Science.gov

Sample records for jeonbuk province 1979-1980

  1. Microbial examination of nonheated foods served in feeding programs of elementary schools, Iksan City, Jeonbuk Province, Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Ko, Jinyoung; Park, Hyoseok; Yang, Soonwook; Kim, Hoikyung

    2011-09-01

    More than 90% of elementary school students in Korea have lunch provided by a school feeding program. This study examined nonheated foods, foods in which final ingredients were added after cooking ("heated/nonheated foods"), and desserts for microbial contamination levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens. We obtained a total of 77 food samples belonging to the above three groups from four elementary schools located in Iksan, Jeonbuk, Korea, from June to July 2010. Among the samples, 15% of nonheated foods and 9% of heated/nonheated foods contained > 6 log CFU of aerobic bacteria per g. Unacceptable coliform counts according to Korean national standards (3 log CFU/g) were also observed in 30, 4.5, and 26% of nonheated foods, heated/nonheated foods, and desserts, respectively. The foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, and Cronobacter sakazakii were found in two, one, and two of the total samples, respectively. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 indicates a low level of safety in the school lunches served in Korean elementary schools. To improve food safety, hazard analysis critical control point guidelines should be applied to school food service establishments to lower the microbial risks in foods served to children. PMID:21902929

  2. Annual Report, 1979-1980. New York City Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Technical Coll., Brooklyn. Div. of Continuing Education and Extension Services.

    Funding, enrollments, and outcomes are reported for the programs offered during 1979-1980 by New York City Technical College's Division of Continuing Education and Extension Services. The report's introduction analyzes enrollment in the division, summarizes external evaluation of selected programs, and examines problems of staffing, space, and the…

  3. Appropriations: State Tax Funds for Operating Expenses of Higher Education, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, M. M.

    Information about tax assistance to public universities and colleges for 1979-1980 is provided. The report details state tax-fund appropriations alphabetically by state for operating expenses of higher education. Among findings were that the 50 states appropriated more than $19 billion for annual operating expenses in fiscal year 1979-1980, that…

  4. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  5. Title VII Bilingual Bicultural Program. Community School District 5. Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Melvin; And Others

    This Title VII Bilingual/Bicultural Program was conducted in a New York City community school district in 1979-1980. It served limited English speaking Hispanic students in grades K-9. It provided subject area instruction in the students' native or dominant language, with an emphasis on reading instruction. The introduction of the report describes…

  6. Evaluation of Title IV-C ESEA Projects, 1979-1980. Report #8107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This booklet contains 13 individual project evaluations for activities funded under the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV-C during 1979-1980 in the Philadelphia School District. The projects are: (1) Alternative Direction for the 80s; (2) PREP 6; (g) PREP 7; (4) Building Bridges; (5) Consumer Affairs Education Service; (6)…

  7. Fort Hamilton High School Project GRASP. ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Ruddie A.; And Others

    This report is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted at the Fort Hamilton High School in Brooklyn, New York, in 1979-1980. This bilingual program provided instruction for Greek, Spanish, and Arabic speaking students. The ethnic and economic composition of the neighborhood and of the school population are discussed, and the…

  8. Recession of Martian north polar cap - 1979-1980 Viking observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    The polar regression curve for the Martian northern polar cap, derived from Viking observations for the 1979-1980 regression, is discussed, and comparisons with previous regression curves are made. Differences in the curves may be due to dust storms affecting the deposition of the cap. It is not possible to unambiguously ascribe differences between the curves to dynamical effects, since detailed information on the longitudinal dependence, which was an uncontrolled variable, is not available.

  9. Active microwave investigation of snowpacks: Experimental documentation, Colorado 1979-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Aslam, A.; Abdelrazik, M.

    1981-01-01

    During the winter of 1979-1980, the University of Kansas Microwave Active Spectrometer systems measured the backscattering properties of snowpacks under varying conditions at four test sites in Colorado. In addition to the radar data over 1-35 GHz, ground-truth measurements of the atmospheric, snow, and soil characteristics were obtained for each radar data set. The test sites, data acquisition procedures, and data that were acquired in this experiment are presented and described.

  10. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project for the period 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, M.L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-08-01

    The primary focus of the Project during 1979-1980 was formulation of system level performance goals and the translation of these goals into conceptual design requirements. The overall performance goals, although presented as specific to the Central Appalachian resource, are general in all areas except mine size and regional geology. Five system performance areas were covered: production cost, miner safety and health, environmental impact, and coal conservation. During the latter portion of 1980, project attention turned to transformation into conceptual design requirements the previously identified opportunities to meet the systems requirements. The Central Appalachian coals were chosen as the focus of the early system definition work on the basis of a brief analysis. Preliminary estimates indicated substantial deposits of coal in the Gulf Coast and the Brooks Range region of Alaska. At the close of 1980, this resource study was in the midst of an in-depth analysis of substantial coal deposits within the five major coal provinces - Appalachia, the Interior, the Rocky Mountains, the Gulf Coast, and Alaska. Finally, the project launched a brief conceptual design activity in early 1979, and performed a broad survey of current R and D in underground mining technology. Subsequent work in the area of technology assessment focused on underground slurry transport.

  11. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lettvin, E. (Compiler); Boyce, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography cites 698 reports and articles published from May 1979 through May 1980 by principal investigators and associates who received support from NASA's Office of Space Science, as part of the Planetary Geology program. Entries are arranged in the following categories: (1) general interest; (2) solar system, asteroids, comets, and satellites; (3) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (4) regolith and volatiles; (5) volcanism; (6) impact craters; (7) Eolian glacial An author index is provided. The bibliography serves as a companion document to NASA TM 81776, "Reports of Planetary Geology Programs, 1979-1980".

  12. Project P.R.O.B.E., Title VII. Community School District 7. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Elaine; Sperber, Diane

    During the 1979-1980 school year Project Primary Reading Objectives for Bilingual Education (P.R.O.B.E.) was involved in improving the rate of reading growth and cognitive development of four and five year olds from the Bronx, New York. In bilingual classes that were conducted primarily in Spanish, the 153 program participants received instruction…

  13. Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

  14. Youth in Psychoeducational Services Program (Special Education). E.S.E.A. Title IV-C. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Research, Planning and Evaluation.

    During the 1979-1980 school year, 16 severely emotionally disturbed secondary school students participated in the Youth in Psychoeducational Services (YIPS) program. The program provided intensive academic and behavioral treatment, family counseling, and staff development activities. YIPS was evaluated using a model that required the comparison of…

  15. Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in the Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) from Jeonbuk Province, Korea.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). Pathogens were identified using PCR which included Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Theileria. Rickettsia was not detected, whereas Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria infections were detected in 4, 2, and 8 animals, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen was Theileria. Of the 8 Theileria-positive animals, 2 were mixed-infected with 3 pathogens (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria) and another 2 animals showed mixed-infection with 2 pathogens (Anaplasma and Theileria). Sequencing analysis was used to verify the PCR results. The pathogens found in this study were identified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Theileria sp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report identifying these 3 pathogens in the Korean water deer. Our results suggest that the Korean water deer may serve as a major reservoir for these tick-borne pathogens, leading to spread of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, livestock, and humans. Further studies are needed to investigate their roles in this respect. PMID:26537046

  16. Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in the Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) from Jeonbuk Province, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). Pathogens were identified using PCR which included Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Theileria. Rickettsia was not detected, whereas Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria infections were detected in 4, 2, and 8 animals, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen was Theileria. Of the 8 Theileria-positive animals, 2 were mixed-infected with 3 pathogens (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria) and another 2 animals showed mixed-infection with 2 pathogens (Anaplasma and Theileria). Sequencing analysis was used to verify the PCR results. The pathogens found in this study were identified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Theileria sp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report identifying these 3 pathogens in the Korean water deer. Our results suggest that the Korean water deer may serve as a major reservoir for these tick-borne pathogens, leading to spread of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, livestock, and humans. Further studies are needed to investigate their roles in this respect. PMID:26537046

  17. AIAW Directory 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    This directory lists Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women member institutions alphabetically by names of colleges and universities. It includes contact persons at the institution, region, and the institution's sport program. A list of institutions sponsoring sports is also provided. Each sport list is alphabetically ordered by state…

  18. Technical documentation for the Nonresidential-Buildings Energy-Consumption Survey: 1979-1980, building characteristics, energy end use and fuel oil tank data, public use data tapes. Users' guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This document provides basic information and technical specifications necessary for using the machine-readable magnetic tapes containing the Building Characteristics, Energy End Use and Fuel Oil Tank data from the 1979-1980 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS). Included in this document are a brief overview of the NBECS, technical specifications for reading the tapes and descriptions of the contents of each of the files contained on the tape. The remaining sections are devoted to technical topics of special interest to users of the data. Appended to this document are copies of the questionnaire used in the survey, a listing of the contents of the SPSS labels file, COBOL file description and TPL codebook. The results of the NBECS have been reported in a series of publications which are available to the public. A list of the reports currently available is included here as Appendix H.

  19. Summary of workshops concerning regional seismic source zones of parts of the conterminous United States, convened by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1979-1980, Golden, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenhaus, Paul C., (Edited By)

    1983-01-01

    Workshops were convened by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain the latest information and concepts relative to defining seismic source zones for five regions of the United States. The zones, with some modifications, have been used in preparation of new national probabilistic ground motion hazard maps by the U.S. Geological Survey. The five regions addressed are the Great Basin, the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Southern Rocky Mountains, the Central Interior, and' the northeastern United States. Discussions at the workshops focussed on possible temporal and spatial variations of seismicity within the regions, latest ages of surface-fault displacements, most recent uplift or subsidence, geologic structural provinces as they relate to seismicity, and speculation on earthquake causes. Within the Great Basin region, the zones conform to areas characterized by a predominance of faults that have certain ages of latest surface displacements. In the Northern and Southern Rocky Mountain regions, zones primarily conform to distinctive structural terrane. In the Central Interior, primary emphasis was placed on an interpretation of the areal distribution of historic seismicity, although geophysical studies in the Reelfoot rift area provided data for defining zones in the New Madrid earthquake area. An interpretation of the historic seismicity also provided the basis for drawing the zones of the New England region. Estimates of earthquake maximum magnitudes and of recurrence times for these earthquakes are given for most of the zones and are based on either geologic data or opinion.

  20. Associate Faculty Handbook, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Arvin

    Procedures and guidelines are presented for the associate faculty at Northland Pioneer College, as compiled by the College's Business, Public Information, Facilities, and Student Services Offices and by the Offices of Instruction and of the President. The handbook first enumerates 18 standards and expectations dealing with accreditation criteria,…

  1. Albany State College Factbook, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albany State Coll., GA.

    The fourth edition of the Albany State College Fact Book, developed by the Office of Institutional Research, provides detailed information about the college. The design of the publication provides necessary data in the preparation of grants and proposals and in responding to questionnaires seeking pertinent institutional data. Contents include:…

  2. Peer Dynamics Final Evaluation Report. 1979/1980. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cathy; Walker, Connie

    This is Part I of a final evaluation of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g. drug-alcohol abuse, and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile delinquency…

  3. Industrial energy use, annual report for 1979 - 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, M. O.; Kothari, V. S.; Sarin, A.; Hauth, D. C.; Kaplan, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study covering major energy-intensive industries to identify areas with high potentials for improvement in the efficiency of industrial gas use are given. About 85 percent of all natural gas used in industrial process heaters is accounted for in the seven industries which are primary metals (iron and steel, aluminum), stone, clay and glass, petroleum, chemicals, food, textiles, and paper. The study proceeded in four major steps. In step 1, the most recent industrial fuel use data was collected, checked, and disaggregated by process, furnace, and fuel type using five national energy consumption data bases. In Step 2, efficiency and heat distribution for 40 furnaces were determined using energy and material balances. In Step 3, discussions were held with industry representatives to obtain feedback on the study's findings relating to current and future uses of alternate energy sources and promising conservation options which are available or under development. In Step 4, quantitative data on total energy use and typical furnace efficiency were incorporated with qualitative information on future fuel use trends, future changes in process/furnace mix, etc., to identify areas where maximum gains in energy efficiency could occur.

  4. Peer Dynamics 1979-1980 Evaluation Report. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cathy; Walker, Connie

    This is Part 2 of a final evaluation of a program to reduce destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g., drug-alcohol abuse and juvenile delinquency) in school-age youth. The program uses peer counseling in schools to develop self-esteem and better communication skills in students. Analysis of attitude tests is performed and factors affecting the…

  5. Earth orbital teleoperator system evaluation: Test report, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Areas which have significant influence upon the engineering design of an operational teleoperator are addressed. Teleoperator lighting systems, thruster systems, and stereoptic visual systems are discussed. The effects of specified levels of several teleoperator subsystems on human operator performance are determined. Four evaluations are reviewed, each dealing with operator performance under various task conditions.

  6. Medical and Health Sciences Division research report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Medical and Health Sciences Division conducts research programs relevant to neoplastic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular diseases. Basic biological science, nuclear medicine, and epidemiology provide an integrated approach to solving biomedical problems directly related to occupational medicine and environmental health effects. The central theme of this research is focused on both the mechanisms and risk assessments of diseases caused by accidental exposure to chemical toxicants derived from fossil and synthetic fuels or to radiation. A major reorganizational change made this past year restructured the division into two branches. The environmental and health sciences branch contains a cancer and pulmonary research section, an interdisciplinary task group section, a cardiovascular research section, and a research support section. The radiation and nuclear medicine branch consists of a radiation and nuclear medicine section and an occupational epidemiology section. In addition, special task groups have been created to provide an interdisciplinary team approach in certain research efforts. Information included in this booklet summarizes research results and related activities for the period from October 1, 1979, to September 30, 1980.

  7. Media Catalog: South Asian Studies. 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. South Asia Media Center.

    The bibliography lists and annotates 111 multimedia teaching aids for instruction in South Asian Studies at the elementary, secondary, and collegiate levels. The collection listed is housed in the South Asia Media Center at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas. Topics covered include the culture, economics, daily life, politics, religion,…

  8. Report of Committee R on Government Relations, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Henry T.

    1980-01-01

    A report from the Committee R on Government Relations of the American Association of University Professors is presented. The Department of Education, federal budgets, reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, intelligence legislation, truth-in-testing legislation, amending the National Labor Relations Act, and the presidential election of 1980…

  9. Mutual phenomena of Saturn's satellites in 1979-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksnes, K.; Franklin, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Using two sets of orbital elements and the radii of the Saturnian satellites 1 (Mimas) through 7 (Hyperion), we find that from October 1979 until August 1980 nearly 300 mutual eclipses and occultations involving these bodies will occur. To allow for the expected errors in the satellite ephemerides, we repeat these calculations in order to obtain the additional events that occur when all satellite radii (save Titan's) are increased by 1000 km. A third listing predicts eclipses of satellites by (the shadow of) the ring. Photometric observations of a large number of these events will add much precise information to our knowledge of the Saturnian system at a critical time.

  10. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  11. Fact Book 1979-1980. State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

    Data presented on the State University System (SUS) of Florida are presented in the form of tabular displays, charts, graphs, and a glossary. Preliminary sections list members of the Florida Board of Regents and provide a description of the State University System of Florida. The 10 major sections cover the following areas: (1) institutional…

  12. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1979-1980 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Designed to provide insight into the proceedings, transactions, and findings of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, this 1979-80 annual report reflects the Commission's efforts to act in a liaison capacity between tribes and state government and to provide tribes with technical assistance. The report describes 17 projects completed during…

  13. Georgia State University Fact Book, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glynton, Ed.

    Information on subjects of interest to staff, students, faculty, and friends of the Georgia State University is presented. Twelve chapters provide: (1) general information, such as a brief history, a statement of purpose and an overview of the university system of the state; (2) administration, including an administrative organizational chart; (3)…

  14. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  15. Reports of planetary geology program, 1979 - 1980. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, P.; Greeley, R.; Dalli, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of 145 reports are compiled addressing the morphology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy of planetary surfaces with some specific examinations of volcanic, aeolian, fluvial, and periglacial processes and landforms. In addition, reports on cartography and remote sensing of planet surfaces are included.

  16. Lau Year-End Report, 1979-1980. Los Angeles Unified School District. Publication No. 379.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbender, Leo; And Others

    This second annual year-end report summarizes the efforts of administrators, teachers, and students in the Los Angeles Unified School District on behalf of children whose primary language is not English. It documents the district's response to the January 1974 Supreme Court decision in Lau v. Nichols. The response is embodied in programs for…

  17. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, M. L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.

  18. State of Maine Student Financial Aid Guide to Post-Secondary Education. 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Post-Secondary Education Commission, Augusta.

    Financial aid information for residents of the State of Maine is presented in this booklet. Instructions for completing the College Scholarship Service Financial Aid Form are presented. The Basic Educational Opportunity Grants Program, the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, Maine State Incentive Scholarship Program, and the New…

  19. Decisions of the Supreme Court, 1979-1980--Labor Relations and Employment Discrimination Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Reviews 11 Supreme Court decisions. In NLRB v Yeshiva University, the Court held that the full-time faculty at Yeshiva University were managerial employees excluded from collective bargaining under the National Labor Relations Act. Journal availability: Industrial Relations Law Journal, Room 1, Boalt Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA…

  20. Physics and medicine: the Bevatron/Bevalac experience, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lothrop, F.; Alonso, J.; Force, R.; Grunder, H.; Lewis, S.; Miller, R.; Tekawa, M.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy ion radiobiology has been integrated successfully into the research program at the Bevatron/Bevalac for the past several years. During the 1979 to 1980 year radiotherapy trials have been conducted side-by-side with the demanding program of heavy ion nuclear science research at this national facility. Careful attention is given to the scheduling of research on the SuperHILAC and Bevatron/Bevalac so that the nuclear science and biomedical programs at the Bevatron/Bevalac and the program at the SuperHILAC are served to maximum effect. Efforts to maximize the researchers' time have resulted in hardware, software, and operating improvements that offer a total machine availability of about 90% and a user availability of about 80%. Fast beam switching and beam sharing permit virtually simultaneous use of the Bevatron/Bevalac by two or more users. Current beam delivery systems will be augmented in FY 1981 to provide two ion energies per Bevatron/Bevalac pulse.

  1. Knik Glacier, Alaska; summary of 1979, 1980, and 1981 data and introduction of new surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, L.R.; Trabant, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Knik Glacier in south-central Alaska has the potential to reform Lake George, Alaska 's largest glacier-dammed lake. Measurements of surface altitude, snow depth, terminus position, glacier speed, and ice depth are being made in an attempt to determine the mechanisms that could cause a significant re-advance of the glacier. New surveying and data reduction techniques were developed by the authors and employed successfully at Knik Glacier. These include precise geodetic surveying by the ' trisection ' technique, calculation of surface altitude at a specially-fixed ' index point ' from three point measurements on a rough, moving glacier surface, and calculation of ice thickness from low frequency radar measurements. In addition, this report summarizes the data collected from 1979 to 1981 in support of this goal. (USGS)

  2. Affirmative Action at American Bar Association Approved Law Schools: 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Henry, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Because of concern over possible retrenchment by law schools to increase minority representation since the Bakke decision, a survey of affirmative action programs in law school admissions was undertaken. The results indicate that the majority, at least outside the South, read the Bakke opinions as permitting such programs. (JMD)

  3. Vocational Exploration and Skill Building in Marine and Related Occupations. Final Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry; And Others

    The first year of a project to train high school aged handicapped and/or disadvantaged youth for employment in marine and related trades was considered successful. Specific areas of training included motor mechanics, electrical, woodworking, refinishing, restoration, fiberglass work, and blueprint reading under the direction of skilled…

  4. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  5. Summaries of Research and Development Activities in Agricultural Education, 1979-1980, United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Jimmy G., Comp.

    This sixth annual national compilation of research and development activities in agricultural education contains abstracts of 181 studies completed during the period July 1, 1979, to June 30, 1980. Thirty-five of the completed studies represent staff research, 79 represent master's studies, and 67 represent doctoral dissertations and one…

  6. Current Sickle Cell Screening Program for Newborns in New York City, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Ranjeet; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests indicated that 141 out of 106,565 infants examined in New York City during 1979-80, had various forms of sickle cell anemia. Follow-up of 131 patients confirmed the original diagnoses, suggesting that the New York City Follow-up Program for Sickle Cell Screening of newborns was successful. (Author/MJL)

  7. Report, 1979-1980: Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Life Sciences.

    This annual report of the Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS) covers the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1979, and ending June 30, 1980. The report has four major sections: (1) Special Programs of the Executive Office; (2) Division of Biological Sciences; (3) Division of Medical Sciences; and (4) Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards.…

  8. Title I ESEA, High School; English as a Second Language: 1979-1980. OEE Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    The report is an evaluation of the 1979-80 High School Title I English as a Second Language Program. Two types of information are presented: (1) a narrative description of the program which provides qualitative data regarding the program, and (2) a statistical analysis of test results which consists of quantitative, city-wide data. By integrating…

  9. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  10. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report and publications, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L

    1980-01-01

    Research programs for the years 1978-1980 is reported. The following subject areas are discussed: (1) iodine 131 monitoring in thyroids of sheep, cattle and humans; (2) radium monitoring in cattle thyroids; (3) the relationship of thyroid function to seizures in rats; (4) the effect of KSCN on thyroglobulin in mice; and (5) studies on excessive iodide intake. (ACR)

  11. The 1979-1980 eclipse of Zeta Aurigae. I - The circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the K-star wind far from the K star, and its interaction with the B star, has been derived from a study of Mg(+) and C(+++) resonance lines in the spectrum of Zeta Aurigae during 1979 and 1980. A mass loss rate from the K star of 2 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/year is suggested by the data; the rate of accretion of the K supergiant's material by the B star then being such that the matter accreted over a period of ten years is of the order of the total mass of the photosphere of the B star.

  12. The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe Adult Basic Education Program 1979-1980. Adult Contemporary Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Pauline, Ed.

    Designed for use as supplementary reading material, the reader is a collection of short stories (1 to 3 pages in length) developed from interviews with 12 Chippewas living in the Minnesota areas of Cass Lake, Leech Lake, Inger, Pine Point, and White Earth. The interviewees represent various occupations including teacher, school principal, nurse,…

  13. How to Handle the Paper Load. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Gene; And Others

    This collection of 27 articles written by educators suggests to classroom teachers creative ways of teaching writing well even when confronted with unreasonably large classes. The articles are presented under six main headings: ungraded writing, teacher involvement--not evaluation, student self-editing, practice with parts, focused feedback, and…

  14. The Indian Resources Development and Internship Program (IRDI), Fiscal Year 1979-1980. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    The Indian Resources Development and Internship (IRDI) Program marked its fifth year by continuing to assist Indian tribes in developing a managerial, professional, and scientific corps of American Indians through college academic education and related practical work experience. Participants attended universities and pursued majors of their…

  15. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1979 and Winter 1979--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the underground storage of natural gas for the calendar year 1979 by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Data are based on: FPC Form 2 (Form 2) annual reports of 31 interstate pipeline companies; certificates filed with FERC; and FPC Form 8 (Form 8) semi-monthly reports (November 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980) of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Crustal dynamics project session 4 validation and intercomparison experiments 1979-1980 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebrecht, P.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Ryan, J.; Hothem, L.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Crustal Dynamics Project, an experiment was performed to verify the ability of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline interferometry (VLBI) and Doppler Satellite Positioning System (Doppler) techniques to estimate the baseline distances between several locations. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) lasers were in operation at all five sites available to them. The ten baselines involved were analyzed using monthly orbits and various methods of selecting data. The standard deviation of the monthly SLR baseline lengths was at the 7 cm level. The GSFC VLBI (Mark III) data was obtained during three separate experiments. November 1979 at Haystack and Owens Valley, and April and July 1980 at Haystack, Owens Valley, and Fort Davis. Repeatability of the VLBI in determining baseline lengths was calculated to be at the 2 cm level. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) VLBI (Mark II) data was acquired on the Owens Valley to Goldstone baseline on ten occasions between August 1979 and November 1980. The repeatability of these baseline length determinations was calculated to be at the 5 cm level. National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Doppler data was acquired at all five sites in January 1980. Repeatability of the Doppler determined baseline lengths results were calculated at approximately 30 cm. An intercomparison between baseline distances and associated parameters was made utilizing SLR, VLBI, and Doppler results on all available baselines. The VLBI and SLR length determinations were compared on four baselines with a resultant mean difference of -1 cm and a maximum difference of 12 cm. The SLR and Doppler length determinations were compared on ten baselines with a resultant mean difference of about 30 cm and a maximum difference of about 60 cm. The VLBI and Doppler lengths from seven baselines showed a resultant mean difference of about 30 cm and maximum difference of about 1 meter. The intercomparison of baseline orientation parameters were consistent with past analysis.

  17. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)

  18. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  19. Design study of a kinematic Stirling engine for dispered solar electric power systems. Final report, 1979 - 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The concept evaluation shows that the four cylinder double acting U type Stirling engine with annular regenerators is the most suitable engine type for the 15 kW solar application with respect to design, performance and cost. Results show that near term performance for a metallic Stirling engine is 42% efficiency. Further improved components show an impact on efficiency of the future metallic engine to 45%. Increase of heater temperature, through the introduction of ceramic components, contribute the greatest amount to achieve high efficiency goals. Future ceramic Stirling engines for solar applications show an efficiency of around 50%.

  20. University Curricula in the Marine Sciences and Related Fields, Academic Years 1979-1980, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Sea Grant Program.

    A listing of courses and programs offered by selected universities, colleges, and technical institutions in the United States and Canada is provided to assist students planning careers in the marine sciences and others who need current information on marine-related programs. Institutions included offer programs of at least 25 semester hours in the…

  1. Physico-chemical investigation of some areas of fundamental significance to biophysics. Annual report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, S P

    1980-07-07

    All projects listed in this report have been submitted for publication as journal articles or DOE reports. Projects include: McGlynn, S.P., Felps, W.S. and Scott, J.D., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XVIII. Vibronic Doubling in Methyl Iodide; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., The Generalized Genetic Code. A Modification of Code Universality; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., Fundamental Spectroscopic Studies of Some Atmospheric Pollutants; McGlynn, S.P., Azumi, T. and Kumar, D., The Colors of Post-Transition-Metal Salts; Lewis, J.W., Nauman, R.V., Boulder, D.B., Jr. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XIX. Low-Energy Rydberg States of Azulene; Felps, W.S., Scott, J.D., and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XX. Vibronic Doubling in Alkyl Bromides; Felps, W.S. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXI. Intermediate Coupling in Simple Bromides; McGlynn, S.P. and Felps, W.S., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXII. The ..pi.. ..-->.. 4s Transition of ClCN; Chattopadhyay, S., McGlynn, S.P. and Findley, G.L., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Phosphites, Phosphates and Substituted Phosphates; and Scott, John D., A Perturbed Linear Molecule Model for the Spectroscopy of Almost Linear Molecules. (PSB)

  2. Progress report on research program in elementary particle theory, 1979-1980. [Univ. of Texas at Austin

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed. (RWR)

  3. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; VI, Zooplankton species composition and abundance in the North Bay, 1979-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented that summarize zooplankton species composition and abundance in North San Francisco Bay during 1979 and 1980. Sampling was conducted once monthly at six stations during 1979 and twice monthly at sixteen stations during 1980. Samples were collected by pump at three depths in the shipping channel and at one depth over the shoals. Subsamples were enumerated while alive. Total zooplankton biomass, as carbon, was calculated from estimated carbon quotas and abundances of each organism enumerated.

  4. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    The executive study presents the results and progress of efforts toward understanding shale gas production from the Devonian shale in Appalachia. A correlation was found between the geochemical parameters of the shale in eastern Kentucky and shale gas production there. Tasks on resource inventory tasks and shale characterization include regional structure studies, production studies, geophysical studies, structure studies, fracture density and orientation, and fracture studies. (DLC)

  5. Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Technical annual progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, R.J.; Gurland, J.; Needleman, A.; Rice, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    The following results are reported: (1) extremely good theoretical-experimental correlation was found between our theoretical predictions based on asymptotic analysis with numerical finite element studies and the experimentally monitored crack growth for a large range of stable crack growth in 4140 steel; (2) a theoretical model was developed for the critical conditions of crack initiation at rigid particles as a precursor of ductile rupture in steels; (3) as part of environmentally sensitive fracture mechanisms, it was found that hydrogen can promote a ductile-to-brittle fracture transition with increasing charging current density in low carbon steel; and (4) a new variational principle has been established for the combined processes of plastic creep flow and grain boundary diffusion and has been constructively applied to the problem of cavity growth under creep conditions.

  6. Investigation of free-forced convection flows in cavity-type receivers. Final yearly report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, J.A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is provided of the first of three years of experimental and theoretical research on free-forced convection flows in cavity-type solar receivers. New experimental and theoretical results are presented and discussed. The implication of these findings, with respect to the future thrust of the research program, is clarified as well as is possible at the present time. Following various related conclusions a summary and tentative schedule of work projected for year two of research are presented.

  7. 1979-1980 operation and performance of two domestic-sized stoker-fed wood chip heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.H.; Short, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    There are three projects in Eastern North America demonstrating home heating systems firing particulate biomass fuels (wood chips, pellets). The New Brunswick project has one hot water installation and one hot air installation, both fueled with 1-cm chips produced by a farm-tractor mounted chipper. The hot water system provides all space heat and hot water; the hot air system all space heat and some hot water. The hot water system was imported from Sweden, and the hot air stoker and furnace were made locally. Fuel consumption in both units has been comparable to the oil used previously, requiring approximately 0.09 kWh/dd/sq.m. There has been no flue creosote and emissions have been negligible. House temperature is maintained at constant set values by a conventional thermostat.

  8. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  9. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  10. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  11. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. PMID:25921219

  12. Women's rising status. Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    1994-03-01

    Improvements in the status of women are credited with the recent success of family planning promotion efforts in China's Xiji Village (Shanting District, Shandong Province). This small mountain village had a per capita annual income (US$27) below the national average ad a birth rate of 33/1000 population in 1984. When the District Family Planning Association targeted the village for programmatic intervention in 188, there was strong resistance to family planning. On the assumption that villagers would not accept family planning until they were convinced of its economic advantages, the Association combined poverty alleviation activities with contraceptives promotion. Small enterprises and workshops were set up, including processing mills to make noodles from beans and potato starch, and two-thirds of the village's unemployed women got jobs that paid an average of US$26/month at these mills. Income generating activities such as raising poultry or growing produce in backyard gardens were designed for women with too many children to work outside the home. In addition, the Women's Association at Feicheng City has selected more than 3500 economically active, family planning acceptors who serve as models to 15-16 women of childbearing age. As women experience the social, economic, and psychological advantages of income generation, they tend to voluntarily adopt family planning and to abandon their previous preference for sons. PMID:12287768

  13. On the Prepuna biogeographic province: A nomenclatural clarification.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Juan J; Ezcurra, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclatural status of the Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) and sensu Morrone (1999) is clarified. The Prepuna province sensu Cabrera (1951) is demoted to a district of the Monte province, stat. nov. The valid name of the Prepuna province sensu Morrone (1999) is Cuyan High Andean province Cabrera, 1971, stat. nov. Diagnoses of these areas are provided and their endemic taxa are listed. PMID:27395671

  14. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  15. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  16. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  17. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  18. Innovative Learning Strategies, 1979-1980. First Biennial Yearbook of the College Reading Improvement--Special Interest Group of the International Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schale, Florence; Epner, Marcia

    This yearbook on innovative learning strategies in colleges is divided into four parts. "Part I: Description of Program Models" contains descriptions of an alternative learning center at Pima Community College, Tucson, Arizona; a program combining technology with humanism at El Camino College, Torrance, California; the developmental studies…

  19. Calculations from compliance emissions of long and short term SO/sub 2/ concentrations in the southwest Pennsylvania air quality control region. Final report, 1979 - 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The results of dispersion model calculations of maximum annual, 24 hour and 3 hour average ground level SO2 concentrations for selected areas in the region (AQOR) is described. The primary purpose of the model calculations was to assist EPA Region III and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources in determining the attainment or nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for SO2 in the Beaver Valley and Monongahela Valley Air Basins exclusive of Allegheny County. All of the dispersion model calculations were made using the LONGZ and SHORTZ dispersion models with 1980 compliance emissions inventories containing 492 major SO2 sources located within the AQOR and in Ohio and West Virginia near the western border of the AQOR.

  20. On the variability of the forbidden O III 4363/H-gamma 4340 line ratio in the young planetary nebula IC 4997 in 1979-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purgathofer, A.; Stoll, M.

    1981-06-01

    More than 250 spectrograms of the planetary nebula IC 4997 were obtained by the L.Figl-Observatory, Austria, between August 1978 and December 1980. It is shown that the line intensity ratios R equals forbidden O III 4363 A/H-gamma 4340 A have again increased, returning to a value exceeding 1. The largest change occurred between May and June 1980, during which time R increased from 0.94 to 1.10. This 17% increase corresponds to a change in the electron temperature of some 200 K and of the incoming ionizing flux by about 6%. The general increasing trend is superimposed by rapid fluctuations with gradients up to Delta R/Delta t equals 0.005/d, suggesting that the star is in a flare-activity stage. It is assumed that R undergoes a long periodic change on a time scale of decades.

  1. Capable Reader Program: Lesson Plan Guide. Units B1; B2; B3; [and] B4. Pilot Year 1979-1980, Final Edition 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Donna; And Others

    Part of a curriculum series for academically gifted elementary students in the area of reading, the four lesson plan guides each fucus on one of the following major objectives: (1) identifying the relationship between the major and minor premise and stating whether the conclusion is a fallacy in reasoning; (2) recognizing the pursuasive use of…

  2. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  3. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  4. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  5. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  6. Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, P. B.

    2001-03-01

    Comparing the timing of mass extinctions with the formation age of large igneous provinces reveals a close correspondence in five cases, but previous claims that all such provinces coincide with extinction events are unduly optimistic. The best correlation occurs for four consecutive mid-Phanerozoic examples, namely the end-Guadalupian extinction/Emeishan flood basalts, the end-Permian extinction/Siberian Traps, the end-Triassic extinction/central Atlantic volcanism and the early Toarcian extinction/Karoo Traps. Curiously, the onset of eruptions slightly post-dates the main phase of extinctions in these examples. Of the seven post-Karoo provinces, only the Deccan Traps coincide with a mass extinction, but in this case, the nature of the biotic crisis is best reconciled with the effects of a major bolide impact. Intraoceanic volcanism may also be implicated in a relatively minor end-Cenomanian extinction crisis, although once again the main phase of volcanism occurs after the crisis. The link between large igneous province formation and extinctions remains enigmatic; volume of extrusives and extinction intensity are unrelated and neither is there any apparent relationship with the rapidity of province formation. Violence of eruptions (proportions of pyroclastics) also appears unimportant. Six out of 11 provinces coincide with episodes of global warming and marine anoxia/dysoxia, a relationship that suggests that volcanic CO 2 emissions may have an important effect on global climate. Conversely, there is little, if any, geological evidence for cooling associated with continental flood basalt eruptions suggesting little long-term impact of SO 2 emissions. Large carbon isotope excursions are associated with some extinction events and intervals of flood basalt eruption but these are too great to be accounted for by the release of volcanic CO 2 alone. Thus, voluminous volcanism may in some circumstances trigger calamitous global environmental changes (runaway greenhouses

  7. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  8. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  9. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  10. Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808) -Petroleum Geology, Total Petroleum Systems, and Petroleum Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolton, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the Pannonian Basin Province of Central Europe and summarizes the petroleum geology, which was the basis for assessment, and presents results of that assessment. The Pannonian Basin Province consists of a large compound extensional basin of Neogene age overlying Paleogene basins and interior elements of the greater Alpine foldbelt. Within it, six total petroleum systems (TPS) are defined and six assessment units established for estimation of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Other speculative TPSs were identified but not included for quantitative assessment within this study.

  11. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  12. Hydrocarbon charge modeling, Balingian Province, Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Swinburn, P. ); Burgisser, H. ); Yassin, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Generation, expulsion, and migration of oil and gas from Tertiary coal beds was modeled for a 2700 km[sup 2] area offshore Sarawak with Shell's integrated basin modeling software. The modeling was undertaken in response to the difficulty of predicting gas:oil, particularly in recent exploration wells. In the Balingian Province, oil and gas are produced from Miocene coastal plain clastics. Although all the hydrocarbons are thought to be sourced from the same type of land plant source rock, the gas:oil ratio varies considerably among the three producing fields and several undeveloped discoveries. Geochemical analyses of source-rock samples and oils strongly indicate that oils in the Balingian Province are sourced by coals and coaly shales found in the Oligocene and early Miocene coastal plain sequences. For these source rocks the main phase of oil generation is in the maturity range 0.8-1.1% VR equivalent. The burial history is well constrained by mapping regionally dated horizons and erosional surfaces. The temperature history suggests that from the late Oligocene to present, the heat flow was basically constant and fairly high due to sustained wrenching.

  13. Cancer survival in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriamporn, S; Black, R J; Sankaranarayanan, R; Kamsa-ad, S; Parkin, D M; Vatanasapt, V

    1995-05-01

    Thailand is one of the few developing countries for which population-based cancer survival data are available. Using clinical follow-up information and reply-paid postal enquiries, 10,333 residents of Khon Kaen province registered with cancer in the period 1985-1992 were followed-up to the end of 1993. The sites of the most common cancers in the province were liver (5-year relative survival rate 9.2%), cervix (60.1%), lung (15.4%), breast (48.1%) and large bowel (41.9%). Results for Khon Kaen were compared with age-standardized survival data for the US and Scotland. Survival was consistently higher for US whites compared to Khon Kaen residents for those cancers whose prognosis is associated with early diagnosis (breast, cervix and large bowel) or the availability of intensive therapy (leukaemia and lymphoma). The main implication of these results for cancer control in Thailand is that the interventions of greatest potential benefit are those designed to promote early detection. More than one-third of all cancers in Thailand are liver tumours: primary prevention through control of hepatitis-B infection and liver fluke infestation is the only effective strategy for their control. PMID:7729937

  14. Accretion of the Archean Slave province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    Continental rift models have long been applied to the Archean Slave province of northwestern Canada. A reassessment of these models shows them to be incompatible with observed geological relations and suggests that contractional tectonic models may be more appropriate than extensional ones. Regions composed of different rock suites (e.g., orthogneisses vs. mafic volcanics) are separated by high-strain zones recording large displacements. It is proposed that the high-strain zones separate four distinct terranes that have been juxtaposed during collisional orogenesis. From west to east, these include the Anton terrane, interpreted as an Archean microcontinent; the Sleepy Dragon terrane, possibly an exhumed more eastern part of the Anton terrane; the Contwoyto terrane, a westward-verging fold and thrust belt containing tectonic slivers of greenstone volcanics; and the Hackett River volcanic terrane, interpreted as an Archean island arc. The Contwoyto and Hackett River terranes represent a paired accretionary prism and island-arc system that formed above an east-dipping subduction zone. These collided with the Anton microcontinent, producing a basement nappe, expressed as the Sleepy Dragon terrane, during the main accretion event within the Slave province. The whole tectonic assemblage was intruded by late-kinematic to postkinematic granitoids.

  15. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  16. Income and Well-Being across European Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  18. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  19. Maternal mortality in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Ghane-Ezabadi, Marzie; Vafaienasab, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Ali; Ghasemi, Fateme; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Zanbagh, Leila; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five hundred thousand maternal deaths occur each year worldwide, many of which are in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate is a measure that demonstrates the degree of adequacy of prenatal care and of economic and social conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of pregnancy-related mortality rates in Yazd Province. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the maternal deaths related to pregnancy that were recorded in Yazd Province, Iran, from 2002 to 2011. All maternal deaths that occurred during pregnancy, during delivery, and 42 days after birth were analyzed in this study. The data were collected through a questionnaire, and both direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were determined. Results Forty pregnancy-related deaths occurred in this period, and the maternal mortality rate was 20.8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mean age of death in the mothers in this study was 29.17. Fifty-five percent of women of the women who died delivered their babies by cesarean section, and only 20% of them delivered their babies vaginally. Bleeding was the most common cause of maternal mortality (30%), and it was associated directly with maternal mortality. Furthermore 20% of the mothers died due to heart disease and cardiac complications, which were associated indirectly with maternal mortality. Conclusion Cesarean section and its complications were the main cause of death in many cases. Thus, providing a strategic plan to reduce the use of this procedure, educate mothers, and ensure adequate access to pre-maternal care and to care during pregnancy are the most important measures that can be taken to decrease the maternal mortality rate. PMID:27054003

  20. Magnetostratigraphy of the Etendeka Large Igneous Province, Namibia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, S. C.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Mac Niocaill, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province (≈ 135 Ma) has not been linked to a known mass extinction event, despite large igneous provinces being postulated as a cause. The reason why some large igneous provinces appear the cause of huge fluctuations in the global biosphere, an example being the link between Siberian trap volcanism and the Permo-Triassic boundary, while others seem to have only a minor effect is still debated. Establishing detailed histories of these large igneous provinces is important for understanding why such variations in effect may occur. Why does the volume of the province not reflect the magnitude of the effects seen? During the early Cretaceous, reversals of Earth's magnetic field were more frequent than at other times in Earth's history. Magnetostratigraphy is therefore a tool capable of providing high resolution constraints on the history and duration of the Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province volcanism. Detailed sampling of the Etendeka volcanic stratigraphy, followed by progressive demagnetisation of 893 specimens, yields 70 individual polarities gained from throughout the central volcanic succession. Correlation of the individual sections sampled reveals a minimum of 16 separate polarities are recorded. Subsequent links to the geomagnetic polarity timescale suggest a minimum province duration of > 1 Myrs, with no obvious period of short, high volume volcanism as is often suggested. A protracted duration (>1Myr) may therefore provide the reason why at least the Paraná - Etendeka appears to have no associated extinction event.

  1. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  2. Ocean anoxia and large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald E.; Korte, Christoph; Stemmerik, Lars; Frei, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Earth's history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and potentially into the open ocean realm. These events often coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) extinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic conditions is often, however, poorly constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth's physical, chemical and biological processes. We studied ocean redox change over two major mass extinction events in Earth history, the Permian-Triassic (at ~252 Ma) and Triassic-Jurassic (at ~201.3 Ma) mass extinctions. Both extinction events are marked by a major perturbation of the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing of the Siberian Traps and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), respectively. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. We show strongly enhanced sedimentary redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo) during both events. However, increased Permian-Triassic values are in all localities distinctly delayed relative to the associated negative CIE. Triassic-Jurassic values are only delayed in the oceanographically restricted western Germanic basin (UK) while increased Mo-values in the north-western Tethys Ocean (Austria) directly match the onset of the associated negative CIE. Speciation of iron [giving (Fe-HR/ Fe-T) and (Fe(Py)/ Fe-HR)] in the Triassic-Jurassic western Germanic basin (UK) however shows close coupling between the onset of the global carbon cycle perturbation and a shift to anoxic and even euxinic conditions

  3. QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORT - 1990-1993 EMAP VIRGINIAN PROVINCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the results of Quality Assurance activities conducted in conjunction with sampling performed by EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Estuaries study (EMAP-Estuaries) in the Virginian Province from 1990 through 1993. s part of the planning ...

  4. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  5. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  6. [Pediculosis in rural schools of Lublin Province].

    PubMed

    Buczek, A; Kawa, I M; Markowska-Gosik, D; Widomska, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in rural areas of Lublin Province in Eastern Poland and to examine its correlation with socio-economic conditions. A group of 42759 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 15 years from 52 rural primary schools were examined. The level of unemployment, number of physicians and number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants were examined in the area of experiment. We achieved the following results: a total of 682 children were found to be infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, mean prevalence was 1.6%. The girls were more frequently infected than boys (75% for girls and 24% for boys). The children most frequently affected were those aged 6 (1.6%) and 8 to 12 years (1.6-2.1%). The children least affected were those aged 13 to 14 years (0.8-1.1%). The infestation rate was strictly correlated with the number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants. There was no relationship between the level of unemployment or the number of physicians and the infestation rate on experimental area. Our investigations seems to confirme that the prevalence of P. h. capitis is influenced by the level of primary health care, particulary quality of school nurses' work. PMID:16894747

  7. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition. PMID:27395926

  8. Databases related to Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Richard; Pisarevsky, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) represent large volume (>0.1 Mkm3; often above >1 Mkm3), mainly mafic (-ultramafic) magmatic events of intraplate affinity in both continental and oceanic settings, and are typically of short duration (<5 m.y.) or consist of multiple short pulses over a maximum of a few 10s of m.y. Silicic, carbonatite and kimberlite magmatism may be associated. The young LIP record is dominated by continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus, but Proterozoic LIPs have typically lost their flood basalt component during erosion, thus exposing the plumbing system of mafic (-ultramafic) dykes, sills and layered intrusions. LIPs occur at a rate of about 1 every 20-30 m.y. back through the Proterozoic, and Archean analogues are also recognized. The LIP record is growing as more events are recognized and the size of known LIPs (even those of those of Mesozoic age) is increasing through targeted U-Pb geochronology. We review databases related to this fast moving field. The LIPs Commission (www.largeigneousprovinces.org) of IAVCEI ongoingly highlights new insights and events through the "LIP of the Month" series. A global 1:5M scale global LIPs ArcGIS database is under construction through Industry and government funded projects (e.g. www.supercontinent.org) and will form a framework for additional thematic databases related to LIPs, including geochemistry, geochronology, and paleomagnetism (GPMDB, MAGIC). LIP databases provide useful constraints for global Precambrian paleogeographic reconstructions, a context for understanding some global and regional environmental changes, and a useful framework for resource exploration (mineral and hydrocarbon). One of the most important aspects of this global LIPs ArcGIS database is that it is integrating data on the volcanic component of LIPs (both flood basalts, and associated ultramafic and silicic volcanism) with data on the plumbing system component in order to develop an understanding of LIPs as an integrated

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs. PMID:17390903

  10. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  11. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  12. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  13. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  14. Lichens from Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevsehir Provinces (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yazici, K; Aslan, A; Etayo, J; Giordani, P

    2008-09-15

    A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is performed. A total of 171 lichen taxa (including 2 subspecies and 2 varieties) and 1 lichenicolous fungus are determined from 14 localities in Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevşehir provinces of Turkey. Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. is new to Turkey. Besides Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. and Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt were found for the second time in Asia. Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel was found to grow on Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg. while Muellerella pymaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel (lichenicolous fungus) on Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner as parasitic. All lichen taxa found in Cankiri are new to this province (92 intraspecific taxa), while 39 new to Nevşehir, 8 new to Konya and 5 new to Antalya provinces. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented. PMID:19137828

  15. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  16. Suicide and unemployment: a panel analysis of Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Jalles, João Tovar; Andresen, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between suicide and unemployment. We use panel data from Canadian provinces and use recent panel econometric techniques to account for endogenous structural breaks in both the unit root and cointegration testing procedures in order to account for statistical specification issues. We find that the relationship between unemployment and suicide is context dependent. We do find positive and statistically significant relationships, but only for males in particular provinces. The relationship between unemployment and suicide is not monolithic. Rather, relationships are not always as expected for different demographic groups and all places. PMID:24579917

  17. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  18. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2014-05-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) of the modern type are known from the middle Paleoproterozoic and have a great abundance in the Phanerozoic. The most researches considered their appearance with ascending of the mantle thermochemical superplumes which provided simultaneously eruption of the same type of lavas on the huge territories. Judging on presence among them different subprovinces, formation of concrete magmatic systems were linked with protuberances (secondary plumes) on the superplumes surfaces. We suggest that origin of such plumes was linked with local enrichment of upper part of the superplumes head beneath roofing by fluid components; it led to lowering of the plume material density and initiated ascending of the secondary plumes. As a result, their heads, where partial melting occurred, can reach the level of the upper crust as it follows from absence of lower-crustal rocks among xenoliths in basalts, although mantle xenoliths existed in them. Important feature of LIPs is presence of two major types of mafic lavas: (1) geochemical-enriched alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites, and (2) basalts of normal alkalinity (tholeiites) with different contents of TiO2. At that the first type of mafites are usually typical for lower parts of LIPs which initially developed as continental rifts, whereas the second type composed the upper part of the traps' cover. Magmatic systems of the LIPs are subdivided on three levels of different deep: (1) zones of magma generation, (2) areas of transitional magma chambers where large often layered intrusive bodies are formed, and (3) areas on surface where lava eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions occurred. All these levels are linked by feeder dykes. The least known element of the system is area of magma generation, and, especially, composition of melting substratum. Important information about it is contained in aforementioned mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites. They practically everywhere are represented by two

  19. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  20. Mafic volcaniclastic deposits in flood basalt provinces: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P.-S.; Ukstins Peate, I.; McClintock, M. K.; Xu, Y. G.; Skilling, I. P.; White, J. D. L.; Houghton, B. F.

    2005-07-01

    Flood volcanic provinces are assumed generally to consist exclusively of thick lavas and shallow intrusive rocks (mostly sills), with any pyroclastic rocks limited to silicic compositions. However, mafic volcaniclastic deposits (MVDs) exist in many provinces, and the eruptions that formed such deposits are potentially meaningful in terms of potential atmospheric impacts and links with mass extinctions. The province where MVDs are the most voluminous—the Siberian Traps—is also the one temporally associated with the greatest Phanerozoic mass extinction. A lot remains to be learned about these deposits and eruptions before a convincing genetic link can be established, but as a first step, this contribution reviews in some detail the current knowledge on MVDs for the provinces in which they are better known, i.e. the North Atlantic Igneous Province (including Greenland, the Faeroe Islands, the British Isles, and tephra layers in the North Sea basin and vicinity), the Ontong Java plateau, the Ferrar, and the Karoo. We also provide a brief overview of what is known about MVDs in other provinces such as the Columbia River Basalts, the Afro-Arabian province, the Deccan Traps, the Siberian Traps, the Emeishan, and an Archean example from Australia. The thickest accumulations of MVDs occur in flood basalt provinces where they underlie the lava pile (Faeroes: > 1 km, Ferrar province: ≥ 400 m, Siberian Traps: 700 m). In the Faeroes case, the great thickness of MVDs can be attributed to accumulation in a local sedimentary basin, but in the Ferrar and Siberian provinces the deposits are widespread (> 3 × 10 5 km 2 for the latter). On the Ontong Java plateau over 300 m of MVDs occur in one drill hole without any overlying lavas. Where the volcaniclastic deposits are sandwiched between lavas, their thickness is much less. In most of the cases reviewed, primary MVDs are predominantly of phreatomagmatic origin, as indicated by the clast assemblage generally consisting of

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Hainan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The species of the perlid genus Neoperla are reviewed from Hainan Province, China. Three species of Neoperla, N. minuta sp. nov., N. wuzhishana sp. nov., and N. sexlobata sp. nov. are described from this island province and compared with other taxa. A provisional key is presented to the known Neoperla males from Hainan Province. PMID:27470851

  2. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  3. Unsupervised Definition of Chemically Distinct Provinces at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, O.

    2006-03-01

    A multivariate analysis of the Martian maps of H, Si, Fe, Cl, Th, and K shows that seven large provinces chemically distinct can be defined. The dimensionality of the problem can be reduced to 5, or even to 3, through a principal component analysis.

  4. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  5. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  6. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012(1).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate. PMID:26982074

  7. STATISTICAL SUMMARY EMAP-ESTUARIES VIRGINIAN PROVINCE - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual monitoring of indicators of the ecological condition of bays and estuaries within the Virginian Province (Cape Cod, MA to Cape Henry, VA) was conducted by the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) during July, August, and September, 1991. ata we...

  8. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  9. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  10. Bipohysical provinces and surface fronts in the western south atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, M.; Provost, C.; Piola, A.

    Biophysical Provinces in the Western South Atlantic are studied using 6 years (1998-2003) of sea surface color images from SeaWiFS and 10 years (1986-1995) of AVHRR data. Based on histogram analysis of monthly climatologies of both data sets the space-time variations of the limits of the Biophysical Provinces are investigated. The Zapiola Rise shows up as a local minimum in SST gradient magnitude and shows chlorophyll-a concentration values that are out of phase with the surroundings (minimum in austral spring). This result suggests that the corresponding region should be recognized as an independent Province from the South Subtropical Convergence Province. In addition, the motion of the Brazil-Malvinas is focused out. The surface expression of the Brazil-Malvinas front, present in both SST and SeaWiFS images is centered at 38°S. The surface front remains at the same location all year round with a north-south orientation, except in summer when it tends to pivot and have an east-west direction. This pivotal motion in summer leads to a 250 km long migration along the 1000 m isobath. The Brazil-Malvinas frontal motion is confronted to different model outputs.

  11. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T.; Newton, Paul N.; Sutherland, Ian W.; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.–positive and Borrelia spp.–positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  12. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in Cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Man; Bian, Qing-Qing; Hu, Bing; Cong, Mei-Mei; Lin, Qing; Wang, Rong-Jun; Qi, Meng; Qi, Mao-Zhen; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Long-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province. PMID:23560072

  13. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. PMID:26969324

  14. Child Care in Canada: Provinces and Territories 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

    Drawing from existing data and a survey of each provincial or territorial child care office in Canada, this report provides a profile of child care services in each province and territory, and in the country as a whole. Each provincial profile includes information on: (1) relevant legislation; (2) the name and address of the provincial official…

  15. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew J; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Newton, Paul N; Sutherland, Ian W; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.-positive and Borrelia spp.-positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  16. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  17. VIRGINIAN PROVINCE DEMONSTRATION REPORT - EMAP-ESTUARIES: 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a joint effort of the Office of Modeling Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance and the Office of Environmental Province and Effects Research within the Office of Research and Development. EMAP is a long-term interag...

  18. Petroleum geology and resources of Volga-Urals province, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Clarke, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The Volga-Ural petroleum province generally coincides with the Volga-Ural regional high, a broad upwarp of the east-central part of the Russian (East European) platform. The central part of the province is occupied by the Tatar arch, which contains the major share of the oil fields of the province. The Komi-Perm arch forms the northeastern part of the regional high, and the Zhigulevsko-Pugachev and Orenburg arches make up the southern part. These arches are separated from one another by elongate trenchlike downwarps. The platform sedimentary cover overlies an Archean crystalline basement and consists of seven main sedimentation cycles of late Precambrian through Triassic age. Approximately 600 oil fields and gas fields and 2000 pools have been found in the Volga-Ural province. Nine productive sequences are recognized; these are, in general, the same as the sedimentation cycles, although some subdivisions have been added. The clastic section of Middle and early Late Devonian age contains the major recoverable oil accumulations, including the supergiant Romashkino field. Cumulative production to 1980 is estimated at 30-35 billion bbl of oil equivalent, identified reserves at about 10 billion bbl of oil equivalent, and undiscovered resources at about 7 billion bbl of oil equivalent. Identified reserves of natural gas are estimated at 100 tcf and undiscovered resources at 63 tcf.

  19. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  20. EMAP-VIRGINIAN PROVINCE FOUR YEAR ASSESSMENT (1990-1993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments with the four years (1990-93) of ecological condition data collected by the USEPA Environmntal Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) in estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Henry to Cape Cod) were presented. EMAP data were used to quantify, with ...

  1. Origins of large igneous provinces: Thermal or chemical? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, J.

    2010-12-01

    Large igneous provinces such as continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus are commonly believed to be caused by massive thermal anomalies in the mantle, or more specifically, mantle plume heads possibly rising from the core-mantle boundary. The existence of such plume heads is more elusive than that of mantle plumes, because there is no currently ongoing formation of continental flood basalt or oceanic plateau, so potential evidence for plume heads must come from the detailed analysis of their fossil traces, i.e., their melting products represented as igneous crust. Compared to petrological and geochemical inference based on surface lavas, seismological studies on large igneous provinces have the advantage of probing the entire crustal section, thereby providing potentially more robust constraints on primary melt composition and the nature of the source mantle. In this talk, I will review the debates over the North Atlantic igneous province, which includes the Iceland hotspot, as well as discuss the prospects of studying oceanic plateaus for providing key information to resolve the origins of large igneous provinces.

  2. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  3. Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Khazaei, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancer is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized) of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran). Methods: Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in Cancer Registry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers were defined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied. Results: A total of 3535 cases of cancers registered during 2004-2009 were identified. Of these, 46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breast cancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasing trend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to The results of the present study and comparison to previous studies for other provinces in Iran, cancer incidence in Sistan and Baluchistan is less common but trends of cancers are increasing in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem. PMID:26793645

  4. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  5. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in Guangdong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ruilin; Wei, Kuangrong; Xia, Liang; Xu, Yanjun; Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province by analyzing the cancer data of selected population-based cancer registries in Guangdong province in 2012. Methods Eight of nine population-based cancer registries submitted cancer data to the Guangdong Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Guangdong CDC), whose data met the data quality criteria were included for analysis. The statistics of selected registries, stratified by areas, gender, age and cancer types, were used to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province according to the population data in Guangdong province. Segi’s population and the national census population in 2000 were used for calculating the age-standardized rates (ASR). Results A total of 15,084,942 people, accounted for 17.47% of all population in Guangdong province, were covered in 8 selected population-based cancer registries in 2012. The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and the percentage of death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 72.84% and 0.87%, respectively, and the mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio was 0.56. It was estimated that there were 211,300 new cancer cases and 117,300 cancer deaths. The incidence crude rate (CR), the ASR by Chinese standard population (ASRC) and by world standard population (ASRW), and the accumulated rate (AR) (0.74 years) were 250.20/100,000 (265.39/100,000 in males, 234.29/100,000 in females), 207.04/100,000, 201.34/100,000 and 22.91%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The incidence CR and ASRC were 267.25/100,000 and 221.43/100,000 in urban areas, and 215.51/100,000 and 178.77/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The death CR, ASRC, ASRW and AR (0.74 years) were 148.44/100,000 (190.95/100,000 in males, 105.06/100,000 in females), 103.73/100,000, 102.44/100,000 and 11.68%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The death CR and ASRC were 164.57/100,000 and 105.46/100,000 in urban areas

  7. What Should Be the Future Direction of the Foreign Policy of the United States?: National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1979-1980, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This book provides information on the 1979-80 national high school debate topic (United States foreign policy). The volume begins with a group of articles selected to provide an overview of foreign policy considerations and a general context for discussions of the three propositions within the designated topic. The book also contains sections with…

  8. Logistics and Sampling Plan for Task 2: 1979-1980 IRS Comparison Study. Quality Control Analysis of Selected Aspects of Programs Administered by the Bureau of Student Financial Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Kuchak, JoAnn

    The type, number, and scope of errors on Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program applications were estimated in a replication of a 1976-1977 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Comparison Study. Information reported on BEOG applicants and IRS income tax returns was compared for various categories of applicants. The study provides information…

  9. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  10. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  11. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  12. Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-03-18

    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO₂) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO₂ from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO₂ values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO₂ increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO₂ after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO₂ by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics. PMID:21330490

  13. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  14. Louisianian province demonstration report. EMAP-estuaries: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.; Engle, V.D.; Brooks, G.T.; Heitmuller, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    The report summarizes the Louisianian Demonstration Project conducted by the Estuaries Resource Group of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program initiated by EPA to integrate efforts of governmental agencies in evaluations of status and trends of ecological resources of the U.S. The Louisianian Province represents a single biogeographic area corresponding to the Gulf of Mexico. The demonstration project was conducted during July and August 1991, using a probability-based sampling design to evaluate the condition of Gulf of Mexico estuarine resources. The assessment is preliminary and its findings should be confirmed by subsequent years of sampling in the Louisianian Province, which extends from Rio Grande, Texas, to Anclote Anchorage, Florida.

  15. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L.

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  16. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  17. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  18. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  19. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  20. New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes from Zhejiang Province, China* §

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawas, Mongkol; Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Spadicoides americana were found on submerged wood from streams in Zhejiang Province, China. Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis is characterized by obclavate to fusiform, 5-6-distoseptate, versicolorous, verruculose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath. Spadicoides americana is a new record to China. These taxa are described and illustrated, and morphological differences between these species and their similar species were summarized. PMID:18837107

  1. HIV Infection--Guangdong Province, China, 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-24

    In 2007, an estimated 700,000 persons in China were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An estimated 50,000 new HIV infections and 20,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurred in 2007, and an estimated 71% of persons with HIV infection were unaware of their HIV status. In 2007, 40.6% of those living with HIV had been infected through heterosexual transmission and 38.1% through injection-drug use. Guangdong Province in southeastern China is the country's most populous province, with an estimated 75.6 million permanent residents and 16.5 million migrants; the province has undergone rapid economic development. Since 1986, a case-based surveillance system (CBSS) in China has collected data on persons infected with HIV, including demographic characteristics and transmission categories. To assess recent trends in HIV infection in the province, the Guangdong Center for Disease Control, with technical assistance from CDC, analyzed CBSS data for the period 1997--2007. The results of that analysis indicated that the number of HIV cases increased from 102 in 1997 to 4,593 in 2007, although this increase resulted, in part, from expanded testing and surveillance. Among males classified by HIV transmission category, 82.1% of newly diagnosed infections were attributed to injection-drug use. Among females classified by HIV transmission category, 53.7% engaged in high-risk heterosexual conduct. Despite substantial methodologic limitations, these results can be useful to Guangdong public health agencies in targeting and evaluating HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. PMID:19390507

  2. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province extends into Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Hervé; Fornari, Michel; Marzoli, Andrea; García-Duarte, Raúl; Sempere, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the largest continental flood basalt (CFB) province on Earth and was associated with the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In order to clarify the extent of the CAMP in South America, we investigate basaltic remnants in southern Bolivia (Tarabuco, Entre Ríos and Camiri areas) by combining stratigraphic, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar data) and geochemical (major and trace element, Nd-Sr isotopes) approaches. Lava-flows reaching a total thickness up to 150 m and associated sills overlie syn-rift red beds assigned to the Triassic. The magmatic rocks consist of low-Ti tholeiites that are remarkably homogeneous in composition. Notably, their trace element and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions closely match those of CAMP basalts particularly those of southwest Brazil. 40Ar/39Ar dating failed to yield robust plateau ages but the best estimates of the crystallization age at 198.1 ± 1.5 and 199.2 ± 2.2 Ma are similar to those of CAMP basalts throughout the province. These Bolivian basalts, which may have covered an initial surface of ~ 30,000 km2, represent the known southernmost occurrence of the CAMP. They were erupted as a single pulse, more than 8000 km away from the northern edge of the province. We discuss the implications of such a huge elongated CFB for the current plume models and we suggest, as an alternative, that large-scale melting beneath the Pangea supercontinent due to mantle global warming could have triggered the emplacement of the CAMP.

  3. Investigation of Vegetation Species in Desert Areas of Fars Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fozoni, L.; Fakhireh, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Fars province is located in the south of IRAN, with area of 122830Km2. This areas involved saline and alkaline soils. The aim of this research is investigation of salty lands and vegetation degradation for offering of sociable species for any area. Recognition studying of desert area in Fars province was identified using all available data and using GIS and RS technologies. In this study, main indicators have been appointed using Floristical-Fizionomicaly method. Vegetation per cent, growth form, density and altitude were considered as main indicators. More than 50 species of halophytes were collected and 25 plant types were identified in 17 zones of studied area. The main plant types were as follows: Hammada, Halocnemum-Aeluropus and Halocnemum-limonium. Ultimately, halophytes cover map was prepared. In the end of growth season, 50 soil samples from halophyte types in two horizons 0-30cm and 30-100cm were taken and tested. The result showed, the studied area, has saline lands surface and high salinity land with cover of 9000Km2. Keyword: Saline Soil, Alkaline Soil, Halophytes, Fars Province

  4. Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Abdolvahab; Semnani, Shahryar; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Mirbehbehani, Narges; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Moghaddami, Abbas; Cheraghali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006. Methods GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis. Findings Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0–14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area. PMID:23056726

  5. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Insights From Fragments of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W.; McHone, J. G.; Renne, P.; Ruppel, C.

    A singular event in Earth's history occurred roughly 200 million years ago, as rifting of the largest and most recent supercontinent was joined by basaltic volcanism that formed the most extensive large igneous province (LIP) known. A profound and widespread mass extinction of terrestrial and marine genera occurred at about the same time, suggesting a causal link between the biological transitions of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and massive volcanism. A series of stratigraphic, geochronologic, petrologic, tectonic, and geophysical studies have led to the identification of the dispersed remnants of this Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) on the rifted margins of four continents. Current discoveries are generally interpreted to indicate that CAMP magmatism occurred in a relative and absolute interval of geologic time that was brief, and point to mechanisms of origin and global environmental effects. Because many of these discoveries have occurred within the past several years, in this monograph we summarize new observations and provide an up-to-date review of the province

  6. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isfahan Province.

    PubMed

    Nokhodian, Zary; Adibi, Peyman; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5-2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students' thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words "HBV," "HBsAg," "prevalence," "Isfahan," "Esfahan," and "Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision. PMID:26622989

  7. Client satisfaction of maternity care in Lorestan province Iran

    PubMed Central

    Changee, Farahnaz; Irajpour, Alireza; Simbar, Masoumeh; Akbari, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Client satisfaction is an important indicator for assessment of the quality of care provided. Detecting patients dissatisfaction and trying to find the most effective and costly services is the basic way for improvement of service quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the satisfaction level of women in the maternity care centers (hospitals) of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the satisfaction level of 200 patients who received care during childbirth in province hospitals was assessed using a researcher-made questionnaire. Women in maternity care units completed the questionnaires. Results: The mean maternity care satisfaction score was 66.6 ± 3.5. The lowest satisfaction level was related to getting to know the delivery room (64%) and vaginal examination (66%). The highest satisfaction score was related to confidentiality of the information (86%) and trusting the midwife (84%). Regarding the environmental factors, the lowest satisfaction was related to respecting silence in the pain room (69.5%) and the highest was related to cleanliness and hygiene of the delivery room (84%). Conclusions: Our results suggest the relative satisfaction of women receiving care in the health centers of Lorestan province; but this level of satisfaction does not mean that the delivery of care in this province is perfect. By reviewing the policies and the existing care programs regarding promoting the quality of services, managers can increase clients’ satisfaction. PMID:26120342

  8. alpha-thalassemia mutations in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Khodamorad; Nateghi, Jamal; Keikhaie, Bijan; Pedram, Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hadavi, Valeh; Oberkanins, Christian; Azarkeivan, Azita; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Although alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) is the most common hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorder in Iran, no comprehensive data are so far available on the prevalence of the disease in the province of Khuzestan in Southwest Iran. This study investigates the spectrum of alpha-thal mutations in this region. One hundred and twenty-one subjects from Khuzestan Province, Iran, were initially tested for the three most common Iranian alpha-thal mutations (- alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, and --MED) by gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR). Reverse hybridization test strips and DNA sequencing were used to identify additional alpha-globin mutations. A total of 131 mutated alpha-globin alleles were identified in these patients. Of the 13 mutations that were detected in Khuzestan Province, Iran, the - alpha3.7 single gene deletion was the most frequently identified variant, representing 62.6% of the total; we also observed significant numbers of individuals with compound heterozygous mutations. On the basis of our results, we strongly recommend screening for the most common mutations to improve the molecular diagnosis of anemia in this region. PMID:19065332

  9. Midwifery workforce profile in Limpopo Province referral hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa including South Africa, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high due to a shortage of registered nurses with advanced midwifery diplomas. Objective To determine the profile of registered nurses (RNs) involved in maternity care in public referral hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in all maternity units of Limpopo's public referral hospitals. The study population comprised of 210 registered nurses, who became the study sample. Data on their educational profile and work experience in midwifery was analysed using STATA version 9.0. Results The mean age of the 210 registered nurses was 44.5 ± 9.1 years (range 21 to 62). The majority (152/210; 70%) were 40 years and older, 56% (117/210) had been working for more than 10 years, and 63/210 (30%) were due to retire within 10 years. Only 22% (46/210) had advanced midwifery diplomas, i.e. after their basic undergraduate training. Only six (2.9%) of the RNs providing maternity care in these referral hospitals were studying for advanced midwifery diplomas at the time of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated a shortage of registered nurses with advanced midwifery training/diplomas in referral hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect in reducing the high maternal mortality rate in the province. PMID:26245396

  10. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  11. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  12. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  13. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  14. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  15. New Aerogeophysical exploration of the Gamburtsev Province (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Finn, C.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in the interior of East Antarctica, have remained the least understood mountain range on earth, since their discovery some 50 years ago. An improved knowledge of the GSM region is however essential to underpin reconstructions of the Antarctic cryosphere and climate evolution. The GSM are a key nucleation site for the inception of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet approximately 34 Ma ago, and the adjacent Lambert Glacier played a pivotal role for ice sheet dynamics throughout the Neogene (23-0 Ma). The GSM province may also provide tectonic controls for major subglacial lakes flanking the range. In addition, the ice encasing the GSM province has been inferred to contain the oldest detailed climate record of the planet, a prime target for future deep ice core drilling. With the overarching aim of accomplishing the first systematic study of the cryosphere and lithosphere of the GSM province we launched a new geophysical exploration effort- AGAP (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province)-, a flagship programme of the International Polar Year. The aerogeophysical and seismology components of AGAP were accomplished by pooling resources from 7 nations. We deployed 2 Twin Otters, equipped with state-of-the art geophysical instrumentation and operating from two remote field camps on either side of Dome A. Over 120,000 line-km of new airborne radar, laser, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data survey were collected during the 2008/09 field campaign. Our grids of ice surface, ice thickness, subglacial topography, and gravity and magnetic anomalies provide a new geophysical foundation to analyse the GSM province, from the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down to mantle depths beneath the Precambrian shield. The anomalously high-elevation, alpine-type landscape of the GSM is now mapped with unprecedented detail. Two distinct branches of a subglacial rift system are imaged along the north-western and north-eastern margins of the

  16. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  17. Amazonian volcanic activity at the Syrtis volcanic province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Fawdon, Peter; Michael, Greg; Tanaka, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    The Syrtis Major volcanic province, including the entire Syrtis Major Planum, is located near the Martian highland/lowland transitional zone west of Isidis Planitia. It covers ≡7.4×105 km2 and contains two low-shield volcanic edifices with N-S elongated calderas named Nili and Meroe Paterae. The estimated thickness of erupted material in the province ranges from approximately 0.5 km to 1.0 km with a total volume of about 1.6-3.2×105 km3 [1]. The timing of volcanic activity in the Syrtis Major volcanic province has been suggested to be restricted to the Hesperian Period [1-4]. In the geological map of Greeley and Guest [2], volcanic material of Syrtis Major was assigned an Hesperian age based on the density of observed craters larger than 5 km in diameter. Using the same crater density range, recent studies of Hiesinger et al. [1] and Tanaka et al. [3] and Tanaka et al. [4] assigned an Early Hesperian and Early to Late Hesperian age, respectively, for the entire province. In this study we mapped lava flows, lava channels, and major lava-flow margins and report model ages for lava-flow formation and caldera segments of Nili and Meroe Paterae. The objective of this ongoing survey is to better understand the eruption frequency of this volcanic province. In total, we mapped 67 lava flows, caldera segments, and intra-crater fillings of which 55 were dated. Crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) were mapped on HRSC and CTX imagery using CraterTools [5]. CSFDs were analyzed and model ages determined in Craterstats [6] using the production and chronology functions of Ivanov [7] and Hartmann and Neukum [8], respectively. A detailed description of the utilization of the crater-counting technique and its limitations with respect to small-scale mapping is given in Platz et al. [9]. Model ages range between 838 Ma (Middle Amazonian) to 3.6 Ga (Late Hesperian). In our survey, a broad age peak occurs between 2 to 2.6 Ga, continuously declining thereafter. We note that

  18. Estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhu, Junqing; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Hebei province using incidence and mortality data from 9 population-based cancer registries in 2012. Methods The data of new diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in 2012 were collected from 9 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province in 2015. All the data met the National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) criteria of data quality. The pooled data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All cancer registries covered 4,986,847 populations, 6.84% of Hebei provincial population (2,098,547 in urban and 2,888,300 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 76.40% and 4.72%, respectively. The mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.64. In 2012, it is estimated that there were about 187,900 new diagnosed cancer cases and 119,800 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 258.12/100,000 (275.75/100,000 in males, 239.78/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 210.65/100,000 and 208.50/100,000, with the cumulative incidence rates (0.74 years old) of 24.46%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.99/100,000 and 211.32/100,000 in urban areas and 258.94/100,000 and 209.99/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 164.63/100,000 (201.85/100,000 in males, 125.92/100,000 in females). Agestandardized mortality rates by Chinese

  19. Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Ko, Stephen; Lv, Jingjing; Ji, Feng; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Fujie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) alone is highly effective in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the World Health Organization recommends administering HepB to all infants within 24 h after delivery. Maternal screening for HBsAg and administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in addition to HepB for infants born to HBsAg-positive pregnant women can increase the effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis for perinatal HBV transmission. In Shangdong Province, China which has a high prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HepB birth dose and HBIG were integrated into the routine childhood immunization program in 2002 and July 2011 respectively. We assessed progress toward implementation of these measures. Hospital-based reporting demonstrated an increase in maternal screening from 70.7% to 96.9% from 2004–2012; HepB birth dose coverage (within 24 h) remained high (96.3–97.1%) during this period. For infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers, the coverage of HBIG increased from 85.0% (before July 2011) to 92.1% (after July 2011). However, HBIG coverage in western areas of Shandong Province remained at 81.1% among infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers. Preterm/low-birth-weight and illness after birth were the most commonly reported reasons for delay in the first dose of HepB to >24 h of birth. Additional education on the safety and immune protection from HepB and HBIG might help to correct delays in administering the HepB birth dose and low HBIG coverage in the western areas of the Shandong Province. PMID:25483482

  20. Mantle provinces under North America from multifrequency P wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin

    2011-02-01

    This is a survey of mantle provinces (large-scale seismic anomalies) under North America, from the surface down to 1500-1800 km depth. The underlying P velocity model was obtained by multifrequency tomography, a waveform-based method that systematically measures and models the frequency-dependence of teleseismic body waves. A novel kind of three-dimensional rendering technique is used to make the considerable structural complexities under North America accessible. In the transition zone and below, the North American mantle is dominated by seismically fast provinces, which represent distinct subduction episodes of the Farallon plate. I attempt to date and interpret the various slab fragments by reconciling their present positions with paleotrench locations from plate tectonic reconstructions and with major geologic surface episodes. Differences in vertical sinking velocity have led to large vertical offsets across adjacent, coeval slabs. Some of the mantle provinces have not been discussed much previously, including (1) a seismically slow blanket overlying the oldest Farallon subduction along the eastern continental margin, (2) a transition zone slab coeval with the Laramide orogeny (ca. 80-60 Myr), which I discuss in analogy to the "stagnant slab" subduction style commonly found in the western Pacific today, (3) the lower mantle root of present-day Cascadia subduction, which may have started out as intraoceanic subduction,(4) a lower mantle slab under Arizona and New Mexico, the last material to subduct before strike-slip motion developed along the San Andreas boundary, and (5) two narrow plate tears thousands of kilometers long, one of which is the subducted conjugate of the Mendocino Fracture Zone.

  1. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  2. The Magellan mound province in the Porcupine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huvenne, V. A. I.; Bailey, W. R.; Shannon, P. M.; Naeth, J.; di Primio, R.; Henriet, J. P.; Horsfield, B.; de Haas, H.; Wheeler, A.; Olu-Le Roy, K.

    2007-02-01

    The Magellan mound province is one of the three known provinces of carbonate mounds or cold-water coral banks in the Porcupine Seabight, west of Ireland. It has been studied in detail using a large and varied data set: 2D and 3D seismic data, sidescan sonar imagery and video data collected during ROV deployment have been used to describe the mounds in terms of origin, growth processes and burial. The aim of this paper is to present the Magellan mounds and their setting in an integrated, holistic way. More than 1,000 densely spaced and mainly buried mounds have been identified in the area. They all seem to be rooted on one seismic reflection, suggesting a sudden mound start-up. Their size and spatial distribution characteristics are presented, together with the present-day appearance of the few mounds that reach the seabed. The underlying geology has been studied by means of fault analysis and numerical basin modelling in an attempt to identify possible hydrocarbon migration pathways below or in the surroundings of the Magellan mounds. Although conclusive evidence concerning the processes of mound initiation proves to be elusive, the results of both fault analysis and 2D numerical modelling failed to identify, with confidence, any direct pathways for focused hydrocarbon flow to the Magellan province. Diffuse seepage however may have taken place, as drainage area modelling suggests a possible link between mound position and structural features in the Hovland-Magellan area. During mound development and growth, the interplay of currents and sedimentation seems to have been the most important control. Mounds which could not keep pace with the sedimentation rates were buried, and on the few mounds which maintained growth, only a few corals survive at present.

  3. [Visceral leishmaniasis in children in the province of Florence].

    PubMed

    Calabri, G B; Casini, T; Cristiano, R; Pasquini, E; La Cauza, F; Lippi, A; Grifi, G; Cocchi, P; Calabri, G

    1997-01-01

    Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis are presented: two children who got the disease in Florence and the imported case of a girl coming from Albania with her disease in act. The diagnosis was made showing Leishmania in bone marrow specimen. Therapy with melglumine antimonate was effective and well borne, leading the three children to a complete healing. In the province of Florence visceral leishmaniasis is very rare, but such protozoa and the sand flies are present as shown by the high number of dog with leishmaniasis. PMID:9595582

  4. The soot pollution and control in Shanxi Province

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S.

    1997-12-31

    According to China`s energy resource structure, the energy policy in which coal dominates is not likely to alter significantly in the long-term. Shanxi is a big coal-energy province. It is the national coal-energy base because it has the advantages of abundant coal resources and many coal types of high quality and easy mining. Coal production and sales in Shanxi has ranked first in China since 1980, especially the latter occupying 70% of the entire coal sales in China. Meanwhile, Shanxi is a big coal consumption province in China. At present, the total coal combustion quantity is about 70 million tons and coke making is about 10 million tons per year. The dust and SO{sub 2} emission to the air produced by coal burning is over 1 million tons and greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is over 100 billion M{sup 3} per year, which has caused serious air pollution to the cities and some industrial areas. Some control of the soot pollution is still the main task of air pollution control. The main controlling channels include: (1) Reduce coal burning quantity through developing high efficiency burning oven to improve thermal efficiency, recovering combustible gas and surplus heat, improving operator`s training, etc.; (2) Develop high efficiency S-removal, N-removal and dust removal equipment; (3) Perfect and practice clean coal technology, including coal washing and selecting, briquetting, coal water slurry, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, etc.

  5. Recurrence of great earthquakes and tsunamis, Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, C. M.; Horton, B.; Sieh, K.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hawkes, A. D.; Daly, P.; Kelsey, H. M.; McKinnon, E.; Ismail, N.; Daryono, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and characterization of ancient earthquakes and tsunamis inferred from a variety of geologic studies in Aceh Province, Sumatra, are helping to understand predecessors of the 2004 event in the Indian Ocean region. We report results from three different depositional environments along the western and northern coast of Aceh Province, Sumatra, that illuminate the history of tsunamis through the past several millennia. Within a coastal cave along the western coast is an extraordinary sedimentary deposit that contains a 7,000-year long sequence of tsunami sands separated by bat guano. In two sea cliff exposures along the northern coast of Aceh is evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami that destroyed communities along the coast about 500 years ago. In addition, coastal wetlands along the western coast document land-level changes and tsunamis associated with the earthquake cycle in the early- to mid-Holocene. Together these records show a marked variability in recurrence of large tsunamis along the Acehnese coast. Time between inundations averages close to 500 years but range from a few centuries to a millennium.

  6. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  7. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad. PMID:12284987

  8. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations. PMID:18453236

  9. alpha-Thalassemia mutation analyses in Mazandaran province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Tamaddoni, Ahmad; Hadavi, Valeh; Nejad, Nima Hafezi; Khosh-Ain, Atefeh; Siami, Rita; Aghai-Meibodi, Jalil; Almadani, Navid; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-five patients from Mazandaran Province, Iran, all presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia, were selected for alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) mutation screening. We detected a total of 274 alpha-globin mutations in 227 (89%) of these patients. Among the 21 different alpha-globin alleles found, the -alpha(3.7) (44.9%), polyadenylation signal 2 (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (18.2%), -alpha(4.2) (9.1%), alpha(IVS-I(-5 nt)) (6.5%), - -(MED) (4.3%), and alpha(codon 19 (-G)) (4%) were the most frequent. The other 15 mutations included variants that had not yet been observed in Iran, such as Hb Bleuland [alpha108(G15)ThrAsn, ACC>AAC (alpha2)], as well as a novel mutation on the alpha2 gene, also not described to date [3 ' untranslated region (3 'UTR) nucleotide (nt) 46 (C>A)]. These comprehensive new data are useful for establishing a screening strategy for the effective control of alpha-thal in Mazandaran Province. PMID:19373587

  10. Crustal architecture of a continental large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, Alexander; Faleide, Jan Inge; Krupnova, Natalia; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    The northern Barents Sea was strongly affected by the Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province through abundant mafic intrusions, eruption of flood basalts, and regional uplift. Recently acquired geophysical data in this region provide a unique opportunity to study in detail crustal architecture of large igneous provinces. A giant dike swarm is identified based on magnetic anomalies coherent over a distance of hundreds of kilometers. Coincident ocean bottom seismometer, multichannel streamer, and gravity data indicate that the surface basalts and shallow sills were associated with feeder systems cross-cutting the entire crust. At the same time, the distribution of dikes exhibits more complex pattern than radially symmetric with respect to the presumable magmatic center in the Alpha Ridge region. Thus, the preferred orientation of dikes could be controlled by both paleostress and pre-existing weaknesses (Early-Late Paleozoic faults). The data do not indicate a thick igneous mafic lower crust while the existence of heavy ultramafic cumulates below the Moho has not been resolved yet. In view of these observations different models of magma transport and related paleo-surface topography are discussed.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  12. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-08-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005-2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012-2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20-50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  13. Village chicken production in Turkey: Tokat province example.

    PubMed

    Sekeroglu, A; Aksimsek, S D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to reveal the current form of village chicken production in Tokat province of Turkey. A survey was applied to 153 randomly selected farmers of 5 subdistricts in Tokat province. The ratios of domestic fowls in the survey region were as follows: hen 98.83%, goose 0.65%, turkey 0.29% and duck 0.16% (P < 0.01). Feather colours of laying hens were white (2.76%), brown (8.63%) and mixed color (88.60%). The hen farms in this region consisted of native breeds (91.42%), commercial breeds (5.71%) and their crosses (2.85%). The mean egg weight of the village hens was between 30 and 40 g. Wheat (65.73%) and mixed (wheat, barley, maize and kitchen refuse) feed (34.22%) were used to supplement the hens (P < 0.01). For producing natural chicks, the hens were brooded between 1.10 and 1.46 times/year, 1.31 on average. For each brooding, the number of placed eggs under the broody hens was between 11.39 and 12.42 (P < 0.05). PMID:18446442

  14. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  15. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, Kun; SONG, Deyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. Methods: The Global Moran’s I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran’s I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. Results: The overall Moran’s I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran’s I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Conclusions: Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions. PMID:27398334

  16. Consanguineous marriages in the province of Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alper, O M; Erengin, H; Manguoğlu, A E; Bilgen, T; Cetin, Z; Dedeoğlu, N; Lüleci, G

    2004-01-01

    To assess the trends in the frequency and the medical effects of consanguinity in the south coast of Turkish population using local and national data in the last 11 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Manavgat province, which is a major tourism center on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The authors studied consanguineous marriages in rural and urban population in the Mediterranean coast, Manavgat province, Turkey, via a 1500 random survey sample of married couples. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages in rural areas (40.7%) since 1989 in the southern population of Turkey. The results showed that the most frequent type of marriage was between the first cousins. It is found that there is no statistically significant difference between the consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the different age groups. The results were discussed on the basis of educational status, reasons for having consanguineous marriages and the general medical effects as well as with the relation of congenital malformations. The custom of consanguineous unions in the Mediterranean population of Turkey is still extremely high, and preventive measures should be done to decrease its frequency and associated complications. PMID:15183745

  17. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  18. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  19. Principal oil and gas plays in the Appalachian Basin (Province 131) (Chapter I). Middle eocene intrusive igneous rocks of the central Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province: Setting, chemistry, and implications for crustal structure (Chapter J). Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    de Witt, W.; Southworth, C.S.; Gray, K.J.; Sutter, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    ;Contents: Principal Oil and Gas Plays in the Appalachian Basin (Province 131); and Middle Eocene Intrusive Igneous Rocks of the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province - Setting, Chemistry, and Implications for Crustal Structure.

  20. 2011 Canadian Teacher Salary Rankings: Provinces and Territories. BCTF Research Report. Section I. 2012-TS-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an update of research report 2011-TS-02. It presents tables that show the minimum and maximum salaries for BC's Category 5 and Category 6, or equivalent, for provinces and territories. A sample of school districts is included for those provinces/territories with multiple collective agreements.

  1. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  2. Study on Provincial Compulsory Education Financial Equity Based on School-Level Data from One Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multivariable method to elementary school data in one western province, this study shows that per-student budgetary nonpersonnel expenditure in the province is the most unequal index in terms of horizontal equity. In terms of vertical equity, the equity effect of the "poor county" designation by the central or provincial…

  3. The Measurements of the Equity of Compulsory Education Finance in Zhejiang Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng; Tao, Lin; Qiaozhen, Lin; Qinghuan, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Education equity is an important means for achieving social equity, but there are few empirical studies on education equity in Chinese academia owing to method limitations. This paper applies a new measurement method to the 2005/6 data of the elementary schools in Zhejiang province and argues that education finance reform in the province has…

  4. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  5. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Qian; Li, Zhijun; Chen, Songhua; Liu, Zhengwei; Nelson, Hugh; Yang, Qun; Dye, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate levels and trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Zhejiang Province, China, we conducted 1 survey in each of 3 years (1999, 2004, and 2008). We found that <5% of new cases were multidrug-resistant TB. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB has not increased in new or re-treated cases in this province. PMID:22377167

  6. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  7. Language Planning from below: The Case of the Xhariep District of the Free State Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Theodorus

    2010-01-01

    The Xhariep District is the largest district municipality of the Free State Province of South Africa, covering 26% of the total land surface of this province. It comprises three local municipalities, namely Letsemeng, Kopanong and Mohokare and contains a total of 17 towns. The District is a multilingual area, with Afrikaans (37.1%) and Sotho…

  8. Earthquakes clustering based on the magnitude and the depths in Molluca Province

    SciTech Connect

    Wattimanela, H. J.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Indratno, S. W.; Puspito, A. N. T.

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a model to classify the earthquakes occurred in Molluca Province. We use K-Means clustering method to classify the earthquake based on the magnitude and the depth of the earthquake. The result can be used for disaster mitigation and for designing evacuation route in Molluca Province.

  9. Large igneous provinces generated from the margins of the large low-velocity provinces in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Smethurst, Mark A.; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2006-12-01

    There is a clear correlation between downward projected large igneous province (LIP) eruption sites of the past 200 Myr and the margins of the large low-velocity provinces (LLVPs) at the base of the mantle. We established this correlation by using palaeomagnetic as well as fixed and moving hotspot reference frames. Our finding indicates that the majority of the LIPs have been generated by plumes that rose from the D'' zone at the edges of the LLVPs. Most LIP eruption sites project radially downwards to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) within +/-10° of the 1 per cent slow shear wave velocity contour in the SMEAN tomographic model. Steep shear wave velocity gradients have been mapped near the CMB along much of the lengths of the LLVP margins close to that contour which marks a faster/slower boundary (FSB) within the D'' zone. The observation that eruption sites of LIPs as old as 200 Myr can be linked to this prominent present day seismic structure shows that the FSBs of the two LLVPs have occupied their current positions for at least as long and that the process that leads to the generation of deep-seated plumes has been localized on the FSBs at the margins of the African and Pacific LLVPs for the same interval. The persistence of the LLVPs over 200 Myr is consistent with independent evidence that they are compositionally distinct and are not just simply hotter than the material making up the rest of the D'' zone.

  10. The Chon Aike province of Patagonia and related rocks in West Antarctica: A silicic large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Leat, P. T.; Sruoga, P.; Rapela, C. W.; Márquez, M.; Storey, B. C.; Riley, T. R.

    1998-04-01

    The field occurrence, age, classification and geochemistry of the Mesozoic volcanic rocks of Patagonia and West Antarctica are reviewed, using published and new information. Dominated by rhyolitic ignimbrites, which form a bimodal association with minor mafic and intermediate lavas, these constitute one of the largest silicic igneous provinces known, equivalent in size to many mafic LIPs. Diachronism is recognized between the Early-Middle Jurassic volcanism of eastern Patagonia (Marifil and Chon Aike formations) and the Middle Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous volcanism of the Andean Cordillera (El Quemado, Ibañez and Tobı´fera formations). This is accompanied by a change in geochemical characteristics, from relatively high-Zr and -Nb types in the east to subalkaline arc-related rocks in the west, although the predominance of rhyolites remains a constant factor. All of the associated mafic rocks are well fractionated compared to direct mantle derivatives. Petrogenetic models favour partial melting of immature lower crust as a result of the intrusion of basaltic magmas, possibly with some hybridisation of the liquids and subsequent fractionation by crystal settling or solidification and remelting. The formation of large amounts of intracrustal silicic melt acted as a density barrier against the further rise of mafic magmas, which are thus rare in the province.

  11. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  12. [Dynamics of recent cultivated land in Zhejiang Province and relevant driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China. PMID:21442998

  13. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  14. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  15. Epidemiologic and Demographic Survey of Celiac Disease in Khuzestan Province

    PubMed Central

    Alavinejad, Pezhman; Hajiani, Eskandar; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Sebghatollahi, Vahid; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Kadkhodae, Ahmad; Jasemi Zergani, Farzad; Asghari, Shahnaz; Farsi, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms. This study clarifies different aspects of celiac disease along with the most common patterns of celiac presentation in Khuzestan Province, Iran. METHODS Patients’ information was obtained by evaluation of their files from the archives of the Khuzestan Celiac Society and records at gastroenterologists’ offices in this province. RESULTS Overall, there were 103 (40 males, 63 females) patients included in this study. Patients’ mean ages were 33 ± 11 years (males) and 31.6 ± 11.7 years (females). In terms of geographic distribution, 54.1% resided in the center of the province followed by 26.5% who were residents of the northern area. The rate of employment among men was 70.6% whereas it was 8.3% for women. In terms of education, 21.9% of men and 33.3% of women had academic educations. The rate of matrimony was 80.6% (n=29) for men, 65.4% (n=38) for women and 3.4% (n=2) who were divorced. Mean height was 164 ± 14 cm in men and 157.5 ± 10 cm in women. Mean BMI at the time of presentation was 22.7 in men and 22.6 in women. The most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in male patients were diarrhea (35%), reflux (20%), bloating (17.5%), abdominal pain (15%), vomiting (15%) and constipation (7.5%). Female patients experienced diarrhea (49.2%), abdominal pain (31.7%), bloating (31.7%), vomiting (19%), constipation(9.5%) and reflux (7.9%). The most common concomitant non-GI disorders among male patients were anemia (17.1%), thyroid disease (14.3%), and weight loss (14.3%); women experienced anemia (33.9%), thyroid disease (12.5%), and weight loss (7.1%). Approximately half of the patients exhibited symptoms for more than five years prior to diagnosis and 90% were diagnosed by gastroenterologists. Of these, 43% had normal endoscopy results. The most common serologic markers were anti-TTG (69.9%), anti-EMA (27.7%). CONCLUSION Physicians, prior to attributing patients’ symptoms to irritable bowel

  16. Paleomagnetism and Thermochronometry of the Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Grenville Province, a marginal orogen of the Canadian Precambrian Shield, extends through southern Ontario, Québec and Labrador, with equivalents in Fennoscandia. Before the Iapetus Ocean opened, the Canadian and Fennoscandian orogens were contiguous. Age-equivalent rocks in small exposures in the Appalachians, Texas and Mexico suggest that the subsurface extent of Grenvillia is comparable to that of the Superior Province, the Archean core of the Canadian Shield. It was therefore a substantial continent in its own right at the time it collided with the Superior, Southern and Nain Provinces. However, most of our paleomagnetic knowledge comes from a narrow zone on the (present-day) northern margin of Grenvillia, comprising the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone of reactivated rocks as old as Archean, the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) with deeply buried and exhumed Proterozoic rocks, and the Central Medisedimentary Belt (CMB), containing a core of less deeply buried rocks where some pre-collisional paleomagnetic information has survived. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry has been vital in determining the age relationships of paleomagnetic overprints (often two, occasionally even three, in individual formations) and establishing the Grenville Track of the Laurentian APWP. Most 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages are in the 850 to 1000 Ma range but there is enough separation between key tiepoint poles to permit clockwise and counterclockwise alternatives for the Grenville "Loop". Of great interest are the short track segments defined by mean poles for different domains of the CGB and terranes of the CMB because these may record the sequence of assemblage and/or burial and uplift. Unfortunately the profound contrast between uplift ages of different CMB terranes, as indicated by their hornblende, mica and feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data, is not borne out by the relatively minor differences in mean poles for the same terranes. The "Grenville problem" is therefore still not laid to rest, and furthermore

  17. Epidemiologic and demographic survey of celiac disease in khuzestan province.

    PubMed

    Alavinejad, Pezhman; Hajiani, Eskandar; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Sebghatollahi, Vahid; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Kadkhodae, Ahmad; Jasemi Zergani, Farzad; Asghari, Shahnaz; Farsi, Farnaz

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms. This study clarifies different aspects of celiac disease along with the most common patterns of celiac presentation in Khuzestan Province, Iran. METHODS Patients' information was obtained by evaluation of their files from the archives of the Khuzestan Celiac Society and records at gastroenterologists' offices in this province. RESULTS Overall, there were 103 (40 males, 63 females) patients included in this study. Patients' mean ages were 33 ± 11 years (males) and 31.6 ± 11.7 years (females). In terms of geographic distribution, 54.1% resided in the center of the province followed by 26.5% who were residents of the northern area. The rate of employment among men was 70.6% whereas it was 8.3% for women. In terms of education, 21.9% of men and 33.3% of women had academic educations. The rate of matrimony was 80.6% (n=29) for men, 65.4% (n=38) for women and 3.4% (n=2) who were divorced. Mean height was 164 ± 14 cm in men and 157.5 ± 10 cm in women. Mean BMI at the time of presentation was 22.7 in men and 22.6 in women. The most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in male patients were diarrhea (35%), reflux (20%), bloating (17.5%), abdominal pain (15%), vomiting (15%) and constipation (7.5%). Female patients experienced diarrhea (49.2%), abdominal pain (31.7%), bloating (31.7%), vomiting (19%), constipation(9.5%) and reflux (7.9%). The most common concomitant non-GI disorders among male patients were anemia (17.1%), thyroid disease (14.3%), and weight loss (14.3%); women experienced anemia (33.9%), thyroid disease (12.5%), and weight loss (7.1%). Approximately half of the patients exhibited symptoms for more than five years prior to diagnosis and 90% were diagnosed by gastroenterologists. Of these, 43% had normal endoscopy results. The most common serologic markers were anti-TTG (69.9%), anti-EMA (27.7%). CONCLUSION Physicians, prior to attributing patients' symptoms to irritable bowel

  18. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15

  19. [Differences in perinatal mortality between provinces: dependence on many factors].

    PubMed

    Bonsel, Gouke J; Steegers, Eric A P

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch perinatal mortality rate is relatively high when viewed in a European perspective. There appear to be also substantial differences in perinatal mortality between provinces, large cities and even between neighbourhoods. Accumulation of obstetric risk factors as well as socioeconomic and urban risks seems to be involved as well. This should be taken into account in the process of risk selection to define a high risk population needing hospital care. In 85% of all cases of perinatal mortality, one or more of the following perinatal morbidities are present, designated as the 'Big 4': congenital abnormalities, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low Apgar score (< 7; 5 min after birth). Differences in perinatal mortality, the evaluation of organisational features of care and determinants like travel time from home to hospital should always be related to the case mix represented by this 'Big 4'. PMID:21382215

  20. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  1. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  2. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  3. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males. PMID:22436732

  4. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection. PMID:27065607

  5. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  6. Ecodynamics of anthropogenic mining provinces: From degradation to rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabin, G. V.; Moiseenko, T. I.

    2011-03-01

    The unity, interrelationship, and interdependence of the processes proceeding in anthropogenic provinces caused by the activity of mining industries are considered from the viewpoint of the concept of hierarchical passivity of natural components. The processes of degradation of natural complexes under the influence of mining industries and the processes of rehabilitation of the vegetation cover when the anthropogenic pressure decreases are analyzed taking the ZAO Karabashmed', Chelyabinsk region, and the Severonikel' Combine, Murmansk region, as examples. The intrinsic potential of rehabilitation of natural systems (air, water, and soil) is assessed, and the most passive components are identified. A strategy of reclamation of disturbed territories is enunciated based on the information obtained taking the natural self-recovering ability of ecosystems in different climate zones into account.

  7. Quality assurance report. EMAP, Virginian province, 1990-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Valente, R.M.; Keith, D.; Summers, K.; LiVolsi, J.

    1995-09-01

    The report documents the results of Quality Assurance activities conducted in conjunction with sampling performed by EPA`s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program`s Estuaries study (EMAP-Estuaries) in the Virginian Province from 1990 through 1993. This report discusses the results of Quality Assurance activities by indicator, data qualifier flags, data quality, and, where appropriate, discuss lessons learned, and proposes changes or solutions to improve data quality. A total of 446 Base Sampling Sites were scheduled for sampling over this period. Twenty one stations were eliminated due to inadequate water depth or logistical concerns. Some significant problems were encountered in the chemical analysis of sediment samples resulting in the deletion of some data from the database. The specific problems and a discussion of the data deleted or qualified are included in this report.

  8. Death Portrait of Isfahan Province in Years 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ferdosi, Masuod; Mohammadi Sefiddashti, Farzaneh; Aghdak, Pejman; Moradi, Reza; Mofid, Maryam; Rejalian, Farzaneh; Nemati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is one of the main health challenges affecting the global development in the present era. This raising challenge is a major threat to countries’ socioeconomic development as well as millions of people health. Methods: It was a retrospective study with analysis of reported death in Isfahan Province during a 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Required data were collected from statistics provided by Deputy of Health in Kashan and Isfahan Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012. Excel software was used for data analysis. Results: During this period, the cardiovascular events, cancers and tumors, unintentional injuries, respiratory diseases, and prenatal mortality were the main reasons of mortality in Isfahan Province. The overall rate of cardiovascular events rose 5.10% in the 5-years of the study observation, and Khor – Biabanak was on the top of the list; while in cancer rating Khor – Biabanak, Golpayegan, and Khansar both stood at the outset (per 1,000 people). For injuries, the highest rate belonged to Golpayegan, Tiran-Kervan, and Chadegan. Meanwhile, for mental illnesses, the highest rate was observed in Khomeini Shahr. Moreover, the highest maternal and fetal mortality was reported in Fereydunshahr, Khor – Biabanak and Mobarakeh. Conclusions: Given the sharp rise of NCD, programs by health care system should be directed toward lifestyle modification while a proper framework should be determined to deal with these kinds of disease. Furthermore, optimal allocation of resources based on needs can provide better facilities for different cities. PMID:27563432

  9. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  10. The province and heritage of mankind reconsidered: A new beginning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrynowicz, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    The central problem of our time -- one that is shared by all races and nationalities -- is to discover the things, the qualities, and interest that people have in common so that durable institutions can be designed for mankind's survival. The 'common heritage of mankind' and the 'province of all mankind' are different legal concepts developed in international space law during the last quarter of a century. Since the initial appearance of these provisions, controversy has arisen regarding their intent and meaning as applied to a nation's right to explore and use a common environment such as space or the high seas and a nation's obligation to share benefits derived from those environments with the rest of the world. As can be expected, different interpretations are currently competing for acceptance. This is so, in part, because, in the case of the Outer Space Treaty, although a general principle was articulated, rules for acceptance and application of the principles were not. In the case of the Moon and Sea Treaties, although an effort has been made to clarify both meaning and application, the articulations are still too vague for legal certainty. This paper focuses on the fact that these concepts are already currently available tools for the advancement of both global and U.S. interests but, because of the labyrinthine legal arguments that have been generated and some assumptions being held, they are in danger of being lost as such tools. The tendency of many observers in the U.S. to confuse the concept of 'province of all mankind' and 'common heritage of mankind' and to assume that both are incompatible with U. S. commercial space interests is also addressed. It is suggested that reconsidering these provisions can yield positions compatible with U.S. interests and that it can and should actively seek the use of these provisions as a basis for global cooperation and commercial benefit.

  11. [Intestinal parasitoses detected in primary schoolchildren in the Van province].

    PubMed

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Akbayram, Sinan; Ciçek, Mutalip; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out on school children in primary schools in the Van province in order to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasitoses. The study was conducted in 7-15 year-old primary schoolchildren during the years from 2003-2005. Stool specimens were taken from 2975 school children; of these, 1289 were female and 1686, male. The specimens were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and trichrome staining methods in the parasitology laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. One or more parasite species were detected in 1916 (64.4%) stool specimens of 2975 children. Parasitosis was detected in 65.7% of females and in 63.4% of males. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Fasciola hepatica were detected in 27.4%, 16.4%, 14.9%, 3.9%, 2.9%, 1.8%, 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 7.5%, 5.3%, 0.7%, 0.6% and 0.03% of the specimens, respectively. In conclusion, there are still high rates of intestinal parasitoses in school children in this region because care is not taken in hygiene and the socioeconomic status is low in the Van province. PMID:20101580

  12. Hemoglobinopathies in the Çukurova Region and Neighboring Provinces.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu Ariyurek, Sedefgul; Yildiz, Sule Menziletoglu; Yalin, Ali Erdinc; Guzelgul, Figen; Aksoy, Kiymet

    2016-06-01

    To contribute to the creation of a mutation map of the region, we aimed to determine the mutation spectrum of thalassemias and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) in the Çukurova region and surrounding provinces. In this study, a total of 8135 samples from Adana, Hatay, Mersin, Konya and Kayseri provinces between 1993 and 2014 were analyzed. Complete blood cell (CBC) counts and Hb typing were carried out using automatic cell counters, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. For the molecular analyses, genomic DNA was extracted using both manual and automated DNA extraction devices. Determination of Hb mutations were done by microarray, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) methodologies. Samples were analyzed for abnormal Hb and thalassemia mutations. Out of 8135 samples, 1382 were observed to be carrying Hb mutations. It was identified that 826 mutation carriers included abnormal Hbs with a frequency of 59.7%, 416 carriers included β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations with a frequency of 30.7% and 136 carriers included α-thalassemia (α-thal) mutations with a frequency of 9.9%. In this study, the most frequently observed abnormal Hb in the region was Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val (GTG > GAG), HBB: c.20T > A], whereas the most commonly observed mutations were the IVS-I-110 (G > A) (HBB: c.93-21G > A) point mutation in β-thal and the 3.7 kb deletion in α-thal. PMID:26984585

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  14. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Jordaan, Adri J; Nel, Pierre J; van Heerden, Joseph; Heyne, Heloise; van Dalen, Ellie M

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks' role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed. PMID:26244582

  15. Constructing the volcanic architecture of Kalkarindji, an ancient flood basalt province, using a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, P.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Murphy, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalkarindji Continental Flood Basalt Province (CFBP) is the oldest igneous province in the Phanerozoic. Erupted in the mid-Cambrian (505-510 Ma) [1], it is estimated volumes of lava up to 1.5 x 105 km3could have been erupted, making this similar in size to the better known Columbia River Basalts, USA. Relatively little is known about the province, due in part to its remote location, though large swathes remain well preserved (c. 50,000 km2). This study, based on rigorous field investigations, utilises 4 different analytical techniques to construct a volcanic architecture for the Kalkarindji basalts, drawing together these complimentary datasets to generate a series of detailed stratigraphies from around the province. Mineralogy and petrography form the basis while geochemical data aides in defining lava flow stratigraphies and distinguishing individual flow packages in disparate locations around the province. 40Ar/39Ar dating of key stratigraphic marker horizons support stratigraphical correlation across the province whilst the use of palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy has allowed for correlation on a broader scale. Indications from this study point towards an unusual eruption among CFBPs in the Phanerozoic; a lack of tumescence, immediate subsidence of the lava pile following cessation of eruption; and, in the main sub-province, we map a simple volcanic structure thinning to the east from a single source. 1. L. M. Glass, D. Phillips, (2006). Geology. 34, 461-464.

  16. Record of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province Upwellings Preserved in the Cretaceous Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, P.; Gazel, E.; Flores, K. E.; Bizimis, M.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    As the surface expression of deep mantle dynamics, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are associated with the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVP) rooted at the core-mantle boundary. Instabilities in the LLSVP can cause periodic upwellings of material in the form of mantle plumes, which impact the lithosphere forming LIPs. However, the time frames of these massive lava outpourings are still uncertain. While continental LIPs are more readily accessible, oceanic LIPs have only been studied through drilling and sampling of fragments accreted to continental margins or island arcs, hence, they are relatively less understood. The impact of oceanic LIPs on oceanic biota is conspicuously recorded in global occurrences of black shale deposits that evidence episodes of anoxia and mass extinctions shortly after the formation of LIPs that ultimately can affect life on the entire planet. Our new geochemical and geochronological data of accreted Pacific LIPs found in the coasts of Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica record three LIP pulses possibly reflecting upwelling periods of the LLSVP at 140, 120 and 90 Ma. In order to test different models of origin of these LIPS, we created a complete reconstruction of the Pacific Plate configuration from the Mid-Jurassic to Upper-Cretaceous to show the existing correlation between upwelling pulses at edges of the Pacific LLSVP, oceanic anoxic events and the age from Pacific LIPs. We propose that since the formation of the Pacific plate at circa 175-180 Ma, a series of upwellings that interacted with mid-ocean ridge systems separated by 10-20 Ma have affected the planet periodically forming oceanic LIPs that still can be found today on the Pacific seafloor and accreted along the plate margins.

  17. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP): The Palisade Sill Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The extensively studied 200Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is considered to be the world's largest continental Large Igneous Province (LIP) covering up to 7 X 106 km2. This igneous province has been linked to the ~200Ma Mesozoic opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. This opening fragmented the CAMP into several segments that occur on four different tectonic plates today. The CAMP related LIP is different from others in that it constitutes almost entirely of dikes and sills with sparse volcanic outflows. The 200 Ma Palisade Sill, exposed along the Hudson River in northeastern North America is an expression of the CAMP magmatism. On the basis of similar ages of eruption, Palisade Sill tholeiites have been correlated to other CAMP exposures in four continents. We provide an isotopic tracer study of the Palisade Sill basalts and relate them to low-Ti (<2 wt %) CAMP related tholeiites from North and South America, western Europe, and West Africa. We report Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic and multiple trace element data of 19 basalts and gabbros, 3 chilled margin basalts, and 4 sandstones spanning the entire length and thickness of the Palisade Sill in New York and New Jersey. These geochemical data are essential to understand the relationship between mantle geodynamic processes involved in the generation of the CAMP tholeiites prior to the formation of the of the Atlantic Ocean crust. The Palisade Sill basalts of this study yield the typical composition of low-Ti CAMP tholeiites with small LREE enrichments (LaN/SmN = 1.7 to 2.3), radiogenic Sr and negative ɛNd(I) values (87Sr/87Sr(I) = 0.70668 to 0.71037; ɛNd(I) = -0.64 to -3.8), and Pb-isotopic ratios (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 18.11 to 18.69) above the NHRL and subparallel to it. These geochemical data indicate the Palisade Sill basalts were derived from a slightly enriched OIB-like mantle source. Further, these rocks were derived by ~15% melting of a slightly depleted spinel peridotite with up to 20% contamination by the

  18. Evidence of Coxiella burnetii in Punjab province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Akram, Sidra; Hassan, Zia Ul; Hanif, Kashif; Rabbani, Masood; Muhammad, Javed; Chaudhary, Muhammad Hamid; Abbas, Tariq; Ghori, Muhammad Taslim; Rashid, Haroon; Jamil, Tariq; Islam, Zia-Ul-; Rasool, Haisem; Bano, Asghari; Ahmad, Arfan; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Yaqub, Tahir; McVey, Walt; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2016-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes query (Q) fever, an important zoonotic disease with worldwide significance. The role of environment in the ecology of C. burnetti, and its influence on seroconversion in animals has not been elucidated in Pakistan. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Punjab province to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of C. burnetii in soil using an ISIIII gene-based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, (2) analyze association between the occurrence of C. burnetii in soil and its predictors i.e. soil characteristics (macro- and micro-nutrients) and several likely risk factors including the seroconversion in small ruminants at places where its genome had or had not been detected, and (3) predict homology and genetic diversity of the identified strains using sequences originated from different hosts worldwide. A total of 2425 soil samples from nine districts of Punjab province were processed. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47 samples (1.94%, 95% CI: ±0.55) originating from 35 villages of studied districts (7.22%, 95% CI: ±2.30). The highest prevalence was found in Attock (7.11%, 95% CI: ±3.36), followed by Lahore (4.83%, 95% CI: ±3.49), Sahiwal (4.70%, 95% CI: ±2.6), Dera Ghazi Khan (2.33%, 95% CI: ±2.02), Faisalabad (1.35%, 95% CI: ±1.18) and Sheikhupura (0.68%, 95% CI: ±0.94). The odds of detecting bacterial DNA in soil was increased with a unit increase in organic matter [2.511 (95% CI: 1.453-4.340), p=0.001] and sodium [1.013 (95% CI: 1.005-1.022), p=0.001], whereas, calcium [0.984 (95% CI: 0.975-0.994), p=0.002] and potassium [0.994 (95% CI: 0.990-0.999), p=0.011] had protective effect where a unit increase in each analyte decreased odds for its occurrence by 1.0% approximately. Likewise, for categorical variables (risk factors), the odds of detecting C. burnetii were higher at locations >500m away from a main road [1.95 (95% CI: 1.06-3.78), p=0.04]. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

  19. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  20. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  1. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  2. COASTAL ECOLOGICAL DATA FROM THE VIRGINIAN BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROVINCE 1990-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) assessed the ecological condition of estuaries, bays, and tidal rivers in the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Cape Henry, Virginia) during July?Septembe...

  3. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  4. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: CURRENT STATUS OF VIRGINIAN PROVINCE (U.S.) ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of indicators of the ecological condition of bays, tidal rivers, and estuaries within the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Henry, Virginia) was conducted annually by the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) ...

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern-recognition processing for classifying wines of two Italian provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Gordillo, B.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; González-Miret, M. L.; Heredia, F. J.; Cichelli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an experiment making use of the near-infrared spectrum for distinguishing the wines produced in two close provinces of Abruzzo region of Italy. A collection of 32 wines was considered, 18 of which were produced in the province of Chieti, while the other 14 were from the province of Teramo. A conventional dual-beam spectrophotometer was used for absorption measurements in the 1300-1900 nm spectroscopic range. Principal Component Analysis was used for explorative analysis. Score maps in the PC1-PC2 or PC2-PC3 spaces were obtained, which successfully grouped the wine samples in two distinct clusters, corresponding to Chieti and Teramo provinces, respectively. A modelling of dual-band spectroscopy was also proposed, making use of two LEDs for illumination and a PIN detector instead of the spectrometer. These data were processed using Linear Discriminant Analysis which demonstrated satisfactory classification results.

  7. Lessons from malaria control to elimination: case study in Hainan and Yunnan provinces.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi-Gui; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Li, Mei; Feng, Xin-Yu; Tang, Lin-Hua; Wang, Shan-Qing; Yang, Heng-Lin; Gao, Qi; Kramer, Randall; Ernest, Tambo; Yap, Peiling; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Reduction patterns of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria transmission and the role of an integrated strategy of case management and vector control are compared between different ecological zones. The epidemiology of malaria in Hainan and Yunnan provinces was disparate, even though distinct malaria control strategies have been adapted to different situations based on risk group, vector behaviours, local health infrastructure, and environmental conditions. The island Hainan appears to be victorious in eliminating malaria. However, there is still a long way to go to prevent the reintroduction of malaria in Hainan province and eliminating malaria in the border areas of Yunnan province. This review of the experiences and challenges from malaria control to elimination in Hainan and Yunnan provinces of southern China will provide a basis for the future elimination of malaria in the whole country. PMID:25476881

  8. Geologic implications of Paleozoic and Mesozoic paleontology and biostratigraphy, Blue Mountains province, Oregon and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, Tracy L., (Edited By); Brooks, Howard C.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains, besides the present review, seven papers on the biostratigraphy of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Blue Mountains province. Geologic implications of the faunal data are discussed in the context of terrane analyses. Most of the authors agree that the pre-Tertiary rocks of this province were formed in a complex island arc within a low-latitude faunal realm and subsequently moved northward and accreted to the North American continent. The use of different terrane names for parts of the Blue Mountains province by different authors may lead to some confusion. We suggest that future authors use the term "Blue Mountains island arc" for the pre-Tertiary province and, if there is a need for subdivision, that they use the terrane names proposed by Silberling and others (1984).

  9. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  10. [Risk assessment of ecological disasters in Jilin Province based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Quan; Liang, Jing-Dan; Zhou, Dao-Wei

    2007-08-01

    Based on the principles of natural disasters risk formation, and considering the natural and social features of Jilin Province, relevant indices were selected from the aspects of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and emergency responses, and recovery capability, and Natural Disaster Risk Index method, Weighted Comprehensive Analysis, and Analytic Hierarchy Process were used to build the risk assessment model of ecological disasters in this Province. The contribution of each index was assessed, and the regionalization map of the ecological disasters risk in Jilin Province was built based on GIS, which would provide scientific references in accurately understanding the risk level of ecological disasters and in decision-making of eco-environment restoration and management in Jilin Province. PMID:17974242

  11. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  12. Application of multiple index development approaches to benthic invertebrate data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  16. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  17. A quantitative risk assessment of bovine theileriosis entering Luapula Province from Central Province in Zambia via live cattle imports from traditional and commercial production sectors.

    PubMed

    Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K

    2014-09-01

    Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia. PMID

  18. Molecular identification and seasonal infections of species of Fasciola in ruminants from two provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, W; Liu, J-M; Lu, K; Li, H; Duan, M-M; Feng, J-T; Hong, Y; Liu, Y-P; Zhou, Y; Tong, L-B; Lu, J; Zhu, C-G; Jin, Y-M; Cheng, G-F; Lin, J-J

    2016-05-01

    We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4-100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0-89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively. PMID:26123576

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mackenzie Delta province, North America, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitchell E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 40 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered nonassociated gas, a mean of 10.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil (with 46.6 trillion cubic feet of associated gas), and a mean of 4.0 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Mackenzie Delta Province of North America, exclusive of the unassessed deep-water portion of the province.

  20. Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Yinlong Jin; Zheng Zhou; Gongli He

    2005-12-15

    Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. Three important indoor air pollutants - respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were monitored for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 187-361 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations. Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi. In the two coal-burning provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  3. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, A; Rasekhi, AR; Kalantari, M; Hatam, GR

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two different regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this province. PMID:22808374

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  5. Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608

  6. Indoor radon measurements in Erzurum province of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, R.; Kiran, D.; Kavaz, E.; Ekinci, N.

    2016-04-01

    Indoor radon measurements were carried out in dwellings in Erzurum province during the winter months of February 2012 to early April 2012 and the summer months of July 2012 to early September 2012. Nuclear track detector LR-115 was used for the measurements. According to the results of investigations, it was understood that the indoor radon concentration averages in dwellings are in the range of 11 ± 6 Bq m-3 - 380 ± 91 Bq m-3 in winter season and 8 ± 3 Bq m-3 - 356 ± 64 Bq m-3 in summer season. We found that the 222Rn effective dose values in the studied dwellings in winter season range from 0.278 to 9.59 mSv y-1. Also, the 222Rn effective dose values in the studied dwellings in summer season range from 0.202 to 8.98 mSv y-1. These values are within the ICPR recommended values. The radon activity has not been found to vary with seasonal changes, but also with the age, the construction mode of houses, the ventilation conditions and with specific sites and geological materials.

  7. Regional geomorphology and history of Titan's Xanadu province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Wall, S.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R M.C.; Valora, P.; Farr, T.G.; Hayes, A.; Stiles, B.; Mitri, G.; Zebker, H.; Janssen, M.; Wye, L.; LeGall, A.; Mitchell, K.L.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.D.; Schaller, E.L.; The Cassini Radar Team

    2011-01-01

    Titan's enigmatic Xanadu province has been seen in some detail with instruments from the Cassini spacecraft. The region contains some of the most rugged, mountainous terrain on Titan, with relief over 2000 m. Xanadu contains evolved and integrated river channels, impact craters, and dry basins filled with smooth, radar-dark material, perhaps sediments from past lake beds. Arcuate and aligned mountain chains give evidence of compressional tectonism, yet the overall elevation of Xanadu is puzzlingly low compared to surrounding sand seas. Lineations associated with mountain fronts and valley floors give evidence of extension that probably contributed to this regional lowering. Several locations on Xanadu's western and southern margins contain flow-like features that may be cryovolcanic in origin, perhaps ascended from lithospheric faults related to regional downdropping late in its history. Radiometry and scatterometry observations are consistent with a water–ice or water–ammonia–ice composition to its exposed, eroded, fractured bedrock; both microwave and visible to near-infrared (v-nIR) data indicate a thin overcoating of organics, likely derived from the atmosphere. We suggest Xanadu is one of the oldest terrains on Titan and that its origin and evolution have been controlled and shaped by compressional and then extensional tectonism in the icy crust and ongoing erosion by methane rainfall.

  8. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space. PMID:26054518

  9. Large Igneous Provinces, Sulfur Aerosols, and Initiation of Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, F. A.; Wordsworth, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The events that led to the initiation of Snowball Earth remain poorly understood. Proposed scenarios include a methane addiction, a biological innovation that led to an increase in organic carbon burial and anaerobic remineralization, or an increase in global weatherability due to a paleogeography with a preponderance of low latitude continents, and the subareal implacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) at the equator. The Franklin LIP was emplaced between 730 and 710 Ma and covers an area of over 2.25 Mkm2 with lavas, sills, and dikes extending over much of northern Laurentia from Alaska through northern Canada to Greenland and potentially to Siberia. The most precise geochronological constraints on the Franklin LIP overlap with the onset of the Sturtian Snowball Earth glaciation, which began between 717 and 716 Ma and marked the first glaciation in over 1 billion years. The Franklin LIP is the largest preserved Neoproterozoic LIP and one of the largest in Earth History. Additionally, it was emplaced at equatorial latitudes with associated sills that invaded epicontinental sulfur evaporite basins, potentially maximizing environmental effects. Here we explore the hypothesis that the Sturtian Snowball Earth was initiated in part by an increase in planetary albedo from the conversion of volcanic SO2/H2S emissions to tropospheric and stratospheric sulfate aerosols through a combination of geochemical and modeling studies.

  10. Paleoparasitological results for rodent coprolites from Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Norma Haydée; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Rindel, Diego Damián; Goñi, Rafael Agustín

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG) located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47 degrees 57'S 72 degrees 05'W). Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 +/- 70, 4,900 +/- 70 and 3,440 +/- 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae), Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae) and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed. PMID:20209326

  11. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  12. Historical ecology of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Maria Lourdes D; Heymans, Johanna J; Pauly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a review of the status of marine resources of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia, based on narratives of early European expeditions in various museums and libraries in Europe, Canada, and local archives in Papua. More than 500 pertinent documents on the study area were identified and located in various European museums and at the University of British Columbia library. About half of these were scanned (25,000 pages), which yielded the equivalent of 900 pages of text (or 4% of the total number of pages scanned) with observations on abundance and impact of the human population on the marine ecosystem within 2 degrees North and 2 degrees South between 127 degrees and 132 degrees East. In general, these observations, which spanned the period from 1810 to the present, suggest a decrease in the perceived occurrences of turtles, fish, and invertebrates; perceived abundance of turtles, fish, and algae; percieved subsistence exploitation of marine resources; and an increase in perceived commercial exploitation of marine resources. We conclude with a discussion of the problems and potential of contents analysis, and its use in the historical reconstruction of broad biodiversity trends. PMID:18411836

  13. Ligature strangulation deaths in the province of Konya (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, deaths by ligature strangulation in the province of Konya (Turkey) were evaluated from the medicolegal point of view between 2001 and 2006. In total 2850 medicolegal death cases, 161 (5.65%) were resulted from asphyxia and 20 (12.4%) of the deaths due to asphyxia were cases of ligature strangulation. Male:female ratio of the victims was 1:1 with ages ranging from 1.5 to 70 years and a mean age of 37.22+/-19.28 years. 17 cases (85%) were of homicidal and 3 cases (15%) of suicidal origin. The most widely used ligature material was clothesline in 6 cases (30%). On the examination of neck structures, thyroid cartilage fracture was present in 7 (35%) cases, fracture of the hyoid bone in 3 cases (15%), fracture both of the thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone in 1 case (5%), only ecchymosis in soft tissues in 7 cases (35%). In the paper, the findings determined in our cases are discussed in the light of the literature on the subject. PMID:19481705

  14. Alpha-thalassemia mutations in Gilan Province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, Valeh; Jafroodi, Maryam; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Moghadam, Sousan Dehnadi; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Tarashohi, Shahin; Pourfahim, Hamideh; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and three patients from Gilan Province, Iran, presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia parameters without iron deficiency were included in this study. Using gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR), reverse hybridization StripAssay and DNA sequencing, we detected a total of 113 alpha-globin mutations in 94 (91.3%) of these patients. Most prevalent of the 16 different alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) alleles was -alpha(3.7) (42.5%), followed by the polyadenylation signal (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (12.4%), Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2] (10.6%), --(MED) (8.8%), IVS-I donor site [GAG GTG AGG>GAG G-----, alpha(-5 nt) (-TGAGG)] (7.1%), -alpha(4.2) (4.4%) and poly A1 (AATAAA>AATAAG) (3.5%). An additional nine mutations were observed at frequencies below 2%. We also found two novel alpha1 gene mutations: alpha(-9) (HBA1: c.-9 G>C) and alpha(IVS-I-4) (HBA1: c.95+4 A>G). Our new findings will be valuable for improving targeted thalassemia screening and prevention strategies in this area. PMID:19657838

  15. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  16. The syphilis problem in Asir province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoroury, A. A.

    1954-01-01

    A combined national and international venereal disease team began activities in Saudi Arabia in November 1952, moving from Mecca to Asir province in May 1953, where it remained for two months examining and treating various groups of the population. A total of 309 cases of syphilis among a population of approximately 3,000 at Abha was given complete clinical and serological examination and treatment with PAM, in doses varying from 2.4 to 6.0 million units. Serological tests were made on 2,359 blood samples. Only one primary lesion was found; but secondary lesions were quite common, amounting to 5.8% of all cases treated, while tertiary lesions represented 12.6% of all cases treated and 67.2% of all clinical cases. Considerable variations in the prevalence of syphilis were noted among the different quarters of the town of Abha and among different tribes and villages. All the age-groups were more or less equally affected, but the females generally showed a higher positivity-rate than the males. All these features—together with the low social, economic, and sanitary standards of the population and many prevalent social habits, such as the use of common eating and drinking implements — would seem to indicate that the syphilis met in Asir, and locally known as “shadjar”, “balash”, “fringi”, “mabrouk”, or “wardi”, should be included with the endemic treponematoses met with elsewhere in the world. PMID:13182591

  17. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Pirabad, Lorestan Province, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHEIRANDISH, Farnaz; KAYEDI, Mohammad Hassan; EZATPOUR, Behrouz; ANBARI, Khatere; KARIMI ROUZBAHANI, Hamid Reza; CHEGENI SHARAFI, Ali; ZENDEHDEL, Abolfazl; BIZHANI, Negar; ROKNI, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to perform seroepidemiological investigation for determining the status of human fasciolosis in Pirabad Village, Lorestan Province, western Iran. Methods: Blood samples were taken from residents of the village including 801 individuals. Sera were separated and stored at −20°C until used. The samples were analyzed using ELISA. Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 6 (0.7%) individuals. Difference between age, sex and drinking or swimming in the surface water with seropositivity to fasciolosis was not significant. Out of 7 shepherds, 1 (14.3%) was seropositive. Due to the small number of shepherds, comprehensive statistical inference in this regard cannot be done. Significant difference was detected between seropositivity to fasciolosis and consuming local freshwater vegetables during the last 6 months (P=0.001). Conclusion: Metacercariae carrying local freshwater plants might be the main source of contamination because consumption of these kinds of vegetables was confirmed by all participants. Awareness of local communities regarding the danger of freshwater plant consumption, through health education programs, will decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27095965

  18. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J.

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

  19. Distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Gong, Zhengda; Ge, Junqi; Meng, Weishan; Feng, Yun; Wang, Jinglin; Zhai, Yougang; Wang, Huanqin; Nasci, Roger; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong

    2009-12-01

    From July to September in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' N and 29 degrees 00' N latitude in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, China. A total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using UV light traps at 59 sites. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. The density of mosquitoes as well as the diversity of species decreased with increasing altitude. A total of 21,008 mosquitoes in 281 pools representing all of the 15 species was tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture. Viruses identified included Japanese encephalitis virus (13 isolates), Getah virus (five isolates), Banna virus (three isolates), Kadipiro virus (five isolates), and Densovirus (seven isolates). These isolates were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (20 isolates), Anopheles sinensis (three isolates), Armigeres subalbatus (six isolates), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (two isolates), and from unidentified, mixed mosquitoes (two isolates). Most of the isolates were from collections made at elevations below 2,500 m. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 0, 000-000. PMID:19196130

  20. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  1. Application of Telemedicine in Gansu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Wang, Hongjing; Guo, Tiankang; Bao, Guoxian

    2016-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance health care and continuing education. As information and communication technology is underdeveloped in China, telemedicine develops slowly. At present, telemedicine consultation centers are situated mainly in developed cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In many less developed regions, such as northwest China, the conditions or related facilities are not available for the application of a better medical service. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to introduce the construction and application of a telemedicine consultation center in Gansu Province in the northwest of China. In addition, the function of Gansu Provincial Telemedicine Consultation Center on emergency public events was introduced. As a whole, there was a great demand for telemedicine service in the local medical institutions. In the telemedicine consultation center, the telemedicine equipments and regulations were needed to be improved. The function of telemedicine service was not fully used, there was a large space to be applied and the publicity of telemedicine service was important. What is important was that telemedicine played a significance role in promoting the medical policy reform, improving the medical environment and launching the remote rescue in the emergency public events. This paper emphasizes the health care challenges of poor regions, and indicates how to share the high-quality medical service of provincial hospitals effectively and how to help residents in resource-poor environments. PMID:27332894

  2. Theileriosis control modelling (experiences from Southern Province, Zambia).

    PubMed

    Penne, K; D'Haese, L

    1999-09-01

    Effects of different tick-borne disease control strategies on cattle productivity are simulated based on a 30-year herd projection, calculated by a modified Markov Chain model. Input data can be grouped in technical, economic and epidemiological parameters. The output is a set of economic parameters such as benefit/cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) of the profit, internal rate of return (IRR), total economic cost (TEC) as well as graphs showing animal production over time. Shadow prices are obtained for input and output in kind. Throughout the calculations a distinction is made between transactions in cash and transactions in kind. A case study was run for Southern Province, Zambia, to illustrate the model. Either vector control or treatment, or a combination of these, controls theileriosis at farm level after natural infection. Preventive immunization against the parasite is also possible. Although the calculations are based on a mixture of data obtained from literature, field experience, expert opinion and assumptions, the importance of theileriosis control is clearly indicated. Immunization gives better economic results than chemotherapy. Vector control can only be used as a last resort. PMID:10540313

  3. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment. PMID:26513899

  4. Hydrology of area 3, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 3 of the Eastern Coal Province, 4,077 square miles of the lower Allegheny River basin in western Pennsylvania. Seventy-three streams were sampled three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and botom material samples were analyzed for metals. Sixteen streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins and in the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Benthic invertebrates were not found in 11 of 64 streams sampled. An additional 13 streams had low benthic invertebrate diversity indices. Low diversity indices were most common in the southern part of area 3. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 3. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, and Office of Water Data Coordination are explained. (USGS)

  5. [Population exposure to air pollutant emissions in Human Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming; Ye, Xuemei; Zhu, Tianle

    2003-05-01

    Estimate of population exposure to air pollution is necessary to health impact assessment. Based on the concept of intake fraction, a rapid population exposure assessment method was developed in this paper. The CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model was applied to estimate intake fractions of primary and secondary fine particles emitted from a set of 17 power plants in Hunan Province. Results showed that within 500 km from the emission source, average values of intake fraction were 9.73 x 10(-6) for PM2.5, 2.39 x 10(-6) for sulfate and 2.47 x 10(-6) for nitrate. From regression analysis, good correlations were found for the relations among intake fraction of PM2.5, stack height, and population (R2 = 0.83), and intake fraction of SO(4)2- and population (R2 = 0.64), and intake fraction of NO3-, stack height and population (R2 = 0.74). Iso-intake fraction maps were produced based on the regression equations and population distribution, which reflected the differentiation of population density and enabled simple impact assessment for emission sources in this region. PMID:12916195

  6. [Retrospective evaluation of brucellosis cases inhabiting in Mus province].

    PubMed

    Sit, Dede; Kadiroğlu, Ali Kemal; Kayabaşi, Hasan; Hoşoğlu, Salih

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the brucellosis patients inhabiting in Mus province, in Eastern Anatolia of Turkey, retrospectively. The mean age of the patients (n: 87) was 38.1 +/- 12.4 years, and 45% of them were female. The transmission route was the consumption of unpasteurized fresh cheese (in 85%), and unboiled milk (in 45%). The most common symptoms were recorded as chills (89%), fever (87%), and arthralgia (81%). Splenomegaly (71%) and hepatomegaly (63%) were the predominant physical examination signs. Diagnosis was made based on the clinical features and positive Rose-Bengal test result (93%), however, blood cultures could not be performed due to insufficient laboratory equipment. In 92% of the patients at least one complication has been detected indicating delayed admission to the hospital, while the most common complications were sacroileitis (79%) and spondylitis (44%). Streptomycin+doxycyclin, streptomycin+doxycyclin+ ciprofloxacin, and streptomycin+doxycyclin+ rifampicin combination therapies were used in 62%, 24% and 14% of the patients, respectively, for six weeks, resulting with complete cure. PMID:17001861

  7. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  8. Southern Mozambique basin: most promising hydrocarbon province offshore eat Africa

    SciTech Connect

    De Buyl, M.; Flores, G.

    1984-09-01

    Recent offshore acquisition of 12,800 km (8,000 mi) of seismic reflection data, with gravity and magnetic profiles encompassing the southern half of the Mozambique basin, reveals new facets of the subsurface geology. Integrated interpretation of these new geophysical data with old well information results in the development of depositional and tectonic models that positively establish the hydrocarbon potential of the basin. The recent comprehensive interpretation affords the following conclusions. (1) Significant oil shows accompany wet gas discoveries suggest that the South Mozambique basin is a mature province, as the hydrocarbon associations imply thermogenic processes. (2) Super-Karoo marine Jurassic sequences have been encountered in Nhamura-1 well onshore from the application of seismic stratigraphy and well correlation. (3) Steeply dipping reflectors truncated by the pre-Cretaceous unconformity testify to significant tectonic activity preceding the breakup of Gondwanaland. Hence, preconceived ideas about the depth of the economic basement and the absence of mature source rocks of pre-Cretaceous age should be revised. (4) Wildcats in the vicinity of ample structural closures have not been, in retrospect, optimally positioned nor drilled to sufficient depth to test the viability of prospects mapped along a major offshore extension of the East African rift system delineated by this new survey.

  9. Workplace bullying in nursing: The case of Azerbaijan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Ali Nasr; Shahbazi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workplace bullying is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession both in Iran and internationally. This study examined workplace bullying among a group of Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: The prevalence rate of bullying behavior among nurses was determined. Data were collected from 162 nurses who worked in four hospitals located in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Results: Results showed that only 9% of nurses who participated in this study had frequently been exposed to bullying behavior, 22% had occasionally been bullied, and 69% had never been exposed to these behaviors during the last year. The most common type of workplace bullying experienced by nurses was verbal bullying. Forty percent of the nurses reported exposure to verbal bullying behavior frequently or occasionally. Conclusions: To be able to intervene with bullying behavior in the workplace, there is a need to pay greater attention to the problem by the entire range of managers, lawyers, industrial–organizational psychologists, counselors, social workers, and local authorities. PMID:25183984

  10. Upper Jurassic ramp carbonate and associated evaporite, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.

  11. Climatically driven biogeographic provinces of Late Triassic tropical Pangea

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Olsen, Paul E.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2011-01-01

    Although continents were coalesced into the single landmass Pangea, Late Triassic terrestrial tetrapod assemblages are surprisingly provincial. In eastern North America, we show that assemblages dominated by traversodont cynodonts are restricted to a humid 6° equatorial swath that persisted for over 20 million years characterized by “semiprecessional” (approximately 10,000-y) climatic fluctuations reflected in stable carbon isotopes and sedimentary facies in lacustrine strata. More arid regions from 5–20°N preserve procolophonid-dominated faunal assemblages associated with a much stronger expression of approximately 20,000-y climatic cycles. In the absence of geographic barriers, we hypothesize that these variations in the climatic expression of astronomical forcing produced latitudinal climatic zones that sorted terrestrial vertebrate taxa, perhaps by excretory physiology, into distinct biogeographic provinces tracking latitude, not geographic position, as the proto-North American plate translated northward. Although the early Mesozoic is usually assumed to be characterized by globally distributed land animal communities due to of a lack of geographic barriers, strong provinciality was actually the norm, and nearly global communities were present only after times of massive ecological disruptions. PMID:21571639

  12. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  13. Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Mitchell, Kendra; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria. PMID:18363714

  14. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  15. Application of the empirical orthogonal function to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, Fajar; Gunardi, Utami, Herni; Nurjani, Emilya; Sopaheluwakan, Ardhasena; Aluicius, Irwan Endrayanto; Christiawan, Titus

    2016-02-01

    We consider the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province, Indonesia. The EOF is one of the important methods to study the dominant pattern of the data using dimension reduction technique. EOF makes possible to reduce the huge dimension of observed data into a smaller one without losing its significant information in order to figures the whole data. The methods is also known as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which is conducted to find the pattern of the data. DIY Province is one of the province in Indonesia which has special characteristics related to the rainfall pattern. This province has an active volcano, karst, highlands, and also some lower area including beach. This province is bounded by the Indonesian ocean which is one of the important factor to provide the rainfall. We use at least ten years rainfall monthly data of all stations in this area and study the rainfall characteristics based on the four regencies of the province. EOF analysis is conducted to analyze data in order to decide the station groups which have similar characters.

  16. Wetland landscape pattern evolvement character and its driving mechanism based on TM images of Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chunfang; Xu, Kai; Wu, Chonglong; Deng, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi

    2007-06-01

    Wetland, as an ecosystem with special functions, is the transitional areas between water and land in the earth, which has the richest biology diversity in nature, and is one of the most important surviving environments of human beings. Based on analysis of the terrain maps, remote sensing images, statistic data of wetland of Hubei province from 1985 to 2005, and with the technology of Remote Sensing (abbr. RS) and Geographic Information System (abbr. GIS), the wetland landscape spatial database and attribute database of Hubei province are set up using ARCGIS software of the year of 1985, 1995 and 2005.At the same time, according to fractal geometry and landscape ecological methodology and the theories, we can quantitatively analyze the form characters, evolution rules, and change factors of the wetland landscape pattern of Hubei provinces by calculating its diversity index, dominance index, equality index, fragmentation index, isolation index and fractal dimension, and so on. As a result, the wetland's form characters and evolution process of Hubei province are compared and analyzed; its time-spatial evolution character and mechanism during the past 20 years are demonstrated. And various natural and social factors, human activities, and driving forces which exert a significant impact on the evolution of Hubei province wetland are anatomized here. In the end, some advice will be given that human beings should adjust land-use structure in lake districts, reasonably develop, recover and reconstruct positive ecoenvironment, and promote its sustainable development in Hubei province according to its ecological environment characteristics.

  17. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  18. Analysis on the Change of Vegetation Coverage in Qinghai Province from 2000 TO 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z.; Luo, C.

    2013-07-01

    Qinghai Province is one of the important provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Its unique alpine meadow ecosystem makes it become the most concentrated areas of biodiversity in high altitudes in the world. Researching the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province can reflect effectively and timely processing of changes and problems of ecological quality in the region. This research will give a long time series monitoring of the vegetation coverage of Qinghai province based on maximum value composite (MVC) and S-G filtering algorithm using MODIS data of the year of 2000-2012, then analyze the change using coefficient of variability(CV) and trend line analysis. According to research, during the past 13 years, more than half of Qinghai Province's vegetation coverage is well, both the east and south have a high coverage, while the northwest is lower. The changing of vegetation coverage also has showed a steady and improving trend in 13 years. The largest area is slight improved area is about 29.08% of the total area, and the second largest area is significant improved area is about 21.09% of the total area. In this research can learn directly the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province and provide reference and scientific basis for the protection and governance of ecological environment.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sows in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). Overall, 31.3% (373/1191) of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4%) and autumn (34.9%) than in spring (24.6%) and winter (23.9%). Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1: 1024) to 17.4% (titer = 1:64). The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China. PMID:24683331

  20. The Kanin-Timan-Pechora province of Late Devonian intraplate magmatism (position and size)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of the distribution of basalts, dolerites, and tuffs in the Kanin-Timan-Pechora large igneous province was completed by generalization of data of geological surveys and analysis of the data of deep drilling. The province appears like a nonisometric ellipse and extends northwestward for a distance of nearly 850 km at the width of 250-500 km. Its area is nearly 285 000 km2. The area of the volcanic rocks is about 85 500 km2. The volume of eruptive material alone could be equal to 1000-1200 km3. The age of formation of the traps corresponds to the late period of activity of the process and was less than 7 mln. y. The formation of the province was result of the action of short-lived and low intensity plumes. But it was one of the episodes of the Late Devonian superplume event in the East European platform. The province is separated by an amagmatic area from neighboring magmatic provinces of the same age. The distance between borders of the provinces is 200-400 km.

  1. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Wen, Z.; Shu, L.; Lu, C.; Gu, S.; Su, J.; He, M.; Xing, K.

    2015-05-01

    To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  2. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5 km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n = 1256 and n = 1803, respectively), household interviews (n = 400, both sides) and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2%) than in Vietnam (1.8%) and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90%) in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is recommended to test

  3. Supercontinents, Plate Tectonics, Large Igneous Provinces and Deep Mantle Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Steinberger, B.; Burke, K.; Smethurst, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The formation and break-up of supercontinents is a spectacular demonstration of the Earth's dynamic nature. Pangea, the best-documented supercontinent, formed at the end of the Palaeozoic era (320 Ma) and its dispersal, starting in the Early Jurassic (190 Ma), was preceded by and associated with widespread volcanic activity, much of which produced Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), but whether any of the heat or material involved in the generation of LIP rocks comes from greater depths has remained controversial. Two antipodal Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces with centre of mass somewhat south of the equator (African and Pacific LLSVPs), isolated within the faster parts of the deep mantle dominate all global shear- wave tomography models. We have tested eight global models and two D" models: They all show that deep- plume sourced hotspots and most reconstructed LIPs for the last 300 million years project radially downwards to the core-mantle-boundary near the edges of the LLSVPs showing that the plumes that made those hotspots and LIPS came only from those plume generation zones. This is a robust result because it is observed in multiple reference frames, i.e. fixed/moving hotspot and palaeomagnetic frames, and in the latter case whether the effect of True Polar Wander (TPW) is considered or not. Our observations show that the LLSVPs must have remained essentially stable in their present position for the last 300 million years. LIPs have erupted since the Archean and may all have been derived from the margins of LLSVPs but whether the African and Pacific LLSVPs have remained the same throughout Earth's history is less certain although analogous structures on Mars do indicate long-term stability on that planet. Deep mantle heterogeneities and the geoid have remained very stable for the last 300 million years, and the possibility is therefore open for speculating on links to Pangea assembly. In a numerical model, Zhong et al. (2007, EPSL) argued that Pangea

  4. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  5. Rationalisation of nursing education in Limpopo province : nurse educators' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Makhuvha, T R; Davhana-Maselesele, M; Netshandama, V O

    2007-12-01

    Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE), and the National Qualification Framework (NQF) (South Africa, 1995:6). In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) according toAct 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell 1994:154-155). The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process. PMID:18402422

  6. Diamonds from the V. Grib pipe, Arkhangelsk kimberlite province, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubanova, E. V.; Palazhchenko, O. V.; Garanin, V. K.

    2009-11-01

    A large collection (717 samples) of diamonds from the V. Grib deposit, discovered in 1996 in the Verhotinskoe field of the Arkhangelsk kimberlite province, was studied. The diamond crystals are characterized by high transparency and preservation. The collection consists of complete crystals (71%), chipped and damaged crystals (preservation > 50%; 14%), and fragments (preservation < 50%; 15%). Resorption is generally moderate resulting in a dominance of octahedral and mixed octahedral-dodecahedral shapes. Moderate resorption points to rapid ascent of the transporting kimberlite magma. A characteristic feature of V. Grib is a large number of green diamonds. This may relate to the close proximity of radioactive deposits. Microscopic green surface spots have no cathodoluminescence. The internal diamond morphology was studied by UV- and cathodoluminescence. The main typomorphic feature of diamond crystals from the V. Grib pipe is a high percentage of crystals without UV-luminescence. Presence of sectorial growth was also identified by luminescence. Analysis of mineral inclusions, carbon isotopic composition, nitrogen content and nitrogen aggregation state provided important genetic information. Peridotitic inclusions (olivine, chromian spinel and pyrope) predominate, sulfides are almost completely absent. The carbon isotopic composition of the host diamonds is typical for peridotitic diamonds worldwide. IR-spectroscopy suggests the presence of two diamond populations with low and high nitrogen concentrations. Three sub-populations may be identified based on a combination of morphology, nitrogen and hydrogen defects. Residence temperatures ( TNitrogen), based on a mantle residence time of 3 Ga, fall between 1050 and 1170 °C. Diamond crystallization in V. Grib occurred in multiple stages. This is documented through luminescence patterns, data on nitrogen concentration and aggregation state, and the presence of "diamond-in-diamond" inclusions.

  7. Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between tethys and the temperate provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch, gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin. Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the 'corallien facies' of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. The second group orginates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas. Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm. Extinction at the Cretaceous

  8. Iranian epidemiological training programs for AIDS prevention in Mazandaran Province.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Hallajian

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study to report data is derived from an investigation of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of AIDS prevention among the large the descendant of the Iranian prisoners. Using a multistage area sampling method, a random sample of individuals aged 18-65 years in southern coastwise of the Caspian Sea from February to December 2006. To select a representative sample of the prisoners' population within 5 different prisons in Mazandaran Province had the same probability to be sampled. Prisoners who agreed to participate were given a four-page self-administered questionnaire. 760 (88%) of the 2000 eligible participants completed the questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 30.05 +/- 8.1 years ranging from 18 to 59, 1686 (95.8%) were male and mostly married 1054 (59.9%) and had received secondary education or above 1178 (66.9%). Most respondents (1690, 96%) had household income levels low or average and 716 (40.7%) were out of work. The findings indicated that the respondents had average to fairly good knowledge about AIDS. The correct answers ranged from 11.9% to about 85.9%. Also the results showed that the majority of the respondents were strongly agree or agree with the statement that people with AIDS should have social right to study or work (1378, 78.3%) or with the statement that AIDS is public health problem (1522, 86.5%). The majority of the respondents (1538, 83.4%) said that the mass media including radio, television and newspapers were the main source of their information about HIV/AIDS. Such findings suggest that prevention programs should be encourage and these might have the potential role to limit the emergence of Iran's HIV/AIDS epidemic especially in prison's this of country. PMID:19266924

  9. [The Analysis of Traditional Lime Mortars from Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-bin; Cui, Biao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2016-01-01

    The components of ancient mortars have always been an important research field in historic building conservation. It has been well known that using traditional mortars in conservation projects have many advantages, such as compatibility and stability. So, developing new binding materials based on traditional mortar has become an international study hotspot. With China's economic development, the protection of ancient buildings also began to put on the agenda, but the understanding on Chinese traditional mortar is limited, and rare literatures are reported. In the present work, the authors investigate seven ancient city wall sites in Zhejiang Province in situ, and subsequently laboratory analysis were carried out on collected mortar samples. The characterizations of mortar samples were made by multi-density gauge, XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC and wet chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that: the main component of masonry mortars is calcium carbonate, the content between 75% - 90%, and they should be made from relatively pure lime mortar. The raw materials of mortar samples were mainly calcareous quick lime, and sample from Taizhou city also contained magnesium quick lime. There are four city walls were built by sticky-rice mortars. It suggests that the technology of adding the sticky rice soup into mortar was universal in the Ming Dynasties. These mortars have lower density between 1.2 and 1.9 g x cm(-3); this outcome should be the result of long-term natural erosion. We have also analyzed other chemical and physical characteristics of these masonry mortars. The results can afford the basic data for the future repairmen programs, development of new protective materials, and comparative study of mortars. PMID:27228774

  10. Characterization and Origin of Zonal Sapphire from Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Linghao

    2015-02-01

    Shandong Province is the main producer of sapphire in China. Among the sapphire deposits discovered in China, Shandong sapphire hosted in Cenzoic basalt shows a great variety of features, especially for in zoning. These sapphire crystals are generally large in size, with depth in color and well-developed zoning. In this article, the characteristics of zonal sapphire have been studied by using petrography, trace element data from laser ablation inductively coupled with plasma-mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry. The trace elements variation is proposed to correspond with their parent magma composition, and the changes in growth environment of sapphire have resulted in the formation of zoning features. Sapphires from different geological settings have different characteristics. Trace elements in sapphire not only affect the color but also reflect the changes of physical and chemical conditions of sapphire growth. The concentration of impurity elements in the zoning core of Shandong sapphire is the highest, indicating that the parent magma of Shandong sapphire-host basaltic rock is rich in trace elements. Fe content is more than 2.00% in the zoning core, which causes the deepest color in the samples. It also suggests that the total content of Fe is positively correlated to the band color. The Raman spectrum shows that the spectrum peaks at 246 cm-1 caused by Fe3+ vary regularly with the band color, which shows that Fe is dominated by Fe3+ in Shandong sapphire. With the changes of forming condition, the parent magma composition has changed accordingly, which causes the zoning formation.

  11. Roots of Magmatic Systems of Large Continental Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    It is consensus now that appearance of the large igneous provinces (LIP) is considered with ascending of mantle superplumes. It is evident that beneath LIPs was not exited magma oceans and adiabatic melting occurred in heads of protuberances on their surface (local, or secondary plumes), which can reach relatively shallow levels. The least known element of magmatic system is area of magma generation and meltedsources. Important information about it is contained in the mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts. They are represented by two series: (1) "green": spinel peridotite (maily lherzolite) and minor spinel pyroxenite (websterite), and (2) "black" (veins in the peridotite matrix): wehrlite, Al-Ti-augite and hornblende clinopyroxenite, hornblendite, phlogopitite, etc, which crystallized from fluid-saturated melts or high-density fluid. Very likely, that these fluids, enriched in Fe, Ti, alkalis and incompatible elements, were parts of intergranular material of original plume material and were released due to its decompression; evidently, they provided specific composition of plume-related melts. Both types of xenoliths represent material of plume head and accordingly - the melting substratum. One of problem of plume-related magmatism is coexisting of alkali and tholeiitic basalts, which origin often considered with different PT conditions. However, this situation can be explained another way. Because fluid components, acting jointly or separately, impregnated the peridotite matrix nonuniform, it led to heterogeneous composition of smelted magmas, and primary melts can have different composition even though be forming at similar PT conditions. According to Yoder and Tilley (1962), even small differences in SiO2 content lead to different ways in evolution of magmas due to critical plane of silica undersaturation. As a result, one magmas will develop to Ne enrichment (alkali basalts) and another - to silica direction (tholeiite basalts.

  12. Geology of the Konakpinar--Sarica area, Sivas Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James; Sermin, Salim; Gencel, Ilker; Sengun, Metin; Ekren, Frank

    1972-01-01

    The junction of several major structures and stratigraphic sequences is in the Konakpinar-Sarica area of central Turkey. Most of the area is underlain by Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous limeston and siltstone, early Tertiary sedimentary rock, and remnants of younger volcanic rocks and lacustrine deposits. The northeastern part of the area, however, is formed of serpentinite, of possible Cretaceous age, unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous conglomerate and siltstone that crop out extensively east of the area. The regional structure changes direction in the area. Folds and faults change across a northerly striking hinge line from northeast trends on the west to northwest trends on the east. A north-trending regional fault zone is a little east of the hinge line. The northern part of this fault zone and a northwest-striking fault, a possible thrust, east of it form the boundary between the two stratigraphic provinces. The area northeast of this boundary is cut by a series of vertical northwest-trending faults that are downdropped on the southwest. A large northeast-trending fault that is part of a broad fault zone that extends from the Mediterranean Sea northeastward to Divrigi is in the northwest corner of the area. Some thrust faults cut the Cretaceous rocks in the western part of the area; the Upper Jurassic limestone may be allochthonous. The only economic deposit known in the area is at the Otlukilise Iron Mine where iron is present in a sedimentary filling of sinkholesand as secondary replacement deposits in limestone at their borders. Minor deposits of chrome, copper, and coal also occur in the area.

  13. Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Stephan V; Sobolev, Alexander V; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda A; Petrunin, Alexey G; Arndt, Nicholas T; Radko, Viktor A; Vasiliev, Yuri R

    2011-09-15

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are known for their rapid production of enormous volumes of magma (up to several million cubic kilometres in less than a million years), for marked thinning of the lithosphere, often ending with a continental break-up, and for their links to global environmental catastrophes. Despite the importance of LIPs, controversy surrounds even the basic idea that they form through melting in the heads of thermal mantle plumes. The Permo-Triassic Siberian Traps--the type example and the largest continental LIP--is located on thick cratonic lithosphere and was synchronous with the largest known mass-extinction event. However, there is no evidence of pre-magmatic uplift or of a large lithospheric stretching, as predicted above a plume head. Moreover, estimates of magmatic CO(2) degassing from the Siberian Traps are considered insufficient to trigger climatic crises, leading to the hypothesis that the release of thermogenic gases from the sediment pile caused the mass extinction. Here we present petrological evidence for a large amount (15 wt%) of dense recycled oceanic crust in the head of the plume and develop a thermomechanical model that predicts no pre-magmatic uplift and requires no lithospheric extension. The model implies extensive plume melting and heterogeneous erosion of the thick cratonic lithosphere over the course of a few hundred thousand years. The model suggests that massive degassing of CO(2) and HCl, mostly from the recycled crust in the plume head, could alone trigger a mass extinction and predicts it happening before the main volcanic phase, in agreement with stratigraphic and geochronological data for the Siberian Traps and other LIPs. PMID:21921914

  14. Biomedical survey in North Samar Province, Philippine Islands.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H; Banzon, T; Wheeling, C H; Cometa, H; Lien, J C; Clarke, R; Petersen, H; Sevilla, J; Basaca-Sevilla, V

    1977-12-01

    A biomedical survey was carried out in North Samar Province, Philipines to update information on the prevalence of parasitic and other infectious diseases. A total of 1,394 stool specimens, 1,859 blood smears and 1,274 sera were collected from persons living in 8 barrios. Stools were examined for intestinal parasites, bloods smears for malaria and filariasis and sera tested for antibodies to Schistosoma japonicum, Entamoeba histolytica, Toxoplasma gondii, influenza A and B, and Japanese encephalitis virus. The prevalence rates for intestinal parasites were: Trichuris trichiura 90%, Ascaris lumbricoides 78%, hookworm 65%, Schistosoma japonicum 15%, Strongyloides stercoralis 1%, Entamoeba coli 16%, Endolimax nana 6%, entamoeba histolytica 5%, Giardia lamblia 3%, Entaemoeba hartmanii 1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1%. No malaria was found but microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in 4% of the blood smears; the MfD50 was 12.9. The circumoval precipitin test (COPT) was used to detect antibodies to Schistosoma japonicum and 65% of 994 sera was considered positive. The indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) was used for detecting antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii and 5% and 3% of 1,274 sera tested were positive at titers equal to or greater than 1:128 and 1:256, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition tests (HI) were used to detect antibodies to Influenza A2HK68, Influenza A2HK68, Influenza B2T62 and Japanese encephalitis virus and 72%, 12% and 78%, respectively, of 1201 sera were considered positive at titers equal to or greater than 1:20. PMID:614707

  15. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. PMID:23759330

  16. Synchrony of the Central Atlantic magmatic province and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary climatic and biotic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Knight, Kim B.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Buratti, Nicoletta; Vérati, Chrystèle; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Martini, Rossana; Allenbach, Karin; Neuwerth, Ralph; Rapaille, Cédric; Zaninetti, Louisette; Bellieni, Giuliano

    2004-11-01

    The evolution of life on Earth is marked by catastrophic extinction events, one of which occurred ca. 200 Ma at the transition from the Triassic Period to the Jurassic Period (Tr-J boundary), apparently contemporaneous with the eruption of the world's largest known continental igneous province, the Central Atlantic magmatic province. The temporal relationship of the Tr-J boundary and the province's volcanism is clarified by new multidisciplinary (stratigraphic, palynologic, geochronologic, paleomagnetic, geochemical) data that demonstrate that development of the Central Atlantic magmatic province straddled the Tr-J boundary and thus may have had a causal relationship with the climatic crisis and biotic turnover demarcating the boundary.

  17. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are

  18. Reconstruction of health service systems in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mari; Abraham, Sandirasegaram; Okamoto, Miyoko; Kita, Etsuko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2007-09-01

    Public health problems in armed conflicts have been well documented, however, effective national health policies and international assistance strategies in transition periods from conflict to peace have not been well established. After the long lasted conflicts in Sri Lanka, the Government and the rebel LTTE signed a cease-fire agreement in February 2002. As the peace negotiation has been disrupted since April 2003, a long-term prospect for peace is yet uncertain at present. The objective of this research is to detect unmet needs in health services in Northern Province in Sri Lanka, and to recommend fair and effective health strategies for post-conflict reconstruction. First, we compared a 20-year trend of health services and health status between the post-conflict Northern Province and other areas not directly affected by conflict in Sri Lanka by analyzing data published by Sri Lankan government and other agencies. Then, we conducted open-ended self-administered questionnaires to health care providers and inhabitants in Northern Province, and key informant interviews in Northern Province and other areas. The major health problems in Northern Province were high maternal mortality, significant shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and inadequate water and sanitation systems. Poor access to health facilities, lack of basic health knowledge, insufficient health awareness programs for inhabitants, and mental health problems among communities were pointed by the questionnaire respondents. Shortage of HRH and people's negligence for health were perceived as the major obstacles to improving the current health situation in Northern Province. The key informant interviews revealed that Sri Lankan HRH outside Northern Province had only limited information about the health issues in Northern Province. It is required to develop and allocate HRH strategically for the effective reconstruction of health service systems in Northern Province. The empowerment of inhabitants

  19. Lithospheric Deformation Along the Southern and Western Suture Zones of the Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyen, C.; Porritt, R. W.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton that played an early role in the construction and growth of the North American continent. This region, which encompasses the majority of modern day Wyoming and southern Montana, initially collided with other Archean blocks in the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.8 Ga), creating the Canadian Shield. From 1.8-1.68 Ga, the Yavapai Province crashed into the Wyoming Province, suturing the two together. The accretion of the Yavapai Province gave way to the Cheyenne Belt, a deformational zone that exists along the southern border of the Wyoming Province where earlier studies have found evidence for crustal imbrication and double a Moho. Current deformation within the Wyoming province is due to its interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot, which is currently located in the northwest portion of the region. This study images the LAB along the western and southern borders of the Wyoming Province in order to understand how the region's Archean lithosphere has responded to deformation over time. These results shed light on the inherent strength of Archean cratonic lithosphere in general. We employ two methods for this study: common conversion point (CCP) stacking of S to P receiver functions and teleseismic and ambient Rayleigh wave dispersion. The former is used to image the LAB structure while the latter is used to create a velocity gradient for the region. Results from both of the methods reveal a notably shallower LAB depth to the west of the boundary. The shallower LAB west of the Wyoming Province is interpreted to be a result of lithospheric thinning due to the region's interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot and post-Laramide deformation and extension of the western United States. We interpret the deeper LAB east of the boundary to be evidence for the Wyoming Province's resistance to lithospheric deformation from the hotspot and tectonic processes. CCP images across the Cheyenne Belt also reveal a shallower LAB under the western

  20. Dynamic ocean provinces: a multi-sensor approach to global marine ecophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, M.; Campbell, J.; Moore, T.

    The concept of oceanic provinces or domains has existed for well over a century. Such systems, whether real or only conceptual, provide a useful framework for understanding the mechanisms controlling biological, physical and chemical processes and their interactions. Criteria have been established for defining provinces based on physical forcings, availability of light and nutrients, complexity of the marine food web, and other factors. In general, such classification systems reflect the heterogeneous nature of the ocean environment, and the effort of scientists to comprehend the whole system by understanding its various homogeneous components. If provinces are defined strictly on the basis of geospatial or temporal criteria (e.g., latitude zones, bathymetry, or season), the resulting maps exhibit discontinuities that are uncharacteristic of the ocean. While this may be useful for many purposes, it is unsatisfactory in that it does not capture the dynamic nature of fluid boundaries in the ocean. Boundaries fixed in time and space do not allow us to observe interannual or longer-term variability (e.g., regime shifts) that may result from climate change. The current study illustrates the potential of using fuzzy logic as a means of classifying the ocean into objectively defined provinces using properties measurable from satellite sensors (MODIS and SeaWiFS). This approach accommodates the dynamic variability of provinces which can be updated as each image is processed. We adopt this classification as the basis for parameterizing specific algorithms for each of the classes. Once the class specific algorithms have been applied, retrievals are then recomposed into a single blended product based on the "weighted" fuzzy memberships. This will be demonstrated through animations of multi-year time- series of monthly composites of the individual classes or provinces. The provinces themselves are identified on the basis of global fields of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature

  1. [Reserves and spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Gan, Haihua; Wu, Shunhui; Fan, Xiudan

    2003-09-01

    Soil organic carbon is the main part of terrestrial carbon reservoir and important part of soil fertility. The spatial distribution and reserves of soil organic carbon are very important for studying soil carbon cycle. According to the data from the second soil survey, soil organic carbon reserves was estimated and its spatial distribution was analysed by using GIS technique. The results showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 17.52 x 10(8) t. The carbon density of laterite, lateritic red soil and red soil in Guangdong Province is 8.83, 10.31, 9.15 kg.m-2, respectively; lower than the mean carbon density of China. The carbon density of yellow soil and rice soil is 12.08, 12.17 kg.m-2, respectively; higher than the mean carbon density of China. Soil carbon density is about 10.44 kg.m-2 in Guangdong. The spatial distribution characteristic of soil organic carbon density in Guangdong is that the carbon density in south Guangdong Province is higher than that in north Guangdong Province, in that soil organic carbon density in north and middle Guangdong Province is 5-10 kg.m-2 and in east Guangdong Province is 10-15 kg.m-2. Soil organic carbon density mostly vary among 5-15 kg.m-2. PMID:14733007

  2. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

  3. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  4. Petroleum potential of the Amu Dar`ya Province, Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The Amu Dar`ya gas-oil province coincides with a Mesozoic and Cenozoic sag basin that developed on an intermontane depression filled largely by Permian-Triassic redbeds and volcanics. The stratigraphic section of the basin is divided into two parts by an extensive evaporite deposit of Kimmeridgian age. The section below the evaporite consists of Lower-Middle Jurassic clastic rocks overlain by reef-bearing carbonate rocks of Callovian and Oxfordian age. The upper Jurassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene section consists largely of clastic rocks. Structurally the province is a mosaic of highs and lows controlled by basement faults. The Kimmeridgian evaporite is a regional seal for numerous pools in the Callovian-Oxfordian carbonate rocks. In the border areas of the province where the evaporite is not present, the hydrocarbons have migrated farther upward to collect in Lower Cretaceous traps. Prospects for further discovery are excellent in most parts of the province, but are particularly favorable in carbonate reef buildups in the southeastern part of the province. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Sabeta, Claude T; Weyer, Jacqueline; Geertsma, Peter; Mohale, Debra; Miyen, Jacobeth; Blumberg, Lucille H; Leman, Patricia A; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Walters, Johan; Paweska, Janusz T

    2013-01-01

    Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population. PMID:23718320

  6. Voluminous silicic eruptions during late Permian Emeishan igneous province and link to climate cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianghai; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng

    2015-12-01

    Silicic eruptive units can constitute a substantive component in flood-basalts-dominated large igneous provinces, but usually constitute only a small proportion of the preserved volume due to poor preservation. Thus, their environmental impact can be underestimated or ignored. Establishing the original volume and potential climate-sensitive gas emissions of silicic eruptions is generally lacking for most large igneous provinces. We present a case study for the ˜260 Ma Emeishan province, where silicic volcanic rocks are a very minor component of the preserved rock archive due to extensive erosion during the Late Permian. Modal and geochemical data from Late Permian sandstones derived from the province suggest that silicic volcanic rocks constituted some ˜30% by volume of the total eroded Emeishan volcanic source rocks. This volume corresponds to > 3 ×104 km3 on the basis of two independent estimate methods. Detrital zircon trace element and Hf isotopic data require the silicic source rocks to be formed mainly by fractional crystallization from associated basaltic magmas. Based on experimental and theoretical calculations, these basalt-derived ˜104 km3 silicic eruptions released ˜1017 g sulfur gases into the higher atmosphere and contribute to the contemporaneous climate cooling at the Capitanian-Wuchiapingian transition (˜260 Ma). This study highlights the potentially important impact on climate of silicic eruptions associated with large igneous province volcanism.

  7. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  8. Biostratigraphy and geochronology of the late Cenozoic of Córdoba Province (central Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Laura Edith

    2013-03-01

    In the last twenty years, several geological and stratigraphical studies have been undertaken in Córdoba Province, and they have provided useful bases for biostratigraphic work in the late Cenozoic. However, paleontological contributions have been limited to preliminary analyses of mammal assemblages, or specific discoveries. The aim of this work is to contribute to biostratigraphic knowledge of Argentina through the study of late Cenozoic mammals from Córdoba Province. Five localities have been analyzed: San Francisco, Miramar, Río Cuarto, Isla Verde, and Valle de Traslasierra. Through biostratigraphic analysis the first records of several taxa were established, and mammal assemblages with the description and correlation of the sedimentary strata were confirmed. Finally, three Assemblage Zones (Biozonas de Asociación) were proposed: 1) Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis-Equus (Amerhippus) assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene), and comparable to the Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus Biozone of Buenos Aires Province; 2) Neosclerocalyptus ornatus-Catonyx tarijensis assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Ensenadan (early Pleistocene) and comparable to the Mesotherium cristatum Biozone of Buenos Aires Province, and 3) Nonotherium hennigi-Propanochthus bullifer assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the Los Sauces river, Valle de Traslasierra, referred to the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan interval (Pliocene), and comparable to the Trigodon gaudryi, Neocavia depressidens and/or Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis Biozones of Buenos Aires Province.

  9. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  10. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  11. Formation conditions of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a

  12. Epidemiology of 377 patients with chemical burns in Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Xie, Youfu; Tan, Yanyan; Tang, Shuze

    2004-09-01

    A total of 377 patients with chemical burns from all over Guangdong province were admitted to the Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital during the period from January 1987 to December 2001. There were 296 males and 81 females with a male to female ratio of 3.65:1. The mean age of the patients was 26 years. The majority of patients (89.2%) were in the age range of 15-60 years. Professionally, 244 patients (64.7%) were workers, of whom, 232 (95%) of patients were peasant workers. Most of the chemical burns occurred at places away from home (94.4%), especially in the working environment (67.8%). Only 20 patients (5.5%) were injured at home. Chemical burns by accident and by criminal assault were 337 (88.5%) and 40 (10.5%). Strong acids (60.8%), mainly sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, alkali (33.9%), mainly lime and sodium hydroxide were common causative agents. There was a relationship between the incidence of chemical burns and the season, with more patients in July-September and October-December. There were 215 (57.1%) patients who washed the burnsite with water immediately, but the volumes of water and time of washing were not adequate. Patients with total burn surface area (TBSA) of less than 10% comprised the majority of patients (72.7%), with 188 (65.7%) deep partial thickness burns, 116 (40.6%) with full thickness burns, and 60 (21%) with superficial burns. Extremities (lower limb 56.6% and upper limb 51.4%) were the most frequent area of injury. Ocular burns were the most common accompanying injury (14.7%). Operations of autografts and conjunctival flap were carried out on 159 (42.2%) patients. The average period of hospitalization was 22 days. Only 2 (0.7%) deaths occurred in this study. Counter measures to improve this situation must include safety productive education and professional training, use of protective clothing at work, enhancing the concept of legal responsibility, and restricting management and use of corrosive chemicals. Irrigation of the

  13. Evaluating ecosystem service change in Jiangxi Province of China based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Taiyang; Huang, Xianjing; Ma, Yuandan

    2009-10-01

    The function and services of ecosystem are important components of the life-support system in the planet, as well as the basic elements for sustainable development of environment and society. In this study, the change of ecosystem function and services in Jiangxi Province of China were estimated by employing the classification and economic parameters from Costanza et al. The types and area of terrestrial ecosystems in 1980s and 2000s were identified from Landsat imagery, based on the maximum likelihood classification methods. And then the distribution maps of ecosystem services of Jiangxi Province were drawn. The value for terrestrial ecosystem was 2522x108 RMB in 1980s, while it increased by 7.3% in 2000s, which mainly because the increased forest areas in Jiangxi Province. The estimation method employed in this study was conservative, and should be improved in future studies.

  14. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  15. Leukemia in children and youths of the Azuay province, Ecuador: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Zucca, Mariagrazia; Ugalde, Jorge; Arteaga, Francisco Salgado; Biggio, Giuseppe; Flore, Valeria; Nonne, Tinucia; Satta, Giannina; Blangiardo, Marta; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    We mapped leukemia risk among children and youths in the Azuay province, Rio Paute river basin, Ecuador, in 2000-2010, using a Bayesian disease mapping model. We assessed the comprehensiveness of the list of leukemia cases from the Sociedad de Lucha contra el Càncer en el Ecuador (SOLCA) Hospital in Cuenca, the only referral center for oncology in the whole Rio Paute area, by comparison to the Quito cancer registry. Risk of leukemia did not vary significantly by canton within the Azuay province. However, a moderate increase in risk of borderline statistical significance was observed in the city of Cuenca and particularly among males in a heavily industrialized parish, who had an almost eight-fold excess (95% CI 3.03, 20.39, p = 0.01) of AML. Analytical studies are warranted to properly address specific etiological factor of leukemia among children and youths of the Azuay province of Ecuador. PMID:22769047

  16. Paleomagnetic results from the Shasta Bally Plutonic Belt in the Klamath Mountains Province, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Irwin, William P.; Grommé, C. Sherman

    1988-01-01

    Available paleomagnetic data show approximately 100° of clockwise rotation for Permian and Triassic strata of the Eastern Klamath terrane. Jurassic strata of this terrane are rotated approximately 60° clockwise, which is comparable to rotations reported for Jurassic plutons that occur elsewhere in the Klamath Mountains province. Paleomagnetic data obtained during the present study from the Shasta Bally belt of Cretaceous plutons indicate 25.7° ± 13.6° of clockwise rotation for the province since Early Cretaceous time (≃ 136 Ma). The waning stages of rotation at the time of emplacement of the Shasta Bally belt plutons, which was closely followed by deposition of basal strata (Lower Cretaceous) of the Great Valley sequence, probably represents completion of accretion of the province to cratonic North America.

  17. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. PMID:26983198

  18. Mine land reclamation and eco-reconstruction in Shanxi province I: mine land reclamation model.

    PubMed

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of "green mining industry" is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence. PMID:25050398

  19. Survey of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-Qi; Han, Rong-Wei; Zhen, Yun-Peng; Xu, Xiao-Min; Sun, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the only mycotoxin that has a legal limit in milk all over the world. In the present study, 360 raw milk samples were collected from Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shanghai and Guangdong provinces in China in September 2010, and their AFM1 levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). More than three-fourths (78.1%) of the 360 raw milk samples contained AFM1 at concentrations of 5-123 ng L⁻¹. AFM1 contents in all positive samples were far below the Chinese and US legal limit of 500 ng L⁻¹, but 10% of the raw milk samples exceeded the EU legal limit of 50 ng L⁻¹. Moreover, both incidence and content of AFM1 in milk collected from the southern provinces, including Shanghai and Guangdong, were higher than those collected from the northern provinces, including Beijing, Hebei and Shanxi. PMID:24779875

  20. Magnetic anomalies in East Antarctica: a window on major tectonic provinces and their boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golynsky, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of aeromagnetic data compiled within the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP) yields significant new insight into major tectonic provinces of East Antarctica. Several previously unknown crustal blocks are imaged in the deep interior of the continent, which are interpreted as cratonic nuclei. These cratons are fringed by a large and continuous orogenic belt between Coats Land and Princess Elizabeth Land, with possible branches in the deeper interior of East Antarctica. Most of the crustal provinces and boundaries identified in this study are only in part exposed. More detailed analyses of these crustal provinces and their tectonic boundaries would require systematic acquisition of additional high-resolution magnetic data, because at present the ADMAP database is largely inadequate to address many remaining questions regarding Antarctica’s tectonic evolution.

  1. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt

  2. Decentralisation and convergence in health among the provinces of Spain (1980-2001).

    PubMed

    Montero-Granados, Roberto; Jiménez, Juan de Dios; Martín, José

    2007-03-01

    This study measures the process of convergence in the state of health among the provinces and regions of Spain during 1980-2001 in order to analyse the possible influence of the decentralisation of healthcare management to the regions in this period. Sigma and beta convergence models, traditionally employed in macroeconomics, have been used, taking Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) and Infant Mortality (IM) as health indicators. The analysis was carried out at two territorial levels: provinces and regions. The results reveal that the process of decentralisation either does not affect convergence or leads to divergence in health. Indeed, in the case of IM the so-called change of role scenario seems to have occurred. Thus, certain provinces with initially poor indicators have improved, overtaking those that were originally in a better position. The final result, however, is of greater dispersion than initially. PMID:17161891

  3. Spatial Pattern Detection of Tuberculosis: A Case Study of Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Hassarangsee, Siriwan; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Souris, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective population-based study was conducted to analyze spatial patterns of tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Si Sa Ket province, Thailand. TB notification data from 2004 to 2008 collected from TB clinics throughout the province was used along with population data to reveal a descriptive epidemiology of TB incidences. Global clustering patterns of the occurrence were assessed by using global spatial autocorrelation techniques. Additionally, local spatial pattern detection was performed by using local spatial autocorrelation and spatial scan statistic methods. The findings indicated clusters of the disease occurred in the study area. More specifically, significantly high-rate clusters were mostly detected in Mueang Si Sa Ket and Khukhan districts, which are located in the northwestern part of the province, while significantly low-rate clusters were persistent in Kantharalak and Benchalak districts, which are located at the southeastern area. PMID:26694437

  4. Mine Land Reclamation and Eco-Reconstruction in Shanxi Province I: Mine Land Reclamation Model

    PubMed Central

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of “green mining industry” is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence. PMID:25050398

  5. PREVALENCE OF DEMODEX ECTOPARASITES AMONG HUMANS IN ORDU PROVINCE IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ülkü; Kolören, Zeynep; Enginyurt, Özgür; Çolak, Cemil

    2016-03-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites in humans. Demodex parasite infestations have not been determined in the province of Ordu. We determined the prevalence of Demodex species among humans in Ordu Provience, Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-nine subjects (438 males and 361 females) aged ≥ 18 years living in the central districts of Ordu Province, Turkey, were selected using the World Health Organization cluster sampling method. A superficial skin biopsy of the face was obtained from each subject. Six hundred sixty-nine subjects (83.7%) had a Demodex parasite. Factors significantly associated with the presence of Demodex infestation were: female gender, employment in the private sector, people who only occasionally wash their face and district of residence. Since Demodex ectoparasites were common in Ordu Province, it is suggested that the diagnosis and treatment of this ectoparasite should be carried out in the hospitals of this region. PMID:27244957

  6. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  7. Lung cancer burden has increased during the last 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011, Hebei Province, located in North China with a population of 71 794 239, accounted for approximately 6% of the national population. It is well known as a heavily air polluted area. This study reports the lung cancer burden and mortality trend in Hebei Province from 1973 to 2011. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. The proportions, cumulative incidence/mortality rates, and median age at death of lung cancer were calculated. Lung cancer mortality data of 1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005 were extracted from national death surveys. Data of lung cancer from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population‐based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province were 32 623 and 27 612, respectively. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 45.44/100 000. The age‐standardized incidence rate by world standard population was 39.01/100 000, ranking second among all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rate was 38.46/100 000, ranking first among all cancer deaths, with a significantly increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973–1975 to 2010–2011, with an increased rate of 189.15%. Conclusion Hebei Province suffers a heavy disease burden of lung cancer and an obvious increasing trend has been observed over the past 40 years. Preventive and control strategies should be encouraged. PMID:27148418

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  9. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  10. Deep seismic refraction experiment in northeast Brazil: New constraints for Borborema province evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcus Vinicius A. G. de; Berrocal, Jesus; Soares, José E. P.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is a major Proterozoic crustal province that, until now, has never been explored using deep crustal seismic methods. Here are reported the first results obtained from a high-quality seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that has defined the internal seismic velocity structure and thickness of the crust in this region. Almost 400 recording stations were deployed in the Deep Seismic Refraction (DSR) experiment through an NW-SE ca. 900 km linear array and 19 shots were exploded at every 50 km along the line. Data from the 10 southeastern most shots of the seismic profile were processed in this work. The main features and geological structures crossed by the studied portion of the profile belong to the so-called Central Sub-province of the Borborema tectonic province. The crustal model obtained is compatible with a typical structure of extended crust. The model was essentially divided into three layers: upper crust, lower crust, and a half-space represented by the shallower portion of the mantle. The Moho is an irregular interface with depth ranging between 31.7 and 34.5 km, and beneath the Central Sub-province it varies from 31.5 to 33 km depth, where its limits are related to major crustal discontinuities. The distribution of velocities within the crust is heterogeneous, varying vertically from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s in the upper crust and from 6.45 to 6.9 km/s in the lower crust. From the average crustal velocity distribution it is evident that the Central Sub-province has seismic characteristics different from neighboring domains. The crust is relatively thin and crustal thickness variations in the profile are subtle due to stretching that occurred in the Cretaceous, during the fragmentation of Pangaea, opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and separation of South America from Africa.

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, Russian Federation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.

    2007-01-01

    The Laptev Sea Shelf Province was assessed for undiscovered crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids/condensates resources (collectively referred to as petroleum) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 9,300 million barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 3,069 million barrels of crude oil, 32,252 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 861 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. Evolution of the Early Proterozoic Colorado province: Constraints from U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, John C., Jr.; Bickford, M. E.; Premo, Wayne R.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Pallister, John S.

    1987-09-01

    The Colorado province represents an addition of a belt of rocks more than 500 km wide to the southern margin of the Archean Wyoming craton during the Early Proterozoic, between about 1790 and 1660 Ma. Correspondence in ages between metamorphism, deformation, and plutonism; association of volcanic rocks with comagmatic calc-alkalic plutons; and lack of older basement are all consistent with the interpretation that the rocks of the province are products of arc magmatism and cannibalistic sedimentation along a convergent margin at the southern edge of the craton. Note: Additional material for this article is Supplementary Data 8731, available on request from the GSA Documents Secretary (see footnote 1).

  13. [Formation of popular medical books in Sichuan Province in late Qing Dynasty and its influence].

    PubMed

    He, Z

    1994-01-01

    Among the traditional Chinese medical works in the Qing Dynasty is Sichuan province, popular ones occupied the major part. This author investigates its causes from the angles of economics, population and characteristics of physicians in this province. He also discusses the abridgement or re-compilation on the basis of those authors by their own clinical experience, who either imitated the stkyle, recompiled, or even attached their own work to Chen Xiuyuan's medical books. The influence, significance and role of these medical books are also mentioned. PMID:11615222

  14. Spread of Phlebotominae in temperate climates: province of Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Visintin, Andrés Mario; Beranek, Mauricio Daniel; Amieva, Maria José; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of the competent vector for Leishmaniaspp, Migonemyia migonei, and theEvandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi complex south of its known distribution in the central temperate region of Argentina, in the province of Córdoba. The persistence of this phlebotomine in the northern border of the province, its association with a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and the new record in the outskirts of the city of Córdoba, the second most populated in the country, strengthens the need for regular vector surveillance and a case detection-sensitive health system in vulnerable regions, even in temperate climates. PMID:26814647

  15. Tertiary structural evolution of the southern Rhodope metamorphic province: a fundamental revision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinter, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Rhodope province is conventionally interpreted as a continental fragment that was caught between Apulia and Europe and deformed and metamorphosed in the hinterland of the Hellenic collisional orogen. Geologic mapping in the Strymon Valley region of northeastern Greece augmented by new U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronologic data support an alternative view that the southwestern Rhodope province represents the core of an Alpine collisional orogen that was extended and tectonically unroofed by a succession of three late Cenozoic low-angle normal fault systems that alternated in polarity.

  16. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  17. Changes in Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Associated with Implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared

    2008-01-01

    After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…

  18. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  19. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.

    River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.

    The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.

    For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)

    A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by

  20. Mantle Redox Conditions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, L. E.; Gras, M. A.; Lesher, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    The North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) has long been viewed as a region of anomalous mantle upwelling related to plume activity, continental rifting, and a heterogeneous mantle source. Prior to continental rifting in the Tertiary, the northern portion of the region was the site of closure of the Iapetus ocean basin. This tectonic event may have contributed to heterogeneities within the upper mantle and altered its oxidation state relative to the ambient mantle. Vanadium has been shown to be a useful indicator of redox conditions due to its multiple valence states (e.g. [1-2]). In mantle minerals, vanadium becomes increasingly incompatible under more oxidizing conditions [3]. Because both scandium and vanadium are moderately incompatible during melting, the Sc/V ratio of primitive basalts can be used to investigate the oxidation state of the mantle [1-3]. We have examined the Sc/V ratios of primitive lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge (MAR), Iceland, and the East Greenland margin to determine if there are spatial or temporal variations in the oxidation state of the NAIP mantle. The Sc/V ratios for MAR basalts are 0.13-0.20 (GEOROC chemical database); while Icelandic basalts range from 0.10-0.25 with an average of 0.16 (1 σ =0.05). The entire range of Sc/V ratios of the Paleogene East Greenland basalts is 0.07-0.17 with an average of 0.10 (1 σ = 0.05). The Sc/V ratios of Icelandic basalts are similar to MAR basalts, but the East Greenland lavas are distinctly lower than both the MAR and Iceland. The Sc/V ratio also can vary as a function of mean pressure of melting (i.e. spinel versus garnet lherzolite). To test the relative importance of melting systematics, source composition, and oxygen fugacity on the Sc/V systematics for NAIP basalts, we incorporated the oxygen-fugacity-dependent V mineral-melt partitioning data of [3] into the polybaric decompression melting model REEBOX [4]. The best-fit model parameters for the majority of the Iceland and MAR basalts

  1. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.; Husmann, Diana I.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2012-08-01

    We present Earth-based radar images of Mars obtained with the upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ = 12.6 cm) radar during the 2005-2012 oppositions. The imaging was done using the same long-code delay-Doppler technique as for the earlier (pre-upgrade) imaging but at a much higher resolution (˜3 km) and, for some regions, a more favorable sub-Earth latitude. This has enabled us to make a more detailed and complete mapping of depolarized radar reflectivity (a proxy for small-scale surface roughness) over the major volcanic provinces of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis. We find that vast portions of these regions are covered by radar-bright lava flows exhibiting circular polarization ratios close to unity, a characteristic that is uncommon for terrestrial lavas and that is a likely indicator of multiple scattering from extremely blocky or otherwise highly disrupted flow surfaces. All of the major volcanoes have radar-bright features on their shields, although the brightness distribution on Olympus Mons is very patchy and the summit plateau of Pavonis Mons is entirely radar-dark. The older minor shields (paterae and tholi) are largely or entirely radar-dark, which is consistent with mantling by dust or pyroclastic material. Other prominent radar-dark features include: the "fan-shaped deposits", possibly glacial, associated with the three major Tharsis Montes shields; various units of the Medusae Fossae Formation; a region south and west of Biblis Patera where "Stealth" deposits appear to obscure Tharsis flows; and a number of "dark-halo craters" with radar-absorbing ejecta blankets deposited atop surrounding bright flows. Several major bright features in Tharsis are associated with off-shield lava flows; these include the Olympus Mons basal plains, volcanic fields east and south of Pavonis Mons, the Daedalia Planum flows south of Arsia Mons, and a broad expanse of flows extending east from the Tharsis Montes to Echus Chasma. The radar-bright lava plains in Elysium are

  2. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  3. Recent explosive eruptions in the Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, K.; Ernst, G. G.; Elburg, M. A.; Williamson, D.; Jacobs, P.

    2009-12-01

    The fundamental base of volcanic hazard assessment on any volcano is the study of its most recent eruptive history. Although the presence of extensive surficial pumice deposits was long known in the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP, SW Tanzania, East African Rift), the recent eruptive history was never studied in detail and is presented here for the first time. The RVP had several Plinian-style explosive eruptions in its Holocene history, originating from the two main volcanoes, Rungwe and Ngozi. Field observations are combined with whole-rock major (ICP-OES) and trace (ICP-MS) element analyses as well as major element analyses (EMPA) on glass. 14C ages of paleosols constrain all recognized deposits to <10 ka. Trace element data, e.g. Zr/Y ratios, allow discriminating between Ngozi and Rungwe as deposit source. All studied samples are trachyte to phonolitic trachyte. A ~30 m long sediment core in the Masoko maar lake (26 and 42 km SSE of Rungwe and Ngozi resp.) reveals >60 tephra layers deposited during the last 50 ky. Its Holocene record shows 7 tephra layers of which 2 (10.2 and 4.35 ka calBP) contain abundant pumice lapilli. Based on chemical constraints, the oldest of these pumice layers is believed to correspond to the Kitulo Pumice, the oldest on-land deposit found, originating from Ngozi. This eruption likely formed the 3 x 3 km Ngozi caldera. The 4.35 ka calBP pumice layer in the Masoko core was correlated with a Plinian pumice fallout deposit from Rungwe, the Rungwe Pumice, based on its appearance and paleosol 14C dating. It was traced over an area of ~1,500 km2 and probably extends even further. The Rungwe Pumice postdates a debris avalanche that was generated by a flank collapse of the volcano. This collapse left an amphitheatre-shaped depression on the summit that is now filled with domes, cones and explosion craters produced by effusive and explosive eruptions. A second large explosive eruption from Rungwe, the Isongole Pumice, is underlain by a 2.0 ± 0

  4. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    and/or basanite. Intra-field geochemical variations are also evident. The K4 pipe (Buffalo Head Hills), and Xena and Kendu pipes (Birch Mountains) are characterized by anomalous concentrations of incompatible elements relative to other northern Alberta kimberlite pipes, including chondrite-normalized rare-earth element distribution patterns that are less fractionated than the other kimberlite samples from the Buffalo Head Hills and Birch Mountains. The Xena pipe has similar major element chemical signatures and high-Al clinopyroxene similar to, or trending towards, the Mountain Lake pipes. In addition, K4 and Kendu have higher 87Sr/ 86Sr and lower ɛNd than Bulk Earth and plot in the bottom right quadrant of the Nd-Sr diagram. We suggest, therefore, that the K4 and Kendu pipes contain a contribution from old, LREE-enriched (low Sm/Nd) lithosphere that is absent from the other kimberlites, are affected by crustal contamination, or both. Based on xenocryst populations, the northern Alberta kimberlite province mantle is dominated by carbonate-saturated lherzolitic mantle. Higher levels of melt depletion characterize the Buffalo Head Hills mantle sample. Despite high diamondiferous to barren pipe ratios in the Buffalo Head Hills pipes, mineral indicators of high diamond potential, such as G10 garnet, diamond inclusion composition chrome spinels and high-sodium eclogitic garnet, are rare.

  5. Possible Volcanic Province in Western Promethei Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kostama, V.; Korteniemi, J.; Törmänen, T.; Neukum, G.

    2007-12-01

    The western Promethei Terra region (36-50°S, 90-106°E) studied is roughly ~700 km across. It occupies a unique area on the smoothened eastern Hellas basin rim, and consists of two parts: a gentler (~0.07°, eastward of ~97°E) and a steeper (~0.88°, W of ~97°E) regional slope. The Noachian cratered terrain surrounds the region in the NE, E, and S. The large canyons of Harmakhis, Reull and Teviot Valles cut through the central area and the smooth Hesperian plains [1-10] of the western and central areas display a set of features that does not occur elsewhere on the eastern side of the Hellas basin. The plains have multi-layered interiors as seen on the walls of the canyons that cut them. Similar stacks of sub- horizontal layers are seen in other Martian regions with exposed lava plain interiors, for example, in Lunae Planum and Syrtis Major. These are classic volcanic provinces the layered structure of which was formed by successive emplacement of sheet lava flows that followed the general topographic trend. The average visible thickness of the Promethei layers is ~70-80 m and the typical measured canyon wall slope is ~25-30o. This gives an estimate of the thickness of the layers, which is ~35-45 m. The full layer stack thickness, estimated from observations, is ~1.3 km. Consistent with the observed layering, there are narrow wrinkle ridges (WR) that deform the surface of the plains. WR mostly occur in the eastern portion of the area near Reull and Teviot Valles but some of them are seen near Harmakhis Vallis in the west. Additional long straight narrow ridges (widths < km, heights 10s m, lengths 10s km), which occur in mostly NE-SW-oriented groups, are seen on the surface of the plains. The regional topography does not appear to control the distribution of the ridges. Their morphologic characteristics, areal distribution, and close association with the lava plains are consistent with and suggest that the straight ridges may represent exhumed dikes [11], which

  6. Basaltic Volcanism of the Snake River Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Vetter, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Tomographic images document a thermal anomaly which pierces the Farallon plate at depth and appears to extend to depths of over 1000 km. Many investigators attribute this anomaly to a deep mantle plume, while others recognize the sheet-like aspect of the velocity anomaly and attribute it to lower mantle flow around a fragmented remnant of the Farallon plate. Tholeiitic basalts of the SRP have major element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), with higher FeO, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O than mid-ocean ridge basalts over a similar range in MgO. Their trace element concentrations also mimic OIB tholeiites, with moderately enriched LREE/HREE ratios, OIB-like HFSE ratios and Nb-Y-Zr systematics. Most SRP basalts show little evidence of crustal assimilation: oxygen isotope compositions are mantle-like, K2O is low and does not increase relative to other incompatible elements during fractionation (e.g., P2O5), and silica contents are consistently low. In contrast, evidence suggests that these basalts evolve primarily through fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Trace element concentration patterns are nearly identical to OIB tholeiites, with somewhat lower slopes on multi-element variations diagrams, consistent with 7-12% partial melting of spinel-facies peridotite (9-18 kb, 40-65 km) with a composition similar to the source of OIB or EMORB. Models show that depleted MORB asthenosphere or primitive mantle peridotite composition sources cannot yield SRP tholeiites, even with residual garnet in the source region to raise LREE/HREE ratios in the melt. There is no indication of residual garnet in the source - which requires that either the lithosphere was relatively thin during formation of the SRP, or that the melts originated within the lithosphere itself

  7. Early Proterozoic crustal provinces in the southwestern U. S. : What they represent and implications about continental reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Wooden, J.L.; Miller, D.M.; Howard, K. ); Dewitt, E. ); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology); Nutman, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Early Proterozoic basement of the southwestern US can be divided into at least 3 major crustal provinces on the basis of Pb isotopic and geochemical signatures. These are: (1) the Mojave of SE CA, southern NV, and western AZ; (2) the Yavapai of central and northern AZ, northern NM and southern CO; and (3) the Mazatzal of southern AZ., and central and southern NM. The boundary between the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces is close to the age province boundary proposed by Silver. Crustal provinces defined by chronologic, structural, lithologic, or metamorphic criteria usually don't distinguish regions unique in crustal formation character because these criteria often represent events that affected the crust (well) after the time of its original formation or represent non-unique information (e.g., magmatism can occur at the same time in entirely different crustal provinces). In comparison, isotopic and certain geochemical data often provide unique criteria because they are related to distinct mantle sources, specific processes, or the specific time of crustal formation. New U-Pb zircon ages determined by the SHRIMP ion microprobe indicate that the Mojave province probably has a latest Archean/earliest Proterozoic basement on which sedimentary rocks containing 2.7--2.5 Ga and 2.0--1.8 Ga detrital zircon populations were deposited. The timing of plutonic events in the Mojave and Yavapai provinces is indistinguishable from 1.76--1.70 Ga. Plutonic rocks with Yavapai isotopic and geochemical signatures intruded the eastern edge ( ) of the Mojave province as early as 1.74 Ga. This suggests that the two provinces were in close proximity from 1.76 Ga and that the older Mojave province was a buttress against which juvenile Yavapai crust formed.

  8. Anti-Smoking Practice in Hospitals: An Intercept Survey among Patients in Hubei Province, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…

  9. Application of Multiple Index Development Approaches to Benthic Invertebrate Data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work had indicated that the Virginian Province Index did not perform well in a smaller estuarine complex. While it was hoped that the existing Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity, with its greater number of metrics and habitat separation would be more adapt...

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Application of a geology-based assessment methodology by the U.S. Geological Survey resulted in an estimated mean of 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in the North-Central Montana Province. Oil, gas, and natural gas liquids in conventional accumulations were not assessed.

  11. Report on the Tribal Schools of Fars Province. White Tents in the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Clarence

    A historical case study is presented of the creation of elementary schools for the nomadic tribes of Fars Province in southern Iran (Persia). A brief historical review of the educational opportunities and socioeconomic background of the Fars tribes is given. Additionally, the gradual expansion of the impact of bringing education to the previously…

  12. Higher Vocational Education in China: A Preliminary Critical Review of Developments and Issues in Liaoning Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, G. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the increasingly important economy of China and its associated higher vocational education and training (HVE) system. More specifically, the paper aims to present the findings of a critical review of recent developments in the HVE system in Liaoning province. Design/methodology/approach: As part of this review,…

  13. [A model of nuptiality in Andalusia. The example of the province of Cadiz].

    PubMed

    Martin Ruiz, J F

    1986-01-01

    The author analyzes marriage patterns in the Andalusian province of Cadiz, Spain. Aspects considered include changes in nuptiality indexes since 1900; changes in marriage age, 1941-1979; proportions not married, 1960 and 1981; dissolution of marriages, 1960-1981, and seasonal variations in nuptiality. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12280642

  14. "Go West Young Man!" Youth Apprenticeship and Opportunity Structures in Two Canadian Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Wolfgang; Taylor, Alison; Hamm, Zane

    2015-01-01

    Most Canadian provinces offer high-school apprenticeships to facilitate students' transitions to skilled work and address employers' concerns about labour shortages. Using interview data with graduates from high-school apprenticeships in Alberta and Ontario, we analyse the impact participation in these programmes has had on their…

  15. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  16. Evaluation of spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation variations in Jilin Province, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation time series were analysed using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test and wavelet analysis based on the mean seasonal and annual precipitation from 29 meteorological stations in Jilin Province for the period 1958-2011. Both the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the seasonal and annual precipitation trends and periodicities in different regions in Jilin Province were studied for the first time in this paper. New findings from the intensive calculations and appropriate analysis of data in longer period are as follows: (i) The annual precipitation of Jilin Province has experienced four states: a decrease (1958-1980), increase (1980-1987), decrease (1987-2003) and increase (2003-2011). (ii) The annual precipitation and seasonal precipitation increased from the northwest and northeast of the study area toward the south. (iii) Almost 90 % of the stations showed negative trends in annual precipitation variations. (iv) The trends in spring and winter are mainly increasing, whereas the trends in summer and autumn are mainly decreasing. (v) Jilin Province can be divided into four parts based on the periodicities of annual precipitation sequences: 5-6, 10-20 and 25-30 years in the northwest; 4-8 and 16-25 years in the centre; 7-8 and 13-17 years in the south and 5-10 and 12-17 years in the southeast.

  17. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  18. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  20. Left-Behind Children in Rural Primary Schools: The Case of Sichuan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao

    2008-01-01

    During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  2. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hui; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Qian, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3. PMID:26941135

  3. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hui; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3. PMID:26941135

  4. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...\\ in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36347-36348, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0032), in which... (76 FR 51934-51935, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0032), in which we announced the availability, for review... Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. Based...

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Southwestern Wyoming Province, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean 84.6 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 131 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 2.6 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Southwestern Wyoming Province. Coal bed methane resources are noted. 1 tab.

  6. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  7. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appalachian Basin Province Assessment Team: Milici, Robert C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 70.2 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 54 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 872 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Appalachian Basin Province.

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Warrior Basin Province, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black Warrior Basin Province Assessment Team: Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 8.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 5.9 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 7.6 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Black Warrior Basin Province.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  13. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  14. Effectiveness of the Computer and Internet Literacy Project in Public High Schools of Tarlac Province, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Arnold R.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation is important to gauge the strengths, weaknesses and effectiveness of any activity. This study evaluated the iSchools Project implemented in the Public High Schools of Tarlac Province, Philippines by the Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) in partnership with the selected State Universities and Colleges. Using…

  15. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  16. Industry sector analysis, China: Electrical generating equipment in guangdong province. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the electrical generating equipment market in the Guangdong Province of China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  17. Tourism, Transnationality and Ethnolinguistic Vitality: The Welsh in the Chubut Province, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to develop the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality by adopting a qualitative approach to vitality rather than the statistical approach traditionally used. Ten small-size focus group style interviews were held with members of the Welsh-Argentinean community in the Chubut Province in the south of Argentina in order to explore…

  18. Neotectonics of the San Andreas Fault system, basin and range province juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The development, active processes, and tectonic interplay of the southern San Andreas fault system and the basin and range province were studied. The study consist of data acquisition and evaluation, technique development, and image interpretation and mapping. Potentially significant geologic findings are discussed.

  19. Initial English Language Teacher Education: Processes and Tensions towards a Unifying Curriculum in an Argentinian Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Dario Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective piece I discuss the process of developing a new unifying initial English language teacher education curriculum in the province of Chubut (Argentina). Trainers and trainees from different institutions were called to work on it with the aim of democratising curriculum development and enhancing involvement among agents. In the…

  20. A new combination and two varieties of polystigmate Gomphonema (gomphonemaceae bacillariophyta) from Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yawen; Shi, Zhixin; Bao, Wenmei; Wang, Quanxi

    2004-06-01

    The authors discribed a new polystigmate combination, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. okamurae (Skv.) Fan et Bao. comb. nov., and two new varieties, Gomphonema turris Ehr. var. latum Fan et Wang. var. nov. and Gomphonema acuminatum var. obtusum Fan et Bao, var. nov., that were distinguished by frustule morphology under LM. The samples were collected from freshwater of Heilongjiang Province, China.

  1. A new flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus (Siphonaptera, Pygiopsyllidae) from Salta Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López-Berrizbeitia, M. Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W.; Barquez, Rubén M.; Díaz, M. Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of flea of the genus Ctenidiosomus Jordan, 1931 (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) is described from Phyllotis osilae J. A. Allen, 1901, from Salta Province, Argentina. This is the first time that Ctenidiosomus has been recorded in Argentina. A key to species of males of Ctenidiosomus is presented. PMID:26257563

  2. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  3. Adult Education in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: Challenges for Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, J.; Rampedi, M.; de Jong, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report and reflect on a study about the problems encountered in the implementation of adult education policies in the Limpopo province of South Africa. We used the model of intergovernmental policy implementation of Van Horn and Van Meter as a theoretical framework. We reflect on this study and link the findings with more recent…

  4. Early Childhood Care and Education in Canada: Provinces and Territories, 1998. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

    Noting that in Canada, regulated child care and most other early childhood services are under provincial jurisdiction, this report provides statistical and other information on early childhood care and education services for each province and territory in Canada. Data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to each provincial/territorial…

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and Mauritania.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  7. Snake bite envenomation in Riyadh province of Saudi Arabia over the period (2005–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation is a retrospective review of snake bites in Riyadh province over the period (2005–2010). A total of 1019 cases of bites admitted to the Ministry of Health medical centers in Riyadh province were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, time of bite and its site on the body, outcome of treatment, antiserum dose and type of snake. Bites occurred throughout the six years with the highest frequency in 2005 and least in 2006 where most of the bite cases were mild and all evolved to cure except four patients who died following the administration of antivenom during 24 h after snake bite. Most of the patients were males (81.7%) and the most attacked age was within the range of 11–30 years (51.5%). All the bites were mainly in the exposed limbs and the most frequently bitten anatomical regions were the lower limbs (427 cases, 41.9%), principally the feet. The study incriminates Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in most of the bites indicating it as the snake of medical importance in Riyadh province. Also, the study indicates low degree of threat in spite of high rate of snake bites as a result of the availability of the medical facilities and the antivenin use in medical centers in Riyadh province. PMID:25737653

  8. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  9. The Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Glenda M; Larrieu, Edmundo; Uchiumi, Leonardo; Mercapide, Carlos; Mujica, Guillermo; Del Carpio, Mario; Hererro, Eduardo; Salvitti, Juan Carlos; Norby, Bo; Budke, Christine M

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic zoonosis with substantial human health and economic consequences, is highly endemic in Rio Negro Province, Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect human and livestock-associated monetary losses attributable to CE, in Rio Negro Province, for the year 2010. Human costs were estimated using data obtained from hospital chart reviews, patient interviews, and government reports. Livestock-associated losses were estimated using data from government reports and scientific publications. Spreadsheet models were developed utilizing Latin Hypercube sampling to account for uncertainty in the input parameters. In 2010, the estimated total cost of CE, in Rio Negro Province, ranged from US$4,234,000 (95% credible interval [CI]: US$2,709,000-US$6,226,000) to US$5,897,000 (95% CI: US$3,452,000-US$9,105,000), with livestock-associated losses representing between 80% and 94% of the total losses, depending on whether non-healthcare-seeking human cases were included and if livestock slaughter values were adjusted to account for underreporting. These estimates suggest that CE is responsible for considerable human and livestock-associated monetary losses in Rio Negro Province. Stakeholders and policymakers can use these data to better allocate public health and agricultural resources for this region. PMID:26787144

  10. A Survey on Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Nairobi Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Ken; Zhimin, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of the study was to determine various mechanisms applied in resolving conflicts within public secondary schools in Nairobi province. This study used descriptive and exploratory research design. A sample comprising of principals, representatives of Boards of Governors (BoG's), class teachers, students and education officers was…

  11. Two new Anoplocheylus species (Acari: Trombidiformes: Pseudocheylidae) from Kurdistan province of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Amini, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 are described: Anoplocheylus marivaniensis sp. nov. collected from soil and rotten leaves under oak trees and Anoplocheylus qorvehiensis sp. nov. from soil under Astragalus sp. bushes in Kurdistan province, Iran. A key to females of all known species of Anoplocheylus is provided, based on original descriptions and other literature. PMID:25283402

  12. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  13. Chapter 18: Geology and petroleum potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province represents the northeastern-most cratonic block of Eastern European Russia. More than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered in this basin. Three geological assessment units (AU) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The NW Izhma Depression AU encompasses all potential structures and reservoirs in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, but this part of the basin contains little source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively. The Main Basin Platform AU includes all structures and reservoirs that developed in the central part of the basin where the tectonic evolution and development of petroleum systems were complex. The Foredeep Basins AU includes all potential reservoirs within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins developed during the Permo-Triassic Uralian Orogeny. For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG and 0.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids (BBNGL). For the areas of the AUs north of the Arctic Circle in the Timan- Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG and 0.2 BBNGL. The Pechora Sea was assessed with the South Barents Sea Province and is not included in this assessment. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  14. Image of Turkish Basic Schools: A Reflection from the Province of Ankara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the organizational image of basic schools in Turkey, a rapidly developing nation that has been investing significantly in education. Participants were 730 residents of Ankara province in the Golbasi district. The participants were selected using a cluster sampling methodology. Data were collected…

  15. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. PMID:26041195

  16. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  17. Examination of Students' Digital Gaming Habits at Secondary School Level in Elazig Province of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikail, Tel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the opinions of the secondary school students on digital games were examined. The research is a screening model research and has a descriptive feature. It was carried out with 521 secondary school students in Elazig (a province in eastern part of Turkey) [MSS1] in 2013. Almost all of the participants use computer. More than half of…

  18. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia-Yao; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of Nazeris nabanhensissp. n. and Nazeris caoisp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given. PMID:21594163

  19. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  20. Infrastructure Availability in the Public Sector Schools: A Case Study of Sindh Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujahid, Nooreen; Noman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This focus of this study is confined to primary and secondary education in Sindh province. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the facilities available at the primary and secondary schools especially within the context of rural and urban areas. This study investigates 48,865 Government schools in terms of efficient and well-organized…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Primary School Children in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China. PMID:26323849

  3. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  4. Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae) – a new species from Talamanca Mountain in Veraguas province, Western Panama

    PubMed Central

    González, Daniel A. Cáceres

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae), a new species so far endemic to Veraguas province, Western Panama, is described and illustrated. The new species is recognized due to its peduncle much longer than the leaves and its red floral bracts, shorter than the yellow flowers. The new species is compared to morphologically similar species, namely Guzmania monostachia, Guzmania berteroniana, Guzmania elvallensis, and Guzmania skotakii. PMID:24198713

  5. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  6. Problem Solving Skills of People Doing Sporty Recreation Activities in Karaman Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birol, Sefa Sahan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the problem solving skills of people who are doing sporty recreation activities in Karaman Province. A total of 143 people participated in this study (51 females and 92 males) Their age mean was 1.2168 ± 0.41350. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and Peterson, was used to measure the problem solving…

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Greenland Rift Basins Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    Northeast Greenland is the prototype for the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 31,400 MBOE (million barrels of oil equivalent) of oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Brown, Philip J., II; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Shah, Anjana; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Greenland?East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal effort. The West Greenland?East Canada Province is essentially the offshore area between west Greenland and east Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including Kane Basin. The tectonic evolution of the West Greenland?East Canada Province led to the formation of several major structural domains that are the geologic basis for the five assessment units (AU) defined in this study. The five AUs encompass the entire province. Each AU was assessed in its entirety for undiscovered, technically recoverable (assuming absence of sea ice) oil and gas resources, but the assessment results reported here are only for those portions of each AU that are north of the Arctic Circle, as that latitude defines the area of the Circum-Arctic oil and gas assessment.

  9. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Hmammouchi, Mohamed; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2003-06-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Taounate population in Northern Morocco to identify plants used in folk-medicine. Two distinct physiographic regions of the province, populated by two ethnic groups, were surveyed. Extensive investigation undertaken during the past 5 years has brought to light 102 medicinal plants belonging to 48 families. The scientific and vernacular names of plants, their ecological distribution, and the popular uses of the plant, the part of the plant used, the preparation and mode of administration are presented. Plants are widely used in indigenous pharmacopoeia to alleviate the common symptoms of cardiovascular (5.8%), gastrointestinal (24.9%), bronchopulmonary systems (9.8%), urogenital (12.2%) and skin (9.2%) diseases, and other disorders which are often associated with magic. The majority of medicinal plants grow in the wild (61%), while others are cultivated (37%) and some (1.9%) are domesticated. These plants are more abundant in the northern part (62%) of the province where they grow in forested areas. Among the 102 species inventoried, 13(12.7%) medicinal plants are widely commercialized in the region and exploited outside of the province. The data collected from 17 wholesalers, show the income derived from medicinal plants to be about USD 1,826,900 per year. This survey demonstrates that the medicinal plant sector in the province is a promising economic resource for developing this region, but it needs planned exploitation, and that the tribes should continue to master the folk-medicine. PMID:12738079

  10. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-And Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, S.; Wen, X.

    2012-12-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the present tectonic deformation, the southeastern margin of the Datong-Yangyuan basin, the biggest graben basin of the active tectonic province, shows as a turning belt of the extensional rates, suggesting that relatively high tensile strain accumulation could exist there. (3)On the northeastern segment of the studied active basin-and-range province, both the Zhangjiakou-Yanhui graben basin and the Beijing graben basin have also been being in significant extensional and shear deformation. (4) The relocated hypocenter distribution have

  11. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui Infection among Riparian People in Saravane and Champasak Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  12. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui infection among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  14. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 [1] whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Anadarko Basin Province of Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and Colorado, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Gaswirth, S.B.; Abbott, M.M.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Ellis, G.S.; Gianoutsos, N.J.; Hatch, J.R.; Klett, T.R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pearson, O.N.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geoscience-based assessment methodology, estimated mean technically-recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 495 million barrels of oil, 27.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 410 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Anadarko Basin Province; this assessment includes the Las Animas arch area of southeastern Colorado. The province is at a mature stage of exploration and development for conventional resources. Mean undiscovered continuous resources are estimated at 79 percent of oil, 90 percent of natural gas, and 81 percent of natural gas liquids in the province.

  16. The mantle sources beneath the Afar volcanic province and their interplay with extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pik, Raphael; Stab, Martin; Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Medynski, Sarah; Cloquet, Christophe; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Chazot, Gilles; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of mantle sources beneath the Ethiopian volcanic province has long been discussed and debated with a long-lived controversy in identifying mantle reservoirs and locating them in the mantle. One interpretation of the isotopic composition of erupted lavas considers that the Afar mantle plume composition is best expressed by recent lavas from Afar and Gulf of Aden (e.g. Erta Ale, Manda Inakir and the 45°E torus anomaly on the Gulf of Aden) implying that all other volcanics (including other active segments and the initial flood basalt province) result from mixing of this plume component with additional lithospheric and asthenospheric components. A completely opposite view considers that the initial Oligocene continental flood basalts best represent the isotopic composition of the Afar mantle plume, which is subsequently mixed in various proportions with continental lithospheric mantle for generating some of the specific signature of Miocene and Quaternary volcanics. The precise and correct identification of mantle components involved in the generation of magmas is of particular importance because this is the only way to document the participation of mantle during extension and its potential role in break-up processes. In this contribution we provide new isotopic data for central Afar and we revisit the whole data set of the Ethiopian volcanic province and African/Arabian intraplate volcanics in order to: (i) precisely identify the distinct mantle components implicated, (ii) discuss their location and evolution in space and time, and (3) link the evolution of mantle with extensional processes beneath the Afar province. This new interpretation of geochemical data allows reconsidering the evolution of mantle in the course of rift evolution. In terms of mantle sources, two populations of active segments are frontally opposed in the volcanic province: those that share exactly the same composition with plume related CFBs (e.g. the Manda Hararo and the Main

  17. Chapter 32: Geology and petroleum potential of the Arctic Alaska petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska petroleum province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald Arch orogenic belt and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Beaufort Rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of c. 28 BBOE. The province constitutes a significant part of a displaced continental fragment, the Arctic Alaska microplate, that was probably rifted from the Canadian Arctic margin during formation of the Canada Basin. Petroleum prospective rocks in the province, mostly Mississippian and younger, record a sequential geological evolution through passive margin, rift and foreland basin tectonic stages. Significant petroleum source and reservoir rocks were formed during each tectonic stage but it was the foreland basin stage that provided the necessary burial heating to generate petroleum from the source rocks. The lion's share of known petroleum resources in the province occur in combination structural-stratigraphic traps formed as a consequence of rifting and located along the rift shoulder. Since the discovery of the super-giant Prudhoe Bay accumulation in one of these traps in the late 1960s, exploration activity preferentially focused on these types of traps. More recent activity, however, has emphasized the potential for stratigraphic traps and the prospect of a natural gas pipeline in this region has spurred renewed interest in structural traps. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a Platform assessment unit (AU), comprising the Beaufort Rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a Fold-and-Thrust Belt AU, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald Arch tectonic belt. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 122 trillion

  18. Modern Tectonic Deformation in the Active Basin-and-Range Province Northwest of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Suting; Wen, Xueze

    2013-04-01

    Our study region is the northwest of Beijing, northern north China. The most typical extensional active tectonic area of the China continent, called the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing, exist there. This active tectonic province is made up of several NE-trending Quaternary graben basins and horst ranges between basins. An about 1500-year-long written historical record has suggested that there have been no major earthquakes with magnitude 7 or greater occurred in most of the study region since AD 512. So, the characteristic of modern tectonic deformation of the study region and its implication for the future seismic potential of major earthquakes are important scientific issues. In this study, based on data of regional GPS station velocities and active tectonics, combining relocated earthquake distribution, we make a preliminary analysis on the characteristic of the modern tectonic deformation of the study region. We design three zones across deferent segments of the active basin-and-range province to analyze both the present tectonic deformation from the GPS velocity profiles and the major fault's downward-extents from the relocated hypocenters. Our analyses reveal that: (1) Significant NNW-ward and SSE-ward horizontal extension exists on different segments of the active basin-and-range province northwest of Beijing at rates of 2 to 3mm /yr, accompanied with right-lateral shear deformation at 1 to 2mm/yr. (2) On the western and middle segments of the active basin and range province, most of the total horizontal extension and shear deformation happen in the width from the Huangqihai basin to the Datong-Yanggao basin , suggesting that some major faults in this width could have had relatively-high strain build-up. (3) It is possible that one or more basement detachment belts exist under the active basins, and it or they possibly dip(s) southeastern-ward. (4) The modern tectonic extensional rate is up to 2 to 3mm /yr in the study region. However

  19. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  20. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  1. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  2. Application of Multiple Index Development Approaches to Benthic Invertebrate Data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province (SETAC NA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  3. Assessment of undiscovered carboniferous coal-bed gas resources of the Appalachian Basin and Black Warrior Basin Provinces, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Milici, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

    2004-09-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the Appalachian basin, which extends almost continuously from New York to Alabama. In general, the basin includes three structural subbasins: the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama and Mississippi. For assessment purposes, the Appalachian basin was divided into two assessment provinces: the Appalachian Basin Province from New York to Alabama, and the Black Warrior Basin Province in Alabama and Mississippi. By far, most of the coalbed methane produced in the entire Appalachian basin has come from the Black Warrior Basin Province. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  5. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China.  PMID:25661600

  6. A hepatitis E outbreak by genotype 4 virus in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-07-19

    Hepatitis E vaccine was available in China in 2012, but the priority population for immunization is not clear. In 2013, a hepatitis E outbreak occurred in a company of Shandong province, China where most employees moved from other provinces and dined at the company's cafeteria. A total of fourteen (19%, 14/73) case-patients were identified, and three of them had symptomatic infection with one death. The proportion of symptomatic infection was much higher among those aged ⩾50years than those aged <50years (2/2 vs. 1/12, P=0.03), and higher in males than females (3/8 vs. 0/6, P=0.21). Food in the company's cafeteria might be the possible source of the outbreak. The findings from this outbreak investigation indicate that individuals aged ⩾50years, particularly males, might be the population of top priority for hepatitis E vaccination in China. PMID:27318419

  7. Surnames as alleles: spatial distribution of surnames in a province of the Italian Alps.

    PubMed

    Caravello, G U; Tasso, M

    2007-05-01

    The present paper seeks to analyse the spatial distribution of surnames in the province of Belluno in the Italian Alps, and describes the internal mobility of the population taking into consideration one of the most important and ancient roads in the area. The study is based on the analysis of the similarity of the frequencies of some autochthonous surnames depending on their geographical distance apart. The population considered turned out to be basically sedentary. When forced to migrate, the population preferred to go far from their homeland rather than inside the area: this happened probably because the opportunities that the province of Belluno could offer were quite scarce throughout the whole territory, and people hoped to improve their economic situation by going abroad. PMID:17052384

  8. MITOCHONDRIAL GENE SEQUENCES AMONG DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATES OF SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xue-Mei; Li, Cui-Ying; Li, Mei; Zeng, Jin; Zheng, Su-Yue; Li, Fei

    2016-05-01

    In order to evaluate differentiate genetic differences among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from Dali Ancient City, Xizhou and Yongsheng County, Yunnan Province, China, mitochondrial col, cytb, nd1, nd6, and nd4l were PCR amplified and sequenced, revealing nucleotide difference(s) among these strains of 8, 1, 5, 4, and 0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. japonicum from the three different geographical locations of Yunnan Province were clustered genetically together and were more similar to S. malayensis and S. mekongi than S. haematobium or S. mansoni. For intra-species differentiation purposes, Schistosoma mitochondrial col, nd1, and nd6 are better genetic markers than cytb and nd41. PMID:27405120

  9. Migration in an economic-demographic model for the Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Milne, W J; Foot, D K; Dungan, D P

    1985-09-01

    "This paper is a description of the structure of a multiregion economic-demographic model for the Canadian provinces. An important part of the demographic model is the estimation of net migration equations based on a human capital approach and incorporating the adding-up constraint that arises since the sum of the net migration flows across all provinces must be 0 in each period. These endogenous migration flows allow for variables from the economic model (wage rates and unemployment rates) to influence the source population, the labour force and, therefore, the unemployment rate and other variables in the economic model." The model is used in simulation experiments in order to illustrate the interaction between economic and demographic factors and how this interaction affects the impact of policies. PMID:12267308

  10. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  11. The fauna of cynipid oak gall wasps and their parasitoids in Lorestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, E; Rasoulian, G R; Kharazi-Pakdel, A; Omid, R; Moniri, V R; Melika, G

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period 2003-2005 to collect and identify gall wasps and their parasitoids on oak species in Lorestan province. There are two oak species, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria, with different dispersion patterns in the province. Thus, 3 study sampling sites were selected to cover distributional pattern of oak forests. Collected galls maintained in the laboratory condition. Based on results obtained, overall, 26 different galls-formed on various plant parts (catkins, buds, fruits, leaves) were collected on two oak species; of which, 11 gall wasps are active on Q. brantii and 13 gall wasps on Q. infectoria. 19 parasitoid wasps of 12 genera and 6 families belong to Chalcidoidea superfamily with various frequency and dispersal were collected from mentioned galls. PMID:17385504

  12. Combining biological and geomorphological data to introduce biotopes of Bushehr Province, the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Aghajanpour, Fatemeh; Savari, Ahmad; Danehkar, Afshin; Chegini, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Identification and classification of intertidal areas provides the basic knowledge needed for studies of biogeography, macro-ecology, and faunal populations, as well as for conservation planning and managing human activities in coastal areas. In this research, the eastern coast of Bushehr Province was classified using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). Seven substrate subgroups, five geoform types in unconsolidated mineral substrate, five micro-habitats in rock substrate, and nine biotic groups were identified in study stations. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordinations and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) showed that macroinvertebrate species composition differed significantly among different geoform types (habitat types). Eight biotopes are introduced for the eastern coast of Bushehr Province based on observational and statistical methods. The results presented here show that identifying intertidal biotopes using CMECS is an appropriate method both for classifying the southern coastal areas of Iran and for integrating biotic and abiotic components. PMID:26559554

  13. Tectonic setting and evolution of late Archaean greenstone belts of Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Late Archean (3.0-2.5 Ga) greenstone belts are a major component of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield where alternating, metavolcanic - rich and metasedimentary - rich subprovinces form a prominent central striped region bordered in part by high-grade gneiss subprovinces, the Pikiwitonei and Minto in the north, and the Minnesota River Valley in the south. The high-grade gneiss subprovinces are characterized by granulite facies gneiss of plutonic and supracrustal origin, and by abundant plutonic rocks. Minnesota River Valley has rocks older than 3.5 Ga; absolute ages of Pikiwitonei and Minto rocks are unknown but Minto does have north-south structural trends distinctive from the dominant east-west structures of Superior Province. A discussion follows.

  14. Regional disparities in the distribution of healthcare workers: evidence from Iran, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province.

    PubMed

    Ezati Asar, Mohamad; Varehzardi, Ramin; Rajabi Vasokolaei, Ghasem; Haghi, Mehdi; Fazelipor, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    A health care service is a prerequisite for sustainable development. This requires access to balanced health workers in different geographic areas. The first step is to identify inequality in access to health workers in different areas. This study is a descriptive study was carried out on the cities in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. TOPSIS technique was used to rank the cities in terms of regional disparities in the distribution of health workers. The findings revealed that distinct disparities in the distribution of healthcare workers across Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Shahrekord and Ardal cities were classified as 1st and 7th respectively. Policy makers should consider priority (regional planning, budget and resources allocation) according to the distribution of healthcare workers. PMID:25716410

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  16. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  17. Trends of Mortality of Road Traffic Accidents in Fars Province, Southern Iran, 2004 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    HASANZADEH, Jafar; MORADINAZAR, Mehdi; NAJAFI, Farid; AHMADI-JOUYBARY, Touraj

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars Province, southern Iran. Methods The Age and sex-standardized mortality rate attributed to RTA from 2004 to 2010 in Fars Province was calculated using world standard population. We also used linear regression and chi-squared tests. Results Over the period of study (7 years), 12954 people died in RTA. The age- and sex-standardized mortality rate was 27 per 100,000. While the rate of death due to RTA had an incremental rate in age group 18-30 years and among women, it had a decreasing trend in age groups 35-45, under18 and among men. Conclusion An increase in mortality rate of RTA among people aged 18-30 yr and women need to be addressed by health policy makers and other involved sections. PMID:26175980

  18. Atmospheric PCO2 Perturbations Associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Morgan F.; Wright, James D.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO2) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO2 from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO2 values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO2 increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO2 after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO2 by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics.

  19. Epidemiology of malaria in Al-Tameem Province, Iraq, 1991-2000.

    PubMed

    Kadir, M A A; Ismail, A K M; Tahir, S S

    2003-01-01

    To determine the rates of malarial infection in different areas of Al-Tameem province, we conducted a cross-sectional study from 1991 to 2000. We found an overall infection rate of 0.76% by Plasmodium vivax. Infection rates were highest in Dibis district (1.12%), followed by infections from outside the province (0.93%) and in Hawija district (0.89%), Kirkuk (0.62%) and Dakok (0.17%). Rates of infection varied by year with the lowest rate in 1991 (0.02%) and the highest rate in 1996 (1.84%). All ages were represented, with the highest rate of infection among 21-30-year-olds. Males had a slightly higher rate of infection (0.78%) than females (0.73%). PMID:16450535

  20. Review of the earthworm fauna of Iran with emphasis on Kohgiluyeh & Boyer-Ahmad Province.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Zeinab; Malek, Masoumeh; Elahi, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms were collected in forests, damp habitats, springs, orchards and agricultural fields of the Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Iran, from April 2009 to April 2010. Specimens were collected at 20 established stations by digging and by diluted formalin methods. Ten species belonging to family Lumbricidae were identified based on morphology: Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826), Ap. rosea (Savigny, 1826), Ap. jassyensis (Michaelsen, 1891), Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886), D. byblica (Rosa, 1893) complex, D. orientalis orientalis Cernosvitov 1940, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826), Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826), Octolasion lacteum (Örley, 1881), Perelia kaznakovi (Michaelsen, 1910). Ap. caliginosa was the dominant species in this province and D. orientalis orientalis is a new record for Iran. A checklist of all earthworms species form Iran is presented, containing 19 species. Then, in order to show earthworm geographical affinities, hierarchical analysis were applied to available data on earthworm of Iran. PMID:26438954

  1. Regional Disparities in the Distribution of Healthcare Workers: Evidence From Iran, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province

    PubMed Central

    Asar, Mohamad Ezati; Varehzardi, Ramin; Vasokolaei, Ghasem Rajabi; Haghi, Mehdi; Fazelipor, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    A health care service is a prerequisite for sustainable development. This requires access to balanced health workers in different geographic areas. The first step is to identify inequality in access to health workers in different areas. This study is a descriptive study was carried out on the cities in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. TOPSIS technique was used to rank the cities in terms of regional disparities in the distribution of health workers. The findings revealed that distinct disparities in the distribution of healthcare workers across Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Shahrekord and Ardal cities were classified as 1st and 7th respectively. Policy makers should consider priority (regional planning, budget and resources allocation) according to the distribution of healthcare workers. PMID:25716410

  2. Geology and total petroleum systems of the West-Central Coastal province (7203), West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The West-Central Coastal Province of the Sub-Saharan Africa Region consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola (including the disputed Cabinda Province), and Namibia. The area stretches from the east edge of the Niger Delta south to the Walvis Ridge. The West-Central Coastal Province includes the Douala, Kribi-Campo, Rio Muni, Gabon, Congo, Kwanza, Benguela, and Namibe Basins, which together form the Aptian salt basin of equatorial west Africa. The area has had significant exploration for petroleum; more than 295 oil fields have been discovered since 1954. Since 1995, several giant oil fields have been discovered, especially in the deep-water area of the Congo Basin. Although many total petroleum systems may exist in the West-Central Coastal Province, only four major total petroleum systems have been defined. The area of the province north of the Congo Basin contains two total petroleum systems: the Melania-Gamba Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous source and reservoir rocks, and the Azile-Senonian Total Petroleum System, consisting of Albian to Turonian source rocks and Cretaceous reservoir rocks. Two assessment units are defined in the West-Central Coastal Province north of the Congo Basin: the Gabon Subsalt and the Gabon Suprasalt Assessment Units. The Congo Basin contains the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Central Congo Delta and Carbonate Platform and the Central Congo Turbidites Assessment Units are defined in the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System. The area south of the Congo Basin contains the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Cuanza-Namibe Assessment Unit is defined in the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the

  3. Social Network Analysis of Cattle Movement in Sukhothai Province, Thailand: A Study to Improve Control Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Noopataya, Supot; Thongratsakul, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the pattern of cattle movement in Sukhothai province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire was applied to 308 respondents related to cattle farming using one-step snowball sampling. The results showed that most of the nodes are farmers who move their animals in the province. The average normalized degree centrality and normalized closeness centrality were low (<0.01 and 0.04, resp.). We found that traders are the nodes with a high value of centrality. This corresponds with the cutpoint analysis results that traders are outstanding. In conclusion, the relevant authorities should focus on the nodes such as traders for controlling disease. However, a measure to detect disease in the early stages needs to be implemented. PMID:26881182

  4. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang. PMID:25075975

  5. Early Proterozoic activity on Archean faults in the western Superior province - evidence from pseudotachylite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Day, W.

    1989-01-01

    Major transcurrent faults in the Superior province developed in the Late Archean at the close of the Kenoran orogeny. Reactivation of some of these faults late in the Early Proterozoic is indicated by Rb-Sr analyses of pseudotachylite from the Rainy Lake-Seine River and Quetico faults in the Rainy Lake region of Minnesota and Ontario. Fault veins of pseudotachylite and immediately adjacent country rock at two localities yielded subparallel isochrons that are pooled for an age of 1947??23 Ma. K-Ar and Rb-Sr biotite ages register earlier regional cooling of the terrane at about 2500 Ma with no evidence of younger thermal overprinting at temperatures exceeding 300??C. Accordingly, the 1947??23 Ma age is interpreted as dating the formation of the pseudotachylite. Reactivation of existing faults at this time was caused by stresses transmitted from margins of the Superior province where compressional tectonic events were occurring. -Authors

  6. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENT THE NATIONAL GUIDELINES ON NEWBORN CARE IN A RURAL MOUNTAINOUS PROVINCE OF VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Le Minh; Ha, BuiThiThu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the disparity in neonatal health among regions to ensure every mother and her newborn receive the health care they need is a priority in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the barriers in implementing the National guidelines on newborn care in a rural mountainous province of Vietnam. Qualitative methods were applied with 28 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions in DakNong province. The results showed that there exist many barriers in implementing the national guideline in newborn care services. There is a big gap between health policy development and policy implementation. The Vietnam government had approved a good strategy and guidelines. Efforts now need to focus on implementing the national guideline and improving quality of care.

  7. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K. . E-mail: c.vidanaarachchi@civenv.unimelb.edu.au; Yuen, Samuel T.S.; Pilapitiya, Sumith

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting.

  8. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time. PMID:27144770

  9. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenggang; Yang, Weizhong; Fan, Jingchun; Wang, Furong; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong for 1978 to 2010. Time series analysis was performed using data on annual dengue incidence in Guangdong province for 1978-2010. Annual average dengue incidences for each city were mapped for 4 periods by using the geographical information system (GIS). Hot spot analysis was used to identify spatial patterns of dengue cases for 2005-2010 by using the CrimeStat III software. The incidence of dengue in Guangdong province had fallen steadily from 1978 to 2010. The time series was a random sequence without regularity and with no fixed cycle. The geographic range of dengue fever had expanded from 1978 to 2010. Cases were mostly concentrated in Zhanjiang and the developed regions of Pearl River Delta and Shantou. PMID:23467628

  11. [Chemical composition analysis of early neolithic pottery unearthed from Xiaohuangshang site, Zhejiang Province and Jiahu site, Henan Province by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Yang, Yu-Zhang; Zhang, Ju-Zhong; Cui, Wei

    2011-11-01

    The major elements in the early neolithic potteries unearthed from Xiaohuangshan site, Zhejiang Province and Jiahu site, Henan Province were determined by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The results show that the chemical compositions of the potteries from these two sites possess obvious regional features respectively. Compared with the specimen from Jiahu site, the potteries from Xiaohuangshan site have the common feature of ancient Chinese southern ceramics with high silicon and low aluminum contents. Simultaneously, the chemical composition of Xiaohuangshan pottery samples nearly unchanged from its early stage to the last stage. This phenomenon indicates that the source of the ceramic raw materials of Xiaohuangshan site was stable, and the continuous improvement of its pottery quality was mainly due to the progress in sintering techniques. However, the chemical composition of Jiahu potteries changed a lot in its three different periods. This change occurred because a large number of admixtures were added to the pottery bodies to improve their operating performances. These results also show that the improvements of pottery making techniques in different Chinese areas may have their own evolution directions respectively for the different geographical environments. PMID:22242535

  12. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A.; Mwaba, Peter; Mulenga, David; Monze, Mwaka; Songolo, Peter; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Chizema, Elizabeth; Eshetu-Shibeshi, Messeret; Malama, Costantine; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation. PMID:25722614

  13. Mantle origin of the Emeishan large igneous province from an analysis of residual gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Mooney, W. D.; Fan, W.; Zhong, Q.; Badal, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is the only verified large igneous province in China. It covers an area of 250,000 km2 from the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau to the western margin of the Yangtze block. Most studies on ELIP are from geochemistry and tectonics, but the deep origin of the ELIP is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the residual gravity anomaly in South China and its relationship to the Emeishan large igneous province with constrains of lithospheric structure from deep seismic sounding profiles, deep seismic reflection surveys, and a variety of broadband seismic observations acquired in South China in the last several decades. Our working scheme consists of removing the respective gravitational effects due to: (1) the sediments, and undulations of the (2) crystalline basement, (3) upper crust; (4) Moho and (5) lithospheric thickness. We have thus obtained the residual gravity anomaly of the ELIP and surrounding region, striking positive residual anomaly with maximum value of 140 mGal is observed at the ELIP region. We use the conjugate gradient method to locate the deep origins of the residual gravity data. As a result, our preferred model consists of a positive cylindrical density anomaly that provides a fit to the residual gravity anomaly observed in ELIP. As the distance increases from the inner zone of the ELIP to the outer zone, the positive residual gravity decreases. Hence, in our model, the density anomaly decreases from about 0.06 g/cm3 beneath the inner zone to about 0.03 g/cm3 beneath the outer zone. The residual gravity and our preferred density anomaly provide new evidence, along with the seismic data and geochemical data, to confirm the domal structure of the Permian mantle plume that gave rise to the Emenshan Large Igneous Province.

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Four West Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Four geologic provinces located along the northwest and west-central coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 71.7 billion barrels of oil, 187.2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10.9 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  19. Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Hadi; Borji, Moslem; Khosravi, Hassan; Mesbahzadeh, Tayebeh

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been identified as a leading human and environmental crisis of the twenty-first century. Drylands throughout the world have always undergone periods of degradation due to naturally occurring fluctuation in climate. Persistence of widespread degradation in arid and semiarid regions of Iran necessitates monitoring and evaluation. This paper aims to monitor the desertification trend in three types of land use, including range, forest and desert, affected by climate change in Tehran province for the 2000s and 2030s. For assessing climate change at Mehrabad synoptic station, the data of two emission scenarios, including A2 and B2, were used, utilizing statistical downscaling techniques and data generated by the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). The index of net primary production (NPP) resulting from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images was employed as an indicator of destruction from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that temperature is the most significant driving force which alters the net primary production in rangeland, forest and desert land use in Tehran province. On the basis of monitoring findings under real conditions, in the 2000s, over 60 % of rangelands and 80 % of the forest were below the average production in the province. On the other hand, the long-term average changes of NPP in the rangeland and forests indicated the presence of relatively large areas of these land uses with a production rate lower than the desert. The results also showed that, assuming the existence of circumstances of each emission scenarios, the desertification status will not improve significantly in the rangelands and forests of Tehran province.

  20. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  1. Evolution of hepatitis B virus surface gene and protein among Iranian chronic carriers from different provinces

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Fatemeh; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Sadeghi, Ahmadreza; Khedive, Abolfazl; Ghalichi, Leila; Norouzi, Mehdi; Karimzadeh, Hadi; Malekzadeh, Reza; Montazeri, Ghodrat; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Ziaee, Masood; Abedi, Farshid; Ataei, Behrooz; Yaran, Majid; Sayad, Babak; Somi, Mohamad Hosein; Sarizadeh, Gholamreza; Sanei-Moghaddam, Ismail; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Keyvani, Hossein; Kalantari, Ebrahim; Saberfiroozi, Mehdi; Rezaee, Reza; Daram, Maryam; Mahabadi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Zahra; Poortahmasebi, Vahdat; Geravand, Babak; Khamseh, Azam; Mahmoodi, Masoud; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Iranian chronic HBV carrier's population has shown a unique pattern of genotype D distribution all around the country. The aim of this study was to explore more details of evolutionary history of carriers based on structural surface proteins from different provinces. Materials and Methods: Sera obtained from 360 isolates from 12 Different regions of country were used for amplification and sequencing of surface proteins. A detailed mutational analysis was undertaken. Results: The total ratio for Missense/Silent nucleotide substitutions was 0.96. Sistan and Kermanshah showed the lowest rate of evolution between provinces (P = 0.055). On the other hand, Khorasan Razavi and Khoozestan contained the highest ratio (P = 0.055). The rest of regions were laid between these two extremes. Azarbayjan and Guilan showed the highest proportion of immune epitope distribution (91.3% and 96%, respectively). Conversely, Sistan and Tehran harbored the least percentage (66.6% and 68.8%, respectively). Kermanshah province contained only 5.2%, whereas Isfahan had 54.5% of B cell epitope distribution. In terms of T helper epitopes, all provinces showed a somehow homogeneity: 22.58% (Fars) to 46.6% (Khuzestan). On the other hand, distribution of substitutions within the CTL epitopes showed a wide range of variation between 6.6% (Khuzestan) and 63% (Kermanshah). Conclusion: Further to low selection pressure found in Iranian population, the variations between different regions designate random genetic drift within the surface proteins. These finding would have some applications in terms of specific antiviral regimen, design of more efficient vaccine and public health issues. PMID:26697161

  2. Paleoproterozoic metamorphism in the northern Wyoming province: Implications for the assembly of Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Burger, H.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Brady, J.B.; Cheney, J.T.; Hamrs, T.A.; Heatherington, A.L.; Mogk, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    U-Pb ages measured on zircons from the Tobacco Root Mountains and monazite from the Highland Mountains indicate that the northwestern Wyoming province experienced an episode of high-grade metamorphism at ???1.77 Ga. Leucosome emplaced in Archean gneisses from the Tobacco Root Mountains contains a distinctive population of zircons with an age of 1.77 Ga but also contains zircons to ???3.5 Ga; it is interpreted to have been derived primarily by anatexis of nearby Archean schist. A granulite facies mafic dike that cuts across Archean gneissic banding in the Tobacco Root Mountains contains two distinct populations of zircons. A group of small (<50 ??m) nonprismatic grains is interpreted to be metamorphic and yields an age of 1.76 Ga; a group of slightly larger prismatic grains yields an age of 2.06 Ga, which is interpreted to be the time of crystallization of the dike. Monazite from a leucogranite from the Highland Mountains yields a well-defined age of 1.77 Ga, which is interpreted as the time of partial melting and emplacement of the leucogranite. These results suggest that the northwestern Wyoming province, which largely lies within the western part of the Great Falls tectonic zone, experienced a metamorphic maximum at 1.77 Ga. This age is ???100 m.yr. younger than the proposed time of Wyoming-Hearne collision in the central Great Falls tectonic zone (1.86 Ga) and suggests that the northwestern Wyoming province may have been involved in a separate, younger collisional event at ???1.77 Ga. An event at this time is essentially coeval with collisions proposed for the eastern and southeastern margins of the province and suggests a multiepisodic model for the incorporation of the Wyoming craton into Laurentia. ?? 2005 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West African Costal Province, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The West African Coastal Province along the west African coastline recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's USGS World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 3.2 billion barrels of oil, 23.63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 721 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Review of the NURE Assessment of the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Susan M.

    2013-09-15

    Historic exploration and development were used to evaluate the reliability of domestic uranium reserves and potential resources estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province. NURE estimated 87 million pounds of reserves in the $30/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} cost category in the Coast Plain uranium resource region, most in the Gulf Coast Uranium Province. Since NURE, 40 million pounds of reserves have been mined, and 38 million pounds are estimated to remain in place as of 2012, accounting for all but 9 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the reserve or production categories in the NURE estimate. Considering the complexities and uncertainties of the analysis, this study indicates that the NURE reserve estimates for the province were accurate. An unconditional potential resource of 1.4 billion pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, 600 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the forward cost category of $30/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1980 prices), was estimated in 106 favorable areas by the NURE program in the province. Removing potential resources from the non-productive Houston embayment, and those reserves estimated below historic and current mining depths reduces the unconditional potential resource 33% to about 930 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and that in the $30/lb cost category 34% to 399 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Based on production records and reserve estimates tabulated for the region, most of the production since 1980 is likely from the reserves identified by NURE. The potential resource predicted by NURE has not been developed, likely due to a variety of factors related to the low uranium prices that have prevailed since 1980.

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Hydrocarbon Resources of the Western Oregon and Washington Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 2.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas and 15 million barrels of oil (MMBO) in the Western Oregon and Washington Province. More than 67 percent, or 1.5 TCF, of the undiscovered natural gas is continuous gas estimated to be coalbed gas in Tertiary coals in western Oregon and Washington.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 2.4 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas in the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province. More than 90 percent, or 2.1 TCF, of the estimated undiscovered natural gas is continuous gas estimated to be trapped in Tertiary rocks overlain by the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Waterfowl-Origin Tembusu Virus Strains Isolated in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Xin; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Ti, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuhui

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation. PMID:24356821

  8. Population genetics of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and asymptomatic malaria in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Temotu Province, Solomon Islands is progressing toward malaria elimination. A baseline survey conducted in 2008 showed that most Plasmodium infections in the province were of low parasite density and asymptomatic infections. To better understand mechanisms underlying these malaria transmission characteristics genetic diversity and relationships among Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax populations in the province were examined. Methods Forty-five P. falciparum and 67 P. vivax samples collected in the 2008 baseline survey were successfully genotyped using eight P. falciparum and seven P. vivax microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity, relationships and distribution of both P. falciparum and P. vivax populations were analysed. Results Plasmodium falciparum population exhibited low diversity with 19 haplotypes identified and had closely related clusters indicating clonal expansion. Interestingly, a dominant haplotype was significantly associated with fever and high parasite density. In contrast, the P. vivax population was highly diverse with 58 haplotypes identified that were not closely related. Parasite populations between different islands in the province showed low genetic differentiation. Conclusion The low diversity and clonal population of P. falciparum population may partially account for clinical immunity developed against illness. However, it is possible that importation of a new P. falciparum strain was the major cause of illness. High diversity in P. vivax population and low relatedness between strains suggested clinical immunity to P. vivax may be maintained by different mechanisms. The genetic diversity, population structure and distribution of strains indicate that transmission of P. falciparum was low, but that of P. vivax was still high in 2008. These data will be useful for assessing changes in malaria transmission resulting from interventions. PMID:24261646

  9. Surname sampling for the study of the genetic structure of an Italian province.

    PubMed

    Guglielmino, C R; De Silvestri, A

    1995-08-01

    Italian provinces may constitute a basic geographic unit that is big enough to be genetically structured but small enough to be analyzed intensively. In the present study surnames starting with three different letters of the alphabet were sampled from the telephone directory and used as a relatively simple and efficient way to cast light on the genetic and demographic pattern of the province and to prove the sampling efficiency. The 189 communes of the province of Pavia were grouped into 13 subregions composed of geographically clustered communes, and the relationships among them were examined using principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The three samples show a concordant pattern: The Po and Ticino rivers are geographic barriers and subdivide the province into three regions (Lomellina, Pavese, and Oltrepó), which therefore appear to be genetifally differentiated. Both PCA and cluster analysis indicate that the main division is between the Oltrepó and the Pavese-Lomellina clusters and that it corresponds to the separation created by the Po River. The second split separates Lomellina from Pavese and thus parallels the Ticino River. The Lomellina subregions are more clustered than those of Pavese or Oltrepó. Furthermore, Lomellina has the highest number of surnames that are found only in a single area. This finding is possible due to endogamy dating back to an ancient border (valid until 1860) that separated Lomellina from the rest of Lombardy. Furthermore, Lomellina shows the highest frequency of surnames present only in one of the 13 subregions and the lowest percentage of unique surnames; both facts may describe genetic isolation of the area. A correlation is also seen between the percentage of surnames present only once in each of the 13 subregions and the census immigration rate: Both indicate the tendency of reduced immigration into the bigger towns. Particular discordances between the two estimates may reflect local or tourism

  10. Drought monitoring of Shandong province in late 2010 using data acquired by Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingzhi; Huang, He; Liu, Suihua; Yan, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Drought has been a frequently happened type of disaster in China, and it has caused massive losses to people's lives. Especially the drought happened in Shandong province in the late 2010, which was recognized as the severest in the past five hundred years in some areas. Evaluation must be done in order to make proper rescue plans. Instead of collecting data site by site, remote sensing is an efficient way to acquire data in a large area, which is very helpful for drought identification. Some normal ways in remote sensing for drought analysis are explained and compared in this paper, and then the VSWI method is chosen to evaluation the drought in Shandong province. Because of its free data policy and wide availability, the data sets acquired by Terra-MODIS are chosen to identify the drought severity in Shandong province. From the drought severity level images we can see that almost the whole area of Shandong province was lack of water except the Weishan Lake and eastern coastline regions where large area of water exists. The southwest region, including Heze and Jining, is in moderate drought condition, where it is used to be an important grain-producing area. This drought condition will inevitably put a negative effect on its grain production. The central and southern areas were in severe drought condition, but fortunately these areas are of hills and mountains, so the drought will only affect the lives of residents. The northern parts, including Dezhou and Bingzhou areas, were also in severe drought condition, and these regions are also important for grain-producing, so the severe drought disaster will lead to a sharp grain output cut. This analysis results will not only shed light on the rescue process, but also give the government some clues on how to maintain the grain supply safety.

  11. Chaco ansilta new species from Mendoza province, Western Argentina (Araneae: Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Nelson

    2014-11-14

    A new species of Chaco Tullgren, 1905 is described and illustrated from the Andean foothills of Mendoza province, western Argentina. This is the tenth species of the genus and the first record of Chaco in Mendoza. An updated key is presented for all Chaco species. The cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix resulted in the consensus tree: (C. obscura, C. tucumana, C. castanea, (C. socos + C. tigre) (C. tecka (C. sanjuanina (C. Patagonia + C. ansilta sp. nov.)))). PMID:25409765

  12. Chaco ansilta new species from Mendoza province, Western Argentina (Araneae: Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Nelson

    2014-12-01

    A new species of Chaco Tullgren, 1905 is described and illustrated from the Andean foothills of Mendoza province, western Argentina. This is the tenth species of the genus and the first record of Chaco in Mendoza. An updated key is presented for all Chaco species. The cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix resulted in the consensus tree: (C. obscura, C. tucumana, C. castanea, (C. socos + C. tigre) (C. tecka (C. sanjuanina (C. Patagonia + C. ansilta sp. nov.)))). PMID:25590724

  13. [Cloning and analysis of the complete genomes of pigeon circovirus from Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xu-Ping; Zhu, Chun; Zheng, Xin-Tian; Mu, An-Xiong; Yu, Hong-Tao

    2009-09-01

    Pigeon circovrius (PiCV) is a member of circovirus, which is usually regarded as an immunosuppression agent. There were reports that pigeons infected by PiCV showed symptoms of lethargy, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, respiratory distress, etc. In this study, we established a PCR method for the detection of PiCV DNA. Samples from 5 different farms in Zhejiang Province were examined and samples from a farm in Hangzhou were positive. Furthermore, the genomic segments of 2 strains of PiCV were amplified, cloned and sequenced using designed primers and the complete genomes of the strains were then assembled and named as PiCV-zj1 and PiCV-zj2, respectively. The sequences were deposited in GenBank under the GenBank Accession number of DQ090945 and DQ090944, respectively. Sequence Analysis had shown that the complete genomes of 2 strains of PiCV from Zhejiang Province had 2 039 nucleotides totally in length and common characters of circovirus such as a stem-loop structure and conserved motifs for Rep protein, which were supposed to be related to the replication of the virus. Pairwise comparisons showed that the nucleotide sequence of the genome of PiCV strains from Zhejiang Province had 86%-89.1% identities to that of 11 published PiCV strains, and that the amino acid identities of the replication-associated protein (Rep) and capsid protein (Cap) displayed 92.1%-94.7% and 76.6%-81.4%, respectively. A phylogenic tree was built using PHYLIP with bootstrap support for 1 000 replicates. The result showed that 10 strains from Europe and America formed one big branch and the others from Zhejiang Province and Australia formed the other two, respectively. This was the first report on the detection and full genome sequencing of PiCV in China. PMID:19954112

  14. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  15. Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma and Asbestos Exposure in the North Western Cape Province

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J. C.; Sleggs, C. A.; Marchand, Paul

    1960-01-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the pleura are uncommon. Thirty-three cases (22 males, 11 females, ages 31 to 68) of diffuse pleural mesothelioma are described; all but one have a probable exposure to crocidolite asbestos (Cape blue). In a majority this exposure was in the Asbestos Hills which lie to the west of Kimberley in the north west of Cape Province. The tumour is rarely seen elsewhere in South Africa. Images PMID:13782506

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  17. Geographical clustering of lung cancer in the province of Lecce, Italy: 1992–2001

    PubMed Central

    Bilancia, Massimo; Fedespina, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Background The triennial mortality rates for lung cancer in the two decades 1981–2001 in the province of Lecce, Italy, are significantly higher than those for the entire region of Apulia (to which the Province of Lecce belongs) and the national reference rates. Moreover, analyzing the rates in the three-year periods 1993–95, 1996–98 and 1999–01, there is a dramatic increase in mortality for both males and females, which still remains essentially unexplained: to understand the extent of this phenomenon, it is worth noting that the standardized mortality rate for males in 1999–01 is equal to 13.92 per 10000 person-years, compared to a value of 6.96 for Italy in the 2000–2002 period. These data have generated a considerable concern in the press and public opinion, which with little scientific reasoning have sometimes identified suspected culprits of the risk excess (for example, the emission caused by a number of large industrial sites located in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto, bordering the Province of Lecce). The objective of this paper is to study on a scientifically sound basis the spatial distribution of risk for lung cancer mortality in the province of Lecce. Our goal is to demonstrate that most of the previous explanations are not supported by data: to this end, we will follow a hybrid approach that combines both frequentist and Bayesian disease mapping methods. Furthermore, we define a new sequential algorithm based on a modified version of the Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model, suitably modified to detect geographical clusters of disease. Results Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer in the province of Lecce: For males, the relative risk (measured by means of SMR, i.e. the ratio between observed and expected cases in each area under internal standardization) was judged to be significantly greater than 1 in many municipal areas, the significance being evaluated under the null hypothesis of neutral risk on the ground of area

  18. Prediction and Control of Brucellosis Transmission of Dairy Cattle in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963

  19. Characterization of 2014 summer drought over Henan province using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jing; Jia, Li; Zhou, Jie

    2015-12-01

    An exceptional drought struck Henan province during the summer of 2014. It caused directly the financial loss reaching to hundreds of billion Yuan (RMB), and brought the adverse influence for people's life, agricultural production as well as the ecosystem. The study in this paper characterized the Henan 2014 summer drought event through analyzing the spatial distribution of drought severity using precipitation data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor and Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. The trend analysis of the annual precipitation from 2003 to 2014 showed that the region over Henan province is becoming dry. Especially in the east of Henan province, the decrease of precipitation is more obvious with the maximum change rate of ~48 mm/year. The rainfall in summer (from June to August) of 2014 was the largest negtive anomaly in contrast with the same period of historical years, which was 43% lower than the average of the past ten years. Drought severity derived from Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) indicated that all areas of Henan province experienced drought in summer of 2014 with different severity levels. The extreme drought, accounting for about 22.7 % of Henan total area, mainly occurred in Luohe, Xuchang, and Pingdingshan regions, and partly in Nanyang, Zhengzhou, and Jiaozuo. This is consistent with the statistics from local municipalities. The Normalized Drought Index Anomaly (NDAI), calculated from MODIS NDVI and LST products, can capture the evolution of the Henan 2014 summer drought effectively. Drought severity classified by NDAI also agreed well with the result from the SPI.

  20. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.