to move the vehicle forward, reducing the overall system efficiency and consequently its operation time. In order to overcome this limitation, research has focused on understanding of the propulsive mechanisms employed by the natural organisms. Jellyfish is one of the simplest and most relevant model systems as it exhibits one of the lowest cost-of-transport among all the known creatures. The learning and implementation of jellyfish-inspired vehicle design requires an evaluation of the current mathematical modeling approaches in order to adequately describe the dynamics of such a vehicle. This paper develops a time-varying rigid body model for the kinematics and dynamics of an AUV based on jellyfish rowing propulsion. A nonlinear sliding mode controller is also proposed to drive the system.

  18. Marine stingers in far north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J L

    1996-05-01

    Two box jellyfish in particular cause problems in tropical Queensland waters. Chironex fleckeri inhabit calm waters close to the shore between November and May. The venom includes three major components: haemolytic dermatonecrotic and myocardial. The dermatonecrotic toxin causes a ladder pattern of whiplash lesions to the skin which ulcerate become necrotic and heal very slowly over months: Neuromuscular paralysis and cardiovascular collapse may be fatal within minutes of envenomation. Emergency treatment comprises inactivation of stinging capsules by vinegar removal of tentacles analgesia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the administration of the specific antivenom. Carukia barnesi ('Irukandji') are found in both coastal and open waters. A patch of erythema with papules at the sting site is characteristically followed 30 min later by the onset of a catecholamine mediated syndrome. Headache and severe abdominal and back pain are usual and may be followed by hypertension, tachyarrhythmias and cardiogenic shock. PMID:8713006

  19. The use of pressure immobilization bandages in the first aid management of cubozoan envenomings.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jamie; Carrette, Teresa; Cullen, Paul; Little, Mark; Mulcahy, Richard F; Pereira, Peter L

    2002-10-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate whether the application of pressure results in additional release of venom from naturally discharged, vinegar soaked nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. The results show that large quantities of venom are expressed with the application of pressures similar to that applied by compression immobilization bandages. The volume of venom expressed by this pressure was similar to the quantity expressed upon initial natural discharge of the nematocysts. The current recommended practice of applying PIB to cubozoan stings might worsen the envenomation. As the existing data now show that PIB may be detrimental to victims envenomed by cubozoans, we suggest that the current practice of the use of PIB in cubozoan envenomings be discarded until there is direct experimental evidence to support its use. PMID:12368122

  20. The energy density of jellyfish: Estimates from bomb-calorimetry and proximate-composition

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    The energy density of jellyfish: Estimates from bomb-calorimetry and proximate-composition Thomas K scyphozoan jellyfish (Cyanea capillata, Rhizostoma octopus and Chrysaora hysoscella). First, bomb). These proximate data were subsequently converted to energy densities. The two techniques (bomb- calorimetry

  1. Project Jelly-Fish: B.R.N.O. Observations of Semiregular Variable Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hajek

    2006-01-01

    Brno Regional Network of Observers (BRNO) is a group which prefers to observe eclipsing binary stars. A team called the Jelly-Fish has been formed within BRNO for the purpose of observing variable stars other than eclipsing binaries. The observations by Jelly-Fish members are predominantly visual; CCD observing has started only recently and such observations are not yet included in our

  2. Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Lynam; Stephen J. Hay; Andrew S. Brierley

    2004-01-01

    Pronounced interannual variability in the abundance of medusae of the jellyfish species Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii, and Cyanea capillata (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa) in the North Sea was evident in data arising from the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas International 0-group Gadoid Surveys between 1971 and 1986. Possible climatic forcing of jellyfish abundance, via the North Atlantic

  3. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Graham; Daniel L. Martin; Darryl L. Felder; Vernon L. Asper; Harriet M. Perry

    2003-01-01

    A large population of a previously unreported jellyfish occurred across the northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) from May through September of 2000. The jellyfish, identified as Phyllorhiza punctata by von Lendenfeld (1884), is not indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico or to the Atlantic Basin. Current theory states that this invasive species was introduced into the Atlantic from the Pacific

  4. Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, H; Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Osawa, S

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes, Spirocodon saltatrix, Nemopsis dofleini, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora quinquecirrha have been determined. The sequences are highly similar to each other. A fairly high similarity was also found between these jellyfishes and a sea anemone, Anthopleura japonica. PMID:6130512

  5. CONTINUATION AND EXPANSION OF DOCKWATCH VOLUNTEER REPORTING SYSTEMS FOR NUISANCE AND INVASIVE JELLYFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gather data, using a citizens' monitoring network to track jellyfish occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The dtat will be incorporated into the database that will establish better linkages between jellyfish, transport and bloom cycles. The project will also be used imp...

  6. Nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes.

    PubMed

    Hori, H; Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Osawa, S

    1982-11-25

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from four jellyfishes, Spirocodon saltatrix, Nemopsis dofleini, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora quinquecirrha have been determined. The sequences are highly similar to each other. A fairly high similarity was also found between these jellyfishes and a sea anemone, Anthopleura japonica. PMID:6130512

  7. JELLYFISH AGGREGATIONS AND LEATHERBACK TURTLE FORAGING PATTERNS IN A TEMPERATE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. R. Houghton; Thomas K. Doyle; Mark W. Wilson; John Davenport; Graeme C. Hays

    2006-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are obligate predators of gelatinous zooplankton. However, the spatial relationship between predator and prey remains poorly understood beyond sporadic and localized reports. To examine how jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria: Orders Semaeostomeae and Rhizostomeae) might drive the broad-scale distribution of this wide ranging species, we employed aerial surveys to map jellyfish throughout a temperate coastal shelf area bordering

  8. Signatures of active and passive optimized Lévy searching in jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andy M

    2014-10-01

    Some of the strongest empirical support for Lévy search theory has come from telemetry data for the dive patterns of marine predators (sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins). The dive patterns of the unusually large jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus do, however, sit outside of current Lévy search theory which predicts that a single search strategy is optimal. When searching the water column, the movement patterns of these jellyfish change over time. Movement bouts can be approximated by a variety of Lévy and Brownian (exponential) walks. The adaptive value of this variation is not known. On some occasions movement pattern data are consistent with the jellyfish prospecting away from a preferred depth, not finding an improvement in conditions elsewhere and so returning to their original depth. This 'bounce' behaviour also sits outside of current Lévy walk search theory. Here, it is shown that the jellyfish movement patterns are consistent with their using optimized 'fast simulated annealing'--a novel kind of Lévy walk search pattern--to locate the maximum prey concentration in the water column and/or to locate the strongest of many olfactory trails emanating from more distant prey. Fast simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a large search space. This new finding shows that the notion of active optimized Lévy walk searching is not limited to the search for randomly and sparsely distributed resources, as previously thought, but can be extended to embrace other scenarios, including that of the jellyfish R. octopus. In the presence of convective currents, it could become energetically favourable to search the water column by riding the convective currents. Here, it is shown that these passive movements can be represented accurately by Lévy walks of the type occasionally seen in R. octopus. This result vividly illustrates that Lévy walks are not necessarily the result of selection pressures for advantageous searching behaviour but can instead arise freely and naturally from simple processes. It also shows that the family of Lévy walkers is vastly larger than previously thought and includes spores, pollens, seeds and minute wingless arthropods that on warm days disperse passively within the atmospheric boundary layer. PMID:25100323

  9. 3D simulations of self-propelled, reconstructed jellyfish using vortex methods

    E-print Network

    Rasmussen, J T; Storti, F; Koumoutsakos, P; Walther, J H

    2009-01-01

    We present simulations of the vortex dynamics associated with the self-propelled motion of jellyfish. The geometry is obtained from image segmentation of video recordings from live jellyfish. The numerical simulations are performed using three-dimensional viscous, vortex particle methods with Brinkman penalization to impose the kinematics of the jellyfish motion. We study two types of strokes recorded in the experiment1. The first type (stroke A) produces two vortex rings during the stroke: one outside the bell during the power stroke and one inside the bell during the recovery stroke. The second type (stroke B) produces three vortex rings: one ring during the power stroke and two vortex rings during the recovery stroke. Both strokes propel the jellyfish, with stroke B producing the highest velocity. The speed of the jellyfish scales with the square root of the Reynolds number. The simulations are visualized in a fluid dynamics video.

  10. Impact of stinging jellyfish proliferations along south Italian coasts: human health hazards, treatment and social costs.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots. PMID:24583831

  11. Stings of edible jellyfish (Rhopilema hispidum, Rhopilema esculentum and Nemopilema nomurai) in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, M; Uye, S; Burnett, J; Mianzan, H

    2006-11-01

    Three edible jellyfish Rhopilema hispidum, R. esculentum and Nemopilema nomurai are virulent to humans. We monitored one patient that was stung sequentially by these three species of jellyfish. The first species caused a persistent eruption, the second produced significant pruritus and the last induced only cutaneous symptoms rather than severe systemic disorders reported for its Chinese counterpart. The lesions of these jellyfish species are characteristic and common in workers harvesting medusae. There is no significant incidence of symptoms by ingesting these animals. PMID:16962626

  12. Cell Proliferation in Cubozoan Jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri

    PubMed Central

    Gurska, Daniela; Garm, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Cubozoans (box jellyfish) undergo remarkable body reorganization throughout their life cycle when, first, they metamorphose from swimming larvae to sessile polyps, and second, through the metamorphosis from sessile polyps to free swimming medusae. In the latter they develop complex structures like the central nervous system (CNS) and visual organs. In the present study several aspects of cell proliferation at different stages of the life cycle of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Alatina moseri have been examined through in vivo labeling of cells in the synthetic phase (S phase) of the cell cycle. Proliferation zones were found in metamorphosing polyps, as well as in juvenile medusae, where both the rhopalia and pedalia have enhanced rates of proliferation. The results also indicate a rather fast cell turnover in the rhopalia including the rhopalial nervous system (RNS). Moreover, T. cystophora showed diurnal pattern of cell proliferation in certain body parts of the medusa, with higher proliferation rates at nighttime. This is true for two areas in close connection with the CNS: the stalk base and the rhopalia. PMID:25047715

  13. Energy requirements and food supplies of ctenophores and jellyfish in the Patuxent River estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Miller; Richard B. Williams

    1972-01-01

    Interpretation of published data for the Patuxent River, Maryland, indicates that for most of the year the total biomass of\\u000a phytoplankton and zooplankton was inadequate to meet the minimum energy needs of ctenophores and jellyfish.

  14. A Randomized, Controlled Field Trial for the Prevention of Jellyfish Stings With a Topical Sting Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacific regions. A new topical jellyfish sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fish prevents 85% of jellyfish stings in laboratory settings. The field effectiveness is unknown. The objective is to evaluate the field efficacy of the jellyfish sting inhibitor, Safe Sea™. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial occurred at the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA and Sapodilla Cayes, Belize. Participants were healthy volunteers planning to snorkel for 30 to 45 minutes. Ten minutes prior to swimming, each participant was directly observed applying a blinded sample of Safe Sea (Nidaria Technology Ltd, Jordan Valley, Israel) to one side of their body and a blinded sample of Coppertone® (Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) to the contralateral side as placebo control. Masked 26 g samples of both Safe Sea SPF15 and Coppertone® SPF15 were provided in identical containers to achieve 2 mg/cm2 coverage. Sides were randomly chosen by participants. The incidence of jellyfish stings was the main outcome measure. This was assessed by participant interview and examination as subjects exited the water. Results A total of 82 observed water exposures occurred. Thirteen jellyfish stings occurred during the study period for a 16% incidence. Eleven jellyfish stings occurred with placebo, two with the sting inhibitor, resulting in a relative risk reduction of 82% (95% confidence interval: 21%–96%; p = 0.02). No seabather’s eruption or side effects occurred. Conclusions Safe Sea is a topical barrier cream effective at preventing >80% jellyfish stings under real-world conditions. PMID:16706948

  15. A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngho Ko; Sungyoung Na; Youngwoo Lee; Kyoungrae Cha; Seong Young Ko

    2012-01-01

    Among the various kinds of actuations for biomimetic robots, the electromagnetic actuation (EMA) method has been regarded as the one with the most potential. This paper proposes a jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an EMA system in three-dimensional (3D) space. The jellyfish-like mini-robot has four flexible fins, each of which is equipped with a permanent magnet for electromagnetic actuation; the

  16. Human forcing of the copepod–fish–jellyfish triangular trophic relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichi Uye

    2011-01-01

    Copepods, the most abundant planktonic metazoans, constitute an intermediate trophic position between phytoplankton and higher\\u000a trophic-level animals such as fish and jellyfish. Fish and jellyfish are adversaries because they often compete for prey copepods\\u000a and also can be prey of each other. The classical food chain represented by phytoplankton–copepod–fish is the main process\\u000a leading to efficient and sustainable production of

  17. Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Condon, Robert H; Steinberg, Deborah K; del Giorgio, Paul A; Bouvier, Thierry C; Bronk, Deborah A; Graham, William M; Ducklow, Hugh W

    2011-06-21

    Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown. Here we report that jellyfish released substantial quantities of extremely labile C-rich DOM, relative to nitrogen (25.6 ± 31.6 C:1N), which was quickly metabolized by bacterioplankton at uptake rates two to six times that of bulk DOM pools. When jelly-DOM was consumed it was shunted toward bacterial respiration rather than production, significantly reducing bacterial growth efficiencies by 10% to 15%. Jelly-DOM also favored the rapid growth and dominance of specific bacterial phylogenetic groups (primarily ?-proteobacteria) that were rare in ambient waters, implying that jelly-DOM was channeled through a small component of the in situ microbial assemblage and thus induced large changes in community composition. Our findings suggest major shifts in microbial structure and function associated with jellyfish blooms, and a large detour of C toward bacterial CO(2) production and away from higher trophic levels. These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms. PMID:21646531

  18. Study on effect of jellyfish collagen hydrolysate on anti-fatigue and anti-oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Feng Ding; Yan-Yan Li; Jia-Jie Xu; Xiu-Rong Su; Xiang Gao; Fu-Peng Yue

    2011-01-01

    Many bioactive peptides possess specific biological properties that make potential ingredients of health-promoting foods. Jellyfish, which is rich in collagen, has high nutritious and medicinal value. In this study, jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH) were produced. The in vivo anti-fatigue activity and in vivo antioxidant activity of JCH were determined, respectively. Climbing endurance tests of mice were carried out after 6w

  19. Vulnerability of larval herring ( Clupea harengus pallasi ) to capture by the jellyfish Aequorea victoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Purcell; T. D. Siferd; J. B. Marliave

    1987-01-01

    Gut-content analysis of Aequorea victoria collected in Kulleet Bay, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, in 1983, showed that the jellyfish consumed herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) larvae, primarily yolksac [?8mm notochord length (NL)] and post-yolksac larvae (?12mm NL). Behavioral experiments with laboratory-reared larvae showed that the ability to escape after contact with a jellyfish tentacle increased dramatically from yolksac through pre-metamorphic

  20. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  1. Characterization and neutralization of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom using polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changkeun; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Euikyung

    2014-08-01

    Jellyfish stings have often caused serious health concerns for sea bathers especially in tropical waters. In the coastal areas of Korea, China and Japan, the blooming and stinging accidents of poisonous jellyfish species have recently increased, including Nemopilema nomurai. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) by the immunization of white rabbits with NnV antigen. In the present study, the antibody has been characterized for its neutralizing effect against NnV. At first, the presence of NnV polyclonal antibody has been confirmed from the immunized rabbit serum by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the neutralizing activities of the polyclonal antibody have been investigated using cell-based toxicity test, hemolysis assay, and mice lethality test. When the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with NnV, it shows a high effectiveness in neutralizing the NnV toxicities in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we explored proteomic analyses using 2-D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to illustrate the molecular identities of the jellyfish venom. From this, 18 different protein families have been identified as jellyfish venom-derived proteins; the main findings of which are matrix metalloproteinase-14, astacin-like metalloprotease toxin 3 precursor. It is expected that the present results would have contributed to our understandings of the envenomation by N. nomurai, their treatment and some valuable knowledge on the pathological processes of the jellyfish stinging. PMID:24751365

  2. A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Youngho; Na, Sungyoung; Lee, Youngwoo; Cha, Kyoungrae; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

    2012-05-01

    Among the various kinds of actuations for biomimetic robots, the electromagnetic actuation (EMA) method has been regarded as the one with the most potential. This paper proposes a jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an EMA system in three-dimensional (3D) space. The jellyfish-like mini-robot has four flexible fins, each of which is equipped with a permanent magnet for electromagnetic actuation; the robot’s body is 17 mm long and 0.5 mm thick. Our EMA system was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in a desired direction in 3D space, which could bend the fins of the jellyfish-like mini-robot. Therefore, a cyclic change in the uniform magnetic field, in the EMA system, would synchronize the fluctuation of the fins and could generate a propulsion force for the robot, in the desired direction. In order to maximize the propulsion force of the jellyfish-like mini-robot, the waveform and frequency of the input current in the EMA system are optimized. Consequently, our jellyfish-like mini-robot was able to generate maximum propulsion force when a square waveform input current (13 A magnitude and 10 Hz frequency) was applied to the EMA system. Finally, the jellyfish-like mini-robot with the EMA system was able to perform various 3D swimming motions.

  3. Extract from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean "fried egg jellyfish" Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7 and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  4. Clinical toxicology: a tropical Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Currie, B J

    2000-02-01

    Tropical Australia has an amazing diversity of venomous fauna, from "the world's most venomous creature," the multi-tentacled (chirodropid) box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri, to aggressive spiders whose venom remains to be characterized. All genera of highly venomous Australasian elapid snakes are present, except for tiger snakes. Most notable is the taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus), with the most efficient "snap-release" biting mechanism of any snake and venom components causing the full constellation of clinical envenoming features: coagulopathy from fibrinogen depletion (procoagulant), neurotoxicity (predominantly presynaptic neurotoxin) and rhabdomyolysis (myotoxin). Brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis and P. nuchalis) now account for most snake bite fatalities in Australia, as a result of severe coagulopathy and a poorly defined early scenario of collapse, postulated to be caused by profound hypotension caused by transient myocardial dysfunction associated with prothrombin activation. Other venomous entities include paralyzing ticks, the blue-ringed octopus, stone fish and other marine animals with venomous spines, paralyzing cone shells, and a wide range of jellyfish including Carukia barnesi and possibly other four-tentacled (carybdeid) box jellyfish causing the Irukandji syndrome. PMID:10688264

  5. A simple visual system without neurons in jellyfish larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Karin; Wallén, Rita; Seymour, Jamie; Nilsson, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Earlier detailed studies of cnidarian planula larvae have revealed a simple nervous system but no eyes or identifiable light sensing structures. Here, we describe the planula of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, and report that these larvae have an extremely simple organization with no nervous system at all. Their only advanced feature is the presence of 10-15 pigment-cup ocelli, evenly spaced across the posterior half of the larval ectoderm. The ocelli are single cell structures containing a cup of screening pigment filled with presumably photosensory microvilli. These rhabdomeric photoreceptors have no neural connections to any other cells, but each has a well-developed motor-cilium, appearing to be the only means by which light can control the behaviour of the larva. The ocelli are thus self-contained sensory-motor entities, making a nervous system superfluous. PMID:14667350

  6. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Richardson, Anthony J; Winkel, Kenneth D; Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John; Hore, Russell; Avila-Soria, Griselda; Brewer, David; Kloser, Rudy J; Steven, Andy; Condie, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. PMID:24182899

  7. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742

  8. Current-oriented swimming by jellyfish and its role in bloom maintenance.

    PubMed

    Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian Christopher; Chalumeau, Julien; Bastian, Thomas; Armstrong, Claire Denise; Vandenabeele, Sylvie; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Hays, Graeme Clive

    2015-02-01

    Cross-flows (winds or currents) affect animal movements [1-3]. Animals can temporarily be carried off course or permanently carried away from their preferred habitat by drift depending on their own traveling speed in relation to that of the flow [1]. Animals able to only weakly fly or swim will be the most impacted (e.g., [4]). To circumvent this problem, animals must be able to detect the effects of flow on their movements and respond to it [1, 2]. Here, we show that a weakly swimming organism, the jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, can orientate its movements with respect to currents and that this behavior is key to the maintenance of blooms and essential to reduce the probability of stranding. We combined in situ observations with first-time deployment of accelerometers on free-ranging jellyfish and simulated the behavior observed in wild jellyfish within a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our results show that jellyfish can actively swim countercurrent in response to current drift, leading to significant life-history benefits, i.e., increased chance of survival and facilitated bloom formation. Current-oriented swimming may be achieved by jellyfish either directly detecting current shear across their body surface [5] or indirectly assessing drift direction using other cues (e.g., magnetic, infrasound). Our coupled behavioral-hydrodynamic model provides new evidence that current-oriented swimming contributes to jellyfish being able to form aggregations of hundreds to millions of individuals for up to several months, which may have substantial ecosystem and socioeconomic consequences [6, 7]. It also contributes to improve predictions of jellyfish blooms' magnitude and movements in coastal waters. PMID:25619761

  9. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of jellyfish collagen for use in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2-10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742

  10. Rise and fall of jellyfish in the eastern Bering Sea in relation to climate regime shifts Richard D. Brodeur a,*, Mary Beth Decker b

    E-print Network

    Rise and fall of jellyfish in the eastern Bering Sea in relation to climate regime shifts Richard D North Pacific Ocean a b s t r a c t A steep increase in jellyfish biomass, primarily Chrysaora examined the relationships between jellyfish biomass and temperature, ice cover, atmospheric variables

  11. Sphingophosphonolipid molecular species from edible mollusks and a jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kariotoglou, Dimitrios M; Mastronicolis, Sofia K

    2003-09-01

    The goal of this study is to supplement the composition and nature of sphingophosphonolipids diversity from edible mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Eobania vermiculata) and from jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, organisms rich in phosphonolipids. M. galloprovincialis contained a major ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP-IM) and a minor ceramide that was detected chromatographically as the methyl analog (CAEP-IIM). In CAEP-IM, saturated fatty acids (FA) of 14, 16 and 18 carbons amounted to 68.8%; also 52.5% dihydroxy bases were detected. On thin layer chromatography, the Rf for CAEP-IIM was smaller than the Rf for CAEP-IM because of an increase of 22.0% in 2OH-16:0 FA, plus 29.2% trihydroxy bases (phytosphingosine). Similarly, a ceramide 2-methylaminoethylphosphonate (CAEP-IIE, 1.5% of phospholipids) was quantitated in Eobania (apart from the previously reported major CAEP, 7.6%). In CAEP-IIE, saturated and hydroxy FA of 14, 16 and 18 carbons amounted to 37.0 and 37.8%; 29.1% dihydroxy and 23.0% trihydroxy bases were detected in the same molecule. Eobania's unsaturated FA percentages (total lipids: 66.3, polar: 47.5, neutral: 59.0) were similar to those previously found for other land snails. A suite of two minor CAEP (CAEP-IIP, CAEP-IIIP) was quantitated in Pelagia at 2.0 and 1.3% of phospholipids (apart from the previously reported major CAEP, 21.0%) identified chromatographically as methyl analogs. In CAEP-IIP, saturated FA of 14, 16, 18 and 19 carbons amounted to 56.0%; 12.6% dihydroxy and 34.1% trihydroxy bases were also detected in CAEP-IIP. The Rf CAEP-IIIPjellyfish major sphingophosphonolipids appears not specific. PMID:12941637

  12. Milbemycin oxime (interceptor) treatment of amphipod parasites (Hyperiidae) from several host jellyfish species.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Koneval, Maureen E; Clark, James D; Schick, Mark; Smith, Malissa; Stark, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    Wild-caught crystal jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) arrived at the John G. Shedd Aquarium infested with hyperiid amphipods (Hyperia medusarum), which were inadvertently introduced into a system containing several jellyfish species. Affected systems were treated with milbemycin oxime (Interceptor tablets for dogs 51-100 lbs, Novartis Animal Health US, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina 27408, USA), a treatment prescribed for red bug (Tegastes acroporanus) infestation in corals. Two treatments using one 25-mg aliquot of Interceptor per 10 gallons of tank water administered 6-7 days apart were completed. Overall, treatment to eradicate the parasite from the affected systems was successful. Further studies evaluating the tolerance of jellyfish to milbemycin oxime, particularly in small juvenile Eutonina indicans and Aurelia aurita, are warranted. Based on clinical observations, there were more negative effects associated with the treatment in the hydrozoans than in the scyphozoans. PMID:25831592

  13. Protective Effect of Tetracycline against Dermal Toxicity Induced by Jellyfish Venom

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changkeun; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kwak, Jeongsoo; Jung, Hongseok; Yoon, Won Duk; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity. Further, it is also well known that there is a positive correlation between the inflammatory reaction of dermal tissues and their tissue metalloproteinase activity. Based on these, the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of jellyfish envenomation. Methodology and Principal Findings Tetracycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor) has been examined for its activity to reduce or prevent the dermal toxicity induced by Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom (NnV) using in vitro and in vivo models. HaCaT (human keratinocyte) and NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast) incubated with NnV showed decreases in cell viability, which is associated with the inductions of metalloproteinase-2 and -9. This result suggests that the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as tetracycline, may prevent the jellyfish venom-mediated local tissue damage. In vivo experiments showed that comparing with NnV-alone treatment, tetracycline pre-mixed NnV demonstrated a significantly reduced progression of dermal toxicity upon the inoculation onto rabbit skin. Conclusions/Significance It is believed that there has been no previous report on the therapeutic agent of synthetic chemical origin for the treatment of jellyfish venom-induced dermonecrosis based on understanding its mechanism of action except the use of antivenom treatment. Furthermore, the current study, for the first time, has proposed a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for skin damages caused by jellyfish stings. PMID:23536767

  14. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2014-11-01

    Scientific debate on whether the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks is related to a true rise in their abundance, have outlined the lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different data sets produced within the EU program EUROBASIN, which have been assembled with the aim of presenting an up to date overview of the diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, Cnidaria and Ctenophora were collected in the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between 59-68° N Lat and 62° W-5° E Long. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of Cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation with different water masses and with the bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where populations tend to be more diversified due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparisons of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise show that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009-2012, blooms of Cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, in contrast with what was previously hypothesized, the CPR is able to detect blooms of meroplanktonic and holoplanktonic hydrozoans and scyphozoans. Combining different types of data, key jellyfish taxa for the spring-summer period were identified in the northern North Atlantic regions. Key species for the central and southern North Atlantic could be inferred based on Cnidarian blooms identified by the CPR survey, although this should be confirmed further by comparison with quantitative data. The identification by DNA barcoding of 23 jellyfish specimens collected during the EUROBASIN cruises contributes to increasing the still very limited number of jellyfish sequences available on GenBank. All observations presented here can be downloaded from PANGAEA (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.835732).

  15. The role of hyperiid parasites as a trophic link between jellyfish and fishes.

    PubMed

    Riascos, J M; Vergara, M; Fajardo, J; Villegas, V; Pacheco, A S

    2012-10-01

    The trophic interactions between the scyphozoan medusa Chrysaora plocamia and the palm ruff Seriolella violacea were investigated off northern Chile and showed that large numbers of hyperiid amphipods parasitizing the medusa may channel energy back to the fishes, which feed on the parasites. The biomass of hyperiids eaten by the fish was a function of the biomass of hyperiids parasitizing the medusa. This temporally available food supply may enhance fish recruitment. The large number of hyperiids parasitizing diverse jellyfish species represents a missing trophic link in current efforts to understand the effects of jellyfish blooms on marine food webs. PMID:23020568

  16. The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anthony J; Bakun, Andrew; Hays, Graeme C; Gibbons, Mark J

    2009-06-01

    Human-induced stresses of overfishing, eutrophication, climate change, translocation and habitat modification appear to be promoting jellyfish (pelagic cnidarian and ctenophore) blooms to the detriment of other marine organisms. Mounting evidence suggests that the structure of pelagic ecosystems can change rapidly from one that is dominated by fish (that keep jellyfish in check through competition or predation) to a less desirable gelatinous state, with lasting ecological, economic and social consequences. Management actions needed to stop such changes require tactical coping strategies and longer-term preventative responses based on fundamental and targeted research on this understudied group. PMID:19324452

  17. Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Andrew K; Smith, Craig R; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O B

    2014-12-01

    Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic-benthic coupling. PMID:25320167

  18. Gill Damage to Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Caused by the Common Jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under Experimental Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Emily J.; Sturt, Michael M.; Ruane, Neil M.; Doyle, Thomas K.; McAllen, Rob; Harman, Luke; Rodger, Hamish D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future. PMID:21490977

  19. Central circuitry in the jellyfish Aglantha. I: The relay system

    PubMed

    Mackie; Meech

    1995-01-01

    1. The relay system is an interneuronal pathway in the margin of the jellyfish Aglantha digitale. It excites a second interneuronal pathway, the carrier system, and is itself excited by pacemaker neurones concerned with slow swimming. It also excites a slow conduction pathway in the tentacles causing graded, tonic contractions of all the tentacles during slow swimming. 2. The pacemakers, the carrier system and the relay system all contribute to the production of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in a giant axon that runs in the outer nerve ring (ring giant axon). These EPSPs may cause the latter to spike during slow swimming. If it does so, it will fire tentacle giant axons, producing twitch contractions of the tentacles. Such contractions probably help to contract the tentacles rapidly at the start of slow swimming. This is an unusual case of a giant axon that normally mediates escape behaviour being appropriated for use during a non-escape activity. 3. The relay system can conduct impulses on its own but their conduction velocity is greatly increased when preceded by either pacemaker or ring giant spikes. This phenomenon, termed the 'piggyback effect', may be due to extracellular field effects rather than to actions mediated by chemical or electrical synapses. 4. Recordings from the epithelial cells that ensheath the ring giant and outer nerve ring neurones show miniature synaptic potentials and other events that seem to reflect events in the nervous system, but no functions can be assigned to them. 5. There is no obvious counterpart to the relay system in medusae lacking escape circuitry. PMID:9320176

  20. Sphingophosphonolipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids from Aegean jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Kariotoglou, D M; Mastronicolis, S K

    2001-11-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate and identify several sphingophosphonolipids from Aurelia aurita, an abundant but harmless Aegean jellyfish, in which they have not previously been described. Total lipids of A. aurita were 0.031-0.036% of fresh tissue, and the lipid phosphorus content was 1.3-1.7% of total lipids. Phosphonolipids were 21.7% of phospholipids and consisted of a major ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP-I; 18.3%), as well as three minor CAEP (II, III, IV) methyl analogs at 1.3, 1.1, and 1.0%, respectively. The remaining phospholipid composition was: phosphatidylcholine, 44.5%, including 36.2% glycerylethers; phosphatidylethanolamine, 18.6%, including 4.5% glycerylethers; cardiolipin, 5.6%; phosphatidylinositol, 2.6%; and lysophosphatidylcholine, 5.0%. In CAEP-I, saturated fatty acids of 14-18 carbon chain length were 70.8% and were combined with 57.3% dihydroxy bases and 23.4% trihydroxy bases. The suite of the three minor CAEP methyl analogs were of the same lipid class based on the head group, but they separated into three different components because of their polarity as follows: CAEP-II and CAEP-III differentiation from the major CAEP-I was mainly due to the increased fatty acid unsaturation and not to a different long-chain base, but the CAEP-IV differentiation from CAEP-I, apart from fatty acid unsaturation, was due to the increased content of hydroxyl groups originated from both hydroxy fatty acids and trihydroxy long-chain bases. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in total (76.7%), polar (83.0%), and neutral lipids (67.6%) of A. aurita. The major phospholipid components of A. aurita were comparable to those previously found in a related organism (Pelagia noctiluca), which can injure humans. PMID:11795859

  1. Jellyfish populations in the Mediterranean Sea Lucas BROTz* and Daniel PAULy

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    Jellyfish populations in the Mediterranean Sea Lucas BROTz* and Daniel PAULy Sea Around Us Project the Mediterranean Sea. Some groups show differing or opposite trends, and these trends may vary widely depending in the Mediterranean Sea provides an ideal opportunity to discuss their abundance trends, along with suggested causes

  2. Diversification of animal venom peptides-were jellyfish amongst the first combinatorial chemists?

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Antonio; Long, Paul F

    2013-08-19

    An ocean of data: Huge numbers of protein toxins are found in animal venoms. This diversity is widely believed to have arisen by gene duplication events. However, recent data now challenges this tradition view. Here we highlight how jellyfish could hold the key to unravelling toxin diversification, with a view towards future combinatorial biosynthesis of toxin libraries. PMID:23821453

  3. MECHANICS OF JET PROPULSION IN THE HYDROMEDUSAN JELLYFISH, POLYORCHIS PENICILLATUS II. ENERGETICS OF THE JET CYCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. EDWIN DEMONT; JOHN M. GOSLINE

    SUMMARY The mechanical energy generated by the contraction of the subumbrellar swimming muscles to power the jet cycle in the hydromedusan jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) was measured. This energy was experimentally partitioned into three components during the contraction. The sum of these components was taken to be the mechanical energy generated by the muscles during the jet cycle and

  4. Learning from jellyfish: Fluid transport in muscular pumps at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawroth, Janna; Dabiri, John

    2010-11-01

    Biologically inspired hydrodynamic propulsion and maneuvering strategies promise the advancement of medical implants and minimally invasive clinical tools. We have chosen juvenile jellyfish as a model system for investigating fluid dynamics and morphological properties underlying fluid transport by a muscular pump at intermediate Reynolds numbers. Recently we have described how natural variations in viscous forces are balanced by changes in jellyfish body shape (phenotypic plasticity), to the effect of facilitating efficient body-fluid interaction. Complementing these studies in our live model organisms, we are also engaged in engineering an artificial jellyfish, that is, a jellyfish-inspired construct of a flexible plastic sheet actuated by a monolayer of rat cardiomyocytes. The main challenges here are (1) to derive a body shape and deformation suitable for effective fluid transport under physiological conditions, (2) to understand the mechanical properties of the muscular film and derive a design capable of the desired deformation, (3) to master the proper alignment and timely contraction of the muscle component needed to achieve the desired deformation, and (4) to evaluate the performance of the design.

  5. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein: A new tool for studying ion channel expression and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Marshall; Raymond Molloy; Guy W. J Moss; James R Howe; Thomas E Hughes

    1995-01-01

    Two methods are described for using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for ion channel expression. GFP fluorescence can be used to identify the transfected cells, and to estimate the relative levels of ion channel expression, in cotransfection experiments. A GFP-NMDAR1 chimera can be constructed that produces a functional, fluorescent receptor subunit. These methods should facilitate

  6. Novel Proteinaceous Toxins from the Box Jellyfish (Sea Wasp) Carybdea rastoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nagai; Kyoko Takuwa; Masahiro Nakao; Emiko Ito; Masami Miyake; Masatoshi Noda; Terumi Nakajima

    2000-01-01

    During summer and autumn, the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni is one of the most bothersome stinging pests to swimmers and bathers on the Japanese coast. Two labile but potent hemolytic toxins from the tentacles of Carybdea rastoni were isolated in their active forms using newly developed purification methods. The molecular masses of the isolated C. rastoni toxin-A and

  7. Biologically active polypeptides in the venom of the jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Gusmani; Massimo Avian; Bella Galil; Pierluigi Patriarca; Giandomenico Rottini

    1997-01-01

    A tropical jellyfish, Rhopilema nomadica (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) has recently invaded the eastern Mediterranean. Its painful stings have been the bane of bathers and fishermen from Egypt to Turkey. This paper reports on the presence of haemolytic activity and ?-chymotrypsin-like serine protease activity in the venom of the R. nomadica nematocysts. In addition, the presence of phospholipase A2 activity, which has

  8. Partial purification and characterization of a hemolysin (CAH1) from Hawaiian box jellyfish ( Carybdea alata) venom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Chung; Lal A. Ratnapala; Ian M. Cooke; Angel A. Yanagihara

    2001-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a novel hemolytic protein from the venom of the Hawaiian box jellyfish (Carybdea alata). Hemolysis of sheep red blood cells was used to quantitate hemolytic potency of crude venom extracted from isolated nematocysts and venom after fractionation and purification procedures. Hemolytic activity of crude venom was reduced or lost after exposure to the proteolytic enzymes

  9. Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Dabiri; Sean P. Colin; John H. Costello; Morteza Gharib

    2005-01-01

    Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned

  10. Interactions of cnidarian toxins with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Suput, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus to penetrate the human skin, whereas others rarely come into contact with human beings. Only a small, almost negligible percentage of the vast wealth of cnidarian toxins has been studied in detail. Many polypeptide cnidarian toxins are immunogenic, and cross-reactivity between several jellyfish venoms has been reported. Cnidarians also possess components of innate immunity, and some of those components have been preserved in evolution. On the other hand, cnidarian toxins have already been used for the design of immunotoxins to treat cancer, whereas other cnidarian toxins can modulate the immune system in mammals, including man. This review will focus on a short overview of cnidarian toxins, on the innate immunity of cnidarians, and on the mode of action of cnidarian toxins which can modulate the immune system in mammals. Emphasis is palced on those toxins which block voltage activated potassium channels in the cells of the immune system. PMID:21824078

  11. Neutralization of toxic effects of different crude jellyfish venoms by an extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed

    Pongprayoon, U; Bohlin, L; Wasuwat, S

    1991-10-01

    An extract (IPA) of the plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br., previously shown to be clinically effective toward dermatitis caused by venomous jellyfishes, was studied as to its ability to neutralize toxic activities of jellyfish venoms. Different venoms exhibited different degrees of activity. When IPA was incubated with active venoms, it inhibited the actions of all jellyfish venoms tested, with IC50 values in the range of 0.3-0.8 mgIPA/mg venom for proteolytic action, and with about 10 times lower IC50 values for the neutralization of haemolytic action. These activities of IPA support the previously reported effectiveness in the treatment of dermatitis caused by jellyfish sting. PMID:1684405

  12. Efficacy of Venom from Tentacle of Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Nemopilema nomurai) against the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Dong, Xiangli; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7?d was 74.23%. PMID:25162008

  13. Transportation of organic matter to the sea floor by carrion falls of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in the Sea of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yamamoto; Miyuki Hirose; Tetsuya Ohtani; Katashi Sugimoto; Kazue Hirase; Nobuo Shimamoto; Tsuyoshi Shimura; Natsumi Honda; Yasuzumi Fujimori; Tohru Mukai

    2008-01-01

    The fate of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai after death was examined in the southwest Sea of Japan. The density of dead jellyfish was greater than that of live animals.\\u000a The dead animals are heavier than the Japan Sea Proper Water which occurs deeper than 200 m, suggesting that dead jellyfish\\u000a sink to the sea floor. The sea floor survey, conducted

  14. Jellyfish prediction of occurrence from remote sensing data and a non-linear pattern recognition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albajes-Eizagirre, Anton; Romero, Laia; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Vanhellemont, Quinten

    2011-11-01

    Impact of jellyfish in human activities has been increasingly reported worldwide in recent years. Segments such as tourism, water sports and leisure, fisheries and aquaculture are commonly damaged when facing blooms of gelatinous zooplankton. Hence the prediction of the appearance and disappearance of jellyfish in our coasts, which is not fully understood from its biological point of view, has been approached as a pattern recognition problem in the paper presented herein, where a set of potential ecological cues was selected to test their usefulness for prediction. Remote sensing data was used to describe environmental conditions that could support the occurrence of jellyfish blooms with the aim of capturing physical-biological interactions: forcing, coastal morphology, food availability, and water mass characteristics are some of the variables that seem to exert an effect on jellyfish accumulation on the shoreline, under specific spatial and temporal windows. A data-driven model based on computational intelligence techniques has been designed and implemented to predict jellyfish events on the beach area as a function of environmental conditions. Data from 2009 over the NW Mediterranean continental shelf have been used to train and test this prediction protocol. Standard level 2 products are used from MODIS (NASA OceanColor) and MERIS (ESA - FRS data). The procedure for designing the analysis system can be described as following. The aforementioned satellite data has been used as feature set for the performance evaluation. Ground truth has been extracted from visual observations by human agents on different beach sites along the Catalan area. After collecting the evaluation data set, the performance between different computational intelligence approaches have been compared. The outperforming one in terms of its generalization capability has been selected for prediction recall. Different tests have been conducted in order to assess the prediction capability of the resulting system in operational conditions. This includes taking into account several types of features with different distances in both the spatial and temporal domains with respect to prediction time and site. Moreover the generalization capability has been measured via cross-fold validation. The implementation and performance evaluation results are detailed in the present communication together with the feature extraction from satellite data. To the best of our knowledge the developed application constitutes the first implementation of an automate system for the prediction of jellyfish appearance founded on remote sensing technologies.

  15. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: A numerical study of simplified jellyfish

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Scallop Theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number = 0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward veloc...

  16. Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.

    PubMed

    Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-12-17

    Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market. PMID:25393326

  17. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes.

    PubMed

    Acuña, José Luis; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Colin, Sean

    2011-09-16

    Jellyfishes have functionally replaced several overexploited commercial stocks of planktivorous fishes. This is paradoxical, because they use a primitive prey capture mechanism requiring direct contact with the prey, whereas fishes use more efficient visual detection. We have compiled published data to show that, in spite of their primitive life-style, jellyfishes exhibit similar instantaneous prey clearance and respiration rates as their fish competitors and similar potential for growth and reproduction. To achieve this production, they have evolved large, water-laden bodies that increase prey contact rates. Although larger bodies are less efficient for swimming, optimization analysis reveals that large collectors are advantageous if they move through the water sufficiently slowly. PMID:21921197

  18. Some implications of molecular phylogenetics for understanding biodiversity in jellyfishes, with emphasis on Scyphozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Dawson

    2004-01-01

    Statistical phylogenetic analyses of 111 5.8S and partial-28S ribosomal DNA sequences (total aligned length=434 nucleotides)\\u000a including jellyfishes representing approximately 14 of known scyphozoan morphospecies (21 genera, 62 families, and 100 orders)\\u000a are presented. These analyses indicate stauromedusae constitute a fifth cnidarian class (Staurozoa) basal to a monophyletic\\u000a Medusozoa (=Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa). Phylogenetic relationships among the medusozoans are generally poorly

  19. Some implications of molecular phylogenetics for understanding biodiversity in jellyfishes, with emphasis on Scyphozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Dawson

    Statistical phylogenetic analyses of 111 5.8S and partial-28S ribosomal DNA sequences (total aligned length=434 nucleotides)\\u000a including jellyfishes representing approximately 14% of known scyphozoan morphospecies (21% genera, 62% families, and 100%\\u000a orders) are presented. These analyses indicate stauromedusae constitute a fifth cnidarian class (Staurozoa) basal to a monophyletic\\u000a Medusozoa (=Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa). Phylogenetic relationships among the medusozoans are generally poorly

  20. Seasonal changes in oocyte size and maturity of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaya Toyokawa; Akio Shimizu; Katashi Sugimoto; Kou Nishiuchi; Toru Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    To determine the reproductive season of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai, we investigated gonadal maturity in specimens collected from the East China Sea, Korea Strait, Wakasa Bay, and the Shonai\\u000a Coast of Yamagata Prefecture. After the sex of the samples was determined, the long axis of at least 256 oocytes from each\\u000a female was measured. In specimens collected from the

  1. Transient expression and stable transformation of soybean using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ponappa; A. E. Brzozowski; J. J. Finer

    1999-01-01

    Embryogenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] suspension cultures were bombarded with five different gene constructions encoding the jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) green fluorescent protein (GFP). These constructions had altered codon usage compared to the native GFP gene and mutations\\u000a that increased the solubility of the protein and\\/or altered the native chromophore. All of the constructions produced green\\u000a fluorescence in soybean cultures

  2. Evolutionary aspects of developmentally regulated helix-loop-helix transcription factors in striated muscle of jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Müller; Katja Seipel; Nathalie Yanze; Susanne Reber-Müller; Ruth Streitwolf-Engel; Michael Stierwald; J. ürg Spring; Volker Schmid

    2003-01-01

    The function of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins in cell differentiation was shown to be conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, exemplified by the function of MyoD in striated muscle differentiation. In phylogeny striated muscle tissue appears first in jellyfish and the question of its evolutionary position is controversially discussed. For this reason we have studied the developmental role of myogenic bHLH

  3. Purification and properties of a cytolytic toxin in venom of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giandomenico Rottini; Laura Gusmani; Elisabetta Parovel; Massimo Avian; Pierluigi Patriarca

    1995-01-01

    A haemolytic toxin was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and FPLC gel filtration from the nematocysts of the jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis. Sheep red cells, but not human or rabbit red cells, were susceptible to lysis by the toxin. The toxin is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of about 102–107 kDa, is heat labile, highly unstable in polar media, inactivated

  4. Nutrient cycling and the biogeochemistry of manganese, iron. and zinc in Jellyfish Lake, Palau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. LANDING; WILLIAM C. BURNETT; W. BERRY LYONS; WILLIAM H. OREM

    1991-01-01

    The oxic waters in Jellyfish Lake, a stagnant marine lake in Palau, are depleted in N03-, POd3-, dissolved Si, Mn, Fe, and Zn, while the underlying anoxic waters are significantly enriched in these species and NH,. NH, and Pod3 regeneration and dissolved sulfide production in the anoxic zone yield a stoichiometry of C,,,N,,P for organic matter undergoing recycling in the

  5. Current Biology 24, 111, February 3, 2014 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.003 Regulation of Polyp-to-Jellyfish

    E-print Network

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.003 Article Regulation of Polyp-to-Jellyfish Transition in Aurelia aurita Bjo machinery controlling transition of the sessile polyp into a free-swimming jellyfish consists of two parts of the strobilation hormone of Aurelia. Conclusions: Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish

  6. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank

    2011-09-01

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s(-1) while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s(-1). A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state. PMID:21852714

  7. Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang

    2009-08-01

    To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 degrees C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

  8. The Jellyfish: smart electro-active polymers for an autonomous distributed sensing node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blottman, John B.; Richards, Roger T.

    2006-05-01

    The US Navy has recently placed emphasis on deployable, distributed sensors for Force Protection, Anti-Terrorism and Homeland Defense missions. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has embarked on the development of a self-contained deployable node that is composed of electro-active polymers (EAP) for use in a covert persistent distributed surveillance system. Electro-Active Polymers (EAP) have matured to a level that permits their application in energy harvesting, hydrophones, electro-elastic actuation and electroluminescence. The problem to resolve is combining each of these functions into an autonomous sensing platform. The concept presented here promises an operational life several orders of magnitude beyond what is expected of a Sonobuoy due to energy conservation and harvesting, and at a reasonable cost. The embodiment envisioned is that of a deployed device resembling a jellyfish, made in most part of polymers, with the body encapsulating the necessary electronic processing and communications package and the tentacles of the jellyfish housing the sonar sensors. It will be small, neutrally buoyant, and will survey the water column much in the manner of a Cartesian Diver. By using the Electro-Active Polymers as artificial muscles, the motion of the jellyfish can be finely controlled. An increased range of detection and true node autonomy is achieved through volumetric array beamforming to focus the direction of interrogation and to null-out extraneous ambient noise.

  9. A GLIMPSE of the Southern Jellyfish Nebula and Its Massive YSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, E. P.; Clemens, D. P.; Rathborne, J. M.; Meade, M. R.; Babler, B. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B. A.; Watson, C.; Wolfire, M. G.; Wolff, M. J.; Bania, T. M.; Benjamin, R. A.; Cohen, M.; Dickey, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Mathis, J. S.; Stolovy, S. R.; Uzpen, B.; Churchwell, E. B.

    2007-02-01

    In Spitzer/IRAC images obtained under the GLIMPSE Legacy Survey, we have identified a unique and provocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish Nebula is characterized by a fan of narrow tendrils with extreme length-to-width ratios that emanate from the vicinity of a bright infrared point source embedded in a smaller resolved nebula. From CO observations of the Nebula's morphologically associated molecular cloud, we have derived a kinematic distance of 5.7+/-0.8 kpc and a cloud mass of 3.2+/-0.9×103 Msolar. The tendril-like ropes of the Nebula have widths of ~0.1 pc and lengths of up to ~2 pc. We have integrated the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of the point source to establish it as a massive young stellar object (MYSO), most likely forming alone, but possibly masking fainter cluster members. The shape of the SED is consistent with the shape of a late Class 0 SED model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3.3+/-0.9×104 Lsolar, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) spectral type of B0. Given the curious nature of this nebula, we suspect its peculiar IR-bright structure is directly related to its current state of star formation.

  10. Jellyfish collagen stimulates production of TNF-? and IL-6 by J774.1 cells through activation of NF-?B and JNK via TLR4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Shiraishi, Ryusuke; Doi, Mikiharu; Sugahara, Takuya

    2014-03-01

    We previously reported that jellyfish collagen stimulates both the acquired and innate immune responses. In the acquired immune response, jellyfish collagen enhanced immunoglobulin production by lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, in the innate immune response jellyfish collagen promoted cytokine production and phagocytotic activity of macrophages. The facts that jellyfish collagen plays several potential roles in stimulating cytokine production by macrophages have further attracted us to uncover its mechanisms. We herein describe that the cytokine production-stimulating activity of jellyfish collagen was canceled by a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor. Moreover, jellyfish collagen stimulated phosphorylation of inhibitor of ?B? (I?B?), promoted the translocation of nucleus factor-?B (NF-?B), and activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A JNK inhibitor also abrogated the cytokine production-stimulating activity of jellyfish collagen. These results suggest that jellyfish collagen may facilitate cytokine production by macrophages through activation of NF-?B and JNK via the TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:24291243

  11. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  12. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  13. Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish umbrella on histological and immunity changes of mice photoaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

  14. The ontogenetic scaling of hydrodynamics and swimming performance in jellyfish (Aurelia aurita).

    PubMed

    McHenry, Matthew J; Jed, Jason

    2003-11-01

    It is not well understood how ontogenetic changes in the motion and morphology of aquatic animals influence the performance of swimming. The goals of the present study were to understand how changes in size, shape and behavior affect the hydrodynamics of jet propulsion in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and to explore how such changes affect the ontogenetic scaling of swimming speed and cost of transport. We measured the kinematics of jellyfish swimming from video recordings and simulated the hydrodynamics of swimming with two computational models that calculated thrust generation by paddle and jet mechanisms. Our results suggest that thrust is generated primarily by jetting and that there is negligible thrust generation by paddling. We examined how fluid forces scaled with body mass using the jet model. Despite an ontogenetic increase in the range of motion by the bell diameter and a decrease in the height-to-diameter ratio, we found that thrust and acceleration reaction scaled with body mass as predicted by kinematic similarity. However, jellyfish decreased their pulse frequency with growth, and speed consequently scaled at a lower exponential rate than predicted by kinematic similarity. Model simulations suggest that the allometric growth in Aurelia results in swimming that is slower, but more energetically economical, than isometric growth with a prolate bell shape. The decrease in pulse frequency over ontogeny allows large Aurelia medusae to avoid a high cost of transport but generates slower swimming than if they maintained a high pulse frequency. Our findings suggest that ontogenetic change in the height-to-diameter ratio and pulse frequency of Aurelia results in swimming that is relatively moderate in speed but is energetically economical. PMID:14555752

  15. Ecosystem relevance of variable jellyfish biomass in the Irish Sea between years, regions and water types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Thomas; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Beggs, Steven E.; Hays, Graeme C.; Doyle, Thomas K.

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring the abundance and distribution of taxa is essential to assess their contribution to ecosystem processes. For marine taxa that are difficult to study or have long been perceived of little ecological importance, quantitative information is often lacking. This is the case for jellyfish (medusae and other gelatinous plankton). In the present work, 4 years of scyphomedusae by-catch data from the 2007-2010 Irish Sea juvenile gadoid fish survey were analysed with three main objectives: (1) to provide quantitative and spatially-explicit species-specific biomass data, for a region known to have an increasing trend in jellyfish abundance; (2) to investigate whether year-to-year changes in catch-biomass are due to changes in the numbers or in the size of medusa (assessed as the mean mass per individual), and (3) to determine whether inter-annual variation patterns are consistent between species and water masses. Scyphomedusae were present in 97% of samples (N = 306). Their overall annual median catch-biomass ranged from 0.19 to 0.92 g m-3 (or 8.6 to 42.4 g m-2). Aurelia aurita and Cyanea spp. (Cyanea lamarckii and Cyanea capillata) made up 77.7% and 21.5% of the total catch-biomass respectively, but species contributions varied greatly between sub-regions and years. No consistent pattern was detected between the distribution and inter-annual variations of the two genera, and contrasting inter-annual patterns emerged when considering abundance either as biomass or as density. Significantly, A. aurita medusae were heavier in stratified than in mixed waters, which we hypothesize may be linked to differences in timing and yield of primary and secondary productions between water masses. These results show the vulnerability of time-series from bycatch datasets to phenological changes and highlight the importance of taking species- and population-specific distribution patterns into account when integrating jellyfish into ecosystem models.

  16. Development studies of Aurelia (Jellyfish) ephyrae which developed during the SLS-1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; McCombs, R.; Lowe, B. T.; Sampson, M.; Slusser, J.

    1994-08-01

    Aurelia polyps (scyphistomae) and ephyrae were exposed to microgravity for nine days aboard the space shuttle during the SLS-1 mission. During strobilation, polyps segment transversely and each segment develops into an ephyra. Polyps were induced to strobilate at 28°C, using iodine or thyroxine, at L(Launch)-48h, L-24h, and L+8h. Ephyrae developed in the groups tested in space and on Earth. The number of ephyrae formed per polyp was slightly higher in the L+8h groups as compared with those induced at L-24h and L-48h. On Earth, iodine is used by jellyfish to synthesize jellyfish-thyroxine (JfT 4), needed for ephyra production. Since iodine-treated polyps strobilated and formed ephyrae in space, it appears that jellyfish can synthesize Jf-T4 in space. Indeed, two groups of polyps not given inducer formed ephryae in space, presumably due to enhanced Jf-T4 synthesis, utilization or accumulation. Some ephyrae that formed in space were also fixed in space on Mission Day (MD) 8; others were fixed post-flight. Examination of living ephyrae with the light microscope and fixed ones with the Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes revealed that those which developed in space were morphologically very similar to those which developed on Earth. Quantitation of arm numbers determined that there were no significant differences between space and Earth-developed ephyrae. Pulsing abnormalities, however, were found in greater numbers (18.3%) in space-developed ephyrae than in Earth-developed controls (2.9%). These abnormalities suggest abnormal development of the graviceptors, the neuromuscular system, or a defect in the integration between these systems in apparently microgravity-sensitive animals.

  17. Speciation and isotopic composition of sulfur in sediments from Jellyfish Lake, Palau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, A.L.; Spiker, E. C.; Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Jellyfish Lake, Palau, is a meromictic marine lake with high organic productivity, low reactive Fe content, and anoxic bottom waters. Sediment samples from Jellyfish Lake were examined for the distribution of sulfur species and their isotopic signatures in order to gain a better understanding of sedimentary sulfur incorporation in Fe-poor environments. Surface samples were taken along a transect from a near-shore site to the center of the lake, and include a sample below oxic water, a sample below the chemocline layer, and samples below anoxic waters. Three additional samples were taken from a core, 2 m long, collected near the lake center. Sulfur to organic carbon weight ratios in all samples were lower than the expected value of 0.36 for normal marine sediment, probably because the lake water is deficient in reactive Fe to form iron sulfides. Total sulfur contents in the surface sediments indicated no changes with distance from shore; however, the sulfur content of the surface sample at the chemocline layer may be slightly higher. Total sulfur content increased with depth in the core and is inversely related to organic carbon content. Organic sulfur is the major sulfur species in the samples, followed in descending order by sulfate, disulfides and monosulfides. Sulfate sulfur isotope ??34S-values are positive (from +20.56 to +12.04???), reflecting the marine source of sulfate in Jellyfish Lake. Disulfide and monosulfide ??34S-values are negative (from -25.07 to -7.60???), because of fractionation during bacterial reduction of sulfate. Monosulfide ??34S-values are somewhat higher than those of disulfides, and they are close to the ??34S-values of organic sulfur. These results indicate that most of the organic sulfur is formed by reaction of bacteriogenic monosulfides, or possibly monosulfide-derived polysulfides, with organic matter in the sediment. ?? 1993.

  18. Development studies of Aurelia (jellyfish) ephyrae which developed during the SLS-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Mccombs, R.; Lowe, B. T.; Sampson, M.; Slusser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Aurelia polyps (scyphistomae) and ephyrae were exposed to microgravity for nine days aboard the space shuttle during the SLS-1 mission. During strobilation, polyps segment transversely and each segment develops into an ephyra. Polyps were induced to strobilate at 28 C, using iodine or thyroxine, at L(Launch)-48h, L-24h, and L+8h. Ephyrae developed in the groups tested in space and on Earth. The number of ephyrae formed per polyp was slightly higher in the L+8h groups as compared with those induced at L-24h and L-48h. On Earth, iodine is used by jellyfish to synthesize jellyfish-thyroxine (Jf T(sub 4)), needed for ephyra production. Since iodine-treated polyps strobilated and formed ephyrae in space, it appears that jellyfish can synthesize Jf-T(sub 4) in space. Indeed, two groups of polyps not given inducer formed ephryae in space, presumably due to enhanced Jf-T(sub 4) synthesis, utilization or accumulation. Some ephyrae that formed in space were also fixed in space on Mission Day (MD) 8; others were fixed post-flight. Examination of living ephyrae with the light microscope and fixed ones with the Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes revealed that those which developed in space were morphologically very similar to those which developed on Earth. Quantitation of arm numbers determined that there were no significant differences between space and Earth-developed ephyrae. Pulsing abnormalities, however, were found in greater number (18.3%) in space-developed ephyrae than in Earth-developed controls (2.9%). These abnormalities suggest abnormal development of the graviceptors, the neuromuscular system, or a defect in the integration between these systems in apparently microgravity-sensitive animals.

  19. Analyzing Beach Recreationists’ Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Loureiro, Maria L.; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents’ mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  20. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  1. MECHANICS OF JET PROPULSION IN THE HYDROMEDUSAN JELLYFISH, POLYORCHIS PEXICILLATUS I. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE LOCOMOTOR STRUCTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. EDWIN DEMONT; JOHN M. GOSLINE

    SUMMARY A non-destructive test was developed to measure the static mechanical properties of the locomotor structure (bell) in the hydromedusan jellyfish, Polyorchis penicilla- tus (Eschscholtz, 1829). A nonlinear stress—strain relationship was found, and the mean static structural stiffness of the bell was 150 N m~ 2 . Visualization procedures that showed the natural changes in the geometry of the deformation

  2. Presence of trans -6-Hexadecenoic acid in the White Jellyfish Aurelia aurita Lamarck and in a Caribbean gorgonian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Hooper; R. G. Ackman

    1972-01-01

    An unusual fatty acid,trans-6-hexadecenoic, previously found in the lipids of marine turtles, the ocean sunfish and a sea anemone, is also present in\\u000a the lipids of the white jellyfish and in a common Caribbean sublittoral gorgonian.

  3. The Homeobox Gene Otx of the Jellyfish Podocoryne carnea: Role of a Head Gene in Striated Muscle and Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Müller; Nathalie Yanze; Volker Schmid; Jürg Spring

    1999-01-01

    In many bilaterian animals members of the Otx gene family are expressed in head or brain structures. Cnidarians, however, have no clearly homologous head and no distinct brain; but an Otx homolog from the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea is highly conserved in sequence and domain structure. Sequence similarities extend well beyond the homeodomain and Podocoryne Otx can be aligned over its

  4. THE PARAMETERS AND PROPERTIES OF A GROUP OF ELECTRICALLY COUPLED NEURONES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF A HYDROZOAN JELLYFISH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. SPENCER

    SUMMARY 1. Swimming of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is controlled by a network of large, electrically coupled, motor neurones in the inner nerve- ring (Fig. 3). Recordings from pairs of neurones, even at widely separated positions, display essentially the same electrical activity (Fig. 1). 2. Electrical coupling between neurones is via gap-junctions and is very strong, giving the network a

  5. Conservation of Brachyury, Mef2, and Snail in the Myogenic Lineage of Jellyfish: A Connection to the Mesoderm of Bilateria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürg Spring; Nathalie Yanze; Christoph Jösch; Arnoud M. Middel; Brigitte Winninger; Volker Schmid

    2002-01-01

    One major difference between simple metazoans such as cnidarians and all the bilaterian animals is thought to involve the invention of mesoderm. The terms diploblasts and triploblasts are therefore, often used to group prebilaterian and bilaterian animals, respectively. However, jellyfish contain well developed striated and smooth muscle tissues that derive from the entocodon, a mesoderm-like tissue formed during medusa development.

  6. In vivo transfection of testicular germ cells and transgenesis by using the mitochondrially localized jellyfish fluorescent protein gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenyong Huang; Masaru Tamura; Takayuki Sakurai; Shinichiro Chuma; Tetsuichiro Saito; Norio Nakatsuji

    2000-01-01

    We aimed to introduce foreign DNA into spermatogenic cells in the testis by injection of the DNA encoding jellyfish fluorescent proteins, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) into the seminiferous tubules and in vivo electroporation. We obtained fluorescent spermatozoa only when using the gene of the YFP protein fused to a mitochondrial localization signal peptide. Intracytoplasmic injection

  7. JetSum: SMA actuator based undersea unmanned vehicle inspired by jellyfish bio-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressers, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank

    2010-04-01

    Previously, we reported an undersea unmanned vehicle (UUV) termed as JetSum, inspired by the locomotion of medusa jellyfish, [12]. The propulsion of JetSum was based on shape memory alloy (SMA) wires replicating the contraction-relaxation cycle of natural jellyfish locomotion. In this paper, we report modified design of JetSum that addresses problems related to electrical isolation and power consumption. The modifications lead to significant improvement in functionality, providing implementation of a full continuous bell, bolstering critical sealing junctions, and reducing the overall power requirement. A LabVIEW controller program was developed to automate and optimize the driving of JetSum enabling reduction in power consumption for full contraction of SMA. JetSum locomotion in underwater conditions was recorded by using a high-speed camera and analyzed with image processing techniques developed in MatLab. The results show that JetSum was able to achieve velocity of 7 cm/s with power consumption of 8.94 W per cycle.

  8. Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Rui; Huang, Lei; Song, Yujie; Regenstein, Joe M

    2014-05-01

    Annual outbreaks of the Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye) in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are regarded as a nuisance. Thus, utilizing this jellyfish species is of great significance to reduce harm to fisheries and marine environments. The yield of the acid-soluble collagens (ASCs) from the C. nozakii umbrella was 13.0% (dry weight) and that of the pepsin-solubilised collagens (PSCs) was 5.5% (dry weight). The SDS-PAGE patterns of the ASCs and PSCs differed from that of type I collagen, which indicate the presence of (?1)3. The denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagens was approximately 23.8°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASCs and PSCs retained their helical structures and the As, Pb, and Hg content of the collagens, detected by ICP-MS, were considerably lower than the national standards. The results suggest that collagens isolated from C. nozakii can potentially be used as an alternative source of collagen for use in various applications. PMID:24360414

  9. Feeding and asexual reproduction of the jellyfish Sarsia gemmifera in response to resource enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stibor, Herwig; Tokle, Nils

    2003-04-01

    Jellyfish are ubiquitous predators in marine pelagic environments and can sometimes control their zooplankton prey populations. Recent considerations of the fertilization of entire food webs in coastal areas make it important to investigate the response of jellyfish to resource enrichment. We investigated feeding, assimilation and life history parameters in the hydromedusa species Sarsia gemmifera. S. gemmifera was able to ingest up to 3 micro g carbon per hour, which corresponds to a daily carbon ingestion that exceeds the individual's body weight (carbon). Conversion of ingested carbon into tissue was less than 30%. The assimilated carbon was allocated such that approximately 65% was used for growth and the remainder for asexual reproduction. Carbon from food was allocated to asexually produced offspring within hours. The numerical response of S. gemmifera reached saturation at prey levels of 100 or more copepods per liter. Propagule quality was influenced by maternal effects: higher net production of the mothers in higher food environments resulted in higher carbon content of individual propagules. Starvation resistance of propagules was therefore positively related to food density in the maternal environment. The food concentrations which S. gemmifera normally experiences in the field are much lower than the food levels at which this species had its maximum asexual reproductive output in the laboratory. Therefore, S. gemmifera may potentially benefit from food web perturbations which increase crustacean zooplankton densities. PMID:12698341

  10. Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of a novel lectin from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai.

    PubMed

    Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-01

    A lectin (designated NnL) from a jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai was purified by ion-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography. The apparent molecular mass of NnL was 28kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions. NnL agglutinated horse erythrocytes, the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli K12. The hemagglutinating activity of NnL was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Bovine submaxillary mucin was the potent inhibitor of the hemagglutinating activity of NnL among the glycoproteins tested. cDNA cloning of NnL revealed that its primary structure contained part of a fibrinogen-like domain. The deduced amino acid sequence of NnL showed no significant sequence identities to other known lectins. On the other hand NnL showed high sequence identity to a predicted protein of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis suggesting that NnL may belong to a novel lectin family in metazoans. This is the first report to describe the purification characterization and cDNA cloning of a jellyfish lectin. PMID:20102748

  11. Phospholipase A2 in cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo J; Peuravuori, Heikki J; Quinn, Ronald J; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Benzie, John A H; Fenner, Peter J; Winkel, Ken D

    2004-12-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme present in snake and other venoms and body fluids. We measured PLA2 catalytic activity in tissue homogenates of 22 species representing the classes Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. High PLA2 levels were found in the hydrozoan fire coral Millepora sp. (median 735 U/g protein) and the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis (693 U/g) that cause skin irritation upon contact. High levels of PLA2 activity were also found in the acontia of the sea anemone Adamsia carciniopados (293 U/g). Acontia are long threads containing nematocysts and are used in defense and aggression by the animal. Tentacles of scyphozoan and cubozoan species had high PLA2 activity levels: those of the multitentacled box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri contained 184 U/g PLA2 activity. The functions of cnidarian PLA2 may include roles in the capture and digestion of prey and defense of the animal. The current observations support the idea that cnidarian PLA2 may participate in the sting site irritation and systemic envenomation syndrome resulting from contact with cnidarians. PMID:15581805

  12. The marine biologist--Bob Endean.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2006-12-01

    Bob Endean was a dedicated marine biologist with an extensive knowledge of coral reef communities in the Great Barrier Reef and fauna in subtropical Queensland waters. He commenced a study of venomous and poisonous marine animals dangerous to man at a time when the field was new, employing a variety of techniques to investigate the venom apparatus, mode of delivery of venom or toxin, mode of toxic action on excitable tissues, and biochemistry of venom or toxin. Determination of the pharmacological properties of crude venom from Conus marine snails advanced characterization of conotoxins by later workers. A study of four types of nematocysts from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri provided information as to their structure, function, and mechanism of discharge; myotoxins T1 and T2 were isolated from microbasic mastigophores. Endean studied poisonous stonefish (Synanceia trachynis) and, with Ann Cameron, scorpionfish (Notesthes robusta); investigations of ciguatera and of paralytic shellfish poisoning were initiated. He organized the collection of Australian frogs which led to the isolation of caerulein by Erspamer in Italy. Endean highlighted the ecological danger of the population explosion of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) and provided the impetus for the creation of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. PMID:16952385

  13. A rapid and repeatable method for venom extraction from Cubozoan nematocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Carrette; J Seymour

    2004-01-01

    Various comparative studies into the biological activity and relative toxicity of cubozoan venoms have been investigated, in particular the venom from the potentially lethal cubozoan Chironex fleckeri. Efficient and reliable extraction of venom from nematocysts is essential before any research into venom toxicity can be conducted and previous cited methods of extraction have varied greatly, each with their own associated

  14. Detection of common antigenic sites in lethal proteins of non-related animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Russo, A J; Cobbs, C S; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1983-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing specific coelenterate lethal toxins were used to determine the presence of homologous antigenic sites on toxin proteins of a rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), a hornet (Vespa orientalis) and the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). An anti-Portuguese man-o'war toxin antibody was found useful for isolating a C. d. terrificus toxin. PMID:6623490

  15. The HOX-like gene Cnox2Pc is expressed at the anterior region in all life cycle stages of the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liria M. Masuda-Nakagawa; H. Gröer; Birgit L. Aerne; Volker Schmid

    2000-01-01

    The marine jellyfish Podocoryne carnea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) has a metagenic life cycle consisting of a larva, a colonial polyp and a free-swimming jellyfish (medusa).\\u000a To study the function of HOX genes in primitive diploblastic animals we screened a library of P. carnea cDNA using PCR primers derived from the most conserved regions in helix 1 and helix 3 of the

  16. Long-Term Fluctuations in Circalunar Beach Aggregations of the Box Jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with Links to Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Holland, Brenden S.; Crow, Gerald L.; Blair, Landy; Yanagihara, Angel A.

    2013-01-01

    The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8–12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998– Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG). Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Change-Point Analysis (CPA), and General Regression Models (GRM) were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8–12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998–2001; 2006–2011) and decrease (2001–2006). Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach. PMID:24194856

  17. Antioxidant activity of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and hydroxyl radical averting capacity methods.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Ogawa, Shinya; Fukuda, Kyoko; Nagatsuka, Norie; Nagao, Keiko; Ueno, Shunshiro

    2011-01-01

    The giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (reaching sizes of up to 2 m diameter and 150 kg), which forms dense blooms, has caused extensive damage to fisheries by overloading trawl nets, while its toxic nematocysts cause dermatological symptoms. Giant jellyfish are currently discarded on the grounds of pest control. However, the giant jellyfish is considered to be edible and is part of Chinese cuisine. Therefore, we investigated whether any benefits for human health may be derived from consumption of the jellyfish in order to formulate medicated diets. Antioxidant activity of Nemopilema nomurai was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) methods. Based on the results, the ORAC value of the giant jellyfish freeze-dried sample was 541 µmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and the HORAC value was 3,687 µmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g. On the other hand, the IC50 value of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measured by using the electron spin resonance method was 3.3%. In conclusion, the results suggest that the freeze-dried powder of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is a potentially beneficial food for humans. PMID:21667028

  18. Long-term fluctuations in circalunar Beach aggregations of the box jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with links to environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Chiaverano, Luciano M; Holland, Brenden S; Crow, Gerald L; Blair, Landy; Yanagihara, Angel A

    2013-01-01

    The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998- Dec 2011) changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG). Generalized Additive Models (GAM), Change-Point Analysis (CPA), and General Regression Models (GRM) were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998-2001; 2006-2011) and decrease (2001-2006). Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach. PMID:24194856

  19. Exploring vortex enhancement and manipulation mechanisms in jellyfish that contributes to energetically efficient propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The ability of animals to propel themselves efficiently through a fluid medium is ecologically advantageous. Flexible components that influence vortex interactions are widespread among animal propulsors. However the mechanisms by which vortices are enhanced and appropriately positioned for thrust generation are still poorly understood. Here, we describe how kinematic propulsor movements of a jellyfish can enhance and reposition a vortex ring that allows the recapture of wake energy for secondary thrust generation and efficient locomotion. We use high-speed video and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to resolve kinematics simultaneously with fluid structures. These results provide new insight into how animals can manipulate fluid structures to reduce metabolic energy demands of swimming muscles and may have implications in bio-inspired design. PMID:25346796

  20. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  1. Sequence of an acidic ribosomal protein from the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Gallin, W

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone from the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus that encodes the homologue of the A1 acidic ribosomal protein previously characterized in human, brine shrimp, fruit fly, and yeast. The sequence of this protein is strongly conserved among the five eukaryotic species for which it has been determined. Conservation is greatest in the amino-terminal 51 amino acids and the carboxyl-terminal 25 amino acids. This suggests that these regions are necessary for interactions with other components of the protein synthetic machinery, while the central part of the protein has a less specific role to play. Comparison of the sequences obtained from the different species indicate that the metazoan lineages all appear to have arisen at approximately the same time and significantly later than the time of divergence of yeast from the common ancestor of the Metazoa. PMID:2031723

  2. Accumulation of nanoparticles in “jellyfish” mucus: a bio-inspired route to decontamination of nano-waste

    PubMed Central

    Patwa, Amit; Thiéry, Alain; Lombard, Fabien; Lilley, Martin K.S.; Boisset, Claire; Bramard, Jean-François; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The economic and societal impacts of nano-materials are enormous. However, releasing such materials in the environment could be detrimental to human health and the ecological biosphere. Here we demonstrate that gold and quantum dots nanoparticles bio-accumulate into mucus materials coming from natural species such as jellyfish. One strategy that emerges from this finding would be to take advantage of these trapping properties to remove nanoparticles from contaminated water. PMID:26096459

  3. The lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsalmus sp. are slow and color-blind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Garm; M. M. Coates; R. Gad; J. Seymour; D.-E. Nilsson

    2007-01-01

    Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae, possess an impressive total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Compared to\\u000a other cnidarians they also have an elaborate behavioral repertoire, which for a large part seems to be visually guided. Two\\u000a of the four types of cubomedusean eyes, called the upper and the lower lens eye, are camera type eyes with spherical fish-like

  4. Accumulation of nanoparticles in "jellyfish" mucus: a bio-inspired route to decontamination of nano-waste.

    PubMed

    Patwa, Amit; Thiéry, Alain; Lombard, Fabien; Lilley, Martin K S; Boisset, Claire; Bramard, Jean-François; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The economic and societal impacts of nano-materials are enormous. However, releasing such materials in the environment could be detrimental to human health and the ecological biosphere. Here we demonstrate that gold and quantum dots nanoparticles bio-accumulate into mucus materials coming from natural species such as jellyfish. One strategy that emerges from this finding would be to take advantage of these trapping properties to remove nanoparticles from contaminated water. PMID:26096459

  5. Stable isotope and biochemical fractionation in the marine pelagic food chain: the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca and net zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Malej; J. Faganeli; J. Pezdi?

    1993-01-01

    In our field study we analyzed the C and H isotopic and biochemical (C, N, P, protein, lipid, carbohydrate) composition of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (collected from the Gulf of Trieste in 1985 to 1986) and its presumed diet-net zooplankton. The mean d 13C (-18.8‰) and d D (-58.4‰) ratios of P. noctiluca showed enrichment in heavy isotopes relative to

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Protein Toxin from the Hawaiian Box Jellyfish (Sea Wasp) Carybdea alata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nagai; Kyoko Takuwa; Masahiro Nakao; Bryan Sakamoto; Gerald L Crow; Terumi Nakajima

    2000-01-01

    The box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1830 (Cubozoa) is distributed widely in the tropics. The sting of C. alata causes severe pain and cutaneous inflammation in humans. We successfully isolated C. alata toxin-A (CaTX-A, 43 kDa) and -B (CaTX-B, 45 kDa) for the first time from the tentacle of C. alata collected at a site along the Hawaiian

  7. First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Box Jellyfish Reveals a Highly Fragmented Linear Architecture and Insights into Telomere Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Roy; Kayal, Ehsan; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Collins, Allen G.; Pirro, Stacy; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Animal mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) are typically single circular chromosomes, with the exception of those from medusozoan cnidarians (jellyfish and hydroids), which are linear and sometimes fragmented. Most medusozoans have linear monomeric or linear bipartite mitochondrial genomes, but preliminary data have suggested that box jellyfish (cubozoans) have mtDNAs that consist of many linear chromosomes. Here, we present the complete mtDNA sequence from the winged box jellyfish Alatina moseri (the first from a cubozoan). This genome contains unprecedented levels of fragmentation: 18 unique genes distributed over eight 2.9- to 4.6-kb linear chromosomes. The telomeres are identical within and between chromosomes, and recombination between subtelomeric sequences has led to many genes initiating or terminating with sequences from other genes (the most extreme case being 150 nt of a ribosomal RNA containing the 5? end of nad2), providing evidence for a gene conversion–based model of telomere evolution. The silent-site nucleotide variation within the A. moseri mtDNA is among the highest observed from a eukaryotic genome and may be associated with elevated rates of recombination. PMID:22117085

  8. Diversity, Phylogeny and Expression Patterns of Pou and Six Homeodomain Transcription Factors in Hydrozoan Jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi

    PubMed Central

    Hroudova, Miluse; Vojta, Petr; Strnad, Hynek; Krejcik, Zdenek; Ridl, Jakub; Paces, Jan; Vlcek, Cestmir; Paces, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    Formation of all metazoan bodies is controlled by a group of selector genes including homeobox genes, highly conserved across the entire animal kingdom. The homeobox genes from Pou and Six classes are key members of the regulation cascades determining development of sensory organs, nervous system, gonads and muscles. Besides using common bilaterian models, more attention has recently been targeted at the identification and characterization of these genes within the basal metazoan phyla. Cnidaria as a diploblastic sister group to bilateria with simple and yet specialized organs are suitable models for studies on the sensory organ origin and the associated role of homeobox genes. In this work, Pou and Six homeobox genes, together with a broad range of other sensory-specific transcription factors, were identified in the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Phylogenetic analyses of Pou and Six proteins revealed cnidarian-specific sequence motifs and contributed to the classification of individual factors. The majority of the Craspedacusta sowerbyi Pou and Six homeobox genes are predominantly expressed in statocysts, manubrium and nerve ring, the tissues with sensory and nervous activities. The described diversity and expression patterns of Pou and Six factors in hydrozoan jellyfish highlight their evolutionarily conserved functions. This study extends the knowledge of the cnidarian genome complexity and shows that the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish is generally rich in homeodomain transcription factors employed in the regulation of sensory and nervous functions. PMID:22558464

  9. Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Liu, Guoyan; Zheng, Jiemin; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), leading to an increase in [Ca2+]c, instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system. PMID:23999662

  10. Jellyfish: Special Tools for Biological Research on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, Dorothy B.

    1991-01-01

    The most intriguing nature of the jellyfish polyps is their ability to metamorphose, giving rise to tiny immature medusae called ephyrae which have a different form or shape from the polyps. The Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System was used to determine the subtle effects of hydrocarbons found in oil spills and the effects of X-irradiation on developing ephyrae. Currently, this test system is used to determine the effects of the gravity-less environment of outer space on the development and behavior of ephyrae. For this purpose, the effects of clinostat rotation on development of the ephyrae and their gravity receptor are being studied. The behavior of the ephyrae during 0 gravity achieved for short intervals of 30 seconds in parabolic flight is examined. The developing ephyrae and the mature ephyrae are exposed to gravity-less environment of outer space via a six or seven day shuttle experiment. If gravity receptors do form in outer space, they will be studied in detail using various types of microscopes, including the electron microscope, to determin whether they developed normally in space as compared with control on Earth.

  11. Radical scavenging activity of protein from tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huahua; Liu, Xiguang; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Cuiping; Li, Pengcheng

    2005-05-16

    In this study, radical scavenging activity of protein from tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum (R. esculentum) was assayed including superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging. The protein samples showed strong scavenging activity on superoxide anion radical and values EC50 of full protein (FP), first fraction (FF), second fraction (SF), and 30% (NH4)2 SO4 precipitate (Fr-1) were 2.65, 7.28, 1.10, and 22.51 microg/mL, respectively, while values EC50 of BHA, BHT, and alpha-tocopherol were 31, 61, and 88 microg/mL, respectively. Also, the protein samples had strong scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical and the values EC50 of FP, FF, SF, Fr-1, and Fr-2 were 48.91, 27.72, 1.82, 16.36, and 160.93 microg/mL, but values EC50 of Vc and mannitol were 1907 and 4536 microg/mL, respectively. Of the five protein samples, SF had the strongest radical scavenging activity and may have a use as a possible supplement in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The radical scavenging activity was stable at high temperature so that R. esculentum may be used as a kind of natural functional food. PMID:15863337

  12. Factors influencing hemolytic activity of venom from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huahua; Li, Cuiping; Li, Ronggui; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-07-01

    In this study, hemolytic activity of venom from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and some factors affecting it were assayed. The HU(50) of R. esculentum full venom (RFV) against chicken erythrocytes was 3.40 microg/ml and a Hill coefficient value was 1.73 suggesting at least two molecules participated in hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of RFV was affected by some chemical and physical factors such as divalent cations, EDTA, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), pH and temperature. In the presence of Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) (>or=2 mM), Mn(2+) ((>or=1 mM), EDTA ((>or=2 mM) and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), the hemolytic activity of RFV was reduced. RFV had strong hemolytic activity at the pH 6-10 and the hemolytic ratios were 0.95-1.19. Hemolytic activity was temperature-sensitive and when RFV was pre-incubated at temperatures over 40 degrees C, it was sharply reduced. PMID:17306433

  13. Construction of chitin/PVA composite hydrogels with jellyfish gel-like structure and their biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Wang, Zhenggang; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yanteng; Duan, Bo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lina

    2014-09-01

    High strength chitin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels (RCP) were constructed by adding PVA into chitin dissolved in a NaOH/urea aqueous solution, and then by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) and freezing-thawing process. The RCP hydrogels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state (13)C NMR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and compressive test. The results revealed that the repeated freezing/thawing cycles induced the bicrosslinked networks consisted of chitin and PVA crystals in the composite gels. Interestingly, a jellyfish gel-like structure occurred in the RCP75 gel with 25 wt % PVA content in which the amorphous and crystalline PVA were immobilized tightly in the chitin matrix through hydrogen bonding interaction. The freezing/thawing cycles played an important role in the formation of the layered porous PVA networks and the tight combining of PVA with the pore wall of chitin. The mechanical properties of RCP75 were much higher than the other RCP gels, and the compressive strength was 20× higher than that of pure chitin gels, as a result of broadly dispersing stress caused by the orderly multilayered networks. Furthermore, the cell culture tests indicated that the chitin/PVA composite hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility and safety, showing potential applications in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25077674

  14. Analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic activities of the venom prepared from the Mediterranean jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskal, 1775)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxins derived from jellyfishes have been exploited as a model for the development of new drug promising applications to treat neurodegenerative diseases. The present work is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca and then to screen the analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic (anti-BuChE) activities of the crude venom and its fractions. Methods Sephadex G75 gel was used to separate crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca, which led to some fractions. In addition, in vivo analgesic and in vitro plasma antibutyrylcholinestrasic activities were carried out with Pelagia crude venom and its fractions respectively. Results The crude venom and its fractions displayed analgesic and anti-BuChE activities at different doses without inducing acute toxicity. Fraction 2 possesses the highest analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic properties. The crude venom and fraction 1 had shown to possess less significant inhibitory activity against analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic models. Conclusions Based on this study, the crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca is found to be a useful tool for probing pharmacological activity. The purification and the determination of chemical structures of compounds of active fractions of the venom are under investigation. PMID:22691546

  15. Jellyfish Support High Energy Intake of Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Video Evidence from Animal-Borne Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Iverson, Sara J.; Bowen, W. Don; James, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n?=?19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08–3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83–100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p?=?0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p?=?0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ•d?1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ•d?1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass•d?1 (up to 840 kg•d?1) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish•d-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass•d?1 equating to an average energy intake of 3–7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to southward migration. PMID:22438906

  16. Epidemiology of Jellyfish Stings Presented to an American Urban Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Onizuka, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cnidarian, or jellyfifish, stings are a common malady in tropical Emergency Departments. There are limited studies examining cnidarian stings in the United States. The team investigated the epidemiology and treatments for jellyfish stings presenting to an urban emergency department (ED) in Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Methods The team performed a retrospective chart analysis of stings presented between 2000 and 2008. A total of 116 patients were identified. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, incident characteristics, patient arrival condition, and treatments given in the emergency department. Results The median age was 24 years (range 9–85). Of patients 58% were men, 64% were Hawai‘i non-residents, and 23 % arrived between the hours of 10pm and 2 am. Emergency Medical System transported 64%, and 65% arrived with normal vital signs. Twenty-four different types of IV/PO medications were administered and patients received up to 5 different medications per visit. Intravenous medications were given to 64%. All patients were eventually discharged home from the ED. Discussion Risk factors for cnidarian stings include being men, being a Hawai‘i non-resident, and nighttime ocean activities. Stings were treated with various medications and routes suggesting that there is no current standard of care for stings. This study suggests that there is a need for public health interventions tailored to tourists. Prevention and education of home treatment could decrease the cost of health care by decreasing ambulance transports and total number of ED visits for a non-urgent disease. PMID:22162597

  17. Setting the Pace: New Insights into Central Pattern Generator Interactions in Box Jellyfish Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Anna Lisa; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multiple types of behaviour. The four swim CPGs are directly regulated by visual input. In this study, we addressed the question of how the four pacemaker centres of this radial symmetric cnidarian interact. We based our investigation on high speed camera observations of the timing of swim pulses of tethered animals (Tripedalia cystophora) with one or four rhopalia, under different simple light regimes. Additionally, we developed a numerical model of pacemaker interactions based on the inter pulse interval distribution of animals with one rhopalium. We showed that the model with fully resetting coupling and hyperpolarization of the pacemaker potential below baseline fitted the experimental data best. Moreover, the model of four swim pacemakers alone underscored the proportion of long inter pulse intervals (IPIs) considerably. Both in terms of the long IPIs as well as the overall swim pulse distribution, the simulation of two CPGs provided a better fit than that of four. We therefore suggest additional sources of pacemaker control than just visual input. We provide guidelines for future research on the physiological linkage of the cubozoan CPGs and show the insight from bilaterian CPG research, which show that pacemakers have to be studied in their bodily and nervous environment to capture all their functional features, are also manifest in cnidarians. PMID:22073288

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi and phylogenetics of Medusozoa.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong; Zhang, Jin; Li, Wenxiang; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang

    2012-01-01

    The 17,922 base pairs (bp) nucleotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae) has been determined. This sequence exhibits surprisingly low A+T content (57.1%), containing genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, a small and a large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. Mitochondrial ancestral medusozoan gene order (AMGO) was found in the C. sowerbyi, as those found in Cubaia aphrodite (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae), discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. The genes of C. sowerbyi mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities, whereby transcription proceeds toward the ends of the DNA molecule. Identical inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) flank the ends of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, a characteristic typical of medusozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs) of 354 and 1611 bp in length were found downstream of the large subunit rRNA gene, similar to the two ORFs of ORF314 and polB discovered in the linear mtDNA of C. aphrodite, discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. Phylogenetic analyses of C. sowerbyi and other cnidarians were carried out based on both nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 mitochondrial energy pathway genes. Our working hypothesis supports the monophyletic Medusozoa being a sister group to Octocorallia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Within Medusozoa, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that Staurozoa may be the earliest diverging class and the sister group of all other medusozoans. Cubozoa and coronate Scyphozoa form a clade that is the sister group of Hydrozoa plus discomedusan Scyphozoa. Hydrozoa is the sister group of discomedusan Scyphozoa. Semaeostomeae is a paraphyletic clade with Rhizostomeae, while Limnomedusae (Trachylina) is the sister group of hydroidolinans and may be the earliest diverging lineage among Hydrozoa. PMID:23240028

  19. Mitochondrial Genome of the Freshwater Jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi and Phylogenetics of Medusozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hong; Zhang, Jin; Li, Wenxiang; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang

    2012-01-01

    The 17,922 base pairs (bp) nucleotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi (Hydrozoa,Trachylina, Limnomedusae) has been determined. This sequence exhibits surprisingly low A+T content (57.1%), containing genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, a small and a large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. Mitochondrial ancestral medusozoan gene order (AMGO) was found in the C. sowerbyi, as those found in Cubaia aphrodite (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae), discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. The genes of C. sowerbyi mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities, whereby transcription proceeds toward the ends of the DNA molecule. Identical inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) flank the ends of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, a characteristic typical of medusozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs) of 354 and 1611 bp in length were found downstream of the large subunit rRNA gene, similar to the two ORFs of ORF314 and polB discovered in the linear mtDNA of C. aphrodite, discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. Phylogenetic analyses of C. sowerbyi and other cnidarians were carried out based on both nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 mitochondrial energy pathway genes. Our working hypothesis supports the monophyletic Medusozoa being a sister group to Octocorallia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Within Medusozoa, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that Staurozoa may be the earliest diverging class and the sister group of all other medusozoans. Cubozoa and coronate Scyphozoa form a clade that is the sister group of Hydrozoa plus discomedusan Scyphozoa. Hydrozoa is the sister group of discomedusan Scyphozoa. Semaeostomeae is a paraphyletic clade with Rhizostomeae, while Limnomedusae (Trachylina) is the sister group of hydroidolinans and may be the earliest diverging lineage among Hydrozoa. PMID:23240028

  20. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: Regeneration of C, N, Si, and P in anoxic marine lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, W.B.; Lent, R.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chin, P.; Landing, W.M.; Orem, W.H.; McArthur, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment cores from Jellyfish Lake were processed under an inert atmosphere and the pore waters extracted and analyzed for the following parameters: pH, titration alkalinity (TA), Cl-, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, Ca2-, Mg2+, SO42-, and H2S. Additionally, in one set of pore-water samples (core 10), the ??13C of the ??CO2 was also determined. The TA, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, and H2S increased with depth in the pore waters above anoxic bottom-water values. H2S values increased to 3.8 ??M. In one case, both H4SiO4 and PO43- concentrations increased to a maximum value and then decreased with depth, suggesting removal into solid phases. The H4SiO4 concentrations are equal to or greater than pore-water values observed in sediments underlying upwelling areas. PO43- concentrations are, in general, lower than pore-water values from terrigenous nearshore areas but higher than nearshore carbonate pore-water values from Florida Bay or Bermuda. The Ca2+, Cl-, and Mg2+: Cl- ratios show slight decreases in the top 15-20 cm, suggesting that authigenic carbonate may be forming. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the pore waters are saturated with respect to CaCO3 due to the very high TAs. The ??13C measurements of the pore-water ??CO2 are from a shorter core. These measurements reach their most negative concentration at 72 cm and then become slightly heavier. This change is accompanied by a decrease in TA, suggesting the onset of methanogenesis at this location in this core.

  1. Studies on the movement of cowpea mosaic virus using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Verver, J; Wellink, J; Van Lent, J; Gopinath, K; Van Kammen, A

    1998-03-01

    The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence was used to replace the coat protein (CP) genes in a full-length cDNA clone of CPMV RNA-2. Transcripts of this construct were replicated in the presence of RNA-1 in cowpea protoplasts, and GFP expression could be readily detected by fluorescent microscopy. It was not possible to infect cowpea plants with these transcripts, but combined with a mutant RNA-2, in which the 48-kDa movement protein (MP) gene has been deleted infection did occur. With this tripartite virus (CPMV-TRI) green fluorescent spots were visible under UV light on the inoculated leaf after 3 days and a few days later on the higher leaves. These results show that the polyproteins encoded by RNA-2 do not possess an essential function in the virus infection cycle and that there is, contrary to what we have found so far for the proteins encoded by RNA-1, no need for a tight regulation of the amounts of MP and CPs produced in a cell. Subsequently, the GFP gene was introduced between the MP and CP genes of RNA-2 utilizing artificial proteolytic processing sites for the viral proteinase. This CPMV-GFP was highly infectious on cowpea plants and the green fluorescent spots that developed on the inoculated leaves were larger and brighter than those produced by CPMV-TRI described above. When cowpea plants were inoculated with CPMV RNA-1 and RNA-2 mutants containing the GFP gene but lacking the CP or MP genes, only single fluorescent epidermal cells were detected between 2 and 6 days postinoculation. This experiment clearly shows that both the capsid proteins and the MP are absolutely required for cell-to-cell movement. PMID:9501035

  2. Central circuitry in the jellyfish Aglantha digitale IV. Pathways coordinating feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mackie, G O; Marx, R M; Meech, R W

    2003-07-01

    The hydromedusan jellyfish Aglantha digitale feeds on small planktonic organisms carried to the margin by tentacle flexions. During feeding, the manubrium bends across ("points") and seizes the prey with flared lips. In immobilized preparations, pointing to a source of electrical stimulation was accurate, 70% of the time, to within 15 degrees. Cutting experiments showed that the conduction pathways concerned with pointing and lip flaring are located in eight radial strands consisting of a radial canal, a giant nerve axon and a bundle of small axons with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. Application of food juices to sites on the margin and tentacles evoked trains of impulses in the axon bundles (F events; conduction velocity 15.5+/-3.7 cm s(-1)) and in the epithelium lining the radial canals (E events; conduction velocity 28.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1)). Impulses were conducted circularly in the outer nerve ring (F events) or in the ring canal (E events). Unilateral flexions of the manubrium during pointing arise from preferential excitation of one or more of eight longitudinal "muscle bands" in the wall of the manubrium and peduncle. Lip flaring represents symmetrical contraction of all eight bands. Cutting experiments revealed that F events mediate pointing; E events mediate lip flaring. Thus the endodermal radial canals, which in other hydromedusae mediate protective 'crumpling', provide the conduction pathway for manubrial lip flaring. Aglantha's alternative protective response--escape swimming--makes crumpling unnecessary, releasing the pathway for use in feeding. Trains of E events, generated in the manubrium during ingestion, propagate to the margin and inhibit rhythmic (slow) swimming with a duration that depended on their number and frequency. Inhibition of swimming appeared to facilitate transfer of food from the margin to the mouth, but how it comes about is unclear. PMID:12796463

  3. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    SciTech Connect

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Panteleev, Pavel V.; Balandin, Sergey V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gizatullina, Albina K.; Altukhov, Dmitry A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation) [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokryakov, Vladimir N. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation) [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its {sup 15}N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3{sub 10}-helix and two {alpha}-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two {alpha}-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the 'functional dyad' required for the high-affinity interaction with the K{sup +}-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  4. [Molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.) based on partial sequencing of mitochondrial 16S rDNA and COI].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Zhen, Yu; Wang, Guo-shan; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2013-03-01

    Taking the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. commonly found in our coastal sea areas as test object, its genome DNA was extracted, the partial sequences of mt-16S rDNA (650 bp) and mt-COI (709 bp) were PCR-amplified, and, after purification, cloning, and sequencing, the sequences obtained were BLASTn-analyzed. The sequences of greater difference with those of the other jellyfish were chosen, and eight specific primers for the mt-16S rDNA and mt-COI of Aurelia sp. were designed, respectively. The specificity test indicated that the primer AS3 for the mt-16S rDNA and the primer AC3 for the mt-COI were excellent in rapidly detecting the target jellyfish from Rhopilema esculentum, Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, Acromitus sp., and Aurelia sp., and thus, the techniques for the molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish were preliminarily established, which could get rid of the limitations in classical morphological identification of Aurelia sp. , being able to find the Aurelia sp. in the samples more quickly and accurately. PMID:23755504

  5. Lipid Peroxidation Is another Potential Mechanism besides Pore-Formation Underlying Hemolysis of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wen, Xiao-Juan; Mei, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Qian-Qian; He, Qian; Zheng, Jie-Min; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore other potential mechanisms underlying hemolysis in addition to pore-formation of tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A dose-dependent increase of hemolysis was observed in rat erythrocyte suspensions and the hemolytic activity of TE was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, which was attenuated by Ca2+ channel blockers (Diltiazem, Verapamil and Nifedipine). Direct intracellular Ca2+ increase was observed after TE treatment by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the Ca2+ increase could be depressed by Diltiazem. The osmotic protectant polyethylenglycol (PEG) significantly blocked hemolysis with a molecular mass exceeding 4000 Da. These results support a pore-forming mechanism of TE in the erythrocyte membrane, which is consistent with previous studies by us and other groups. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important marker of lipid peroxidation, increased dose-dependently in rat erythrocytes after TE treatment, while in vitro hemolysis of TE was inhibited by the antioxidants ascorbic acid—Vitamin C (Vc)—and reduced glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, in vivo hemolysis and electrolyte change after TE administration could be partly recovered by Vc. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation is another potential mechanism besides pore-formation underlying the hemolysis of TE, and both Ca2+ channel blockers and antioxidants could be useful candidates against the hemolytic activity of jellyfish venoms. PMID:23303301

  6. Cardiovascular Effect Is Independent of Hemolytic Toxicity of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Qianqian, Wang; Sihua, Liu; Yang, Wang; Guoyan, Liu; Jia, Lu; Xuting, Ye; Liming, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have confirmed that the crude tentacle-only extract (cTOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cyaneidae) exhibits hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities simultaneously. So, it is quite difficult to discern the underlying active component responsible for heart injury caused by cTOE. The inactivation of the hemolytic toxicity from cTOE accompanied with a removal of plenty of precipitates would facilitate the separation of cardiovascular component and the investigation of its cardiovascular injury mechanism. In our research, after the treatment of one-step alkaline denaturation followed by twice dialysis, the protein concentration of the treated tentacle-only extract (tTOE) was about 1/3 of cTOE, and SDS-PAGE showed smaller numbers and lower density of protein bands in tTOE. The hemolytic toxicity of tTOE was completely lost while its cardiovascular toxicity was well retained. The observations of cardiac function, histopathology and ultrastructural pathology all support tTOE with significant cardiovascular toxicity. Blood gas indexes and electrolytes changed far less by tTOE than those by cTOE, though still with significant difference from normal. In summary, the cardiovascular toxicity of cTOE can exist independently of the hemolytic toxicity and tTOE can be employed as a better venom sample for further purification and mechanism research on the jellyfish cardiovascular toxic proteins. PMID:22905209

  7. Abrupt Changes in the Marmara Pelagic Ecosystem during the recent jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla invasion and mucilage events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan Kideys, Ahmet; Yüksek, Ahsen; Sur, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    In this study, meteorological and hydrographical conditions as well as chemical and biological parameters have been examined for the period 2005-2009 to determine the impact and cause of the massive mucilage phenomenon observed in the Sea of Marmara in October 2007. Results showed that there is a decrease pattern in chl concentration as well as both phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances from August till October in 2007 whilst the jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla had bloom levels. This period coincided with the maximum intensity of pelagic fishing throughout the years. Nitrogen/phosphate ratio increased prior to the mucilage formation. Invasive Liriope tetraphylla abundance increased exponentially in August and died in masses as a result of starvation and meteorological / oceanographic conditions. In October, following the mucilage matter production another new species for the region Gonyaulax fragilis was observed in high abundance through the basin. It is worthy to note that during basin wide samplings conducted in the Sea of Marmara in both 2005 and 2006, high abundances of Liriope tetraphylla have been detected particularly at the northern parts where no mucilage event was observed. We suggest that overfishing in the Sea of Marmara provided a ground for the establishment of the invasive jellyfish and accompanying mucilage event was due to by synergic combinations of several factors.

  8. Predicting aqueous copper and zinc accumulation in the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea maremetens through the use of biokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Jellyfish have a demonstrated capability to accumulate metals within their tissues, but to date, there have been no quantitative assessments of accumulation and retention rates and patterns. Bioconcentration patterns of copper and zinc in the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea maremetens were modelled over a 28-day study (14 days exposure followed by 14 days clearance). C. maremetens accumulated copper over 14 days with the maximum calculated copper concentrations at 33.78 ?g g(-1) dry weight and bioconcentrated to 99 times water concentrations. Zinc was also accumulated during the exposure period and retained for longer. The maximum theoretical zinc concentration was 125.1 ?g g(-1) dry weight with a kinetic bioconcentration factor of 104. The patterns of uptake and retention were different between the elements. The use of kinetic models provided adequate predictions of aqueous metal uptake and retention in C. maremetens. This species has the capacity to very rapidly absorb measurable metals from short-term water-metal exposure. PMID:26055655

  9. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Liang; Liu, Sihua; He, Qian; Wang, Qianqian; Ye, Xuting; Liu, Guoyan; Nie, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3?, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B), decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (%) had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity. PMID:21731547

  10. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  11. New family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bayha, Keith M; Dawson, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Molecular analyses have revealed many cryptic species in the oceans, often permitting small morphological differences to be recognized as diagnosing species, but less commonly leading to consideration of cryptic ecology. Here, based on analyses of three nuclear DNA sequence markers (ribosomal 18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1]), two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and ribosomal 16S), and 55 morphological features, we revise the classification of the enigmatic jellyfish genus Drymonema. We describe a new scyphozoan family, Drymonematidae, elevating the previous subfamily Drymonemidae to accommodate three species: the type species D. dalmatinum from the Mediterranean region, for which we identify a neotype; the western South Atlantic species D. gorgo; and a new species, D. larsoni from the western Atlantic and Caribbean, which also is described here. This revision emphasizes the remarkable morphological disparity of Drymonematidae from all other scyphomedusae, including allometric growth of the bell margin distal of the rhopalia, an annular zone of tentacles on the subumbrella, and ontogenetic loss of gastric filaments. Anatomical innovations are likely functionally related to predatory specialization on large gelatinous zooplankton, most notably the phylogenetically younger moon jellyfish Aurelia, indicating evolution of the feeding niche in Drymonematidae. This family-level revision contributes to the growing body of evidence that scyphomedusae are far more taxonomically rich, their biogeography is a more detailed mosaic, and their phenotypes are more nuanced than traditionally thought. Ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, past or future, are likely to be commensurately diverse. PMID:21183445

  12. Central circuitry in the jellyfish Aglantha. II: The ring giant and carrier systems

    PubMed

    Mackie; Meech

    1995-01-01

    1. The ring giant axon in the outer nerve ring of the jellyfish Aglantha digitale is a multinucleate syncytium 85 % of which is occupied by an electron-dense fluid-filled vacuole apparently in a Gibbs­Donnan equilibrium with the surrounding band of cytoplasmic cortex. Micropipette recordings show small (-15 to -25 mV) and large (-62 to -66 mV) resting potentials. Low values, obtained with a high proportion of the micropipette penetrations, are assumed to be from the central vacuole; high values from the cytoplasmic cortex. Background electrical activity includes rhythmic oscillations and synaptic potentials representing hair cell input caused by vibration. 2. After the ring giant axon has been cut, propagating action potentials evoked by stimulation are conducted past the cut and re-enter the axon on the far side. The system responsible (the carrier system) through-conducts at a velocity approximately 25 % of that of the ring giant axon and is probably composed of small neurones running in parallel with it. Numerous small neurones are seen by electron microscopy, some making one-way and some two-way synapses with the ring giant. 3. Despite their different conduction velocities, the two systems normally appear to fire in synchrony and at the velocity of the ring giant axon. We suggest that, once initiated, ring giant spikes propagate rapidly around the margin, firing the carrier neurones through serial synapses and giving them, in effect, the same high conduction velocity. Initiation of ring giant spikes can, however, require input from the carrier system. The spikes are frequently seen to be mounted on slow positive potentials representing summed carrier postsynaptic potentials. 4. The carrier system fires one-for-one with the giant axons of the tentacles and may mediate impulse traffic between the latter and the ring giant axon. We suggest that the carrier system may also provide the pathways from the ring giant to the motor giant axons used in escape swimming. 5. The findings show that the ring giant axon functions in close collaboration with the carrier system, increasing the latter's effective conduction velocity, and that interactions with other neuronal sub-systems are probably mediated exclusively by the carrier system. PMID:9320190

  13. Isolation and partial characterization of rhizolysin, a high molecular weight protein with hemolytic activity, from the jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo.

    PubMed

    Cariello, L; Romano, G; Spagnuolo, A; Zanetti, L

    1988-01-01

    A new cytolysin has been isolated from the nematocysts of the jellyfish, Rhizostoma pulmo, and named rhizolysin. The hemolysin has a mol. wt of approximately 260,000, a sedimentation coefficient of 10.3 S and is rod-shaped with a calculated axial ratio of about 1:5. It appears to be composed of three subunits with a pI value near 7.8. Rhizolysin shows no phospholipase A activity, nor an induction period for its hemolytic activity and is completely inhibited by sucrose. The optimum pH was 6.75. The mu value calculated from the Arrhenius plot is 5940 cal/mole. Rhizolysin was inhibited by cholesterol and less by sphingomyelin. PMID:2907686

  14. Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) on mice skin photoaging induced by UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Hou, Hu; Zhao, Xue; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2009-08-01

    Collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) and hydrolyzed to prepare collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The protective effects of JC and JCH against UV-induced damages to mice skin were evaluated and compared in this article. JC and JCH could alleviate the UV-induced abnormal changes of antioxidative indicators, including the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondiaidehyde (MDA). JC and JCH could protect skin lipid and collagen from the UV radiation damages. Furthermore, the changes of total ceramide and glycosaminoglycan in skin were recovered significantly by JC and JCH. The action mechanisms mainly involved the antioxidative properties and the repairing to endogenous collagen synthesis of JC and JCH in vivo. JCH with the lower molecular weight showed much higher effects than JC. The results indicated that JCH was a novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:19723203

  15. Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides on renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-02-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs' kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

  16. A numerical study of the effects of bell pulsation dynamics and oral arms on the exchange currents generated by the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea spp

    E-print Network

    Hamlet, Christina; Miller, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and experimental studies of the flows generated by jellyfish have focused primarily on mechanisms of swimming. More recent work has also considered the fluid dynamics of feeding from currents generated during swimming. Here the benthic lifestyle of the upside down jellyfish (Cassiopea spp.) is capitalized upon to explore the fluids dynamics of feeding uncoupled from swimming. A mathematical model is developed to capture the fundamental characteristics of the motion of the unique concave bell shape. Given the prominence of the oral arms, this structure is included and modeled as a porous layer that perturbs the flow generated by bell contractions. The immersed boundary method is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem. Velocity fields obtained from live organisms using digital particle image velocimetry were used to validate the numerical simulations. Parameter sweeps were used to numerically explore the effects of changes in pulse dynamics and the properties of the oral arms indepen...

  17. The medical zoologist--Ronald Vernon Southcott.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2006-12-01

    Dr Ronald Vernon Southcott (1918-1998) was amongst the greatest of the Australian doctor-naturalists. His toxinological contributions included the description and naming of the box-jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, the first definitive study (1950-1957) of the toxinology, taxonomy and biology of Australian scorpions; and the first observations in Australia of the introduced fiddleback spider, Loxosceles. His research into the medical effects of toxic fungi, poisonous plants and Australian insects was extensive. He was a founding member of the International Society on Toxinology and served on the Toxicon Editorial Board for more than 30 years. He also made extensive contributions to acarology, and to the taxonomy of mites, specifically the sub-families and genera of the Erythraeoidea. This prodigious output was achieved by one who, with the exception of war service (1942-1946), almost never travelled outside South Australia, was almost entirely self-funded and worked from his home laboratory. With Dr. P.D. Scott and C.J. Glover, he was also the authority on the fish of South Australia. Dr. Southcott was also a medical epidemiologist and senior medical administrator (1949-1978) with the Australian Commonwealth Department of Veterans' Affairs. He served for 30 years as an Honorary Consultant in Toxicology to the Adelaide Children's Hospital. As a zoologist and botanist of astounding breadth, he worked indefatigably in a voluntary capacity for the South Australian Museum, of which he was Museum Board Chairman from 1974 to 1982. In the pantheon of the great doctor-naturalists who have worked in Australia, he stands with Robert Brown and Thomas Lane Bancroft. PMID:16934849

  18. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ran Li; Christine E. Wright; Kenneth D. Winkel; Lisa-Ann Gershwin; James A. Angus

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1–100?g\\/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1?M), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1?M), propranolol (1?M),

  19. Interannual variability in the Northern California Current food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Emmett, Robert L.; Steele, John H.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Morgan, Cheryl A.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Wainwright, Thomas C.

    2012-09-01

    The Northern California Current (NCC) is a seasonally productive and open ecosystem. It is home to both a diverse endemic community and to seasonally transient species. Productivity and food web structure vary seasonally, interannually, and decadally due to variability in coastal upwelling, climate-scale physical processes, and the migratory species entering the system. The composition of the pelagic community varies between years, including changes to mid-trophic level groups that represent alternate energy-transfer pathways between lower and upper trophic levels (forage fishes, euphausiids, jellyfish). Multiple data sets, including annual spring and summer mesoscale surveys of the zooplankton, pelagic fish, and seabird communities, were used to infer NCC trophic network arrangements and develop end-to-end models for each of the 2003-2007 upwelling seasons. Each model was used to quantify the interannual variability in energy-transfer efficiency from bottom to top trophic levels. When each model was driven under an identical nutrient input rate, substantial differences in the energy available to each functional group were evident. Scenario analyses were used to examine the roles of forage fishes, euphausiids, and jellyfish (small gelatinous zooplankton and large carnivorous jellyfish) as alternate energy transfer pathways. Euphausiids were the more important energy transfer pathway; a large proportion of the lower trophic production consumed was transferred to higher trophic levels. In contrast, jellyfish acted as a production loss pathway; little of the production consumed was passed upwards. Analysis of the range of ecosystem states observed interannually and understanding system sensitivity to variability among key trophic groups improves our ability to predict NCC ecosystem response to short- and long-term environmental change.

  20. First Report of a Peroxiredoxin Homologue in Jellyfish: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Functional Characterization of CcPrx4 from Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zengliang; Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Beilei; Zhou, Yonghong; Lu, Jia; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    We first identified and characterized a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx), designated as CcPrx4, from the cDNA library of the tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The full-length cDNA sequence of CcPrx4 consisted of 884 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a mature protein of 247 amino acids. It showed a significant homology to peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) with the highly conserved F-motif (93FTFVCPTEI101), hydrophobic region (217VCPAGW222), 140GGLG143 and 239YF240, indicating that it should be a new member of the Prx4 family. The deduced CcPrx4 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.3. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CcPrx4 mRNA could be detected in all the jellyfish tissues analyzed. CcPrx4 protein was cloned into the expression vector, pET-24a, and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant CcPrx4 protein was purified by HisTrap High Performance chelating column chromatography and analyzed for its biological function. The results showed that the purified recombinant CcPrx4 protein manifested the ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage, suggesting that CcPrx4 protein may play an important role in protecting jellyfish from oxidative damage. PMID:24413803

  1. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 ?g/?L for fetal and 2.28 ?g/?L for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  2. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Terms of Use | Contact Us © 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... practices and to make choices about online behavioral advertising, please click here . ... here . © Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this site ...

  3. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  4. COLUMBIA SCIENCE REVIEW Jellyfish Takeover

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    many know Charles Darwin for his revolutionary theory of natural selection and evolution, scientists colonization of Mars. During Darwin's five year trip on the HMS Beagle, he found him- self exploring, was initially a near-barren land mass of poor vegetation and limited fauna. Seeing this, Darwin had taken

  5. Devin, Alligators, Jellyfish, and Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuchiyama, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade teacher used the "hypothesis-test" approach with Devin, a first grader who struggled as a reader and writer. Points out that, when she started working with Devin, she wanted to understand his difficulties, but by the end, she realized that it was her curriculum, not his difficulties, that needed to be in the foreground.…

  6. A rapid and repeatable method for venom extraction from cubozoan nematocysts.

    PubMed

    Carrette, T; Seymour, J

    2004-08-01

    Various comparative studies into the biological activity and relative toxicity of cubozoan venoms have been investigated, in particular the venom from the potentially lethal cubozoan Chironex fleckeri. Efficient and reliable extraction of venom from nematocysts is essential before any research into venom toxicity can be conducted and previous cited methods of extraction have varied greatly, each with their own associated problems. A new standardised technique for the recovery of venom from nematocysts of cubozoans is investigated to decrease the variation displayed between authors due to differing extraction techniques. The use of a mini bead mill beater, as investigated in this trial, allows for the rapid extraction of venom from nematocysts and is devoid of the previously isolated problems experienced with other methods of venom isolation, such as excessive heat build up. PMID:15246760

  7. Stokesian jellyfish: Viscous locomotion of bilayer vesicles

    E-print Network

    Evans, Arthur A; Lauga, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in vesicle engineering, we consider theoretically the locomotion of shape-changing bilayer vesicles at low Reynolds number. By modulating their volume and membrane composition, the vesicles can be made to change shape quasi-statically in thermal equilibrium. When the control parameters are tuned appropriately to yield periodic shape changes which are not time-reversible, the result is a net swimming motion over one cycle of shape deformation. For two classical vesicle models (spontaneous curvature and bilayer coupling), we determine numerically the sequence of vesicle shapes through an enthalpy minimization, as well as the fluid-body interactions by solving a boundary integral formulation of the Stokes equations. For both models, net locomotion can be obtained either by continuously modulating fore-aft asymmetric vesicle shapes, or by crossing a continuous shape-transition region and alternating between fore-aft asymmetric and fore-aft symmetric shapes. The obtained hydrodynamic e...

  8. Propulsion in cubomedusae: mechanisms and utility.

    PubMed

    Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H; Katija, Kakani; Seymour, Jamie; Kiefer, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae. PMID:23437122

  9. Propulsion in Cubomedusae: Mechanisms and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Katija, Kakani; Seymour, Jamie; Kiefer, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae. PMID:23437122

  10. Estimation of Solar Energy Harvested for Autonomous Jellyfish Vehicles (AJVs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keyur B. Joshi; John H. Costello; Shashank Priya

    2011-01-01

    There is significant interest in harvesting ocean energy for powering the autonomous vehicles that can conduct surveillance for long durations. In this paper, we analyze the applicability of solar cells as a power source for medusa-inspired biomimetic vehicles. Since these vehicles will be operating under ocean waters and may need to dive at various depths, a systematic investigation was conducted

  11. sponge-like ancestor jellyfish-like ancestor

    E-print Network

    Montpellier II, Université

    aussi être modifiés mutant infra-abdominal-5 iab-5 - / iab-5 - : A6 et 7 noirs type sauvage: A5, A6 et 7 sauvage antennes Qu'en est-il de la tête? A19 #12;Les complexes Antennapedia et Bithorax chez la

  12. PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS, TAXONOMY, AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF JELLYFISH (CNIDARIA: MEDUSOZOA)

    E-print Network

    Bentlage, Bastian

    2012-08-31

    approaches that make use of the limited data available may be of much value for making predictions about species distributions. Similarly, species distributions in the open oceans, in particular in the deep sea, are poorly understood and documented. A new...

  13. Graviceptor development in jellyfish ephyrae in space and on earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Philput, C.; Lowe, B.

    1994-08-01

    Graviceptor (rhopalium) development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae which developed on Earth and in space during the nine-day NASA SLS-1 mission was compared. The space-developed ephyrae made graviceptors which were morphologically similar to those of their ground-based controls. Rhopalia of both groups developed statocysts with statoliths, ocelli, ciliated mechanoreceptor cells, and immature touch-plates with one type of hair cell. The number of rhopalia formed per arm of ephyrae of both groups revealed no significant differences. The number of statoliths formed per rhopalium was statistically higher in ephyrae which were induced to form in space with iodine than in L(Launch)+8h controls. Statolith numbers were not significantly different between Earth-formed control ephyrae and those formed from polyps induced on Earth and then sent into space 24h and 48h later. Statolith loss from rhopalia was significantly enhanced in the space-maintained ephyrae in ASW as compared to their controls. Ephyrae formed through thyroxine treatment and those maintained in thyroxine in space had statolith numbers comparable to thyroxine-treated controls. Pulsing abnormalities seen in some space-developed ephyrae suggest that some space-formed ephyrae may have developed abnormal rhopalia because normal rhopalia development and function is necessary for normal pulsing.

  14. Jellyfish: A Conceptual Model for the AS Internet Topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgos Siganos; U. C. Riverside; Sudhir L Tauro; Michalis Faloutsos

    Several novel concepts and tools have revolution- ized our understanding of the Internet topology. Most of the existing efforts attempt to develop accurate analytical models. In this paper, our goal is to develop an effective conceptual model: a model that can be easily drawn by hand, while at the same time, it captures significant macro- scopic properties. We build the

  15. Central control of swimming in the cubomedusan jellyfish Carybdea rastonii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Satterlie

    1979-01-01

    1.Swimming in the cubomedusaCarybdea rastonii is controlled by a subumbrellar nerve net. Neurons that make up this net, including “giant” neurons, make random synaptic contacts with each other and with the circular subumbrellar swimming muscles (Figs. 1–3).2.Extracellularly recorded swimming impulses originate in the rhopalia and spread throughout the subumbrellar nerve net, initiating contractions of the subumbrellar musculature (Fig. 4).3.Intracellular recordings

  16. Neuronal control of swimming in jellyfish: a comparative story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Satterlie

    2002-01-01

    The swim-control systems of hydrozoan and scyphozoan medusae show distinct differences despite similarity in the mechanics of swimming in the two groups. This dichotomy was first demonstrated by G.J. Romanes at the end of the 19th century, yet his results still accurately highlight differences in the neuronal control systems in the two groups. A review of current information on swim-control

  17. Graviceptor development in jellyfish ephyrae in space and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; Philput, C.; Lowe, B.

    1994-01-01

    Graviceptor (rhopalium) development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae which developed on Earth and in space during the nine-day NASA SLS-1 mission was compared. The space-developed ephyrae made graviceptors which were morphologically similar to those of their ground-based controls. Rhopalia of both groups developed statocysts with statoliths, ocelli, ciliated mechanoreceptor cells, and immature touch-plates with one type of hair cell. The number of rhopalia formed per arm of ephyrae of both groups revealed no significant differences. The number of statoliths formed per rhopalium was statistically higher in ephyrae which were induced to form in space with iodine than in L(Launch)+8h controls. Statolith numbers were not significantly different between Earth-formed control ephyrae and those formed from polyps induced on Earth and then sent into space 24h and 48h later. Statolith loss from rhopalia was significantly enhanced in the space-maintained ephyrae in artificial sea water (ASW) as compared to their controls. Ephyrae formed through thyroxine treatment and those maintained in thyroxine in space had statolith numbers comparable to thyroxine-treated controls. Pulsing abnormalitities seen in some space-developed ephyrae suggest that some space-formed ephyrae may have developed abnormal rhopalia because normal rhopalia development and function is necessary for normal pulsing.

  18. Spatial aggregations of the swarming jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zavodnik

    1987-01-01

    In the Adriatic Sea, the spatial distribution and aggregation aspects of swarning Pelagia noctiluca (Forskål, 1775) were studied by SCUBA divers from August 1984 to November 1985. Medusae were asually distributed in the upper 20- to 30-m layer. Dense aggregations caused by wind, currents and tidal phenomena occurred only in shallow coastal waters. Maximum population densities of swarms drifting freely

  19. Trophic relationships of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester 1880

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STANLEY I. DODSON; SCOTT D. COOPER

    1983-01-01

    The medusae of the hydrozoan Craspedacusta sowerbyi appear in September in a variety of ponds and lakes in Wisconsin. Short term laboratory feeding trials in about 1 liter of water indicate that the medusae (11.6-mm diam) consume zooplankton ranging in size from about 0.2 to 2.0 mm and kill but do not eat nekton up to 8.8 mm long. Clearance

  20. Adults feed both during the day and at night, often div-ing hundreds of metres to the deep scattering layer

    E-print Network

    Milton, Sarah

    . Subjects were presented with visual cues (a plastic jellyfish; white plastic shapes [circle, square jellyfish, Cyanea capillata; moon jellyfish, Au- relia aurita; and a ctenophore, Ocyropsis sp., introduced

  1. Toxicity of jellyfish and sea-anemone venoms on cultured V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Carli, A; Bussotti, S; Mariottini, G L; Robbiano, L

    1996-04-01

    Cnidarian toxins exert an influence on human activities and public health. The cytotoxicity of crude toxins (nematocyst and surrounding tissue venom) of Aequorea aequorea, Rhizostoma pulmo and Anemonia sulcata was assessed on V79 cells. Rhizostoma pulmo and Anemonia sulcata crude venoms showed remarkable cytotoxicity and killed all treated cells at highest tested concentration within 2 and 3 hr, respectively. Aequorea aequorea crude venom greatly affected growth rate during long-term experiments. No genotoxic effect was observed. PMID:8735250

  2. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Lewis, Cheryl; Richards, Gemma S.; Collins, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of Cubozoa has been limited by the lack of a sound phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Here, we present a comprehensive cubozoan phylogeny based on ribosomal genes coding for near-complete nuclear 18S (small subunit) and 28S (large subunit) and partial mitochondrial 16S. We discuss the implications of this phylogeny for our understanding of cubozoan venom evolution, biogeography and life-history evolution. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (i) the last common ancestor of Carybdeida probably possessed the mechanism(s) underlying Irukandji syndrome, (ii) deep divergences between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific clades may be explained by ancient vicariant events, and (iii) sexual dimorphism evolved a single time in concert with complex sexual behaviour. Furthermore, several cubozoan taxa are either para- or polyphyletic, and we address some of these taxonomic issues by designating a new family, Carukiidae, a new genus, Copula, and by redefining the families Tamoyidae and Tripedaliidae. Lastly, cubozoan species identities have long been misunderstood and the data presented here support many of the recent scientific descriptions of cubozoan species. However, the results of a phylogeographic analysis of Alatina moseri from Hawai'i and Alatina mordens from Australia indicate that these two nominal species represent a single species that has maintained metapopulation cohesion by natural or anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:19923131

  3. Distribution, abundance, and predation effects of epipelagic ctenophores and jellyfish in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Jennifer E.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing changes at an unprecedented rate because of global climate change. Especially poorly-studied in arctic waters are the gelatinous zooplankton, which are difficult to study using traditional oceanographic methods. A distinct zooplanktivore community was characterized in the surface 100 m by use of a Remotely Operated Vehicle, net collections, and SCUBA diving. The large scyphomedusa, Chrysaora melanaster, was associated with the warm Pacific water at ˜35-75 m depth. A diverse ctenophore community lived mainly above the C. melanaster layer, including Dryodora glandula, a specialized predator of larvaceans, Beroe cucumis, a predator of other ctenophores, and the extremely fragile Bolinopsis infundibulum, which was the most abundant species. Gut content analyses showed that Mertensia ovum selectively consumed the largest copepods ( Calanus spp.) and amphipods ( Parathemisto libellula); B. infundibulum consumed smaller copepods and pteropods ( Limacina helicina). Large copepods were digested by M. ovum in ˜12 h at -1.5 to 0 °C, but by B. infundibulum in only ˜4 h. We estimated that M. ovum consumed an average of ˜2% d -1 of the Calanus spp. copepods and that B. infundibulum consumed ˜4% d -1 of copepods <3 mm prosome length. These are significant consumption rates given that Calanus spp. have life-cycles of 2 or more years and are eaten by vertebrates including bowhead whales and arctic cod.

  4. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Stopar; Andreja Ramšak; Peter Trontelj; Alenka Malej

    2010-01-01

    The genetic structure of the holopelagic scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca was inferred based on the study of 144 adult medusae. The areas of study were five geographic regions in two European seas (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). A 655-bp sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and a 645-bp sequence of two nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2)

  5. A character-based analysis of the evolution of jellyfish blooms: adaptation and exaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N Dawson; William M. Hamner

    2009-01-01

    Mass occurrence—aggregation, blooming, or swarming—is a remarkable feature of a subset of usually diverse scyphozoan clades,\\u000a suggesting it is evolutionarily beneficial. If so, it should be associated with one or more phenotypic characteristics that\\u000a are advantageous and which facilitate occurrence en masse. Here, we examine the evolution of morphological, ecological, and life history characteristics of medusozoans, focusing on\\u000a the taxa

  6. A character-based analysis of the evolution of jellyfish blooms: adaptation and exaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N Dawson; William M. Hamner

    Mass occurrence—aggregation, blooming, or swarming—is a remarkable feature of a subset of usually diverse scyphozoan clades,\\u000a suggesting it is evolutionarily beneficial. If so, it should be associated with one or more phenotypic characteristics that\\u000a are advantageous and which facilitate occurrence en masse. Here, we examine the evolution of morphological, ecological, and life history characteristics of medusozoans, focusing on\\u000a the taxa

  7. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A; Lewis, Cheryl; Richards, Gemma S; Collins, Allen G

    2010-02-01

    Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of Cubozoa has been limited by the lack of a sound phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Here, we present a comprehensive cubozoan phylogeny based on ribosomal genes coding for near-complete nuclear 18S (small subunit) and 28S (large subunit) and partial mitochondrial 16S. We discuss the implications of this phylogeny for our understanding of cubozoan venom evolution, biogeography and life-history evolution. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (i) the last common ancestor of Carybdeida probably possessed the mechanism(s) underlying Irukandji syndrome, (ii) deep divergences between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific clades may be explained by ancient vicariant events, and (iii) sexual dimorphism evolved a single time in concert with complex sexual behaviour. Furthermore, several cubozoan taxa are either para- or polyphyletic, and we address some of these taxonomic issues by designating a new family, Carukiidae, a new genus, Copula, and by redefining the families Tamoyidae and Tripedaliidae. Lastly, cubozoan species identities have long been misunderstood and the data presented here support many of the recent scientific descriptions of cubozoan species. However, the results of a phylogeographic analysis of Alatina moseri from Hawai'i and Alatina mordens from Australia indicate that these two nominal species represent a single species that has maintained metapopulation cohesion by natural or anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:19923131

  8. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: early diagenesis of organic matter in sediments of an anoxic marine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.; Landing, W.M.; Lyons, W.B.; Showers, W.

    1991-01-01

    The major postdepositional change in the sedimentary organic matter is carbohydrate biodegradation. Lignin and aliphatic substances are preserved in the sediments. Dissolved organic matter in pore waters is primarily composed of carbohydrates, reflecting the degradation of sedimentary carbohydrates. Rate constants for organic carbon degradation and sulfate reduction in sediments of the lake are about 10?? lower than in other anoxic sediments. This may reflect the vascular plant source and partly degraded nature of the organic matter reaching the sediments of the lake. -from Authors

  9. Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Dawson

    2003-01-01

    Morphological variation in qualitative and quantitative features is compared among species of Aurelia defined a priori using molecular criteria. Macro-morphological features were more numerous than previously implied (28 cf. 17), most were variable (26 of 28), and all species were morphologically distinguishable using univariate, multivariate and phylogenetic statistics. However, due to discrepant morphological descriptions, Aurelia spp. 3, 4, and 6

  10. Jelly-fish back to life. (Project of physical variable stars observing)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hájek

    1996-01-01

    B.R.N.O. - Brno Regional Network of Observers is group, which prefers observing of eclipsing binary stars. Now, inside the Brno Regional Network of Observers group, a team has been created that has got the name \\

  11. Stable isotopes challenge the perception of ocean sunfish Mola mola as obligate jellyfish predators.

    PubMed

    Syväranta, J; Harrod, C; Kubicek, L; Cappanera, V; Houghton, J D R

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is provided from stable isotope analysis that aggregations of small ocean sunfish Mola mola (total length <1 m) feed broadly within coastal food webs and their classification as obligate predators of gelatinous zooplankton requires revision. PMID:22220901

  12. Estimating digestion rate and the problem of individual variability, exemplified by a scyphozoan jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Båmstedt; Martinussen

    2000-08-23

    Short-term (h) and long-term (days) individual variability and the effects of momentary change in feeding intensity on digestion time were studied in the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita as a basis for developing a method to experimentally measure the digestion rate with a high precision. Ten individual medusae showed only small, non-significant differences in average digestion time (range, 2.1-2.5 h at 10 degrees C) over a 9-day experiment, whereas variability within and between days and between individuals at a given occasion was high. When medusae were manually kept at a constant feeding intensity, stomach fullness showed high variability both between individuals and within an individual over time. With a feeding intensity of, respectively, 1, 2, 4 and 8 prey h(-1) over a 5-h experimental period, stomach fullness of most individuals corresponded to a theoretical digestion time of 1-3 h, whereas single meals of the same size usually gave somewhat higher digestion time. Medusae subject to a switching from a low to a high feeding intensity tended to increase the variability, but most individuals showed a digestion time of 1-3 h. An opposite switching tended to increase the digestion time and its variability. It is concluded that the digestion time of A. aurita is randomly variable over time within given limits for a given food and environmental condition. This variability is non-synchronised in the population, causing high variability between individuals, and changes in the feeding intensity cause additional variability. However, the average digestion time of A. aurita in a physically and nutritionally stable environment is robust, and changes in the feeding intensity give predictable effects. The use of field collected data on stomach contents and laboratory determined digestion times is therefore an attractive method to calculate predation rate, but the inherent high variability in digestion time must be taken into consideration when designing the digestion experiments. Based on these findings a simple experimental method to determine the digestion time of aquatic animals is outlined and evaluated. The digestion time is simply given as the ratio between number of prey in stomach and total number of prey eaten, times the incubation time, assuming that the feeding intensity is constant. PMID:10958898

  13. A Randomized, Controlled Field Trial for the Prevention of Jellyfish Stings With a Topical Sting Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Boulware

    2006-01-01

    Background. Jellyfi sh stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacifi c regions. A new topical jellyfi sh sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fi sh prevents 85% of jellyfi sh stings in labora- tory settings. The fi eld

  14. Jellyfish: Evidence of Extreme Ram-pressure Stripping in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Stephenson, L. N.; Edge, A. C.

    2014-02-01

    Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intracluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Using Hubble Space Telescope snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey, all featuring M F606W < -21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at z > 0.2 and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-10491, -10875, -12166, and -12884.

  15. Jellyfish and other cnidarian envenomations cause pain by affecting TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Karlsson, Evert; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations cause a burning-pain sensation of which the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Activation of TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, leads to cell depolarisation and pain. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for desensitization-dependent TRPV1 activation in cnidarian envenomations. Cnidarian venom induced a nociceptive reactivity, comparable to capsaicin, in laboratory rats, which could be reduced by the selective TRPV1 antagonist, BCTC. These findings are the first to explain at least part of the symptomology of cnidarian envenomations and provide insights into the design of more effective treatments for this global public health problem. PMID:17010344

  16. Jellyfish: Evidence of extreme ram-pressure stripping in massive galaxy clusters

    E-print Network

    Ebeling, Harald; Edge, Alastair C

    2013-01-01

    Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intra-cluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at $z>0.3$. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster...

  17. The Mesoderm Specification Factor Twist in the Life Cycle of Jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürg Spring; Nathalie Yanze; Arnoud M. Middel; Michael Stierwald; Hans Gröger; Volker Schmid

    2000-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Twist is highly conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates and plays a major role in mesoderm specification of triploblasts. The presence of a Twist homologue in diploblasts such as the cnidarian Podocoryne carnea raises questions on the evolution of mesoderm, the third cell layer characteristic for triploblasts. Podocoryne Twist is expressed in the early embryo

  18. First record of encysted metacercariae in hydrozoan jellyfishes and ctenophores of the southern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Martorelli, S R

    1996-04-01

    Three species of pelagic coelenterates and ctenophores captured in Mar del Plata port, Buenos Aires, Argentina, were examined for digenean parasites. Encysted metacercariae were observed and collected. Cysts were found in the mesoglea of the hydromedusae Phialidium sp. and Liriope tetraphylla, and in the ectenophore Mnemiopsis macradyi. The morphology of the worms resembles that of the lepocreadiid digeneans. This is the first record for a metacercaria encysted in hydromedusae or ctenophores. PMID:8604116

  19. Further observations on the biology of the sea nettle and jellyfishes in Chesapeake Bay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Cargo; Leonard P. Schultz

    1967-01-01

    The sessile or polyp stage ofChrysaora quinquecirrha, the sea nettle, is likely to be found in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries on the hard substrates wherever salinities from\\u000a 7 to 20% occur. From experimental studies in field and laboratory, we found that the planulae, larval stage of the sea nettle,\\u000a set on oyster shells which were placed off the CBL

  20. A wake-based correlate of swimming performance in seven jellyfish species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dabiri; Sean Colin; Kakani Katija; John Costello

    2009-01-01

    Animal-fluid interactions have been hypothesized as a principal selective pressure on the evolution of aquatic and aerial animals. However, attempts to discover the fluid dynamic mechanisms that dictate the fitness of an animal---or even to quantify `fitness'---have been limited by an inability to measure the fluid interactions of freely moving animals (i.e., in the absence of tethers or artificial water\\/wind

  1. Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage, 40(4), 1912-1920.

    E-print Network

    Saxe, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    : JELLYFISH Janet and her neighbor are kayaking in a part of the ocean with lots of jellyfish. Janet the jellyfish don't sting and are totally harmless. B. It is not safe to swim in the ocean because the jellyfish sting, and their stings are fatal. A. Since Janet read information that said the ocean's jellyfish

  2. Pharmacological action of Australian animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, W C

    1997-01-01

    1. Australia has some of the most venomous fauna in the world. Although humans are not usually perceived as being predators against these animals they are often envenomated, accidentally or otherwise. This has led to the development of antivenoms against some of the potentially lethal venoms. However, further understanding of the mechanism(s) of action of these and other venoms is important, not only for developing new treatment strategies but also in the search for novel research tools. 2. The present review discusses the pharmacology of some of the components found in venoms and outlines the research undertaken on some of Australia's venomous animals, with the exception of snakes. 3. Biogenic amines, peptides and enzymes are common venom components and produce a wide range of effects in envenomated humans. For example, respiratory failure observed after envenomation by the box jellyfish (Chirnex fleckeri) and Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) is most likely due to potent neurotoxins in the venoms. Stonefish (Synanceja trachynis) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venoms, although not considered lethal, cause severe pain. However, the components responsible for these effects have not been isolated. Venom components, as yet unidentified, may be responsible for the cutaneous necrotic lesions that have been reported after some spider bites (e.g. Lampona cylindrata). Other venoms, such as those of the jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) and bull ant (M. pyriformis), may produce only mild skin irritation to the majority of humans but a severe anaphylactic response in sensitized victims. 4. While there has been a renewed interest in toxinology, further research is required to fully elucidate the pharmacological action of many of these venoms. PMID:9043799

  3. Protein-protein complexation in bioluminescence

    E-print Network

    Zhijie, Liu

    systems of marine organisms, including bacteria, jellyfish and soft corals, with particular focus) from the jellyfish Clytia gregaria, solved by means of X- ray crystallography, NMR mapping, 1952; Lee, 2008). Bioluminescent organisms such as bacteria, fireflies, jellyfish, worms, fungi

  4. ICES J. mar. Sci., 52: 575581. 1995 Medusae, siphonophores, and ctenophores as planktivorous

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    serious declines, it is relevant to recognize that the carnivorous "jellyfishes" are ubiquitous, feeding, fisheries, hydromedusae jellyfish Mnemiopsis, Nanomia, scyphomedusae, siphonophores, submersibles either by fishes or jellyfishes, will be discussed here. I hope to convince the reader that in fact

  5. BUREAU' OF COMMERCIAL FISHE_..__ UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-print Network

    ---------------------------------------------- 77 Jellyfish----------------------------------------------- 79 Environment: Marine, the Anadromous Fish Act of 1965, and the Jellyfish Act of 1966. Information presented is intended to provide

  6. A review and synthesis on the systematics and evolution of jellyfish blooms: advantageous aggregations and adaptive assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Hamner; Michael N Dawson

    Pelagic gelatinous invertebrates in many diverse phyla aggregate, bloom, or swarm. Although typically portrayed as annoying\\u000a to humans, such accumulations probably are evolutionary adaptations to the environments of pelagic gelatinous zooplank-ton.\\u000a We explore this proposition by systematic analysis completed in three steps. First, using the current morphological taxonomic\\u000a framework for Scyphozoa, we summarize relevant information on species that aggregate, bloom,

  7. A review and synthesis on the systematics and evolution of jellyfish blooms: advantageous aggregations and adaptive assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Hamner; Michael N Dawson

    2009-01-01

    Pelagic gelatinous invertebrates in many diverse phyla aggregate, bloom, or swarm. Although typically portrayed as annoying\\u000a to humans, such accumulations probably are evolutionary adaptations to the environments of pelagic gelatinous zooplankton.\\u000a We explore this proposition by systematic analysis completed in three steps. First, using the current morphological taxonomic\\u000a framework for Scyphozoa, we summarize relevant information on species that aggregate, bloom,

  8. Jellyfish green fluorescent protein as a useful reporter for transient expression and stable transformation in Medicago sativa L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bellucci; F. De Marchis; R. Mannucci; S. Arcioni

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the experiments reported herein was to transiently test different gene constructs using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for a future localization of the maize ß-zein in the chloroplast of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.). The transient expression of two GFP genes was compared in alfalfa leaves to determine which of these two mutants is

  9. Swimming depths of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai investigated using pop-up archival transmitting tags and ultrasonic pingers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Honda; Toshihiro Watanabe; Yoshiki Matsushita

    2009-01-01

    The swimming depths of 12 individual Nemopilema nomurai with bell diameters of 0.8–1.6 m were investigated using pop-up archival transmitting tags and ultrasonic pingers, and the\\u000a validity of the research method was evaluated. The N. nomurai studied frequently showed vertical movement, with the swimming depth ranging from 0 to 176 m, The mean swimming depths of\\u000a most individuals were less than 40 m.

  10. Inferring distributions of chirodropid box-jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) in geographic and ecological space using ecological niche modeling

    E-print Network

    Bentlage, Bastian; Peterson, A. Townsend; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2009-05-29

    Island, QLD, AUS –17.15 139.60 QM G322298 Cairns, QLD, AUS –16.86 145.81 QM G4140 –16.83 145.77 SAM Machan’s Beach, QLD, AUS –16.80 145.76 SAM Gladstone, QLD, AUS –16.68 145.64 SAM Port Douglas, QLD, AUS –16.48 145.47 QM G317043 Kurrimine Beach, QLD, AUS... are provided. NCL: National Chemical Laboratory India; USNM: US National Museum of Natural History; MAGNT: Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory; QM: Queensland Museum; SAM: South Australian Museum. AUS: Australia; PH: Philippines; JP: Japan; ID...

  11. Jellyfish green fluorescent protein as a useful reporter for transient expression and stable transformation in Medicago sativa L.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, M; De Marchis, F; Mannucci, R; Arcioni, S

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the experiments reported herein was to transiently test different gene constructs using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for a future localization of the maize beta-zein in the chloroplast of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.). The transient expression of two GFP genes was compared in alfalfa leaves to determine which of these two mutants is the easier to detect. Based on the intensity of fluorescence emitted, the GFP S65C gene was used to assemble a chloroplast-targeted GFP to verify the efficiency of the transit peptide for chloroplast targeting. A chloroplast-targeted fusion protein between beta-zein and GFP was then assembled, and this protein was observed to accumulate in small aggregates into the chloroplasts of transiently transformed cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the GFP S65C gene being used to obtain transformed alfalfa plants expressing GFP. PMID:12937943

  12. Transport of inertial particles by Lagrangian coherent structures: application to predator-prey interaction in jellyfish feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. D ABIRI

    We use a dynamical systems approach to identify coherent structures from often chaotic motions of inertial particles in open flows. We show that particle Lagrangian coherent structures (pLCS) act as boundaries between regions in which particles have different kinematics. They provide direct geometric information about the motion of ensembles of inertial particles, which is helpful to understand their transport. As

  13. Characterization and expression analysis of an ancestor-type Pax gene in the hydrozoan jellyfish Podocoryne carnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Gröger; Patrick Callaerts; Walter J. Gehring; Volker Schmid

    2000-01-01

    We characterized a Pax gene from the hydrozoan Podocorynecarnea. It is most similar to cnidarian Pax-B genes and encodes a paired domain, a homeodomain and an octapeptide. Expression analysis demonstrates the presence of Pax-B transcripts in eggs, the ectoderm of the planula larva and in a few scattered cells in the apical polyp ectoderm. In developing and mature medusae, Pax-B

  14. Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy H. Lucas

    2001-01-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) is a cosmopolitan species, having been reported from a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. It has been extensively studied over the last 100 years or so, and examination of the literature reveals three striking features: (1) the presence of populations in a wide range of environmental conditions; (2) large inter-population

  15. Questioning the Rise of Gelatinous Zooplankton in the World's Oceans Author(s): Robert H. Condon, William M. Graham, Carlos M. Duarte, Kylie A. Pitt, Cathy H.

    E-print Network

    Adolphs, Ralph

    by "nuisance" jellyfish. We question this current paradigm by presenting a broad overview of gelatinous zooplankton blooms. Keywords: bloom, media, jellyfish, salp, global synthesis by "nuisance" jellyfish. We of contempo- rary gelatinous zooplankton blooms? What is the human perception of changes in jellyfish

  16. Resource Requirements of the Pacific Leatherback Turtle T. Todd Jones1,2

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924­1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.16106 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0­3.76106 ) equivalent to 4.26108 megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0­7.46108 ). Model and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.16106 t of jellyfish or 2.26108 MJ per year

  17. Oceana Magazine Summer 2012: Ask Dr. Pauly: Are the Oceans Jellifying?

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    Oceana Magazine Summer 2012: Ask Dr. Pauly: Are the Oceans Jellifying? Nomura jellyfish, pictured television and newspaper reports have been filled with stories about jellyfish outbreaks in recent years. People notice jellyfish more these days ­ or is it the jellyfish that notice more people? In any case

  18. Impact of Denial of Service Attacks on Ad Hoc Imad Aad Jean-Pierre Hubaux Edward W. Knightly

    E-print Network

    Knightly, Edward W.

    the damage that difficult-to-detect attackers can cause. The first attack we study, called the JellyFish devastating effects. The second is the Black Hole attack, which has effects similar to the JellyFish to as JellyFish (JF). Previously studied attackers disobey protocol rules; on the contrary, JellyFish conform

  19. Transparent Animals Snke Johnsen

    E-print Network

    Johnsen, Sönke

    TRAN JELLYFISH'S MAW is the four-pointed area vis- ible in the center of this overhead image of punc relation of the jellyfish. JELLYFISH'S MAW is the four-pointed area vis- ible in the center hy- dromedusa, a close relation of the jellyfish. G

  20. UNIVERSIT PARIS DIDEROT -PARIS VII COLE DOCTORALE MATIRE CONDENSE ET INTERFACES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    morphogenesis of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. The gastrovascular system of this jellyfish is a branched network viscoelastic gel, which structure and mechanical properties evolve during jellyfish development. These changes enhanced in the endoderm, at the tip of a growing canal, during each muscular contraction of the jellyfish

  1. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Stranding events provide indirect insights into the

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    and persistence of jellyfish medusae (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) Jonathan David Roy Houghton Æ Thomas K. Doyle Æ John B.V. 2007 Abstract It is becoming increasingly evident that jellyfish (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) play

  2. Ecology, 87(8), 2006, pp. 19671972 2006 by the the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    remains poorly understood beyond sporadic and localized reports. To examine how jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria (Harris et al. 2000). Yet many gelatinous zooplankton such as jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria: Orders Semaeosto

  3. Defense against Routing Disruption Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    , including protocol-compliant (also known as "JellyFish") attacks. Index Terms--Denial-of-Service Attacks difficult to defend against. In [1], Aad et al. refer to such attacks as "JellyFish" (JF) attacks. While

  4. Often researchers have the stereotype of not being able to talk about their research

    E-print Network

    'i division of research & graduate studies Let's Talk Science! Study jellyfish? Those stinging things of jellyfish-human interactions and much is conducted along the Neuse River Estuary in Eastern North Carolina

  5. BioMed Central Page 1 of 11

    E-print Network

    Hughes* - thomas.hughes@yale.edu *Corresponding author Abstract Background: The jellyfish green The discovery that the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) can form a functional fluorophore without other

  6. Abstract--Leatherback turtles (Der-mochelys coriacea) are regularly seen

    E-print Network

    Coast, where they forage on jellyfish (Scyphomedusae) during summer and fall. Aerial line- transect://www.iucnredlist.org/ (accessed 19 November 2006). #12;338 Fishery Bulletin 105(3) ally abundant jellyfish (Scyphomedusae) along

  7. MARINE ECOLOGY -PROGRESS SENES Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

    E-print Network

    of population density of symbiotic algae in a tropical.marine jellyfish (Mastigiassp.) L. Muscatine', F. P. ~ i, Washington 99324, USA ABSTRACT: Marine jellyfish Mastiglas sp. are abundant in marine lakes in Belau, Western

  8. Contact: Connie Barclay FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 301-427-8003 January 20, 2012

    E-print Network

    the Pacific to feed on jellyfish. The southern portion stretches along the California coast from Point Arena on jellyfish and lay their eggs on tropical and subtropical beaches. Although very little is known about

  9. August 2012 Volume 9, Issue 2

    E-print Network

    , identifying and measuring dozens of species of jellyfish and crustaceans. The plankton images on Plankton identify interesting new behaviors in jellyfish, such as the first reported documentation of a small

  10. HYDROMEDUSAE CLAUDIA E. MILLS

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    Hydromedusae are jellyfishes in the phylum Cnidaria (class Hydrozoa), most of which are born from bottom these little jellyfishes can be quite common. Seaweeds may require inspection by using a low-power microscope to discover these tiny jellyfish crawling on the surface, and individual blades of algae may bear numbers

  11. Distribution, extent of inter-annual variability and diet of the bloom-forming

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    REVIEW Distribution, extent of inter-annual variability and diet of the bloom-forming jellyfish Sustainability, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK Jellyfish (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa that one particularly large (up to 30 kg wet weight) bloom forming jellyfish is Rhizostoma spp. Given

  12. 1. Arias, E.E., and Walter, J.C. (2007). Strength in numbers: preventing

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    2007-01-01

    : 10.1016/j.cub.2007.06.029 Comparative Biomechanics: The Jellyfish Paradox Resolved Studying the mechanics of swirling water has solved a mystery about the evolution of body shape and size in jellyfish. Matthew J. McHenry A jellyfish is generally regarded as a stinging nuisance that is to be avoided at all

  13. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Aksnes, Dag L.

    Published December 19 INTRODUCTION Blooms of jellyfish, often referring to pelagic cnidarians distributions (Richardson et al. 2009, Brotz et al. 2012, Purcell 2012). Jellyfish mass occurrence and apparent shifts from fish- to jellyfish-dominated systems have been linked to numerous factors such as fisheries

  14. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    · www.int-res.com *E-mail: rick.brodeur@noaa.gov Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea a dramatic increase in jellyfish biomass over the eastern Bering Sea shelf since the early 1990s, which explore the impact of this jellyfish increase on zoo- plankton and fish communities based on field data

  15. 2008 NOBEL LAUREATES The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

    E-print Network

    Caldwell, Guy

    purifies a blue luminescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria that he names aequorin; he also studying a glowing jellyfish in the early 1960s he isolated a bioluminescent protein that gave off blue light. But the jellyfish glowed green. Further studies revealed that the protein's blue light

  16. New records of scyphomedusae from Pakistan coast: Catostylus perezi and Pelagia

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    . mosaicus in Pakistan assuming it to be of C. perezi. Keywords: jellyfish, Rhizostomeae, Semaeostomeae, medusae, North Arabian Sea Submitted 18 April 2013; accepted 8 June 2013 I N T R O D U C T I O N Jellyfish, aquaculture and tourism (Purcell et al., 2007). Among the cnidarian jellyfish groups (known as medusozoans

  17. Released upon receipt but intenfled f o r use

    E-print Network

    , 1932 By Charles Fitzhugh Talman, Authority on Meteorology. JELLYFISH TH;4: More people than Hamlet have is extensively repreeented in heavenly scenery. Among the rarer cloud creatures I s the jellyfish. This is R resemblance of such a dloud t o a jellyfish %s so striking that one meteorologist Borne years ago urged

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Global patterns of epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    to a proliferation of jellyfish through a process known as fishing down the food web. However, there has been systems are dominated by invertebrates, such as jellyfish (Hay 2006; Daskalov et al. 2007). Whilst in greater jellyfish abundances (for a review, see Purcell et al. 2007). Concern of gelatinous zooplankton

  19. Illuminating plant biology: using fluorescent proteins for

    E-print Network

    Jackson, David

    publication date 21January 2010 Abstract First discovered in jellyfish, fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been the Pacific Ocean jellyfish Aequorea victoria [2], the use of GFP and its subsequent fluo- rescent derivatives with UV or blue light, the original jellyfish-derived GFP is excited to emit green light as fluorescence

  20. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Aksnes, Dag L.

    Published October 22 INTRODUCTION Available evidence suggests that jellyfish blooms are increasing globally Norwegian fjords the deep-sea jellyfish Periphylla periphylla has reached densities several orders, it is essential to take into account the dif- ferent search strategies of fish and jellyfish. Compared to visual

  1. This article was published as part of the 2009 Green Fluorescent Protein issue

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Robert E.

    Aequorea victoria jellyfish green FP (avGFP), were an obscure and poorly understood biochemical oddity been the first to identify the presence of avGFP in extracts of Aequorea jellyfish.1 Chalfie chromophore and could thus be functionally expressed in animals other than jellyfish.3 Tsien is, arguably

  2. The 24th Annual Lecture Series THE DELICATE BALANCE OF NATURE 2015

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    of the more common, and often invasive, non-native species of landscape plants. March 11 JELLYFISHING IN A CHANGING OCEAN Jellyfish population explosions have become a concern worldwide. Dr. Vicki Martin, North Carolina State University, will describe jellyfish biology, especially with regards to her work

  3. C O M M E N T A R Y A View Through the Waves

    E-print Network

    Schechner, Yoav Yosef

    their distance from perceived predators on shore. A submerged box jellyfish (Figure 2) navigates and controls its jellyfish have 24 eyes of four different types, includ- ing a set dedicated to survey the air- borne scene). FIGURE 2 A box jellyfish where the enlarged region re- veals one of its upward-looking eyes (courtesy

  4. FIGURE 1 Five species of Stauromedusae. (A) Two Haliclystus sp. attached to eelgrass (San Juan Island, Washington), tentacle spread

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    of Washington YAYOI M. HIRANO Chiba University, Japan Stauromedusae are small jellyfishes that spend column like most other jellyfish. Because of their attached, benthic lifestyle, they seem in some ways-swimming, planktonic scyphozoan jellyfish to which, until recently, they have been considered more closely related

  5. University of Rhode Island inAdvance December 20, 2007

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    .m. More... Artificial jellyfish, explosives sensor, seabed battery among projects being developed When of widely-distributed underwater sensors, they imagined attaching the sensors to artificial jellyfish with URI oceanographers and a Providence College expert in jellyfish locomotion to explore this novel idea

  6. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    harmful algal blooms (HABs) and red tides (Noctiluca spp.), as well as the role of jellyfish fish species. Jellyfish act as a buffer in eutrophicated and overfished systems, as they retain enrichment in promoting HAB species, Noctiluca and jellyfish. These fundamental con- straints, which

  7. mixing. His result neither strongly dismissed nor supported the idea, but for decades after-

    E-print Network

    videos obtained by scuba divers in shoals of jellyfish (Fig. 1), dye releases clearly showtheprocess(seeSupplementaryInforma- tion1 ). One wonders what the jellyfish made of all this, but that would be another story. The relevance to mixing, however, can be simply described. Suppose a jellyfish is in cold water, and swims

  8. TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in two

    E-print Network

    May, Bernie

    Hydrozoa Á Jellyfish Á Oligos Á San Francisco Estuary Two species of hydromedusae, Maeotias marginata (SFE). Non-native jellyfish and other hydroids can have severe effects on the ecosystems they invade (Purcell and Arai 2001). Addi- tionally, jellyfish blooms are increasing globally (Mills 2001) and can

  9. Feeding of Dermochelys coriacea on Medusae in the Northwest Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    of the digestive tract of the leatherback is consistent with a stenophagous diet of jellyfish. Numerous keratinized of leatherbacks and concentrations of jellyfish have been described (Leary, 1957; Collard, 1990: Grant et al). Here we report on nine detailed observations of leatherbacks feeding on jellyfish in waters off Nova

  10. DEFORMOTION Deforming Motion, Shape Average and the Joint

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    average" in order to track moving and deforming objects through time. Fig. 1. A jellyfish is "moving while direction while "locally deforming." The jellyfish in Fig. 1 is just another example to illustrate the same our intuition? For instance, in Fig. 6, how do we describe the "motion" of a jellyfish? Or in Fig. 5

  11. Illinois' State FossilTullimonstrum gregarium The ancient landscape

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    with relatives of modern shrimps, jellyfish, squid, sharks, and other marine animals. Rivers that meandered of a soft-bodied animal like the Tully monster or a jellyfish being preserved as a fossil are very small other marine animals such as jellyfish and shrimp, perhaps piercing their prey with their "teeth

  12. This article was published as part of the 2009 Green Fluorescent Protein issue

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    the first isolation and characterisation of GFP from jellyfish to its now widespread use throughout the Life protein (aequorin) from the jellyfish Aequorea victorea. Shortly afterwards, he identified another protein and co-workers collected 85 000 jellyfish off Friday Harbor in Washington on the West Coast of North

  13. Volume 11, Number 8 20 August 2010

    E-print Network

    Husson, Laurent

    Subducting slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's mantle Christelle Loiselet Géosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head

  14. itats have not been dearly revealed . In no case is the diet of the hatchlings well known although it is assume d

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    a diet of jellyfish (Schypho- medusidae) and tunicates, together with crustacean parasites and symbiotic fish that are associated with th e jellyfish (Brongersma 1969, Bleakney 1965) . This diet is reflected, contain crabs and jellyfish as wel l as shrimp. The guts of 10 olive ridleys captured 30 t o 50 km off

  15. Fluorescent Protein Applications in Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    protein from the jellyfish Aequorea aequorea. A. aequorea normally emits a greenish lumi- nescence from the light organs around the rim of the jellyfish. During the isolation of the luminescence system-hydroxybenzyl imidazolone. GFP was even crystallized in 1974 using protein isolated from tens of thousands of jellyfish

  16. Today's New Reason To Believe October 2003

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    31 A recently discovered design feature for box jellyfish provides another example of supernatural creation. One of the five different cell types comprising this jellyfish colony (so-called because the jellyfish is an aggregate of cells that display loose organization) has both a photoreceptor

  17. Migration cues and timing in leatherback sea turtles

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    to consume jellyfish. Although little is known about the temporal or spatial distributions of the leatherback's gelat- inous prey, jellyfish abundance has been linked to environ- mental factors (reviewed in Purcell 2005). Regional ocean temperatures predict abundance in several species of jellyfish (Purcell

  18. John W. Hayse Grice Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    that scyphozoan jellyfish were the domi- nant prey, but fish collected by spear or net had stomach contents domi 1980s suggested that Atlantic spadefish might eat Stomolophus meleagris, the cannonball jellyfish, and Contribution No. 274 of the South Carolina Marine Resources Re- search Institute. nonball jellyfish as bait

  19. DOI: 10.1126/science.1190708 , 333 (2010);329Science

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    of the pelagic fisheries off southwest Africa in the late 1960s, jellyfish biomass has increased the success of these fish. In particular, body-tissue isotope signatures reveal that gobies consume jellyfish of the ecosystem, and it became dom- inated by jellyfish, bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus), horse mackerel

  20. Hydrobiologia The International Journal of Aquatic

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;JELLYFISH+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract The study of ``jellyfish blooms'' provides important data toward determining of ``jellyfish blooms'' can be biased, considering convenience rather than biological reasoning. Keywords

  1. OIMB GK12 CURRICULUM grade 60 minutes

    E-print Network

    Point on jellies and anemones ! Optional Jelly worksheet http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/invertebrates/jellyfish call them jellies instead of jellyfish because they are not a kind of fish. Jellies are in a group called a medusa. What we think of as "jellyfish" is this medusa phase. Most jellies capture their prey

  2. INTRODUCTION Animalfluid interactions have been hypothesized as a principal

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    in the context of biological propulsion. Jellyfish provide a unique perspective on the evolution of propulsion (DPIV) (Willert and Gharib, 1992). We selected seven species of hydrozoan jellyfish for this comparative speed of the seven co-occurring species of free-swimming jellyfish. Using this new data, we demonstrate

  3. The First Mutant of the Aequorea Victoria Green Fluorescent Protein That Forms a Red Chromophore

    E-print Network

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    ReceiVed February 27, 2008 ABSTRACT: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a jellyfish, Aequorea Victoria of the jellyfish A. Victoria where GFP played a role of secondary emitter transforming blue light from). In particular, a yellow FP and a purple CP from hydroid jellyfishes were characterized. Between 1994 and 1999

  4. AUTOMATED ROBOTIC TRACKING OF GELATINOUS ANIMALS IN THE A DISSERTATION

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    behaviors and environmental stimuli. Automating the jellyfish-tracking task will give biologists jellyfish-tracking technology and discusses its successful demonstration as a pilot-assist for a remotely robots, called autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). A key challenge in enabling jellyfish

  5. GFP variants for multispectral imaging of living cells. Jim Haseloff

    E-print Network

    Franks, Robert

    the jellyfish green fluorescent protein for use as a directly visible gene marker in Arabidopsis, and developed jellyfish Aequorea victoria shares none of these problems, and there has been much interest in using, with glowing points around the margin of the jellyfish umbrella. Light arises from yellow tissue masses

  6. Algorithms for Molecular Biology Fall Semester, 2001 Lecture 8: December 27, 2001

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    ]) Phylogeny in a nut shell. A: The most recent common ancestor of the bird and the jellyfish. At this point the two lineages diverged or split. X: The portion of history the bird and the jellyfish share. Their linages were one during that time. B: The most recent common ancestor of the bird, jellyfish and fern. Y

  7. Is sleep's 'supreme mystery' unraveling? An evolutionary analysis of sleep encounters no mystery; nor does life's earliest sleep, recently discovered in jellyfish.

    E-print Network

    Kavanau, Julian L.

    2006-01-01

    for additional dedicated neural circuits, those aspects ofdedicated’ circuits would have required more neural tissueneural multifunctionality these components, for example shape, would have to be stored in separate ‘dedicated’ circuits

  8. A toxin homology domain in an astacin-like metalloproteinase of the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea with a dual role in digestion and development.

    PubMed

    Pan, T; Gröger, H; Schmid, V; Spring, J

    1998-07-01

    Metalloproteinases of the astacin family such as tolloid play major roles in animal morphogenesis. Cnidarians are thought to be evolutionary simple organisms and, therefore, a metalloproteinase from the marine hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea was analysed to evaluate the role of this conserved gene familiy at the base of animal evolution. Surprisingly, the proteinase domain of Podocornyne PMP1 is more similar to human meprin than to HMP1 from another hydrozoan, the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris. However, PMP1 and HMP1 both contain a small C-terminal domain with six cysteines that distinguishes them from other astacin-like molecules. Similar domains have been described only recently from sea anemone toxins specific for potassium channels. This toxin homology (Tox1) domain is clearly distinct from epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains or other cysteine-rich modules and terminates with the characteristic pattern CXXXCXXC with three out of six cysteines in the last eight residues of the protein. PMP1 is transiently expressed at various sites of morphogenetic activity during medusa bud development. In the adult medusa, however, expression is concentrated to the manubrium, the feeding organ, where the PMP1 gene is highly induced upon feeding. These disparate expression patterns suggest a dual role of PMP1 comparable to tolloid in development and, like astacin in the crayfish, also for food digestion. The Tox1 domain of PMP1 could serve as a toxin to keep the pray paralysed after ingestion, but as a sequence module such Tox1 domains with six cysteines are neither restricted to cnidarians nor to toxins. PMID:9683741

  9. An Extracellular Matrix Protein of Jellyfish Homologous to Mammalian Fibrillins Forms Different Fibrils Depending on the Life Stage of the Animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Reber-Müller; Thomas Spissinger; Peter Schuchert; Jürg Spring; Volker Schmid

    1995-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody generated against the isolated extracellular matrix (ECM) of the medusa Podocoryne carnea M. Sarz (Coelenterata, Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) stains a fibrillar component of the Podocoryne ECMs in immunohistochemical preparations. The antigen shows a different staining pattern according to the type of ECMs from the animals life cycle. In ontogeny the epitope first appears after gastrulation in the planula

  10. An even ``newer'' animal Rob DeSalle1

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    ), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals and other closely related animals), Porifera (sponges), Cteno- phores (comb--Bilateria, Cnidaria, Porifera-- can easily be distinguished from each other using morphology. The relationships

  11. Introduction to the Ctenophora

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides an introduction to ctenophores, or "comb jellies". Site includes links to information on Cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.), echinoderms, and sponges. Two images of ctenophores are included.

  12. Clarifying the identity of the Japanese Habu-kurage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Lewis; Bastian Bentlage

    Abstract Here we describe the new species Chironex yamaguchii(Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. This highly venomous cubomedusa, commonly referred to as Habu-kurage in Japan, is the culprit for several fatalities in Japanese waters. The scientific name adopted for this species in the literature is Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, but our taxonomic investigations show that this represents a case ofmistaken identity.

  13. Marine Stingers: Review of an Under-Recognized Global Coastal Management Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa-Ann Gershwin; Monica De Nardi; Kenneth D. Winkel; Peter J. Fenner

    2010-01-01

    Dangerous marine stingers (jellyfish) are an emotive issue in tropical Australia, where they are widely regarded as the number one marine health threat. However, numerous severe and fatal stings have been reported throughout the tropical and temperate seas of the world, indicating that marine stingers are a global health problem. Further, life-threatening jellyfish stings are more frequently reported globally now

  14. Preservation methods alter stable isotope values in gelatinous zooplankton: implications for interpreting trophic ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas E. C. Fleming; Jonathan D. R. Houghton; Caroline L. Magill; Chris Harrod

    2011-01-01

    Jellyfish are increasingly topical within studies of marine food webs. Stable isotope analysis represents a valuable technique to unravel the complex trophic role of these long-overlooked species. In other taxa, sample preservation has been shown to alter the isotopic values of species under consideration, potentially leading to misinterpretation of trophic ecology. To identify potential preservation effects in jellyfish, we collected

  15. Identify key design elements of desired function

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    -stage ephyrae. c, Final optimized Medusoid body and muscle layout with radial and circular fiber orientations. d Mesoglea Muscle 2 gf Raw signals Micropatterned cardiomyocytes Supplementary Fig. 3 Optical mapping design Biomimetic design Optimal design 1mm a e 10m f 100m 1mm Jellyfish ephyra b c d Jellyfish muscle

  16. Check List 5(1): 133138, 2009. ISSN: 1809-127X

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    Check List 5(1): 133­138, 2009. ISSN: 1809-127X LISTS OF SPECIES 133 Neritic Jellyfishes (Cnidaria of this study was to perform a survey of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa) on the coast of Rio Cubozoa and Scyphozoa, both classes of Cnidaria, are composed mainly by large solitary marine

  17. Dynamic Model for Life History of Scyphozoa

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Congbo; Fan, Meng; Wang, Xin; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A two-state life history model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp-medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes. Reducing artificial marine constructions, aiding predator populations, and directly controlling the jellyfish population would help to manage the jellyfish blooms. The theoretical analyses and numerical experiments yield several insights into the nature underlying the model and shed some new light on the general control strategy for jellyfish. PMID:26114642

  18. Timein aTestTube october 2012

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    it to radiation rather than the UV light used in traditional photography. Put simply, the bacteria--a living applies the DNA of jellyfish to cause the bacteria to fluoresce and manipulates the image by exposing

  19. Bell Pettigrew Museum of Natural History

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    such as jellyfish. On this basis, two subphyla are classified: the Medusozoa, in which a medusa occurs in the life Endoderm Ectoderm Subphylum: Medusozoa Class: Hydrozoa Order: Limnomedusae Order: Laingiomedusae Order

  20. Introduction to Cnidaria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In depth site covers Cnidarian life history, ecology, morphology, systematics, and fossil record. Organisms described include corals, anemones, sea pens, box jellies, siphonophores, hydroids, fire corals, medusae, and true jellyfish. Nice explanations, diagrams, and photos.

  1. Formation of the Apical Flaps in Nematocysts of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne

    Formation of the Apical Flaps in Nematocysts of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) ABIGAIL J. REFT of the phylum Cnidaria (e.g., jellyfish, sea anemones, corals). Nematocysts are used in capture of prey, defense

  2. GAMM-Mitt. 32, No. 1, 47 60 (2009) / DOI 10.1002/gamm.200910004 On the Approximation of Transport Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Blennerhassett, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ranging from the analysis of fluid flow in the ocean and the predator-prey interaction in jelly- fish.: On the Approximation of Transport Phenomena consideration of predator-prey interaction in jellyfish [24

  3. Degradation of the Adriatic medusa Aurelia sp. by ambient bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tinkara Tinta; Alenka Malej; Maja Kos; Valentina Turk

    2010-01-01

    The decomposition of jellyfish after major bloom events results in the release of large amounts of nutrients, which can significantly\\u000a alter nutrient and oxygen dynamics in the surrounding environment. The response of the ambient bacterial community to decomposing\\u000a jellyfish biomass was evaluated in two marine ecosystems, the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and Big Lake (Mljet\\u000a Island, southern Adriatic

  4. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775). Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Giacco, Elisabetta; Pane, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775) which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity. PMID:19005582

  5. Trophic structure and community stability in an overfished ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Utne-Palm, Anne C; Salvanes, Anne G V; Currie, Bronwen; Kaartvedt, Stein; Nilsson, Göran E; Braithwaite, Victoria A; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Hundt, Matthias; van der Bank, Megan; Flynn, Bradley; Sandvik, Guro K; Klevjer, Thor A; Sweetman, Andrew K; Brüchert, Volker; Pittman, Karin; Peard, Kathleen R; Lunde, Ida G; Strandabø, Rønnaug A U; Gibbons, Mark J

    2010-07-16

    Since the collapse of the pelagic fisheries off southwest Africa in the late 1960s, jellyfish biomass has increased and the structure of the Benguelan fish community has shifted, making the bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) the new predominant prey species. Despite increased predation pressure and a harsh environment, the gobies are thriving. Here we show that physiological adaptations and antipredator and foraging behaviors underpin the success of these fish. In particular, body-tissue isotope signatures reveal that gobies consume jellyfish and sulphidic diatomaceous mud, transferring "dead-end" resources back into the food chain. PMID:20647468

  6. An application of underwater imaging for marine vertebrate ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Watson; Scott R. Benson; James T. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) and the National Marine Fisheries Service have conducted leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtle research for the last eight years. Leatherbacks come to the central California coast to forage on concentrations of jellyfish that accumulate in the nutrient rich waters over the coastal shelf. The research includes tracking leatherbacks across the Pacific Ocean with satellite transmitters,

  7. Observations on the anatomy, behaviour, reproduction and life cycle of the cubozoan Carybdea sivickisi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Hartwick; P. F. S. Cornelius; R. G. Hughes; E. A. Robson

    1991-01-01

    Substantial numbers of the very small carybdeid jellyfish, Carybdea sivickisi, have been observed feeding actively by divers in the vicinity of fringing coral reefs. During the day specimens were seen in close association with the substrate and with sessile macroalgae. They appeared able to adhere to substrates by contact with an area on the aboral surface of the bell. Individuals

  8. Removal of a Cryptic Intron and Subcellular Localization of Green Fluorescent Protein are Required to Mark Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Brightly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Haseloff; Kirby R. Siemering; Douglas C. Prasher; Sarah Hodge

    1997-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is finding wide use as a genetic marker that can be directly visualized in the living cells of many heterologous organisms. We have sought to express GFP in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but have found that proper expression of GFP is curtailed due to aberrant mRNA processing. An 84-nt

  9. Sea Anemone Genome Reveals Ancestral Eumetazoan Gene Repertoire and Genomic Organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas H. Putnam; Mansi Srivastava; Uffe Hellsten; Bill Dirks; Jarrod Chapman; Asaf Salamov; Astrid Terry; Harris Shapiro; Erika Lindquist; Vladimir V. Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Grigory Genikhovich; Igor V. Grigoriev; Susan M. Lucas; Robert E. Steele; John R. Finnerty; Ulrich Technau; Mark Q. Martindale; Daniel S. Rokhsar

    2007-01-01

    Sea anemones are seemingly primitive animals that, along with corals, jellyfish, and hydras, constitute the oldest eumetazoan phylum, the Cnidaria. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome of an emerging cnidarian model, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The sea anemone genome is complex, with a gene repertoire, exon-intron structure, and large-scale gene linkage more similar to

  10. Protecting & Preserving a Vital Natural Resource

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    and resource economics, have studied the connection between poor water quality and blue crab harvests. The team. In a related study, Lipton has examined the impact of nutrient reduction policies using a spatially explicit oyster, jellyfish and blue crab populations in the Chesapeake Bay. Using field and laboratory experiments

  11. Mammalian Expression of Infrared Fluorescent Proteins Engineered from a Bacterial Phytochrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaokun Shu; Antoine Royant; Michael Z. Lin; Todd A. Aguilera; Varda Lev-Ram; Paul A. Steinbach; Roger Y. Tsien

    2009-01-01

    Visibly fluorescent proteins (FPs) from jellyfish and corals have revolutionized many areas of molecular and cell biology, but the use of FPs in intact animals, such as mice, has been handicapped by poor penetration of excitation light. We now show that a bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans, incorporating biliverdin as the chromophore, can be engineered into monomeric, infrared-fluorescent proteins (IFPs), with

  12. Cnidarian Diversity Classes of Cnidaria

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    ­ kleptoparasite of siphonophores Macropinna microstoma Physalia physalis Physalia physalis · Portuguese Man of War jellyfish Nomeus gronoviiNomeus gronovii Physalia physalis · The PortugueseMan-o'-War consists of four main Mouth The Portuguese man-o'war, Physalia physalis, is one of around 175 species in the order

  13. Evidence of a planktonic food web response to changes in nutrient input dynamics in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pérez-Ruzafa; J. Gilabert; J. M. Gutiérrez; A. I. Fernández; C. Marcos; S. Sabah

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient input dynamics in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon has recently changed as a consequence of changes in agricultural practises. An interannual comparison of the environmental variables and the planktonic biomass size-spectra was performed between 1988 and 1997. While nitrate concentration was low in 1988, the values in 1997 increased considerably. Since 1995, two alloctonous jellyfish species (Rhyzostoma pulmo and

  14. Quantification of cyclic motion of marine animals from computer vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron M. Plotnik; Stephen M. Rock

    2002-01-01

    A vision-based automatic tracking system mounted on the ROV Ventana has successfully tracked jellyfish in Monterey Bay, California as part of a joint project between Stanford University and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). To enhance performance, improved lead information about the target's motion is desired. Human pilots derive lead information about that motion through the perception of motion

  15. A fast, lock-free approach for efficient parallel counting of occurrences of k-mers

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Kingsford, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Counting the number of occurrences of every k-mer (substring of length k) in a long string is a central subproblem in many applications, including genome assembly, error correction of sequencing reads, fast multiple sequence alignment and repeat detection. Recently, the deep sequence coverage generated by next-generation sequencing technologies has caused the amount of sequence to be processed during a genome project to grow rapidly, and has rendered current k-mer counting tools too slow and memory intensive. At the same time, large multicore computers have become commonplace in research facilities allowing for a new parallel computational paradigm. Results: We propose a new k-mer counting algorithm and associated implementation, called Jellyfish, which is fast and memory efficient. It is based on a multithreaded, lock-free hash table optimized for counting k-mers up to 31 bases in length. Due to their flexibility, suffix arrays have been the data structure of choice for solving many string problems. For the task of k-mer counting, important in many biological applications, Jellyfish offers a much faster and more memory-efficient solution. Availability: The Jellyfish software is written in C++ and is GPL licensed. It is available for download at http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/software/jellyfish. Contact: gmarcais@umd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21217122

  16. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  17. Some Representative Invertebrates from the Cretaceous Period

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Minor Keith

    This site provides large, high resolution photos and information about a variety of Cretaceous invertebrate fossil specimens. Fossils are arranged taxonomically and can be viewed by clicking on the appropriate fossil group. Types of organisms covered on the site include Annelids, Jellyfish, Corals, Brachiopods, Echinoids, Gastropods, Crustaceans, Belemnites, Ammonites, and Nautiloids.

  18. Glow Dog Glow

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-08-17

    Broadcast Transcript: South Korean researchers, ever striving to be top in science, have cloned a glow-in-the-dark dog. The little beagle was engineered by inserting genes from species--like jellyfish--that produce fluorescent proteins. The gene...

  19. Induction of segmentation in polyps of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) into medusae and formation of mirror- image medusa anlagen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL KROIHER; BARBARA SIEFKER; STEFAN BERKING

    2000-01-01

    Polyps of Aurelia aurita can transform into several medusae (jellyfish) in a process of sequential subdivision. During this transformation, two processes take place which are well known to play a key role in the formation of various higher metazoa: segmentation and metamorphosis. In order to compare these processes in bilaterians and cnidarians we studied the control and the kinetics of

  20. Hydrobiologia 451: 5568, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    , Cnidaria, Ctenophora, hydromedusae, nonindigenous species, scyphomedusae, siphonophore Abstract For the purposes of this article, the term `jellyfish' is used in reference to medusae of the phylum Cnidaria over to the production of pelagic Cnidaria or Ctenophora (Mills, 1995). Commercial fishing efforts

  1. Carybdea marsupialis (Cubozoa) in the Mediterranean Sea: the first case of a sting causing cutaneous and systemic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Bordehore, Cesar; Nogué, Santiago; Gili, Josep-Maria; Acevedo, Melissa J; Fuentes, Verónica L

    2015-01-01

    A woman stung by the box jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis (Cnidaria, Cubozoa) at a Spanish Mediterranean beach showed systemic manifestations over several months [pain far from the inoculation point, arthralgia, paresthesia, hyperesthesia, increase in eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE)] in addition to the skin condition. PMID:25163356

  2. Investigating the origins of triploblasty: `mesodermal' gene expression in a diploblastic animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum, Cnidaria; class, Anthozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Q. Martindale; Kevin Pang; John R. Finnerty

    2004-01-01

    Mesoderm played a crucial role in the radiation of the triploblastic Bilateria, permitting the evolution of larger and more complex body plans than in the diploblastic, non- bilaterian animals. The sea anemone Nematostella is a non- bilaterian animal, a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydras and jellyfish) is the likely sister group of the

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (80th, Chicago, Illinois, July 30-August 2, 1997): Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Law section of the Proceedings contains the following 10 papers: "Protection without a Shield: Revisiting the Journalist's Common Law Privilege" (Laurence B. Alexander); "Burning the Global Village: The Constitutionality of State Laws Regulating Indecency in Cyberspace" (Dolores L. Flamiano); "Of Jellyfish and Community Leaders: Redefining the…

  4. Assessment of Transient Gene Expression in Plant Tissues Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PEER M. SCHENK; ADRIAN R. ELLIOTT

    1998-01-01

    Four different promoters (35S and enhanced 35S of the cauliflower mosaic virus, polyubiquitin of maize and actin1 of rice) were compared in a transient assay using maize leaves and particle bombardment. A gene encoding the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the 35S promoter was used as an internal standard to monitor the effectiveness of each bombardment. Normalisation of

  5. Engineered GFP as a vital reporter in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-ling Chiu; Yasuo Niwa; Weike Zeng; Takanori Hirano; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Jen Sheen

    1996-01-01

    Background: The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has recently been used as a universal reporter in a broad range of heterologous living cells and organisms. Although successful in some plant transient expression assays based on strong promoters or high copy number viral vectors, further improvement of expression efficiency and fluorescent intensity are required for GFP to be

  6. A bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite (BISMAC) actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Villanueva; K. B. Joshi; J. B. Blottman; S. Priya

    2010-01-01

    A beam-shape composite actuator using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as the active component, termed a Bio-Inspired Shape Memory Alloy Composite (BISMAC), was designed to provide a large deformation profile. The BISMAC design was inspired by contraction of a jellyfish bell, utilizing the rowing mechanism for locomotion. Characterization of maximum deformation in underwater conditions was performed for different actuator configurations

  7. Galaxy transformation in action! The spiral galaxy WKK 6176

    E-print Network

    Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.

    ]. Fig. 1 shows our deep RC image of WKK 6176 before and af- ter star-subtraction; it demonstrates the effectiveness of the star-subtraction. Numerous low-luminosity filaments and bright knots (not foreground stars) stand out, giving the galaxy its `jelly-fish' appearance. 2 Galaxy transformation in dense environments

  8. ClanTox: a classifier of short animal toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Naamati; Manor Askenazi; Michal Linial

    2009-01-01

    Toxins are detected in sporadic species along the evolutionary tree of the animal kingdom. Venomous animals include scorpions, snakes, bees, wasps, frogs and numerous animals living in the sea such as the stonefish, snail, jellyfish, hydra and more. Interestingly, proteins that share a common scaffold with animal toxins also exist in non-venomous spe- cies. However, due to their short length

  9. An experimental study of voice-coil driven synthetic jet propulsion for underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Polsenberg-Thomas; Joel Burdick; Kamran Mohseni

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the thrust and flow structures produced by submerged synthetic jet actuators. Inspired by the propulsion methods of many sea creatures, such as jellyfish, squids, and salps; synthetic jets use vortex rings to create a net thrust. To assess the potential usability of these thrusters for propulsion and maneuvering of small underwater vehicles, a range of synthetic jet

  10. Vortex Rings in Bio-inspired and Biological Jet Propulsion Paul S. Krueger1, a

    E-print Network

    Hynes, Wayne L.

    Vortex Rings in Bio-inspired and Biological Jet Propulsion Paul S. Krueger1, a , Ali A. Moslemi1,b@odu.edu, e wstewart@uci.edu Keywords: Vortex rings, pulsed jets, propulsion, thrust, propulsive efficiency. Abstract. Pulsed-jets are commonly used for aquatic propulsion, such as squid and jellyfish locomotion

  11. Synthetic Jet Propulsion for Small Underwater Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annmarie Polsenberg Thomas; Michele Milano; Maxwell Grazier G'sell; Kathleen Fischer; Joel W. Burdick

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new synthetic jet actuation concept for small, low speed, highly maneuverable AUVs. Synthetic jet thrusters, which produce jets of vortex rings, are inspired by the pulsatile jet propulsion of salps, jellyfish, and squid. To assess the potential utility of this scheme, we developed synthetic jet actuator prototypes, and verified their function via both force measurement and

  12. Monitoring transgenic plants using in vivo markers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.N. Jr. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The gene coding for green fluorecent protein (GFP), isolated and cloned from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, is an ideal transgene for the monitoring of any plant species. It has the ability to fluoresce without added substrate, enzyme, or cofactor; it does not introduce morphological or sexual aberrations when expressed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Photo-real rendering of bioluminescence and iridescence in creatures from the abyss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Prusten

    2008-01-01

    The generation of photo-real renderings of bioluminescence is developed for creatures from the abyss. Bioluminescence results from a chemical reaction with examples found in deep-sea marine environments including: algae, copepods, jellyfish, squid, and fish. In bioluminescence, the excitation energy is supplied by a chemical reaction, not by a source of light. The greatest transparency window in seawater is in the

  14. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Neal Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green

  15. New England Aquarium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Information includes logistics, news, calendars, involvement options, research and conservation. A science and learning section offers resources for teachers, parents and kids; those for teachers include guides, trip information, enrichment programs, and a brochure from the Teacher Resource Center that can be downloaded. Largest displays include oceanic, jellyfish, and penguin exhibits. Located in Boston, Massachusetts.

  16. Craspedacusta sowerbii, Lankester 1880 - population dispersal analysis using COI and ITS sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela B. FRITZ; Martin PFANNKUCHEN; Andy REUNER; Ralph O. SCHILL; Franz BRÜMMER

    2009-01-01

    Craspedacusta sowerbii (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae, Olindiidae) is a freshwater jellyfish, which was discovered in England in 1880. Although thought to originate in South America, it became obvious that the species is native to the Yangtze River system in China. It has spread from China into lakes all over the world. Many different species, variations and sub-species have been described based on

  17. Reconstructing Source-Sink Dynamics in a Population with a Pelagic Dispersal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Decker, Mary Beth; Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ziqian; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    For many organisms, the reconstruction of source-sink dynamics is hampered by limited knowledge of the spatial assemblage of either the source or sink components or lack of information on the strength of the linkage for any source-sink pair. In the case of marine species with a pelagic dispersal phase, these problems may be mitigated through the use of particle drift simulations based on an ocean circulation model. However, when simulated particle trajectories do not intersect sampling sites, the corroboration of model drift simulations with field data is hampered. Here, we apply a new statistical approach for reconstructing source-sink dynamics that overcomes the aforementioned problems. Our research is motivated by the need for understanding observed changes in jellyfish distributions in the eastern Bering Sea since 1990. By contrasting the source-sink dynamics reconstructed with data from the pre-1990 period with that from the post-1990 period, it appears that changes in jellyfish distribution resulted from the combined effects of higher jellyfish productivity and longer dispersal of jellyfish resulting from a shift in the ocean circulation starting in 1991. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the source-sink reconstruction is robust to typical systematic and random errors in the ocean circulation model driving the particle drift simulations. The jellyfish analysis illustrates that new insights can be gained by studying structural changes in source-sink dynamics. The proposed approach is applicable for the spatial source-sink reconstruction of other species and even abiotic processes, such as sediment transport. PMID:24835251

  18. Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) in the Mediterranean: A permanent invasion or a casual appearance?

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, L.; Macías, D.; Peliz, A.; Ruiz, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Mediterranean basin experienced Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) swarms that had dramatic consequences, including the region’s first recorded human fatality attributed to a jellyfish sting. Despite the impact of jellyfish on coastal economic activity and the importance of the tourism industry for the Mediterranean region (accounting for 15% of global tourism), no scientific consensus has been achieved regarding the causes of this episode. Here, we analyse the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the North-East Atlantic Ocean during the months previous to the appearance of P. physalis in the Mediterranean. We simulate the probable drift of Atlantic populations into the Mediterranean basin with a numerical model and compare model results with available observations. We conclude that the summer 2010 P. Physalis swarm was the result of an unusual combination of meteorological and oceanographic conditions during the previous winter and not a permanent invasion favoured by climatic changes. PMID:26108978

  19. Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) in the Mediterranean: A permanent invasion or a casual appearance?

    PubMed

    Prieto, L; Macías, D; Peliz, A; Ruiz, J

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Mediterranean basin experienced Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) swarms that had dramatic consequences, including the region's first recorded human fatality attributed to a jellyfish sting. Despite the impact of jellyfish on coastal economic activity and the importance of the tourism industry for the Mediterranean region (accounting for 15% of global tourism), no scientific consensus has been achieved regarding the causes of this episode. Here, we analyse the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the North-East Atlantic Ocean during the months previous to the appearance of P. physalis in the Mediterranean. We simulate the probable drift of Atlantic populations into the Mediterranean basin with a numerical model and compare model results with available observations. We conclude that the summer 2010 P. Physalis swarm was the result of an unusual combination of meteorological and oceanographic conditions during the previous winter and not a permanent invasion favoured by climatic changes. PMID:26108978

  20. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Jellyfishes are robust, short-lived animals, tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions and pollutants. The benthic jellyfish, Cassiopea sp. was collected from five locations along the north and eastern coast of Australia and analysed for trace elements to determine if this species has potential as a marine biomonitor. Both the oral arm and bell tissues readily accumulated aluminium, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc above ambient seawater levels. In contrast, lithium appeared to be actively regulated within the tissues while calcium, magnesium and strontium reflected the ambient environment. The multi-element signatures showed spatial variation, reflecting the geographical separations between locations, with locations closer together showing more similar elemental patterns. The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems. PMID:19747724

  1. Shocking Tails in the Major Merger Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, Matt S.; Couch, Warrick J.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Randall, Scott W.

    2012-05-01

    We identify four rare "jellyfish" galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imagery of the major merger cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies harbor trails of star-forming knots and filaments which have formed in situ in gas tails stripped from the parent galaxies, indicating they are in the process of being transformed by the environment. Further evidence for rapid transformation in these galaxies comes from their optical spectra, which reveal starburst, poststarburst, and active galactic nucleus features. Most intriguingly, three of the jellyfish galaxies lie near intracluster medium features associated with a merging "Bullet-like" subcluster and its shock front detected in Chandra X-ray images. We suggest that the high-pressure merger environment may be responsible for the star formation in the gaseous tails. This provides observational evidence for the rapid transformation of galaxies during the violent core passage phase of a major cluster merger.

  2. Practice Polymerase Chain Reaction Lab: Amplifying the Green Fluorescent Protein Gene

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The HURI SURI project is developing a regional biotechnology workforce pipeline by expanding and supporting biotechnology research experiences for Jamestown Community College (JCC) undergraduates and disseminating these research experiences and materials to area high school teachers and students. In this lab, students will amplify a gene found in jellyfish called Green Fluorescent Protein to study polymerase chain reactions. This 9 page document explains in detail how to complete each of the three sections of the lab.

  3. Separation and analysis of different types of nematocysts from Cyanea capillata (L.) medusae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Wiebring; Heike Helmholz; Stephan Lassen; Andreas Prange; Gerhard Jarms

    2010-01-01

    Medusae play an important role in marine ecosystems, as competitors of many invertebrate and fish species. Additionally, jellyfish\\u000a stings can cause severe pain, inflammation of the affected skin, and allergic reactions in human. Climate and environmental\\u000a changes are likely to affect the medusae, but it is not yet clear whether these will affect their distribution, physiology,\\u000a and their toxicity. Very

  4. Cyanea capillata tentacle-only extract as a potential alternative of nematocyst venom: Its cardiovascular toxicity and tolerance to isolation and purification procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Xiao; Qian He; Yufeng Guo; Jing Zhang; Fei Nie; Yue Li; Xiaofei Ye; Liming Zhang

    2009-01-01

    As the proteins with cardiovascular toxicity in jellyfish nematocyst venom and tentacle-only extract (TOE) are probably encoded by the same gene, TOE provides a potential alternative of nematocyst venom with much richer source for acquisition of such proteins. In this study, Cyanea capillata nematocyst venom and TOE (5mg\\/kg) both exhibited cardiovascular toxicity in rats, and TOE caused blood pressure reduction

  5. High-molecular weight protein toxins of marine invertebrates and their elaborate modes of action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Butzke; Andreas Luch

    \\u000a High-molecular weight protein toxins significantly contribute to envenomations by certain marine invertebrates, e.g., jellyfish\\u000a and fire corals. Toxic proteins frequently evolved from enzymes meant to be employed primarily for digestive purposes. The\\u000a cellular intermediates produced by such enzymatic activity, e.g., reactive oxygen species or lysophospholipids, rapidly and\\u000a effectively mediate cell death by disrupting cellular integrity. Membrane integrity may also be

  6. Chemical Nature of Bioluminescence Systems in Coelenterates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Shimomura; Frank H. Johnson

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of substances involved in light-emitting reactions among bioluminescent coelenterates has revealed a pronounced uniformity in the structural features of initial reactants, i.e., ``luciferins'' and photo-protein chromophores, as well as the light-emitter product. This product is structurally identical among the different classes of coelenterates: Hydrozoa (the jellyfish, Aequorea), Anthozoa (the sea cactus, Cavernularia; sea pansy, Renilla; and sea pen, Leioptilus),

  7. Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Trafficking of the Green Fluorescent Protein in the Phloem and Symplastic Unloading of the Protein into Sink Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Imlau; Elisabeth Truernit; Norbert Sauer

    1999-01-01

    Macromolecular trafficking within the sieve element-companion cell complex, phloem unloading, and post-phloem transport were studied using the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP). The GFP gene was expressed in Arabidopsis and tobacco under the control of the AtSUC2 promoter. In wild-type Arabidopsis plants, this promoter regulates ex- pression of the companion cell-specific AtSUC2 sucrose-H 1 symporter gene. Analyses of the AtSUC2

  8. Prenatal Development of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Cucullo

    \\u000a Mammalian, and more specifically human, brain development is the result of a long and complex evolutionary pathway. As we\\u000a move from the simplest jellyfish nervous system, (which forms an undifferentiated network) to vertebrate animals (such as\\u000a fish, amphibians, and reptiles), we observe the development of more complex and larger brains. The developmental process reaches\\u000a its highest form of evolution and

  9. Biological Imaging Capability in the ABRS Facility on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David R.; Murdoch, T.; Regan, M. F.; Meshlberger, R. J.; Mortenson, T. E.; Albino, S. A.; Paul, A. L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) on the International Space Station (ISS) and its biological imaging capability. The ABRS is an environmental control chamber. It has two indpendently controlled Experiment Research Chambers (ERCs) with temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide controls. ABRS is a third generation plant growth system. Several experiments are reviewed, with particular interest in the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) a non-destructive plant stress reporting mechanism, naturally found in jellyfish.

  10. Ocean Life for Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides a variety of photos and text to teach students about life in the oceans. Various animals discussed include fish, sharks, dolphins, octopus, starfish, eels, lobster and jellyfish. Students choose an animal to look at, view some facts about that animal, and then answer questions based on the information given. The objective is for young elementary students to be able to distinguish amoung types of ocean life and what makes them unique.

  11. Use of Helper-Free Replication-Defective Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Vectors To Study Macrophage and T Tropism: Evidence for Distinct Levels of Restriction in Primary Macrophages and a T-Cell Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVE S. KIM; XUE JUAN YOU; MARY-ELIZABETH HARMON; JULIE OVERBAUGH; HUNG FAN

    2001-01-01

    Cell tropism of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) is governed in part by interactions between the viral envelope protein and the cellular receptors. However, there is evidence that envelope-host cell interactions also affect postentry steps in viral replication. We used a helper-free replication- defective SIV macaque (SIVmac)-based retroviral vector carrying the enhanced jellyfish green fluorescent protein

  12. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Todd; Bostrom, Brian L; Hastings, Mervin D; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6) t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6)) equivalent to 4.2×10(8) megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0-7.4×10(8)). Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6) t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8) MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  13. Blind sea creature hunts with a light

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2005-07-07

    The deep sea is a seriously dark place, so when a light shows up, even a tiny one, fish will swim up for a closer look. That seems to be the strategy behind the glowing red spots used by a relative of the jellyfish, called Erenna. Scientists have just discovered that these creatures have glowing red dots in their tentacles, which are probably used to lure fishy prey.

  14. Transport of virally expressed green fluorescent protein through the secretory pathway in tobacco leaves is inhibited by cold shock and brefeldin A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Boevink; Barry Martin; Karl Oparka; Simon Santa Cruz; Chris Hawes

    1999-01-01

    .   Potato virus X (PVX) has been used as an expression vector to target the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish\\u000a Aequorea victoria to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of tobacco (Nicotiana clevelandii L.) leaves. Expression of free GFP resulted in strong cytoplasmic fluorescence with organelles being imaged in negative contrast.\\u000a Translocation of GFP into the lumen of the ER

  15. Tissue tropism in the chicken embryo of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle diseases strains that express green fluorescence protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Al-garib; A. L. J. Gielkens; E. Gruys; B. P. H. Peeters; G. Koch

    2003-01-01

    The tissue tropism of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated using 8-day-old and 14-day-old embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), inoculated with an infectious clone of the non-virulent La Sota strain (NDFL-GFP) or its virulent derivative (NDFLtag-GFP). Both strains expressed the gene encoding jellyfish green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a marker. The GFP was readily expressed in chicken embryo

  16. Growth, decay and burial compaction of Dickinsonia, an iconic Ediacaran fossil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Retallack

    2007-01-01

    Retallack, G.J., September, 2007. Growth, decay and burial compaction of Dickinsonia, an iconic Ediacaran fossil. Alcheringa 31, 215-240. ISSN 0311-5518.Dickinsonia is a Neoproterozoic, Ediacaran fossil, variously considered a polychaete, turbellarian or annelid worm, jellyfish, polyp, xenophyophoran protist, lichen or mushroom. Its preservation as unskeletonized impressions in quartz sandstones has been attributed to a Neoproterozoic regime of aerobic decay less effective

  17. Spatio-temporal foraging patterns of a giant zooplanktivore, the leatherback turtle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Fossette; Victoria J. Hobson; Charlotte Girard; Beatriz Calmettes; Philippe Gaspar; Jean-Yves Georges; Graeme C. Hays

    2010-01-01

    Understanding food web functioning through the study of natural bio-indicators may constitute a valuable and original approach. In the context of jellyfish proliferation in many overexploited marine ecosystems studying the spatio-temporal foraging patterns of the giant “jellyvore” leatherback turtle turns out to be particularly relevant. Here we analyzed long-term tracking data to assess spatio-temporal foraging patterns in 21 leatherback turtles

  18. Chemical nature of bioluminescence systems in coelenterates.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, O; Johnson, F H

    1975-04-01

    Analysis of substances involved in light-emitting reactions among bioluminescent coelenterates has revealed a pronounced uniformity in the structural features of initial reactants, i.e., "luciferins" and photo-protein chromophores, as well as the light-emitter product. This product is structurally identical among the different classes of coelenterates: Hydrozoa (the jellyfish, Aequorea), Anthozoa (the sea cactus, Cavernularia; sea pansy, Renilla; and sea pen, Leioptilus), and very likely also the Scyphozoa (the jellyfish, Pelagia). In each of these instances the reaction product, namely, 2-(p-hydroxy-pnenylacetyl)amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl) pyrazine, is the actual light-emitter, whether it occurs in a Ca2+-triggered photoprotein type of luminescence, or in a "luciferin-luciferase" type. The evidence indicates that in certain coelenterates, e.g., Cavernularia, these two types are equally significant, whereas in others (Renilla and Leioptilus) the "luciferin-luciferase" type predominates over the Ca-triggerable photoprotein type, and finally that only the photoprotein type functions in the luciferaseless jellyfish, Aequorea. In all instances investigated, the structure of the light-emitter prior to the luminescence reaction appears to be essentially the same as that of the chromophore of unreacted aequorin. The product of the luminescence reaction is absent in extracts of non luminous species. However, a product very similar to that of luminescent coelenterates occurs also in representatives of other phyla, including the cephalopod molluscs, e.g., the "firefly squid" Watasenia and probably various ctenophores as well. PMID:236561

  19. Insight into the molecular and functional diversity of cnidarian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  20. Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515