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Sample records for jet opening angles

  1. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  2. Evolution of the Jet Opening Angle Distribution in Holographic Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sadofyev, Andrey V.; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-05-01

    We use holography to analyze the evolution of an ensemble of jets, with an initial probability distribution for their energy and opening angle as in proton-proton (p p ) collisions, as they propagate through an expanding cooling droplet of strongly coupled plasma as in heavy ion collisions. We identify two competing effects: (i) each individual jet widens as it propagates and (ii) because wide-angle jets lose more energy, energy loss combined with the steeply falling perturbative spectrum serves to filter wide jets out of the ensemble at any given energy. Even though every jet widens, jets with a given energy can have a smaller mean opening angle after passage through the plasma than jets with that energy would have had in vacuum, as experimental data may indicate.

  3. Evolution of the Jet Opening Angle Distribution in Holographic Plasma.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sadofyev, Andrey V; van der Schee, Wilke

    2016-05-27

    We use holography to analyze the evolution of an ensemble of jets, with an initial probability distribution for their energy and opening angle as in proton-proton (pp) collisions, as they propagate through an expanding cooling droplet of strongly coupled plasma as in heavy ion collisions. We identify two competing effects: (i) each individual jet widens as it propagates and (ii) because wide-angle jets lose more energy, energy loss combined with the steeply falling perturbative spectrum serves to filter wide jets out of the ensemble at any given energy. Even though every jet widens, jets with a given energy can have a smaller mean opening angle after passage through the plasma than jets with that energy would have had in vacuum, as experimental data may indicate. PMID:27284647

  4. On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in {N} = 4 SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dE jet /dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dE jet /dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that {N} = 4 SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the {N} = 4 SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. We close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.

  5. Estimating Long GRB Jet Opening Angles and Rest-Frame Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Adam; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael Stephen; Burns, Eric

    2016-04-01

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  6. Estimating Long GRB Jet Opening Angles and Rest-frame Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Adam; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  7. Estimating Long GRB Jet Opening Angles and Rest-Frame Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Adam; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Burns, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. We also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. A.G. is funded by the NASA Postdoctoral Program through USRA.

  8. The faster the narrower: characteristic bulk velocities and jet opening angles of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Nava, L.; Burlon, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Melandri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The jet opening angle θjet and the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 are crucial parameters for the computation of the energetics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). From the ˜30 GRBs with measured θjet or Γ0 it is known that (i) the real energetic Eγ, obtained by correcting the isotropic equivalent energy Eiso for the collimation factor ˜ θ2jet, is clustered around 1050-1051 erg and it is correlated with the peak energy Ep of the prompt emission and (ii) the comoving frame E'p and E'γ are clustered around typical values. Current estimates of Γ0 and θjet are based on incomplete data samples and their observed distributions could be subject to biases. Through a population synthesis code we investigate whether different assumed intrinsic distributions of Γ0 and θjet can reproduce a set of observational constraints. Assuming that all bursts have the same E'p and E'γ in the comoving frame, we find that Γ0 and θjet cannot be distributed as single power laws. The best agreement between our simulation and the available data is obtained assuming (a) log-normal distributions for θjet and Γ0 and (b) an intrinsic relation between the peak values of their distributions, i.e. θjet2.5Γ0 = const. On average, larger values of Γ0 (i.e. the `faster' bursts) correspond to smaller values of θjet (i.e. the `narrower'). We predict that ˜6 per cent of the bursts that point to us should not show any jet break in their afterglow light curve since they have sin θjet < 1/Γ0. Finally, we estimate that the local rate of GRBs is ˜0.3 per cent of all local Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) and ˜4.3 per cent of local hypernovae, i.e. SNIb/c with broad lines.

  9. Physics and evolution of constant opening angle jets using a quasi-one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koupelis, Theodoros

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the significance of the assumptions of infinite conductivity and time independence in the context of an ideal MHD model for constant opening angle jets. The model is developed by projecting the MHD equations onto the jet axis. We find that for initially sub-Alfvenic flows (i.e., flows emanating from active galactic nuclei and neutron stars) wind-type solutions exist only when the field lines at the origin are wound up in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the compact source. We discuss the possibility that the time evolution of these outflows may be a cycle between breeze- and wind-type solutions as a result of continuous changes in the boundary conditions at the origin due to accretion. We propose that such cycles may explain the apparent one-sideness of some jets, especially the ones for which we cannot use arguments of relativistic beaming. We examine the dependence of the wind-type solutions on the following parameters describing the outflow at the origin: the degree of winding of the field lines, the value of the gas pressure, the polytropic index, the strength of the magnetic field, the value of the rotational velocity, the gravitational potential of the compact object, and the injection velocity. We compare results with results obtained previously, and discuss briefly the qualitative features and physical interpretation of the solutions for outflows emanating from neutron stars and protostars.

  10. SELECTION EFFECTS ON THE OBSERVED REDSHIFT DEPENDENCE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST JET OPENING ANGLES

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Ruijing; Wei Junjie; Liang Enwei; Qin Shufu

    2012-02-01

    An apparent redshift dependence of the jet opening angles ({theta}{sub j}) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is observed from the current GRB sample. We investigate whether this dependence can be explained with instrumental selection effects and observational biases by a bootstrapping method. Assuming that (1) the GRB rate follows the star formation history and the cosmic metallicity history and (2) the intrinsic distributions of the jet-corrected luminosity (L{sub {gamma}}) and {theta}{sub j} are a Gaussian or a power-law function, we generate a mock Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample by considering various instrumental selection effects, including the flux threshold and the trigger probability of BAT, the probabilities of a GRB jet pointing to the instrument solid angle, and the probability of redshift measurement. Our results reproduce the observed {theta}{sub j} - z dependence well. We find that in the case of L{sub {gamma}}{proportional_to}{theta}{sup 2}{sub j} good consistency between the mock and observed samples can be obtained, indicating that both L{sub {gamma}} and {theta}{sub j} are degenerate for a flux-limited sample. The parameter set (L{sub {gamma}}, {theta}{sub j}) = (4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg s{sup -1}, 0.054 rad) gives the best consistency for the current Swift GRB sample. Considering the beaming effect, the derived intrinsic local GRB rate is accordingly 2.85 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} Gpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1}, inferring that {approx}0.59% of Type Ib/c supernovae may be accompanied by a GRB.

  11. A Decade of Short-duration Gamma-Ray Burst Broadband Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and Jet Opening Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive catalog and analysis of broadband afterglow observations for 103 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comprised of all short GRBs from 2004 November to 2015 March with prompt follow-up observations in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared (NIR), and/or radio bands. These afterglow observations have uncovered 71 X-ray detections, 30 optical/NIR detections, and 4 radio detections. Employing the standard afterglow synchrotron model, we perform joint probability analyses for a subset of 38 short GRBs with well-sampled light curves to infer the burst isotropic-equivalent energies and circumburst densities. For this subset, we find median isotropic-equivalent γ-ray and kinetic energies of Eγ,iso ≈ 2 × 1051 erg, and EK,iso ≈ (1-3) × 1051 erg, respectively, depending on the values of the model input parameters. We further find that short GRBs occur in low-density environments, with a median density of n ≈ (3-15) × 10-3 cm-3, and that ≈80%-95% of bursts have densities of n ≲ 1 cm-3. We investigate trends between the circumburst densities and host galaxy properties, and find that events located at large projected offsets of ≳10 effective radii from their hosts exhibit particularly low densities of n ≲ 10-4 cm-3, consistent with an intergalactic medium-like environment. Using late-time afterglow data for 11 events, we find a median jet opening angle of θj = 16 ± 10°. We also calculate a median beaming factor of fb ≈ 0.04, leading to a beaming-corrected total energy release of Etrue ≈ 1.6 × 1050 erg. Furthermore, we calculate a beaming-corrected event rate of {{R}}{{true}}={270}-180+1580 Gpc-3 yr-1, or ≈ {8}-5+47 yr-1 within a 200 Mpc volume, the Advanced LIGO/Virgo typical detection distance for NS-NS binaries.

  12. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Jet angles and gamma-ray energetics estimations (Goldstein+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Burns, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies. (1 data file).

  14. Chronic open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adatia, Feisal A.; Damji, Karim F.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, including in Canada. It presents a challenge in diagnosis, as disease often progresses without symptoms; an estimated 50% of cases are undetected. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE searches, reference lists of articles, and expert knowledge from one of the authors (K.F.D.), a glaucoma specialist, were used. MAIN MESSAGE A casefinding approach using early referral to optometrists and ophthalmologists for early detection of COAG is helpful for patients with risk factors such as age above 50, a positive family history, black race, and myopia. Moderate evidence for referral also exists for the following risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and sleep apnea. Treatment with intraocular pressure–lowering medication can arrest or slow the course of the disease, permitting patients to retain good visual function. Family physicians should be aware that some intraocular pressure–lowering medications, particularly topical beta-blockers, can pose iatrogenic harm to patients and result in or exacerbate such conditions as asthma, cardiovascular disturbances, depression, and sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION Appropriate referral patterns and an understanding of common as well as serious side effects of glaucoma medications are important in optimizing management of patients at risk of developing, or who have, COAG. PMID:16190176

  15. [Screening in open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen; Mocanu, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) represents the second cause of mondial cecity, after retinal diabetes complications, with extremely severe implications in quality of life. Screening testing for glaucoma is justified, because only the diagnosis in very incipient stage will preserve the visual function; any treatment will not assure the reversibility of pre-existent optic nerve lesions. Screening of glaucoma, will take into a consideration the costs, the time of investigation, the adverse effects, and the sensitivity and specificity of tests; the last parameter also will strongly influence the positive predictive value. An ideal screening identifies all subjects that present the disease (sensitivity) and will exclude all healthy subjects (specificity). In this moment, in Dolj district, the diagnosis is based on active diagnosis of new cases of glaucoma on the high risk level population, therefore in a 210000 habitants. 4723 patients with glaucoma are diagnosed, screened and follow-up on medical cabinets and on Center of Glaucoma, which coordinates their activity. To better monitored patients, automatized programs with acquisition and storage for different types of medical imaging facilities had become indispensable to any routine practice. PMID:23755511

  16. Turbulent Mixing of an Angled Jet in Various Mainstream Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kevin; Coletti, Filippo; Elkins, Christopher; Eaton, John

    2013-11-01

    The angled jet in crossflow has been studied in detail with specific emphasis on the turbulent mixing of the jet fluid with the mainstream flow. The interaction of the upstream boundary layer with the jet shear layer results in complex vortex patterns that cause large mean distortion of the jet and rapid turbulent mixing. Most previous studies have been conducted in flat plate flows with little attention paid to the characteristics of the boundary layer. The present study examines the effect of mainstream geometric changes on the jet trajectory, counter-rotating vortex pair strength, and turbulent mixing. Seven cases were examined including flat plate boundary layers with three different thicknesses, adverse and favorable pressure gradient cases, and flows with concave and convex streamwise curvature. Full field, 3D mean velocity and scalar concentration fields were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in a water flow. The distortion of the streamtube initiated at the hole exit was examined for each of the seven cases. The degree of mixing was quantified by measuring the amount of mainstream fluid entrained into the jet as well as the turbulent diffusivity as a function of streamwise position.

  17. Linkage studies in primary open angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Avramopoulos, D.; Grigoriadu, M.; Kitsos, G.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The majority of glaucoma is associated with an open, normal appearing anterior chamber angle and is termed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, MIM 137760). It is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and onset in middle age or later. A subset of POAG with juvenile onset has recently been linked to chromosome 1q in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven pedigrees with autosomal dominant POG (non-juvenile-onset) have been identified in Epirus, Greece. In the present study DNA samples have been collected from 50 individuals from one large pedigree, including 12 affected individuals. Preliminary results of linkage analysis with chromosome 1 microsatellites using the computer program package LINKAGE Version 5.1 showed no linkage with the markers previously linked to juvenile-onset POAG. Further linkage analysis is being pursued, and the results will be presented.

  18. Sound Radiation from a Supersonic Jet Passing Through a Partially Open Exhaust Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    The radiation of sound from a perfectly expanded Mach 2.5 cold supersonic jet of 25.4 mm exit diameter flowing through a partially open rigid-walled duct with an upstream i-deflector has been studied experimentally. In the experiments, the nozzle is mounted vertically, with the nozzle exit plane at a height of 73 jet diameters above ground level. Relative to the nozzle exit plane (NEP), the location of the duct inlet is varied at 10, 5, and -1 jet diameters. Far-field sound pressure levels were obtained at 54 jet diameters above ground with the aid of acoustic sensors equally spaced around a circular arc of radius equal to 80 jet diameters from the jet axis. Data on the jet acoustic field for the partially open duct were obtained and compared with those with a free jet and with a closed duct. The results suggest that for the partially open duct the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) decreases as the distance between the NEP and the duct inlet plane decreases, while the opposite trend is observed for the closed duct. It is also concluded that the observed peak frequency in the partially open duct increases above the free jet value as the angle from the duct axis is increased, and as the duct inlet plane becomes closer to the NEP.

  19. Experimental Determination of Jet Boundary Corrections for Airfoil Tests in Four Open Wind Tunnel Jets of Different Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Harris, Thomas A

    1931-01-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted primarily for the purpose of obtaining a method of correcting to free air conditions the results of airfoil force tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes. Tests were also made to determine whether the jet boundaries had any appreciable effect on the pitching moments of a complete airplane model. Satisfactory corrections for the effect of the boundaries of the various jets were obtained for all the airfoils tested, the span of the largest being 0.75 of the jet width. The corrections for angle of attack were, in general, larger than those for drag. The boundaries had no appreciable effect on the pitching moments of either the airfoils or the complete airplane model. Increasing turbulence appeared to increase the minimum drag and maximum lift and to decrease the pitching moment.

  20. Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

  1. Contact Angle Influence on Geysering Jets in Microgravity Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity poses many challenges to the designer of spacecraft tanks. Chief among these are the lack of phase separation and the need to supply vapor-free liquid or liquid-free vapor to the spacecraft processes that require fluid. One of the principal problems of phase separation is the creation of liquid jets. A jet can be created by liquid filling, settling of the fluid to one end of the tank, or even closing a valve to stop the liquid flow. Anyone who has seen a fountain knows that jets occur in normal gravity also. However, in normal gravity, the gravity controls and restricts the jet flow. In microgravity, with gravity largely absent, surface tension forces must be used to contain jets. To model this phenomenon, a numerical method that tracks the fluid motion and the surface tension forces is required. Jacqmin has developed a phase model that converts the discrete surface tension force into a barrier function that peaks at the free surface and decays rapidly away. Previous attempts at this formulation were criticized for smearing the interface. This can be overcome by sharpening the phase function, double gridding the fluid function, and using a higher-order solution for the fluid function. The solution of this equation can be rewritten as two coupled Poisson equations that also include the velocity.

  2. The impingement of sonic and sub-sonic jets onto a flat plate at inclined angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crafton, Jimmy Wayne

    The flow field associated with a jet impinging onto a surface at an inclined angle is investigated using the image-based technologies of Temperature- and Pressure-Sensitive Paints and Particle Image Velocimetry. These diagnostics are used to produce two-dimensional measurements of temperature, Nusselt number, and pressure on the impingement surface and two-components of velocity above the surface. In the process of measuring Nusselt number a novel technique for determining the adiabatic wall temperature has been developed. This image-based technique was used to measure the adiabatic wall temperature on the impingement surface beneath both compressible and incompressible jets. The results of this investigation indicate that as a free jet impinges on a flat surface at an inclined angle the jet is turned by and spread laterally onto the impingement surface. The impingement angle of the jet is the dominant parameter in determining the rate of turning/spreading for the jet. Qualitatively, the structure of the half maximum pressure contour on the impingement surface is similar to an ellipse created by projecting the nozzle through the impingement surface. The center of the ellipse is located near the location of maximum pressure and the eccentricity is a function of the impingement angle. The width of the minor axis is just over one jet diameter. The point of maximum pressure, Nusselt number, and the stagnation point are each located upstream of the geometric impingement point, and this location is a strong function of impingement angle. The relative locations of the stagnation point, the point of maximum Nusselt number, the point of maximum pressure, and the geometric impingement point are identified and a simple correlation for the location of each of these points relative to the geometric impingement point is presented. Finally, the maximum value of both pressure and Nusselt number are found to be a function of impingement distance and impingement angle.

  3. Velocity field of a round jet in a cross flow for various jet injection angles and velocity ratios. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A subsonic round jet injected from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was investigated. Velocity and pressure measurements in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet were made for nominal jet injection angles of 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, 90 deg, and 105 deg and for jet/cross flow velocity ratios of four and eight. The velocity measurements were obtained to infer the properties of the vortex pair associated with a jet in a cross flow. Jet centerline and vortex trajectories were determined and fit with an empirical equation that includes the effects of jet injection angle, jet core length, and jet/cross flow velocity ratios.

  4. Removal of Machine Oil from Metal Surface by Mesoplasma Jet under Open Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Haruki; Shiki, Hajime; Tsujii, Kenichi; Oke, Shinichiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Okawa, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shigenobu

    2009-08-01

    An attempt was made to employ the plasma-energized jet (PEN-jet) generated by pulsed arc discharge, one of the atmospheric-pressure mesoplasmas, for removal of machine oil from the surface of electrically-grounded aluminum (Al) alloy substrate under open atmosphere. Three types of nozzle configurations were examined; a metal nozzle, ceramic nozzle, and electrically-floated metal nozzle. Electric input power to the pulsed arc plasma discharge was 700 W constant. First, free-burning of the PEN-jet was observed as a function of air gas flow. When the PEN-jets were irradiated to the clean substrate, the PEN-jet with the metal nozzle caused substrate damage by the arc spot due to transferring arc discharge. Then the PEN-jet with the ceramic nozzle was irradiated to the oily substrate. The adhesion strength of sealant and water contact angle of the treated surface were then measured. As a result, these values of the oily substrate treated by the PEN-jet were almost the same as those of clean substrate. The treated surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and reflectance spectroscopy. Their spectral profiles clearly indicated oil removal from the surface by PEN-jet.

  5. Heat transfer from an open-wedge cavity to a symmetrically impinging slot air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Mazraeh, Adel Etefagh

    2014-08-01

    Heat transfer from an open-wedge cavity to a symmetrically impinging slot air jet is investigated at the present study. The effect of the cavity angle was mainly examined on the Nusselt number distribution. Based on the results, heat transfer was generally poor at the vicinity of the apex, rising to form a maximum at the impingement and then followed by a moderate decline at further distances. The region of maximum heat transfer on the surfaces shifted outward the cavity as the cavity angle was decreased. Also, average Nusselt number over an effective length of the surface remained almost constant and independent of the cavity angle for a specified jet Reynolds number and nozzle-to-apex spacing.

  6. JETS AND WIDE-ANGLE OUTFLOWS IN CEPHEUS E: NEW EVIDENCE FROM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Grave, J. M. C. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: jgrave@astro.up.pt

    2011-11-01

    Outflows and jets are believed to play a crucial role in determining the mass of the central protostar and its planet-forming disk by virtue of their ability to transport energy, mass, and momentum of the surrounding material, and thus terminate the infall stage in star and disk formation. In some protostellar objects both wide-angle outflows and collimated jets are seen, while in others only one is observed. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features. Here, we use HiRes deconvolution to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands) and removing the contaminating sidelobes from bright sources. We apply this approach to study the jet and outflow features in Cep E, a young, energetic Class 0 protostar. In the reprocessed images we detect (1) wide-angle outflow seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details on at least 29 jet-driven bow shocks and jet heads or knots, (3) three compact features in 24 {mu}m continuum image as atomic/ionic line emission coincident with the jet heads, and (4) a flattened {approx}35'' size protostellar envelope seen against the interstellar background polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission as an absorption band across the protostar at 8 {mu}m. By separating the protostellar photospheric scattered emission in the wide-angle cavity from the jet emission we show that we can study directly the scattered light spectrum. We present the H{sub 2} emission line spectra, as observed in all IRAC bands, for 29 knots in the jets and bow shocks and use them in the IRAC color-color space as a diagnostic of the thermal gas in the shocks driven by the jets. The data presented here will enable detailed modeling of the individual shocks retracing the history of the episodic jet activity and the associated accretion on to the protostar. The Spitzer data analysis presented here shows the richness of its

  7. Radio jet propagation and wide-angle tailed radio sources in merging galaxy cluster environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loken, Chris; Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) within merging clusters of galaxies is likely to be in a violent or turbulent dynamical state which may have a significant effect on the evolution of cluster radio sources. We present results from a recent gas + N-body simulation of a cluster merger, suggesting that mergers can result in long-lived, supersonic bulk flows, as well as shocks, within a few hundred kiloparsecs of the core of the dominant cluster. These results have motivated our new two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of jet propagation in such environments. The first set of simulations models the ISM/ICM transition as a contact discontinuity with a strong velocity shear. A supersonic (M(sub j) = 6) jet crossing this discontinuity into an ICM with a transverse, supersonic wind bends continuously, becomes 'naked' on the upwind side, and forms a distended cocoon on the downwind side. In the case of a mildly supersonic jet (M(sub j) = 3), however, a shock is driven into the ISM and ISM material is pulled along with the jet into the ICM. Instabilities excited at the ISM/ICM interface result in the jet repeatedly pinching off and reestablishing itself in a series of 'disconnection events.' The second set of simulations deals with a jet encountering a shock in the merging cluster environment. A series of relatively high-resolution two-dimensional calculations is used to confirm earlier analysis predicting that the jet will not disrupt when the jet Mach number is greater than the shock Mach number. A jet which survives the encounter with the shock will decrease in radius and disrupt shortly thereafter as a result of the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We also find, in disagreement with predictions, that the jet flaring angle decreases with increasing jet density. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of a jet crossing an oblique shock gives rise to a morphology which resembles a wide-angle tailed radio source with the jet flaring at the shock and

  8. Radio jet propagation and wide-angle tailed radio sources in merging galaxy cluster environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loken, Chris; Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael

    1995-05-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) within merging clusters of galaxies is likely to be in a violent or turbulent dynamical state which may have a significant effect on the evolution of cluster radio sources. We present results from a recent gas + N-body simulation of a cluster merger, suggesting that mergers can result in long-lived, supersonic bulk flows, as well as shocks, within a few hundred kiloparsecs of the core of the dominant cluster. These results have motivated our new two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of jet propagation in such environments. The first set of simulations models the ISM/ICM transition as a contact discontinuity with a strong velocity shear. A supersonic (Mj = 6) jet crossing this discontinuity into an ICM with a transverse, supersonic wind bends continuously, becomes 'naked' on the upwind side, and forms a distended cocoon on the downwind side. In the case of a mildly supersonic jet (Mj = 3), however, a shock is driven into the ISM and ISM material is pulled along with the jet into the ICM. Instabilities excited at the ISM/ICM interface result in the jet repeatedly pinching off and reestablishing itself in a series of 'disconnection events.' The second set of simulations deals with a jet encountering a shock in the merging cluster environment. A series of relatively high-resolution two-dimensional calculations is used to confirm earlier analysis predicting that the jet will not disrupt when the jet Mach number is greater than the shock Mach number. A jet which survives the encounter with the shock will decrease in radius and disrupt shortly thereafter as a result of the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We also find, in disagreement with predictions, that the jet flaring angle decreases with increasing jet density. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of a jet crossing an oblique shock gives rise to a morphology which resembles a wide-angle tailed radio source with the jet flaring at the shock and disrupting to form

  9. Mixed convection cooling of a cylinder using slot jet impingement at different circumferential angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderipour, S.; Yousefi, T.; Ashjaee, M.; Naylor, D.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study using Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been carried out to investigate the heat transfer from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder, which is exposed to an air slot jet at different angles of jet impingement. A square edged nozzle is mounted parallel with the cylinder axis and jet flow impinges on the side of the cylinder at angles Θ = 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°. The Reynolds number varied from 240 to 1900 while the Grashof number and slot- to cylinder-spacing is kept constant at Gr = 22,300 and H/w = 7 respectively. The Richardson number varied from 0.006 to 0.4. The flow field is greatly influenced by the slot exit velocity and the buoyancy force due to density change. The local Nusselt number around the cylinder has been calculated using the infinite fringe interferograms at 10° intervals. Average Nusselt number shows that heat transfer is decreased when the angle of jet impingement is increased .

  10. Mixed convection cooling of a cylinder using slot jet impingement at different circumferential angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderipour, S.; Yousefi, T.; Ashjaee, M.; Naylor, D.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental study using Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been carried out to investigate the heat transfer from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder, which is exposed to an air slot jet at different angles of jet impingement. A square edged nozzle is mounted parallel with the cylinder axis and jet flow impinges on the side of the cylinder at angles Θ = 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°. The Reynolds number varied from 240 to 1900 while the Grashof number and slot- to cylinder-spacing is kept constant at Gr = 22,300 and H/w = 7 respectively. The Richardson number varied from 0.006 to 0.4. The flow field is greatly influenced by the slot exit velocity and the buoyancy force due to density change. The local Nusselt number around the cylinder has been calculated using the infinite fringe interferograms at 10° intervals. Average Nusselt number shows that heat transfer is decreased when the angle of jet impingement is increased .

  11. Open Rotor: New Option for Jet Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dale Van Zante describes how the open rotor propulsion system will be tested in a wind tunnel at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Open rotor aircraft engines use high-speed propellers and are c...

  12. AN ANGLE-DEPENDENT SYNCHROTRON SELF-COMPTON MODEL FOR RELATIVISTIC JET SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, O.; Boettcher, M.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the development of a numerical code to calculate the angle-dependent synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton radiation from relativistic jet sources with partially ordered magnetic fields and anisotropic particle distributions. Using a multi-zone radiation transfer approach, we can simulate magnetic-field configurations ranging from perfectly ordered (unidirectional) to randomly oriented (tangled). We demonstrate that synchrotron self-Compton model fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of extragalactic jet sources may be possible with a wide range of magnetic-field values, depending on their orientation with respect to the jet axis and the observer. This is illustrated with the example of a spectral fit to the SED of Mrk 421 from multiwavelength observations in 2006, where acceptable fits are possible with magnetic-field values varying within a range of an order of magnitude for different degrees of B-field alignment and orientation.

  13. PULSAR BINARY BIRTHRATES WITH SPIN-OPENING ANGLE CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Kim, Chunglee E-mail: ckim@astro.lu.s

    2010-05-20

    One ingredient in an empirical birthrate estimate for pulsar binaries is the fraction of sky subtended by the pulsar beam: the pulsar beaming fraction. This fraction depends on both the pulsar's opening angle and the misalignment angle between its spin and magnetic axes. The current estimates for pulsar binary birthrates are based on an average value of beaming fractions for only two pulsars, i.e., PSRs B1913+16 and B1534+12. In this paper, we revisit the observed pulsar binaries to examine the sensitivity of birthrate predictions to different assumptions regarding opening angle and alignment. Based on empirical estimates for the relative likelihood of different beam half-opening angles and misalignment angles between the pulsar rotation and magnetic axes, we calculate an effective beaming correction factor, f{sub b,eff}, whose reciprocal is equivalent to the average fraction of all randomly selected pulsars that point toward us. For those pulsars without any direct beam geometry constraints, we find that f{sub b,eff} is likely to be smaller than 6, a canonically adopted value when calculating birthrates of Galactic pulsar binaries. We calculate f{sub b,eff} for PSRs J0737-3039A and J1141-6545, applying the currently available constraints for their beam geometry. As in previous estimates of the posterior probability density function P(R) for pulsar binary birthrates R, PSRs J0737-3039A and J1141-6545 still significantly contribute to, if not dominate, the Galactic birthrate of tight pulsar-neutron star (NS) and pulsar-white dwarf (WD) binaries, respectively. Our median posterior present-day birthrate predictions for tight PSR-NS binaries, wide PSR-NS binaries, and tight PSR-WD binaries given a preferred pulsar population model and beaming geometry are 89 Myr{sup -1}, 0.5 Myr{sup -1}, and 34 Myr{sup -1}, respectively. For long-lived PSR-NS binaries, these estimates include a weak (x1.6) correction for slowly decaying star formation in the galactic disk. For pulsars

  14. Highly Collimated Jets and Wide-angle Outflows in HH 46/47: New Evidence from Spitzer Infrared Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, William D.; Marsh, Kenneth. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new details of the structure and morphology of the jets and outflows in HH 46/47 as seen in Spitzer infrared images from IRAC and MIPS, reprocessed using the 'HiRes' deconvolution technique. HiRes improves the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources. In addition to sharper views of previously reported bow shocks, we have detected (1) the sharply delineated cavity walls of the wide-angle biconical outflow, seen in scattered light on both sides of the protostar, (2) several very narrow jet features at distances approximately 400 AU to approximately 0.1 pc from the star, and (3) compact emissions at MIPS 24 m with the jet heads, tracing the hottest atomic/ionic gas in the bow shocks. Together the IRAC and MIPS images provide a more complete picture of the bow shocks, tracing both the molecular and atomic/ionic gases, respectively. The narrow width and alignment of all jet-related features indicate a high degree of jet collimation and low divergence (width of approximately 400 AU increasing by only a factor of 2.3 over 0.2 pc). The morphology of this jet, bow shocks, wide-angle outflows, and the fact that the jet is nonprecessing and episodic, constrain the mechanisms for producing the jet's entrained molecular gas, and origins of the fast jet, and slower wide-angle outflow.

  15. Preliminary results for a large angle oblique jet impingement and flow and for the effect of initial conditions on the near field of an axisymmetric jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.; Kleis, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The structure of an axisymmetric jet in the near field is discussed for jet noise and for jet impingment schemes for STOL aircraft. It is inferred from previous studies, and the inference is supported by analysis, that the scale and intensity of the turbulence structure at the jet exit plane are the important boundary conditions which effect the development of the flow in the near field. The techniques to study these effects while maintaining a uniform mean flow and the results which document the range of the initial conditions are presented. The large angle, oblique jet impingment condition is of interest in terms of the jet/flap interaction. Detailed turbulence data can be obtained with the specially constructed facility. The development of the flow and instrumentation system and initial data from the new facility are presented.

  16. Azimuthal angle dependence of di-jet production in unpolarized hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-08-04

    We study the azimuthal asymmetry of back-to-back di-jet production in unpolarized hadron scattering, arising from the product of two Boer-Mulders functions, which describe the transverse spin distribution of quarks inside an unpolarized hadron. We find that there is a cos {delta}{phi} angular dependence of the di-jet, with {delta}{phi} the difference of the azimuthal angle of tow jets respectively. In the case of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production, we find that there is a color factor enhancement in the gluonic cross-section due to the multiple initial-/final-state interactions, compared with the result from the standard generalized parton model. We estimate the cos {delta}{phi} asymmetry of the total di-jet production at RHIC, showing that the color factor enhancement in the azimuthal asymmetric cross section of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production will reverse the sign of the asymmetry.

  17. 193 nm excimer laser sclerostomy in pseudophakic patients with advanced open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, B D; van Saarloos, P P; Cooper, R L; Constable, I J

    1994-01-01

    A modified open mask system incorporating an en face air jet to dry the target area during ablation and a conjunctival plication mechanism, which allows ab externo delivery of the 193 nm excimer laser without prior conjunctival dissection, has been developed to form small bore sclerostomies accurately and atraumatically. Full thickness sclerostomies, and sclerostomies guarded by a smaller internal ostium can be created. A pilot therapeutic trial was conducted in pseudophakic patients with advanced open angle glaucoma. Six full thickness sclerostomies (200 microns and 400 microns diameter) and three guarded sclerostomies were created in nine patients by 193 nm excimer laser ablation (fluence per pulse 400 mJ/cm2, pulse rate 16 Hz, air jet pressure intraocular pressure +25 mm Hg). After 6 months' follow up, intraocular pressure was controlled (< or = 16 mm Hg) in eight of the nine patients (6/9 without medication). Early postoperative complications included hyphaema (trace--2.5 mm) (6/9), temporary fibrinous sclerostomy occlusion (4/9), profound early hypotony (all patients without fibrinous occlusion), and suprachoroidal haemorrhage in one case. Conjunctival laser wounds were self sealing. Small bore laser sclerostomy procedures are functionally equivalent to conventional full thickness procedures, producing early postoperative hypotony, with an increased risk of suprachoroidal haemorrhage in association with this. Further research is required to improve control over internal guarding in excimer laser sclerostomy before clinical trials of this technique can safely proceed. Images PMID:8148335

  18. CFD study of Jet Impingement Test erosion using Ansys Fluent® and OpenFOAM®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro; Nicholls, William; Stickland, Matthew T.; Dempster, William M.

    2015-12-01

    The initial aim of this study was to compare OpenFoam and Ansys Fluent in order to verify OpenFoam's Lagrangian Library and erosion capabilities. However, it was found that previous versions of Fluent have been providing wrong results for the discrete phase and the differences with the latest version (Ansys Fluent 15) are shown. A Submerged Jet Impingement Test is an effective method for studying erosion created by solid particles entrained in a liquid. When considering low particle concentrations a Lagrangian modeling of the particulate phase is a reasonable approach. Proper linkage between OpenFOAM's Lagrangian library and the solver pimpleFoam for incompressible transient flows allows two-phase simulations to be undertaken for comparison with Ansys Fluent with the aim of verifying OpenFoam's accuracy. Steady state convergence for the fluid flow is first accomplished and the results are compared, confirming a good agreement between the two packages. A transient simulation was then set up and spherical particles incorporated into the fluid flow. An assessment of the two codes' discrete phase models was carried out, focusing on the differences between impact angles and velocities yielded at the impingement plate's surface employing a similar strategy to that outlined first by Hattori et al. (2008) and later by Gnanavelu et al. (2009, 2011). In the comparison of OpenFoam with the latest version of Fluent, the main differences between the injection models are highlighted and the coupling possibilities between phases are taken into consideration. Agreement between trends for both impact angles and velocities is satisfactory when the last version of the commercial package is considered and the average discrepancy between numerical values is very low, verifying OpenFoam's Lagrangian library. Two different Jet Impingement Test configurations are also compared and the differences highlighted.

  19. [Open-angle glaucoma clinical presentation and management].

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Y

    2001-12-01

    Both primary open-angle and normal-tension glaucoma belong to an identical spectrum of diseases. Clinical presentations of primary open-angle or high-tension glaucoma (POAG) and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) were studied in an attempt to determine prognostic, clinical factors and define the appropriate management. Clinical data obtained from 826 primary open-angle and normal-tension glaucoma patients were analyzed. In addition, the results of laboratory studies, including the immunological assay of heat shock protein (hsp) and gene analyses which were undertaken to identify risk factors at the molecular level, are discussed. 1. The identified prognostic factors were disk hemorrhage, peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy (PPA), maximum intraocular pressure (IOP), the recovery rate of skin temperature after exposure to cold, family history of glaucoma, systemic systolic channel blood pressure, and oral administration of Ca(2+)-channel antagonists. 2. Disk hemorrhage was observed in 30.5% of NTG patients and 15.4% of POAG patients. Cumulative probability of hemorrhagic events was 16.9% in POAG and 38.4% in NTG patients at the end of a 14.8-year follow-up. 3. The hazard ratio of disk hemorrhage decreased with the increase of IOP(26%/5 mmHg) and was 1.46 times higher in females than in males. Disk hemorrhage was closely associated with PPA: PPA becomes greater in association with the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in both POAG and NTG. No such correlation was noted in primary angle-closure glaucoma. 4. Color Doppler imaging analyses and the hourly determination of ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) indicated a difference in retrobulbar hemodynamics between OPP-mean deviation concordant and OPP-mean deviation discordant patients: a circulatory disturbance causally unrelated to OPP seems to be involved in the OPP-mean deviation discordant patients. 5. The oral administration of Ca(2+)-channel antagonists was shown to favorably influence retrobulbar hemodynamics

  20. Effect of Secondary Jet-flow Angle on Performance of Turbine Inter-guide-vane Burner Based on Jet-vortex Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haifei; Tang, Hao; Xu, Xingya; Li, Ming

    2014-08-01

    Four different secondary airflow angles for the turbine inter-guide-vane burners with trapped vortex cavity were designed. Comparative analysis between combustion performances influenced by the variation of secondary airflow angle was carried out by using numerical simulation method. The turbulence was modeled using the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model. Four cases with different secondary jet-flow angles (-45°, 0°, 30°, 60°) were studied. It was observed that the case with secondary jet-flows at 60° angle directed upwards (1) has good mixing effect; (2) mixing effect is the best although the flow field distributions inside both of the cavity and the main flow passage for the four models are very similar; (3) has complete combustion and symmetric temperature distribution on the exit section of guide vane (X = 70 mm), with uniform temperature distribution, less temperature gradient, and shrank local high temperature regions in the notch located on the guide vane.

  1. Air jet erosion test on plasma sprayed surface by varying erodent impingement pressure and impingement angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Ajit; Behera, Asit; Mishra, S. C.; Pani, S.; Parida, P.

    2015-02-01

    Fly-ash premixed with quartz and illmenite powder in different weight proportions are thermal sprayed on mild steel and copper substrates at various input power levels of the plasma torch ranging from 11 kW to 21 kW DC. The erosion test has done using Air Jet erosion test Reg (As per ASTM G76) with silica erodent typically 150-250 pm in size. Multiple tests were performed at increasing the time duration from 60 sec to 180 sec with increasing pressure (from 1 bar to 2.5 bar) and angle (60° & 90°). This study reveals that the impact velocity and impact angle are two most significant parameters among various factors influencing the wear rate of these coatings. The mechanisms and microstructural changes that arise during erosion wear are studied by using SEM. It is found that, when erodent are impacting the fresh un-eroded surface, material removal occurs by the continuous evolution of craters on the surface. Upper layer splats are removed out after 60 sec and second layer splat erosion starts. Based on these observations Physical models are developed. Some graphs plotted between mass loss-rate versus time period/impact Pressure/impact Angle gives good correlation with surface features observed.

  2. Modeling of the ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography view of JET.

    PubMed

    Aumeunier, M-H; Firdaouss, M; Travère, J-M; Loarer, T; Gauthier, E; Martin, V; Chabaud, D; Humbert, E

    2012-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography systems are mandatory to ensure safe plasma operation in fusion devices. However, IR measurements are made much more complicated in metallic environment because of the spurious contributions of the reflected fluxes. This paper presents a full predictive photonic simulation able to assess accurately the surface temperature measurement with classical IR thermography from a given plasma scenario and by taking into account the optical properties of PFCs materials. This simulation has been carried out the ITER-like wide angle infrared camera view of JET in comparing with experimental data. The consequences and the effects of the low emissivity and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function used in the model for the metallic PFCs on the contribution of the reflected flux in the analysis are discussed. PMID:23130792

  3. Modeling of the ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography view of JET

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeunier, M.-H.; Firdaouss, M.; Travere, J.-M.; Loarer, T.; Gauthier, E.; Martin, V.; Chabaud, D.; Humbert, E.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography systems are mandatory to ensure safe plasma operation in fusion devices. However, IR measurements are made much more complicated in metallic environment because of the spurious contributions of the reflected fluxes. This paper presents a full predictive photonic simulation able to assess accurately the surface temperature measurement with classical IR thermography from a given plasma scenario and by taking into account the optical properties of PFCs materials. This simulation has been carried out the ITER-like wide angle infrared camera view of JET in comparing with experimental data. The consequences and the effects of the low emissivity and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function used in the model for the metallic PFCs on the contribution of the reflected flux in the analysis are discussed.

  4. Simultaneous Cotton-Mouton and Faraday rotation angle measurements on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Boboc, A.; Zabeo, L.; Murari, A.

    2006-10-15

    The change in the ellipticity of a laser beam that passes through plasma due to the Cotton-Mouton effect can provide additional information on the plasma density. This approach, complementary to the more traditional interferometric methods, has been implemented recently using the JET interferometer-polarimeter with a new setup. Routine Cotton-Mouton phase shift measurements are made on the vertical central chords simultaneously with the Faraday rotation angle data. These new data are used to provide robust line-integrated density measurements in difficult plasma scenarios, with strong Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) or pellets. These always affect interferometry, causing fringe jumps and preventing good control of the plasma density. A comparison of line-integrated density from polarimetry and interferometry measurements shows an agreement within 10%. Moreover, in JET the measurements can be performed close to a reactor relevant range of parameters, in particular, at high densities and temperatures. This provides a unique opportunity to assess the quality of the Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton phase shift measurements where both effects are strong and mutual nonlinear interaction between the two effects takes place.

  5. Experimental and Computational Induced Aerodynamics from Missile Jet Reaction Controls at Angles of Attack to 75 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Ashbury, Scott C.; Deere, Karen A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine induced aerodynamic effects from jet reaction controls of an advanced air-to-air missile concept. The 75-percent scale model featured independently controlled reaction jets located near the nose and tail of the model. Aerodynamic control was provided by four fins located near the tail of the model. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.35 and 0.60, at angles of attack up to 75 deg and at nozzle pressure ratios up to 90. Jet-reaction thrust forces were not measured by the force balance but jet-induced forces were. In addition, a multiblock three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method was used to calculate the flowfield of the missile at angles of attack up to 40 deg. Results indicate that large interference effects on pitching moment were induced from operating the nose jets with the the off. Excellent correlation between experimental and computational pressure distributions and pitching moment were obtained a a Mach number of 0.35 and at angles of attack up to 40 deg.

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Juvenile-onset Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwun, Youngkyo; Lee, Eun Jung; Han, Jong Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the clinical characteristics of juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG) and to evaluate the prognostic factors for visual field (VF) progression in eyes with JOAG. Methods The medical records of 125 eyes of 72 patients with JOAG were analyzed retrospectively. At least four reliable VF tests were required to determine the VF progression, and the progression was defined using the modified Anderson criteria. Comparisons in clinical manifestations among groups were performed using independent t-test, and generalized estimating equations were also conducted. Results The mean follow-up duration was 94.4 ± 50.5 months. Patients with JOAG showed a male preponderance (64 %), myopia (−4.99 ± 4.01 diopters) and a severe elevation of intraocular pressure (35.6 ± 10.8 mmHg). Forty-two JOAG patients (58 %) had complained of symptoms associated with vision and pain; however, one-third presented with no definite symptoms. Fifty-seven patients were diagnosed with JOAG in both eyes, and they were significantly older (p = 0.039) and had a greater family history (p = 0.035) than patients with unilateral JOAG. The progression group exhibited a significantly higher intraocular pressure at the last visit (p = 0.023) than the non-progression group. Conclusions Because patients with considerable JOAG had no definite symptoms, periodic eye examinations are needed. To prevent the VF's progression, JOAG patients may require more careful management of intraocular pressure. PMID:27051261

  7. Current primary open-angle glaucoma treatments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Beidoe, Gabriel; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness with no known cure. Management of the disease focuses on lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) with current classes of drugs like prostaglandin analogs, beta-blockers, alpha-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These treatments have not helped all patients. Some patients continue to experience deterioration in the optic nerve even though their IOPs are within the normal range. New views have surfaced about other pathophysiological processes (such as oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, and retinal cell apoptosis) being involved in POAG progression, and adjunctive treatments with drugs like memantine, bis(7)-tacrine, nimodipine, and mirtogenol are advocated. This review examines the current and proposed treatments for POAG. Some of the proposed drugs (bis(7)-tacrine, nimodipine, vitamin E, and others) have shown good promise, mostly as monotherapy in various clinical trials. It is recommended that both the current and proposed drugs be put through further robust trials in concurrent administration and evaluated. PMID:23118520

  8. Race, ethnicity and prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, some authors pooled data from studies on the Dutch, Australians and Americans of European origin in an attempt to predict the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the United States. PURPOSE: To examine potential ethnic diversity in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the "same race." Methods: Medical literature was searched, and 11 population-based studies on populations of African origin and five on populations of European origin were identified. RESULTS: The prevalence of POAG was significantly higher in white Australians than in the Dutch (p<0.001) and was significantly lower (p<0.001) among black populations in South Africa, Nigeria, Tanzania and the United States than in Ghana, St. Lucia or Barbados. Notably, the prevalence was significantly lower in Afro Caribbeans living in London than in St. Lucia or Barbados (p<0.001). There was, however, inconsistency in the definition of POAG among the different studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide range in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the same "race," which might be attributed to the different methodology and definition of POAG; potential difference in social, behavioral and environmental factors; and/or genetic predisposition. Scrutiny is warranted when pooling data from different ethnic groups of the "same race" in meta-analyses. PMID:17052053

  9. Metabolome-Wide Association Study of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, L. Goodwin; Uppal, Karan; Walker, Douglas I.; Roberson, Rachel M.; Tran, ViLinh; Parks, Megan B.; Wade, Emily A.; May, Alexandra T.; Umfress, Allison C.; Jarrell, Kelli L.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Kuchtey, John; Kuchtey, Rachel W.; Jones, Dean P.; Brantley, Milam A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients can be differentiated from controls based on metabolic characteristics. Methods We used ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry with C18 liquid chromatography for metabolomic analysis on frozen plasma samples from 72 POAG patients and 72 controls. Metabolome-wide Spearman correlation was performed to select differentially expressed metabolites (DEM) correlated with POAG. We corrected P values for multiple testing using Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to depict the relationship between participants and DEM. Differentially expressed metabolites were matched to the METLIN metabolomics database; both DEM and metabolites significantly correlating with DEM were analyzed using MetaboAnalyst to identify metabolic pathways altered in POAG. Results Of the 2440 m/z (mass/charge) features recovered after filtering, 41 differed between POAG cases and controls at FDR = 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed these DEM to associate into eight clusters; three of these clusters contained the majority of the DEM and included palmitoylcarnitine, hydroxyergocalciferol, and high-resolution METLIN matches to sphingolipids, other vitamin D-related metabolites, and terpenes. MetaboAnalyst also indicated likely alteration in steroid biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions Global ultrahigh resolution metabolomics emphasized the importance of altered lipid metabolism in POAG. The results suggest specific metabolic processes, such as those involving palmitoylcarnitine, sphingolipids, vitamin D-related compounds, and steroid precursors, may contribute to POAG status and merit more detailed study with targeted methods. PMID:26230767

  10. Ocular Decompression Retinopathy Following Canaloplasty for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gai-yun; Alantaree, Samer; Wang, Jun-ming; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ocular decompression retinopathy (ODR), a rare postoperative complication following glaucoma surgery, is characterized by the transient appearance of scattered retinal hemorrhages. Here, we present a unique case of ODR in a patient with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent canaloplasty. A 31-year-old male patient presented with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 60 mm Hg in the right eye. The IOP remained over 40 mm Hg, even when treated with maximum tolerated antiglaucoma medication. Canaloplasty drastically lowered IOP in the right eye from 40 to 7 mm Hg. However, fundus examination revealed ODR after surgery. The patient was treated with tobramycin and dexamethasone. Three months after canaloplasty, IOP remained in control at 16 mm Hg and all retinal hemorrhages had completely resolved. This case demonstrates that ODR can occur following canaloplasty and physicians should be aware of this potential complication in patients with severely elevated IOP. Sufficiently lowering IOP before surgery and gradually decreasing IOP during surgery may prevent ODR from occurring. PMID:26945386

  11. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the United States, affecting 1.9% of individuals older than 40 years. The prevalence of the most common form, open-angle glaucoma, increases with age and is higher in non-Hispanic minorities. The progressive loss of peripheral vision in glaucoma often leads to difficulty with driving, particularly at night, and can increase the risk of falls and subsequent fractures. Although glaucoma usually is characterized by chronically elevated intraocular pressure, it is more accurately defined as an optic neuropathy. Typically, there are no warning signs or symptoms, and extensive and permanent optic nerve damage can occur before the patient is aware of visual field loss. A cup to disc ratio greater than 0.6 on ophthalmoscopy is suspicious for glaucoma, and visual field testing results show a characteristic peripheral loss. Medical and surgical treatments are aimed at decreasing intraocular pressure by decreasing production of aqueous humor and increasing its outflow. Drugs for glaucoma treatment include prostaglandin analogs, beta blockers, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Surgical or laser treatment is indicated if medical management is unsuccessful. Alternative therapies are less effective and have more adverse effects than standard treatments. PMID:27348527

  12. Epidemiological Properties of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, Lawan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is progressive chronic optic neuropathy in adults in which intraocular pressure (IOP) and other currently unknown factors contribute to damage. POAG is the second commonest cause of avoidable blindness in Nigeria. Pattern of Presentation. POAG is characterized by late presentation. Absence of pain which is a driving force for seeking medical help, inadequacy of trained eye care personnel, paucity of facilities, misdistribution of resources, lack of awareness, poor education, and poverty may all contribute to this. Medical and surgical treatment options available are challenging and tasking. Screening for Glaucoma. Screening is the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease (POAG) by applying test(s) which can be applied rapidly. Such test(s) should be of high reliability, validity, yield, acceptable, and cost effective. The test should ideally be sensitive, specific, and efficient. It is difficult to select a suitable test that meets these criteria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) appears to be the easiest option. But, high IOP is not diagnostic nor does normal value exclude the disease. Health education is a possible strategy in early case detection and management. Treatment of POAG. Glaucoma treatment can either be medical or surgical (this includes laser). Considering unavailability, potency, cost, and long-term effects of medication, surgery (trabeculectomy) could be a better option. Laser trabeculoplasty is available in a few centers. Viscocanalostomy is not routinely performed. Patient education is vital to success as management is for life. Conclusion. POAG remains a cause of avoidable blindness in Nigeria. There is need for long-term strategy to identify patients early and institute prompt management. Improvement in training of eye care personnel and provision of up to date equipment is essential in achieving this goal. PMID:23762529

  13. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  14. Experimental investigation on argon cluster sizes for conical nozzles with different opening angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guanglong; Kim, Byunghoon; Ahn, Byungnam; Kim, Dong Eon

    2010-09-01

    Using Rayleigh scattering measurement, we experimentally studied the effect of the opening angle of conical nozzles on the average sizes of argon clusters produced by high-pressure argon gas (up to 50 bars) expanding into vacuum. Both the scattering signal intensity and the scattering image were synchronically recorded by a photomultiplier tube and a charge-coupled device camera. These measurements allow for the comparison of average cluster sizes among conical nozzles of different opening angles. The experimental results indicate that, as expected by Hagena's scaling law, the argon cluster size is dependent on the opening angle. However, it is also found that (1) the cluster size exhibits a larger deviation from Hagena's scaling law at high backing pressure for a nozzle of a smaller opening angle and (2) the smaller the opening angle of conical nozzle gets, the weaker the pressure dependence of cluster size becomes.

  15. Measurement of colour flow with the jet pull angle in t t bar events using the ATLAS detector at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. 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K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. 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E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartz, M.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and orientation of energy inside jets is predicted to be an experimental handle on colour connections between the hard-scatter quarks and gluons initiating the jets. This Letter presents a measurement of the distribution of one such variable, the jet pull angle. The pull angle is measured for jets produced in t t bar events with one W boson decaying leptonically and the other decaying to jets using 20.3 fb-1 of data recorded with the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of √{ s} = 8 TeV at the LHC. The jet pull angle distribution is corrected for detector resolution and acceptance effects and is compared to various models.

  16. Glycans of the trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S A; Bonshek, R E; Stoddart, R W; O'Donoghue, E; Goodall, K; McLeod, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: Glycan expression was compared in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) and normal TM in order to determine any differences which may reflect pathological changes underlying primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Resin embedded TM from trabeculectomy specimens from 15 eyes with POAG and from 12 eyes with normal anterior segments were probed with a panel of biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system at the light microscope level. Statistical analyses were performed on the comparative staining results. RESULTS: The lectins ConA and ePHA showed strong staining in all areas of both glaucomatous and normal TM; ePHA staining of Schlemm's canal (SC) from POAG TM was significantly less than that from normal TM (ePHA-SC p = 0.04). The lectins PSA, LCA, and SNA bound moderately strongly to SC endothelium and weakly to the endothelium of the corneoscleral meshwork (CSM); glaucomatous SC endothelial binding was significantly less than that of normal SC endothelium for PSA and LCA (PSA-SC p = 0.002, LCA-SC p = 0.002). STA and DSA showed moderately strong binding while WGA, ECA, AHA, and MPA bound weakly throughout the TM; for DSA and MPA this staining was significantly greater in POAG than in normal TM (DSA-SC p = 0.001, DSA-CSM p = 0.002, MPA-SC p = 0.01, MPA-CSM p = 0.02). Jac stained strongly throughout the TM and showed no significant difference in POAG compared with normal TM (Jac-SC p = 0.6, Jac-CSM p = 1). 1PHA, SBA, DBA, CTA, UEA-1 and LTA did not bind to glaucomatous TM or normal TM. There were no age-related changes seen. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of some complex and hybrid, bisected and non-bisected N-linked glycans is significantly diminished in glaucomatous TM compared with normal TM. Some glycans with multiple N-acetylglucosamine residues and O-linked glycans with terminal and subterminal galactosyl groups are significantly increased in POAG TM. Glycan expression does not change significantly with age in POAG or normal TM. Images

  17. Association between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in eyes with narrow or open-angle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song-Feng; Wu, Ge-Wei; Chen, Chang-Xi; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Bao; Gao, Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in subjects with eyes with narrow or open-angle. METHODS The subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography and anterior chamber parameters were measured with ultrasound biomicroscopy in one eye of 23 subjects with open-angle eyes and 38 subjects with narrow-angle eyes. The mean age was 59.52±7.04y for narrow-angle subjects and 60.76±7.23y for open-angle subjects (P=0.514). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between choroidal thickness and narrow-angle parameters. RESULTS There were no differences in subfoveal choroidal thickness between open- and narrow-angle subjects (P=0.231). Anterior chamber parameters, including central anterior chamber depth, trabecular iris angle, iris thickness 500 µm from the scleral spur (IT500), and ciliary body thickness at 1 mm and 2 mm from the scleral spur (CBT1, CBT2) showed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Subfoveal choroidal thickness showed negative correlation (β=-0.496, P=0.016) only with anterior chamber depth in the open-angle group and with age (β=-0.442, P=0.003) and IT500 (β=-0.399, P=0.008) in the narrow-angle group. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness was not correlated with trabecular iris angle, anterior chamber depth, ciliary body thickness, or central corneal thickness in the narrow-angle group. CONCLUSION Choroidal thickness does not differ in the two groups and has not correlated with anterior chamber parameters in narrow-angle subjects, suggesting a lack of relationship between choroidal thickness and primary angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:27588269

  18. Strategies for Choosing Descent Flight-Path Angles for Small Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Minghong Gilbert; Green, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Three candidate strategies for choosing the descent flight path angle (FPA) for small jets are proposed, analyzed, and compared for fuel efficiency under arrival metering conditions. The strategies vary in operational complexity from a universally fixed FPA, or FPA function that varies with descent speed for improved fuel efficiency, to the minimum-fuel FPA computed for each flight based on winds, route, and speed profile. Methodologies for selecting the parameter for the first two strategies are described. The differences in fuel burn are analyzed over a year s worth of arrival traffic and atmospheric conditions recorded for the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Airport during 2011. The results show that the universally fixed FPA strategy (same FPA for all flights, all year) burns on average 26 lbs more fuel per flight as compared to the minimum-fuel solution. This FPA is adapted to the arrival gate (direction of entry to the terminal) and various timespans (season, month and day) to improve fuel efficiency. Compared to a typical FPA of approximately 3 degrees the adapted FPAs vary significantly, up to 1.3 from one arrival gate to another or up to 1.4 from one day to another. Adapting the universally fixed FPA strategy to the arrival gate or to each day reduces the extra fuel burn relative to the minimum-fuel solution by 27% and 34%, respectively. The adaptations to gate and time combined shows up to 57% reduction of the extra fuel burn. The second strategy, an FPA function, contributes a 17% reduction in the 26 lbs of extra fuel burn over the universally fixed FPA strategy. Compared to the corresponding adaptations of the universally fixed FPA, adaptations of the FPA function reduce the extra fuel burn anywhere from 15-23% depending on the extent of adaptation. The combined effect of the FPA function strategy with both directional and temporal adaptation recovers 67% of the extra fuel relative to the minimum-fuel solution.

  19. Slugs and Snails and Puppy Dog Tails: jets from an unconventional angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. E.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss some aspects of extragalactic jets originating from super massive black holes in the centres of active galaxies (and quasars). We start with a short review of sizes and flavors and then argue that the emission we detect across the electromagnetic spectrum does not come from the essence of the jet, but is rather a product of the jet. We go on to discuss some topics concerning synchrotron emission from jets, mainly aspects of knots. Finally we discuss the emission processes for the X-rays and describe a current experiment with LOFAR designed to test a requirement of inverse Compton models.

  20. Flow Field Characterization of an Angled Supersonic Jet Near a Bluff Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Childs, Robert; Wernet, Mark P.; Shestopalov, Andrea; Melton, John E.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to acquire data from a hot supersonic jet in cross flow for the purpose of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence modeling relevant to the Orion Launch Abort System. Hot jet conditions were at the highest temperature and pressure that could be acquired in the test facility. The nozzle pressure ratio was 28.5, and the nozzle temperature ratio was 3. These conditions are different from those of the flight vehicle, but sufficiently high to model the observed turbulence features. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) data and capsule pressure data are presented. Features of the flow field are presented and discussed

  1. Evaluation of the Faraday angle by numerical methods and comparison with the Tore Supra and JET polarimeter electronics.

    PubMed

    Brault, C; Gil, C; Boboc, A; Spuig, P

    2011-04-01

    On the Tore Supra tokamak, a far infrared polarimeter diagnostic has been routinely used for diagnosing the current density by measuring the Faraday rotation angle. A high precision of measurement is needed to correctly reconstruct the current profile. To reach this precision, electronics used to compute the phase and the amplitude of the detected signals must have a good resilience to the noise in the measurement. In this article, the analogue card's response to the noise coming from the detectors and their impact on the Faraday angle measurements are analyzed, and we present numerical methods to calculate the phase and the amplitude. These validations have been done using real signals acquired by Tore Supra and JET experiments. These methods have been developed to be used in real-time in the future numerical cards that will replace the Tore Supra present analogue ones. PMID:21678660

  2. The distinction between juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Haines, J.L.; Damji, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Because of the significant differences between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma, especially with regard to inheritance, prevalence, severity, and age of onset, we read with interest the recent publication by Morissette et al., describing a pedigree with a phenotype that overlaps the distinctive features of juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (usually abbreviated as POAG or COAG). These authors conclude that a gene mapped to human chromosome 1q21-q31 (GLC1A) can be responsible for both juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. The implications of such a result could be extremely important, in light of the high prevalence of the adult form of the disease. However, while the data presented in this report suggest that variable expressivity of the GLC1A gene may lead to a broader range of onset for this form of juvenile glaucoma, these data do not identify the GLC1A gene as an important cause of POAG. To prevent misleading interpretations of this and similar studies, we wish to clarify the distinction between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. 8 refs.

  3. OVERFLOW Validation for Predicting Plume Impingement of Underexpanded Axisymmetric Jets onto Angled Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry C.; Klopfer, Goetz

    2011-01-01

    This report documents how OVERFLOW, a computational fluid dynamics code, predicts plume impingement of underexpanded axisymmetric jets onto both perpendicular and inclined flat plates. The effects of the plume impinging on a range of plate inclinations varying from 90deg to 30deg are investigated and compared to the experimental results in Reference 1 and 2. The flow fields are extremely complex due to the interaction between the shock waves from the free jet and those deflected by the plate. Additionally, complex mixing effects create very intricate structures in the flow. The experimental data is very limited, so these validation studies will focus only on cold plume impingement on flat and inclined plates. This validation study will help quantify the error in the OVERFLOW simulation when applied to stage separation scenarios.

  4. Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty as Primary Treatment for Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kadasi, Laith M; Wagdi, Safa; Miller, Kimberly V

    2016-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma is a silent, chronic disorder which results in progressive and permanent vision loss. Designing the optimal treatment regimen can be particularly challenging in the management of high-risk patients with frequent loss to follow-up or a longstanding history of medication noncompliance. In this article we aim to review fundamental techniques in glaucoma diagnosis and treatment with emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of selective laser trabeculoplasty, a technique in modern therapy which may mold the future of primary treatment in open angle glaucoma management. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-06.asp, free with no login]. PMID:27247968

  5. Synthetic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milanovic, Ivana M.

    2003-01-01

    Current investigation of synthetic jets and synthetic jets in cross-flow examined the effects of orifice geometry and dimensions, momentum-flux ratio, cluster of orifices, pitch and yaw angles as well as streamwise development of the flow field. This comprehensive study provided much needed experimental information related to the various control strategies. The results of the current investigation on isolated and clustered synthetic jets with and without cross-flow will be further analyzed and documented in detail. Presentations at national conferences and publication of peer- reviewed journal articles are also expected. Projected publications will present both the mean and turbulent properties of the flow field, comparisons made with the data available in an open literature, as well as recommendations for the future work.

  6. Combination medical treatment for primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina; Yu, Tsung; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objectives of this review are to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of different glaucoma fixed combination therapies and monotherapies in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and to provide relative rankings of these treatments. PMID:25774087

  7. Changing Concepts of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Renaldo N.; Huston, Patricia; Davis, M. William L.

    1986-01-01

    The understanding of primary open-angle glaucoma has changed over the past 20 years and recommendations on early detection are being revised. In this paper the use of Shiotz tonometry is critically examined, and the problems encountered in instituting alternative screening techniques are reviewed. ImagesFigure 3c PMID:21267099

  8. A study of the discharge coefficient of jets from angled slots and conical orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linfield, Kevin William

    2000-10-01

    Non-ideal flows through angled orifices occur often in engineering applications such as mass flow meters, blast-wave simulators, gas propulsion devices and projectile launchers. For such flows, a correction factor in the form of a discharge coefficient is required to facilitate good design and efficient operation. The discharge coefficient depends on many parameters including atmospheric to stagnation pressure ratio, gas specific heat ratio, exit to channel area ratio, orifice shape, wall angle and orifice edge rounding. The dependence on these parameters (except edge rounding) was studied numerically by developing a two-dimensional finite-difference computer program that solves the subsonic flowfield in the hodograph plane by a relaxation method and the attached supersonic flowfield, if present, in the physical plane by a method of characteristics, joined together at the sonic surface by matching stream function values. The discharge coefficient was also studied experimentally by developing and testing an experimental facility using a new technique based on the partial blowdown of a pressurized vessel through a short pipe ending with conical orifices of different area ratios, wall angles and orifice edge roundings. Numerical and experimental data from these studies and also from the literature are compared and discussed. A software package called the " Cd Algorithm" was developed to reproduce quickly the combined numerical and experimental discharge coefficients for the entire set of parameters, and it outperforms previous algorithms in accuracy, efficiency and comprehensiveness. This Cd Algorithm uses analytical, numerical and experimental results at the limits for incompressible, critical and choked flows, and other Cd values between these limits are reproduced by using piecewise cubic polynomial splines.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Trabectome Surgery in Chinese Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacky W.Y.; Yick, Doris W.F.; Tsang, Susanna; Yuen, Can Y.F.; Lai, Jimmy S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical outcome of the Trabectome in Chinese open-angle glaucoma (OAG). This prospective case series recruited pseudophakic glaucoma subjects with open-angle configuration. Trabeculectomy ab interno was performed using the Trabectome to 120° of the trabecular meshwork. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were recorded preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively. Visual acuity was measured preoperatively and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. One-way ANOVA with Tukey Multiple Comparison Test were used to measure the pre and postoperative parameters. In 19 eyes of 19 Chinese subjects, 26.3% were uveitic, 68.4% were primary open-angle glaucoma, and 5.3% had a history of chronic angle-closure glaucoma with open-angles after cataract extraction. The subjects’ mean age was 67.5 ± 14.4 years, with 4 females and 15 males. Two patients required secondary filtration procedure. At 6 months, the IOP reduced by 34.8% (24.4 ± 4.4 mm Hg to 15.9 ± 5.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). The number of types of antiglaucoma medications was reduced by 28.2% (3.9 ± 0.8–2.8 ± 1.6, P < 0.0001). The visual acuity was static at 1 and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.4). There were no intraoperative complications. 26.3% of subjects had a transient IOP spike > 21 mm Hg, 1 had hyphema requiring washout, and 1 had reactivation of herpetic keratitis. The success rate at 6 months was 89.5%. Trabectome achieved a modest reduction in IOP and medications in the majority of pseudophakic Chinese OAG eyes. PMID:27082559

  10. Jet maximization, axis minimization, and stable cone finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    Jet finding is a type of optimization problem, where hadrons from a high-energy collision event are grouped into jets based on a clustering criterion. As three interesting examples, one can form a jet cluster that (i) optimizes the overall jet four-vector, (ii) optimizes the jet axis, or (iii) aligns the jet axis with the jet four-vector. In this paper, we show that these three approaches to jet finding, despite being philosophically quite different, can be regarded as descendants of a mother optimization problem. For the special case of finding a single cone jet of fixed opening angle, the three approaches are genuinely identical when defined appropriately, and the result is a stable cone jet with the largest value of a quantity J . This relationship is only approximate for cone jets in the rapidity-azimuth plane, as used at the Large Hadron Collider, though the differences are mild for small radius jets.

  11. Investigation of Blade Angle of an Open Cross-Flow Runner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Iio, Shouichiro; Veerapun, Salisa; Uchiyama, Tomomi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing drop structure in irrigation channels or industrial waterways. This study was focused on an open-type cross-flow turbine without any attached equipment for cost reduction and easy maintenance. In this study, the authors used an artificial indoor waterfall as lab model. Test runner which is a simple structure of 20 circular arc-shaped blades sandwiched by two circular plates was used The optimum inlet blade angle and the relationship between the power performance and the flow rate approaching theoretically and experimentally were investigated. As a result, the optimum inlet blade angle due to the flow rate was changed. Additionally, allocation rate of power output in 1st stage and 2nd stage is changed by the blade inlet angle.

  12. Simplified analytical model for open-phase operating mode of thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an approach to the development of a simplified analytical model for the analysis of electromagnetic processes of a thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator with an individual phase-controlled thyristor switch is considered. The analytical expressions for the calculation of electrical parameters in symmetrical and open-phase operating mode are obtained. With a concrete example, the verification of the developed analytical model is carried out. It is accomplished by means of comparison between current and voltage calculation results when the thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator is in an open-phase operating mode with the simulation results in the MatLab software environment. Adequacy check of the obtained analytical model is carried out by comparison between the analytical calculation and experimental data received from the actual physical model.

  13. [Iris examination in transformed light in primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Vodovozov, A M; Rybnikov, A A

    1991-01-01

    The iris was examined in transformed light by iridochromoscopy, iridochromophotography, biomicroscopy in polarized light, transillumination in red light, and fluorescent iridoangiography in 83 eyes of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and 117 eyes of normal reference subjects. The examinations have shown the prevalence of trophic and vascular shifts in the iris of all glaucoma patients as against the reference patients (R 0.05). The major iris changes revealed in primary open-angle glaucoma were stromal atrophy with the predominant involvement of the pupil segment, destruction of the pupil pigmented border, exogenic pigmentation of the pupil and ciliary segments, thickening of the anterior border layer, pseudoexfoliation of the pupil edge, defects of the posterior pigmented lamina disseminated in the pupil segment, hypoperfusion of the iris vessels combined with their impaired permeability and micro-neovascularization in the iris edge and ciliary agea. PMID:2035203

  14. Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness and Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhongjing; Huang, Shouyue; Xie, Bing; Zhong, Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the potential relationship between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT). Materials and Methods. Relevant publications were searched systematically through various databases from inception to January 2016. Studies comparing PPCT in OAG patients and healthy controls were retrieved. All qualified articles were analyzed using Stata 14.0 and Revman 5.3 software. Results. A total of 13 studies were identified for inclusion. There was a significant reduction of average PPCT in OAG patients compared to control participants (WMD = −24.07, 95% CI: −34.29, −13.85). Reduction of PPCT was significant in the superior (WMD = −28.87, 95% CI: −44.96, −12.78) and nasal (WMD = −21.75, 95% CI: −41.52, −1.98) sectors, but there was no significant reduction of PPCT in the inferior (WMD = −9.57, 95% CI: −36.55, 17.40) and temporal (WMD = −13.85, 95% CI: −35.40, 7.70) sectors. No obvious publication bias was detected. Conclusions. This meta-analysis suggests that open-angle glaucoma patients have significantly decreased peripapillary choroidal thickness compared to healthy individuals. Peripapillary choroidal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography may be an important parameter to consider in open-angle glaucoma. PMID:27298732

  15. Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness and Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongjing; Huang, Shouyue; Xie, Bing; Zhong, Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the potential relationship between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT). Materials and Methods. Relevant publications were searched systematically through various databases from inception to January 2016. Studies comparing PPCT in OAG patients and healthy controls were retrieved. All qualified articles were analyzed using Stata 14.0 and Revman 5.3 software. Results. A total of 13 studies were identified for inclusion. There was a significant reduction of average PPCT in OAG patients compared to control participants (WMD = -24.07, 95% CI: -34.29, -13.85). Reduction of PPCT was significant in the superior (WMD = -28.87, 95% CI: -44.96, -12.78) and nasal (WMD = -21.75, 95% CI: -41.52, -1.98) sectors, but there was no significant reduction of PPCT in the inferior (WMD = -9.57, 95% CI: -36.55, 17.40) and temporal (WMD = -13.85, 95% CI: -35.40, 7.70) sectors. No obvious publication bias was detected. Conclusions. This meta-analysis suggests that open-angle glaucoma patients have significantly decreased peripapillary choroidal thickness compared to healthy individuals. Peripapillary choroidal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography may be an important parameter to consider in open-angle glaucoma. PMID:27298732

  16. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  17. Association of known common genetic variants with primary open angle, primary angle closure, and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in Pakistani cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Micheal, Shazia; Ayub, Humaira; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Bakker, Bjorn; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Ali, Mahmood; Akhtar, Farah; Khan, Wajid Ali; Qamar, Raheel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite the different etiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG), several studies have suggested that these forms of glaucoma have overlapping genetic risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of genetic variants recently associated with POAG in different types of glaucoma in Pakistani POAG, PACG, and PEXG patient cohorts. Methods Six variants in CDKN2B-AS1 (rs4977756), CDKN2B (rs1063192), ATOH7 (rs1900004), CAV1 (rs4236601), TMCO1 (rs4656461), and SIX1 (rs10483727) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. A total of 513 unrelated patients with glaucoma (268 with POAG, 125 with PACG, and 120 with PEXG) and 233 healthy controls were included in the study. Genotypic and allelic associations were analyzed with a chi-square test. Results The frequency of the G allele of TMCO1 rs4656461 was significantly lower in the patients with POAG (p=0.003; OR [odds ratio]=0.57), PACG (p=0.009; OR=0.52), and PEXG (p=0.01; OR=0.54) compared to the control individuals. The T allele of ATOH7 rs1900004 was observed less frequently in the patients with PACG (p=0.03; OR=0.69) compared to the control individuals. The A allele of CAV1 rs4236601 was found more frequently in the patients with POAG (p=0.008; OR=1.49) compared to the control individuals. This study demonstrates that the TMCO1 rs4656461 variant is associated with POAG, PACG and PEXG in the Pakistani population. Our study was unable to confirm previous associations reported for variants in CDKN2B-AS1, CDKN2B, and SIX1 with any type of glaucoma. Conclusions In conclusion, we found consistent evidence of the significant association of three common variants in TMCO1, ATOH7, and CAV1. PMID:25489222

  18. Flight-measured effects of boattail angle and Mach number on the nozzle afterbody flow of a twin-jet fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, T. J.; Nugent, J.; Davis, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the flight-measured nozzle afterbody surface pressures and engine exhaust nozzle pressure-area integrated axial force coefficients on a twin-jet fighter for varying boattail angles. The objective of the tests was to contribute to a full-scale flight data base applicable to the nozzle afterbody drag of advanced tactical fighter concepts. The data were acquired during the NASA F-15 Propulsion/Airframe Interactions Flight Research Program. Nozzle boattail angles from 7.7 deg to 18.1 deg were investigated. Results are presented for cruise angle of attack at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.0 at altitudes from 20,000 to 45,000 feet. The data show the nozle axial force coefficients to be a strong function of nozzle boattail angle and Mach number.

  19. Cosmic Ray Energy Determination by the Reduced-Opening Angle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arthur E.; Gregory, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the primary galactic cosmic ray species energy dependence in the regime beyond approx. 500 GeV/a is difficult due to the low flux and the limitations of energy measurement techniques. However, such observations are essential to resolve several questions of current interest such as: Is the enrichment of heavy species (Z greater that or equal to 6) cosmic rays first reported at higher energies by the proton satellite' and then later at lower energies real? The results from a previous deployment of the reduced opening angle technique are inconclusive but the authors do point to limitations in the previous techniques. Another intriguing puzzle is the energy dependence of silicon cosmic rays. Two independent experiments using different experimental techniques indicate that silicon is under-abundant. At present the observation is limited by statistics; it could still be a three sigma fluctuation. However, if confirmed the current models of acceleration and propagation which are species independent are seriously inadequate. To progress further the species and energy dependence must be accurately measured in a manner that is free from systematic uncertainty. In this report we show that the reduced opening angle method offers a simple and relatively inexpensive method to answer these questions. First we present the physics of the reduced opening angle and indicate the expected energy and charge resolution. The proposed detector design is then presented followed by the expected performance. Where ever possible simple phenomenological expressions that allow 'back of the envelope' estimates are given. More details are presented in the appendices. The limit of the energy resolution and the expected event rates for iron cosmic rays are calculated. Salient points are summarized in the conclusions.

  20. Effect of nozzle lateral spacing, engine interfairing shape, and angle of attack on the performance of a twin-jet afterbody model with cone plug nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    Twin-jet afterbody models were investigated by using two balances to measure separately the thrust minus total axial force and the afterbody drag at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.3. Angle of attack was varied from minus 2 deg to 8.5 deg. Translating shroud cone plug nozzles were tested at dry-power and maximum-afterburning-power settings with a high-pressure air system used to provide jet total-pressure ratios up to 9.0. Two nozzle lateral spacings were studied by using afterbodies with several interfairing shapes. The close- and wide-spaced afterbodies had identical cross-sectional area distributions when similar interfairings were installed on each. The results show that the highest overall performance was obtained with the close-spaced afterbody and basic interfairings. Increasing angle of attack decreased performance for all configurations and conditions investigated.

  1. [NEW SURGICAL APPROACH IN PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA: XEN GEL STENT A MINIMALLY INVASIVE TECHNIQUE].

    PubMed

    Dupont, G; Collignon, N

    2016-02-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a progressive ocular disease affecting adults and associated with visual field defect. The aim of its treatment is to lower the ocular pressure by means of ocular drops, laser or surgery. To date, traditional surgical techniques still remain quite invasive, but recent research efforts have been made with a view to develop minimally invasive techniques. The Xen Gel Stent is one of them. It allows a safe and efficient lowering of ocular pressure by creating a sub-conjunctival flow, following an ab interno procedure that highly preserves the architecture of the treated eye. PMID:27141652

  2. Real-time data processing and magnetic field pitch angle estimation of the JET motional Stark effect diagnostic based on Kalman filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, R.; Alves, D. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Associacao Euratom Hawkes, N.; Brix, M. [Euratom Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-15

    A novel technique for the real-time measurement of the magnetic field pitch angle in JET discharges using the motional Stark effect diagnostic is presented. Kalman filtering techniques are adopted to estimate the amplitude of the avalanche photodiode signals' harmonics that are relevant for the pitch angle calculation. The proposed technique {l_brace}for extended technical details of the generic algorithm see [R. Coelho and D. Alves, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37, 164 (2009)]{r_brace} is shown to be much more robust and provides less noisy estimates than an equivalent lock-in amplifier scheme, in particular when dealing with edge localized modes.

  3. Question on clinical efficiency and principles of diode laser radiation activity at a primary open-angle glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunov, A. V.; Litvinova, G. G.; Ilyina, O. S.; Easakiva, A. L.; Fyodorov, A. A.; Poleva, R. P.

    1999-07-01

    The efficiency of a diode laser with a wavelength 0,81 microns in treatment of an open-angle glaucoma is investigated. The diode LTP is a pathogenesis oriented method of treatment of an open angle glaucoma: it gives in improvement of outflow of an intraocular fluid, stabilization and improvement of visual functions for patients with initial and developed stages of disease at term of observation up to 12 months.

  4. The use of water-jet dissection in open and laparoscopic liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Duessel, A. P.; Wurzbacher, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. We intend to give an overview of our experiences with the implementation of a new dissection technique in open and laparoscopic surgery. Methods. Our database comprises a total of 950 patients who underwent liver resection. Three hundred and fifty of them were performed exceptionally with the water-jet dissector. Forty-one laparoscopic partial liver resections were accomplished. Results. Using the water-jet dissection technique it was possible to reduce the blood loss, the Pringle- and resection time in comparison to CUSA® and blunt dissection. In the last five years we could reduce the Pringle-rate from 48 to 6% and the last 110 liver resections were performed without any Pringle's manoeuvre. At the same time, the transfusion-rate decreased from 1.86 to 0.46 EC/patient. In oncological resections, the used dissection technique had no influence on long-time survival. Conclusions. The water-jet dissection technique is fast, feasible, oncologically safe and can be used in open and in laparoscopic liver surgery. PMID:18773110

  5. Effect of Wedge Insertion Angle on Posterior Tibial Slope in Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgery for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) wherein the lower extremity is realigned to shift the load distribution from the medial compartment of the knee to the lateral compartment. However, this surgery is known to affect the posterior tibial slope angle (PTSA), which could lead to abnormal knee kinematics and instability, and eventually to knee OA. Although PTSA control is as important as coronal realignment, few appropriate measurements for this parameter have been reported. The placement of a wedge spacer might have an effect on PTSA. Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the PTSA and the direction of insertion of a wedge spacer. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study assessed 43 knees from 34 patients who underwent medial opening wedge HTO for knee OA. Pre- and postoperative lateral radiographs of the knee as well as postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the relationship among PTSA, wedge insertion angle (WIA), and opening gap ratio (distance of the anterior opening gap/distance of the posterior opening gap at the osteotomy site). Results: The PTSA significantly increased from 9.0° ± 2.8° preoperatively to 13.2° ± 4.1° postoperatively (P < .001), resulting in a mean ΔPTSA of 4.7° ± 4.5°. The mean opening gap ratio was 0.86 ± 0.11, and the mean WIA was 25.9° ± 8.4°. The WIA and opening gap ratio were both highly correlated with ΔPTSA (r = 0.71 and 0.72, respectively), implying that a smaller WIA or smaller gap ratio leads to less increase in posterior slope. Conclusion: The direction of wedge insertion is highly correlated with PTSA increase, which suggests that the PTSA can be controlled for by adjusting the direction of wedge insertion during surgery. Clinical Relevance: Study results suggest that it is possible to adjust the PTSA by controlling the WIA during surgery. Proper

  6. iStent trabecular micro-bypass stent for open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kim; Saheb, Hady

    2014-01-01

    Trabecular micro-bypass stents, commonly known as iStents, are micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) devices used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Like other MIGS procedures that enhance trabecular outflow, the iStent lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by creating a direct channel between the anterior chamber and Schlemm’s canal. iStents are typically implanted at the time of phacoemulsification for patients with open-angle glaucoma and visually significant cataracts. This review summarizes the published data regarding the efficacy, safety, and cost considerations of trabecular micro-bypass stents. Most studies found statistically significant reductions in mean IOP and ocular medication use after combined phacoemulsification with single or double iStent implantation. The devices were found to be very safe, with a safety profile similar to that of cataract surgery. Complications were infrequent, with the most common complications being temporary stent obstruction or malposition, which resolved with observation or secondary procedures. Future studies are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and expanded indications. PMID:25284980

  7. Wind-tunnel investigation to determine the low speed yawing stability derivatives of a twin jet fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Newsom, W. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed yawing stability derivatives of a twin-jet fighter airplane model at high angles of attack. Tests were performed in a low-speed tunnel utilizing variable-curvature walls to simulate pure yawing motion. The results of the study showed that at angles of attack below the stall the yawing derivatives were essentially independent of the yawing velocity and sideslip angle. However, at angles of attack above the stall some nonlinear variations were present and the derivatives were strongly dependent upon sideslip angle. The results also showed that the rolling moment due to yawing was primarily due to the wing-fuselage combination, and that at angles of attack below the stall both the vertical and horizontal tails produced significant contributions to the damping in yaw. Additionally, the tests showed that the use of the forced-oscillation data to represent the yawing stability derivatives is questionable, at high angles of attack, due to large effects arising from the acceleration in sideslip derivatives.

  8. Large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies in an open universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Spergel, David N.

    1994-01-01

    If the universe is open, scales larger than the curvature scale may be probed by observation of large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We consider primordial adiabatic perturbations and discuss power spectra that are power laws in volume, wavelength, and eigenvalue of the Laplace operator. Such spectra may have arisen if, for example, the universe underwent a period of `frustated' inflation. The resulting large-angle anisotropies of the CMB are computed. The amplitude generally increases as Omega is decreased but decreases as h is increased. Interestingly enough, for all three Ansaetze, anisotropies on angular scales larger than the curvature scale are suppressed relative to the anisotropies on scales smaller than the curvature scale, but cosmic variance makes discrimination between various models difficult. Models with 0.2 approximately less than Omega h approximately less than 0.3 appear compatible with CMB fluctuations detected by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the Tenerife experiment and with the amplitude and spectrum of fluctuations of galaxy counts in the APM, CfA, and 1.2 Jy IRAS surveys. COBE normalization for these models yields sigma(sub 8) approximately = 0.5 - 0.7. Models with smaller values of Omega h when normalized to COBE require bias factors in excess of 2 to be compatible with the observed galaxy counts on the 8/h Mpc scale. Requiring that the age of the universe exceed 10 Gyr implies that Omega approximately greater than 0.25, while requiring that from the last-scattering term in the Sachs-Wolfe formula, large-angle anisotropies come primarily from the decay of potential fluctuations at z approximately less than 1/Omega. Thus, if the universe is open, COBE has been detecting temperature fluctuations produced at moderate redshift rather than at z approximately 1300.

  9. Medial proximal tibial angle after medial opening wedge HTO: A retrospective diagnostic test study

    PubMed Central

    Pornrattanamaneewong, Chaturong; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat; Chareancholvanich, Keerati

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) is the commonly used angle, which is simply measured from the knee radiographs. It can determine the correction angle in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO). The hypothesis of our study is that post-osteotomy MPTA can predict the change in correction angle, and we aimed to determine the optimal MPTA with which to prevent recurrent varus deformity after MOWHTO. Materials and Methods: Between January 2002 and April 2010, radiographs of 59 patients, who underwent 71 MOWHTOs using the locking-compression osteotomy plates without bone grafts, were evaluated for the change of the MPTA. The MPTA was measured preoperatively and one and twelve months postoperatively. The changes of MPTA between one and twelve months were classified into valgus, stable, and varus change. The predicting factors were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to find out the cut off point for preventing the recurrent varus deformity. Results: The overall preoperative, and one and twelve month postoperative MPTA values were 84.4 ± 2.4°, 97.2 ± 4.1°, and 96.3 ± 3.6°, respectively. Between one and twelve months, 39 knees displayed reduced varus change (–2.8 ± 2.1°), 18 knees displayed no change, and 14 knees displayed a greater valgus change (+2.9 ± 2.1°). The best factor for predicting these changes was the one month MPTA value (P = 0.006). By using the ROC curve, a one month MPTA of 95° was analyzed as the cut off point for preventing the recurrent varus deformity. With MPTA ≥95°, 92.3% of the osteotomies exhibited stable or varus change and 7.7% exhibited valgus change. However, with MPTA <95°, 47.4% exhibited stable or varus change and 52.6% exhibited valgus change (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 13.3). Conclusion: The postoperative MPTA can be used to predict the change in correction angle and an MPTA of at least 95° is

  10. Efficacy and safety of 1% forskolin eye drops in open angle glaucoma – An open label study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Vaidyanathan, Priti; Karri, Suresh Kumar; Jose, Jyolsna Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current treatment for glaucoma includes beta-blockers and prostaglandin analogues which have their own disadvantages. Thus a need exists for new ocular hypotensive agents that are more efficacious and have fewer side effects. Therefore, forskolin eye drops 1%, through herbal product; a clinical trial was carried out for the safety and efficacy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma. Methods Ninety adult male/female patients of 18–60 years of age, of either sex, suffering from open angle glaucoma with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of more than 24 mm Hg were enrolled in the study. Patients were advised to instill 2 drops thrice a day (8:00 h, 14:00 h and 20:00 h) and tonometric readings were recorded on baseline visit and on Visit 2, i.e. end of 1st week, Visit 3–2nd week, Visit 4–3rd week, and Visit 5–4th week. The reduction in IOP across each time point from untreated baseline visit and reduction in IOP across various study visits were measured. Results The mean (95% CI) difference in reduction in IOP was 4.5 mm Hg (P < 0.05) in the right eye and was 5.4 mm Hg (p < 0.05) in the left eye from baseline visit (Visit 1) to final visit (Visit 5). Conclusions Forskolin 1% eye drops can be a safe alternative to beta blockers in glaucoma patients having concomitant asthma. PMID:26155078

  11. Effect of collector configuration on test section turbulence levels in an open-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, G. S.; Molloy, John K.; Barna, P. Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Flow quality studies in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel indicated periodic flow pulsation at discrete frequencies in the test section when the tunnel operated in an open-jet configuration. To alleviate this problem, experiments were conducted in a 1/24-scale model of the full-scale tunnel to evaluate the turbulence reduction potential of six collector configurations. As a result of these studies, the original bell-mouth collector of the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel was replaced by a collector with straight walls, and a slot was incorporated between the trailing edge of the collector and the entrance of the diffuser.

  12. A Relationship Between Constraint and the Critical Crack Tip Opening Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William M.; James, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Of the various approaches used to model and predict fracture, the Crack Tip Opening Angle (CTOA) fracture criterion has been successfully used for a wide range of two-dimensional thin-sheet and thin plate applications. As thicker structure is considered, modeling the full three-dimensional fracture process will become essential. This paper investigates relationships between the local CTOA evaluated along a three-dimensional crack front and the corresponding local constraint. Previously reported tunneling crack front shapes were measured during fracture by pausing each test and fatigue cycling the specimens to mark the crack surface. Finite element analyses were run to model the tunneling shape during fracture, with the analysis loading conditions duplicating those tests. The results show an inverse relationship between the critical fracture value and constraint which is valid both before maximum load and after maximum load.

  13. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  14. A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Allingham, R Rand; Nakano, Masakazu; Jia, Liyun; Chen, Yuhong; Ikeda, Yoko; Mani, Baskaran; Chen, Li-Jia; Kee, Changwon; Garway-Heath, David F; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Fuse, Nobuo; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Huang, Chukai; Namburi, Prasanthi; Burdon, Kathryn; Perera, Shamira A; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lin, Ying; Ueno, Morio; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Krishnadas, Subbiah Ramasamy; Osman, Essam A; Lee, Mei Chin; Chan, Anita S Y; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A; Do, Tan; Goncalves, Aurelien; Reynier, Pascal; Zhang, Hong; Bourne, Rupert; Goh, David; Broadway, David; Husain, Rahat; Negi, Anil K; Su, Daniel H; Ho, Ching-Lin; Blanco, Augusto Azuara; Leung, Christopher K S; Wong, Tina T; Yakub, Azhany; Liu, Yutao; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Han, Jong Chul; Hon, Do Nhu; Shantha, Balekudaru; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, NiHong; Sato, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Kengo; Panda-Jonas, Songhomita; Ashley Koch, Allison E; Herndon, Leon W; Moroi, Sayoko E; Challa, Pratap; Foo, Jia Nee; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Simmons, Cameron P; Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Sharmila, Philomenadin Ferdinamarie; Chew, Merwyn; Lim, Blanche; Tam, Pansy O S; Chua, Elaine; Ng, Xiao Yu; Yong, Victor H K; Chong, Yaan Fun; Meah, Wee Yang; Vijayan, Saravanan; Seongsoo, Sohn; Xu, Wang; Teo, Yik Ying; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Kang, Jae H; Haines, Jonathan L; Cheng, Ching Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Richards, Julia E; Ritch, Robert; Gaasterland, Douglas E; Pasquale, Louis R; Liu, Jianjun; Jonas, Jost B; Milea, Dan; George, Ronnie; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A; Mori, Kazuhiko; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W; Girkin, Christopher A; Zhang, Mingzhi; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Vijaya, Lingam; Mackey, David A; Wong, Tien Yin; Craig, Jamie E; Sun, Xinghuai; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wiggs, Janey L; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Ningli; Hauser, Michael A; Tashiro, Kei; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2015-07-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10(-33)), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7-TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10(-8)). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis. PMID:25861811

  15. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A cohort study of duplex Doppler examinations of the carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmion, Vincent J; Aldoori, Munther I; Woodcock, John P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possibility of pathological change in the common carotid artery at the bifurcation and in the internal carotid artery beyond the bifurcation which could contribute to a reduced diastolic pressure as observed in primary open angle glaucoma. Design Duplex ultrasonic examinations of carotid bifurcations were conducted on 80 patients. Carotid artery defects were allocated into three types: no demonstrable flow defects, internal carotid artery abnormalities and disease in the carotid bulb. Setting Bristol Royal Infirmary Vascular Laboratory. Participants Eighty patients (mean age 69.6 years) providing a total of 160 sides to the analysis. Main outcome measures An estimated central retinal artery pressure, intraocular pressure and field loss were recorded for each side measured. Results Doppler investigations revealed significant levels of pathological change in the internal carotid distinct from changes at the carotid bulb. The disease revealed in the internal carotid artery was significantly associated with intraocular pressure (p = 0.032), with an effect small to medium in magnitude. The Q2 measure, derived from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure, was also substantively associated with disease in the internal carotid artery. Both intraocular pressure and the Q2 measure effectively discriminated between groups, with field loss providing rather less discriminating capability. There was a strong trend towards a higher intraocular pressures and a greater visual field loss with internal carotid artery disease. Conclusions Pathological changes in the extra cranial carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma exceed those in the arteries classified as normal. The presence of disease specifically in the internal carotid artery emphasised the need for a mechanism for the evaluation of the internal carotid apart from the carotid bulb. A basis for clarifying the presence of an ischaemic zone is proposed. PMID:25289141

  17. Association Between Peripheral Vascular Endothelial Function and Progression of Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hsiu; Su, Wei-Wen; Shie, Shian-Sen; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Su, Cheng-Wen; Ho, Wang-Jing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between Humphrey visual field progression and peripheral vascular endothelial function in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), assessed by noninvasive endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD).Forty OAG patients, among which 22 had normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and 18 had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were enrolled. Each enrolled patient underwent a thorough ophthalmological examination including the Humphrey visual field test and measurement of FMD via high-resolution 2-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery. Blood samples were evaluated for biochemistry and lipid profiles as well as levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The annual change of threshold sensitivity of the visual field in each test location were analyzed with pointwise linear regression. The correlation between long-term visual field progression and FMD was evaluated.A mean follow-up of 7.47 ± 1.84 years revealed a faster progression rate over the superior visual field in all 40 OAG patients (superior field -0.24 ± 0.67 dB/y, inferior field -0.10 ± 0.59 dB/y, P = 0.37). However, only the annual sensitivity change of the inferior peripheral field showed correlation with baseline FMD. There was no significant difference in the change slope of visual field between NTG and POAG patients.A correlation between baseline brachial artery FMD and visual field progression was observed in the inferior peripheral field in patients with NTG and POAG. This result suggests that peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction may be related to glaucoma progression. PMID:26962832

  18. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for primary open angle glaucoma: six-year follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koev, Krassimir

    2005-04-01

    In order to establish the long-term efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma [POAG], trabecular meshwork of 34 eyes (21 patients) with POAG was treated with Q-switched frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser with wavelength of 532 nm Coherent Selecta 7000 (SLT). The eyes were divided in two groups: group 1-18 eyes with pigmentation degree in the frontal chamber angle of 1 and 2; group 2-16 eyes with pigmentation degree of 3 and 4. An average of 104 spots on 360 degrees was applied stepwise to the trabecular meshwork of every eye. The treatment and follow up period lasted 6 years. The mean prepoerative intraocular pressure [IOP] in group 1 was 25,5+/-1,5 mmHg, and in group 2-26+/-1 mmHg. During the last visit 6 years after SLT, the mean IOP in group 1 was 18,7+/-1.4 mmHg. Statistically significant decrease of IOP [p<0.001] was observed after SLT by an average of 6,8 mmHg [26.7%]. During the last visit 6 years after SLT in group 2, the mean IOP was 18.8+/-1.2 mmHg. Statistically significant IOP decrase method for POAG treatment and that IOP decrase in treated eyes is preserved for several years.

  19. Aeroacoustic Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear in an Open Jet Facility Using FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida s open-jet acoustic facility known as UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver, FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions compare favorably with the measured data. Unsteady flowfield data obtained from the FUN3D code are used as input to a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the sound pressure levels at microphones placed in the farfield. Significant improvement in predicted noise levels is obtained when the flowfield data from the open jet UFAFF simulations is used as compared to the case using flowfield data from the closed-wall BART configuration.

  20. High-energy-density electron jet generation from an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T. P. Shao, F. Q.; Zou, D. B.; Ge, Z. Y.; Zhang, G. B.; Wang, W. Q.; Li, X. H.; Liu, J. X.; Ouyang, J. M.; Yu, W.; Luan, S. X.; Wang, J. W.; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-01-14

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we propose a scheme for strong coupling of a petawatt laser with an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasmas. When relevant parameters are properly chosen, most laser energy can be fully deposited inside the cone with only 10% leaving the tip opening. Due to the asymmetric ponderomotive acceleration by the strongly decayed laser pulse, high-energy-density electrons with net laser energy gain are accumulated inside the cone, which then stream out of the tip opening continuously, like a jet. The jet electrons are fully relativistic, with speeds around 0.98−0.998 c and densities at 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} level. The jet can keep for a long time over 200 fs, which may have diverse applications in practice.

  1. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures. PMID:26892169

  2. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures.

  3. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures. PMID:26892169

  4. Airborne Multi-Angle Hyper-Spectral Measurements of White Caps on the Open Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laveigne, J.; Cairns, B.; Diner, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    The influence of whitecaps on the atmospheric correction of ocean color measurements is highly dependent on the spectral variation of albedo that is assumed for the whitecaps. Field measurements of breaking waves in the surf zone indicate a strong spectral variation in whitecap reflectance with the reflectance at 1650 nm nm decreasing by 95% relative to that at 440 nm. The cause of this spectral variation is thought to be the strong absorption by water at longer wavelengths that attenuates light reflected from submerged bubbles. Measurements made during an ocean cruise suggest that the magnitude of this decrease is typically less in the open ocean where the wave breaking is less violent and bubbles are not injected as deep into the water. Nonetheless, even in the open ocean, when whitecaps are large and bright similar decreases in reflectance from 440 nm to 860 nm to those observed in the surf zone are seen. Unfortunately, although measurements in the vicinity of 1600 and 2200 nm are important for remote sensing of aerosols and the atmospheric correction of ocean color measurements, the longest wavelength used for the open ocean measurements was 860 nm. Information about typical reflectance decreases from 440 nm to these longer wavelengths is therefore missing. One approach to remedying this absence of information about the spectral variation of white cap albedo across the solar spectrum is to use an airborne imaging spectrometer. However, a significant difficulty in using airborne, or ship-borne, instrumentation to measure the spectral albedo of whitecaps is the contamination of data by sun glitter. It is usually much more difficult than anticipated to filter data to reject glitter, even for ship-borne measurements with a television camera that provides a visual reference. This means that most data that is reported is obtained under overcast conditions. One approach to alleviating the problems caused by sun glitter is to using multi-angle remote sensing. If

  5. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S.; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Lee, David A.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20–79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  6. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  7. A computational study of asymmetric glottal jet deflection during phonation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Mittal, R; Bielamowicz, S

    2011-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to explore the mechanism for asymmetric deflection of the glottal jet during phonation. The model employs the full Navier-Stokes equations for the flow but a simple laryngeal geometry and vocal-fold motion. The study focuses on the effect of Reynolds number and glottal opening angle with a particular emphasis on examining the importance of the so-called "Coanda effect" in jet deflection. The study indicates that the glottal opening angle has no substantial effect on glottal jet deflection. Deflection in the glottal jet is always preceded by large-scale asymmetry in the downstream portion of the glottal jet. A detailed analysis of the velocity and vorticity fields shows that these downstream asymmetric vortex structures induce a flow at the glottal exit which is the primary driver for glottal jet deflection. PMID:21476669

  8. A computational study of asymmetric glottal jet deflection during phonation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X.; Mittal, R.; Bielamowicz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to explore the mechanism for asymmetric deflection of the glottal jet during phonation. The model employs the full Navier–Stokes equations for the flow but a simple laryngeal geometry and vocal-fold motion. The study focuses on the effect of Reynolds number and glottal opening angle with a particular emphasis on examining the importance of the so-called “Coanda effect” in jet deflection. The study indicates that the glottal opening angle has no substantial effect on glottal jet deflection. Deflection in the glottal jet is always preceded by large-scale asymmetry in the downstream portion of the glottal jet. A detailed analysis of the velocity and vorticity fields shows that these downstream asymmetric vortex structures induce a flow at the glottal exit which is the primary driver for glottal jet deflection. PMID:21476669

  9. Numerical study of pressure fluctuations in different guide vanes' opening angle in pump mode of a pump turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. K.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical model based on a pumped storage power station was built to develop the numerical simulation, to analyze the pressure fluctuations in a pump turbine in different guide vanes' opening angle. The different guide vanes' opening angles were simulated using the SST k-ω turbulence model and SIMPLEC Pressure-Velocity coupling scheme. The pressure sensor were placed in mainly three positions, they are: bottom ring between runner and the wicket gates, downstream and left side in the draft tube cone below the runner. All the peak to peak values of pressure fluctuation meet signal probability of 97%. The frequency is gained by Fast Fourier Transform. The pressure fluctuations in different positions of the model in pump condition were showed when the guide vanes' opening angels were different. The simulation results confirmed the results gained in model tests. The results show that pressure fluctuations in design opening angle were much lower than those in off design opening angle. The main source of pressure fluctuations between runner and guide vanes is rotor stator interaction. While a lower frequency is the main frequency of the pressure fluctuation in draft tube.

  10. The Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study: Baseline Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Emily S.; Sankar, Prithvi S.; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Regina, Meredith; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Salowe, Rebecca J.; Rhodes, Allison L.; Merritt, William T.; Chua, Michael; Trachtman, Benjamin T.; Gudiseva, Harini V.; Collins, David W.; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Nichols, Charles; Henderer, Jeffrey; Ying, Gui-shuang; Varma, Rohit; Jorgenson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline characteristics of the Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study cohort, the largest African-American primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) population recruited at a single institution (University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute) to date. Design Population-based, cross-sectional, case-control study. Participants 2,520 African-American subjects 35 years and older, recruited from the greater Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. Methods Each subject underwent a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview assessed demographic, behavioral, medical, and ocular risk factors. Current zip codes surrounding the University of Pennsylvania were recorded and United States census data were queried to infer socioeconomic status. The eye exam included measurement of visual acuity and intraocular pressure, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination including gonioscopy, dilated fundus and optic disc examination, visual fields, stereo disc photography, optical coherence tomography imaging, and measurement of central corneal thickness. Main Outcome Measures The baseline characteristics of gender, age, and glaucoma diagnosis were collected. Body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and alcohol and tobacco use, as well as ocular conditions including blindness, cataract, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and use of ocular medication and surgery, were examined. Median population density, income, education level, and other socioeconomic measures were determined for the study cohort. Results Of the 2,520 African-Americans recruited to the POAAGG study to date, 2,067 (82.0%) including 807 controls and 1,260 POAG cases met all inclusion criteria and completed the detailed clinical ocular exam. Cases were more likely to have a lower BMI (p<0.01) and report a history of blindness (visual acuity of 20/200 or worse, p<0.001), while controls

  11. Anti-Neurotrophic Effects from Autoantibodies in Adult Diabetes Having Primary Open Angle Glaucoma or Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Zimering, Mark B.; Moritz, Thomas E.; Donnelly, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To test for anti-endothelial and anti-neurotrophic effects from autoantibodies in subsets of diabetes having open-angle glaucoma, dementia, or control subjects. Methods: Protein-A eluates from plasma of 20 diabetic subjects having glaucoma or suspects and 34 age-matched controls were tested for effects on neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells or endothelial cell survival. The mechanism of the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies’ neurite-inhibitory effect was investigated in co-incubations with the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 or the sulfated proteoglycan synthesis inhibitor sodium chlorate. Stored protein-A eluates from certain diabetic glaucoma or dementia subjects which contained long-lasting, highly stable cell inhibitory substances were characterized using mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing. Results: Diabetic primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or suspects (n = 20) or diabetic dementia (n = 3) autoantibodies caused significantly greater mean inhibition of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (p < 0.0001) compared to autoantibodies in control diabetic (n = 24) or non-diabetic (n = 10) subjects without glaucoma (p < 0.01). Neurite inhibition by the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies was completely abolished by 10 μM concentrations of Y27632 (n = 4). It was substantially reduced by 30 mM concentrations of sodium chlorate (n = 4). Peak, long-lasting activity survived storage ×5 years at 0–4°C and was associated with a restricted subtype of Ig kappa light chain. Diabetic glaucoma or dementia autoantibodies (n = 5) caused contraction and process retraction in quiescent cerebral cortical astrocytes effects which were blocked by 5 μM concentrations of Y27632. Conclusion: These data suggest that autoantibodies in subsets of adult diabetes having POAG (glaucoma suspects) and/or dementia inhibit neurite outgrowth and promote a reactive astrocyte morphology by a mechanism which may involve

  12. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Insertion in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Kim, Tae-Woo; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Eun Ji; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1) ALI distance (ALID)—the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) to the ALI; and (2) marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD)—the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian. Results Both ALID (256±54 vs. 209±37 µm, mean ± SD, p<0.001) and mALCSD (232±63 vs. 187±40 µm, p<0.001) were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o′clock and 11.5 o′clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group. Conclusions The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation. PMID:25531761

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TIBIAL SLOPE ANGLE AND PATELLAR HEIGHT AFTER MEDIAL-OPENING TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Mozella, Alan; Vieira Costa, Marcos Areias; de Araujo Barros Cobra, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the variation in posterior tibial slope angle and patellar height in patients who underwent proximal tibial valgus-producing osteotomy using the medial-opening wedge technique. Methods: Anteroposterior panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral radiographs of the knee obtained before and after tibial valgus-producing osteotomy on 46 patients with unicompartmental arthrosis of the knee were analyzed. Results: In 23 patients, an external fixator was used to gradually apply a medial-opening wedge; and in the other 23, a blocked plate with a stop bar was applied as a fixation method. Patients with tricompartmental knee disease and those who underwent osteotomy to treat fracture sequelae were excluded from this study. After surgery, the mean increase in the tibial slope was 1.7 degrees (p < 0.01) in the group in which the blocked plate with a stop bar was used; and 2.7 degrees (p < 0.05) in the group in which the external fixator was used. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding the increase in the posterior tibial slope. Conclusion: The patellar height did not present any change in the cases in which the plate was used, when measured using the Insall-Salvati method, but it presented a decrease in 11 cases (47.8%) when the Caton-Deschamps method was applied. The same tendency was observed regarding change in the patellar height in the cases in which the external fixator was used, such that a decrease was observed in eight cases (34.7%) only when measured using the Caton-Deschamps method. PMID:27047847

  14. Torque Enhancement, Spin Equilibrium, and Jet Power from Disk-Induced Opening of Pulsar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of a rotating star’s magnetic field with a surrounding plasma disk lies at the heart of many questions posed by neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We consider the opening of stellar magnetic flux due to differential rotation along field lines coupling the star and disk, using a simple model for the disk-opened flux, the torques exerted on the star by the magnetosphere, and the power extracted by the electromagnetic wind. We examine the conditions under which the system enters an equilibrium spin state, in which the accretion torque is instantaneously balanced by the pulsar wind torque alone. For magnetic moments, spin frequencies, and accretion rates relevant to accreting millisecond pulsars, the spin-down torque from this enhanced pulsar wind can be substantially larger than that predicted by existing models of the disk–magnetosphere interaction, and is in principle capable of maintaining spin equilibrium at frequencies less than 1 kHz. We speculate that this mechanism may account for the non-detection of frequency increases during outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and may be generally responsible for preventing spin-up to sub-millisecond periods. If the pulsar wind is collimated by the surrounding environment, the resulting jet can satisfy the power requirements of the highly relativistic outflows from Cir X-1 and Sco X-1. In this framework, the jet power scales relatively weakly with accretion rate, {L}{{j}}\\propto {\\dot{M}}4/7, and would be suppressed at high accretion rates only if the stellar magnetic moment is sufficiently low.

  15. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies. PMID:26183286

  16. Selective laser trabeculoplasty in treating post-trabeculectomy advanced primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HONGYANG; YANG, YANGFAN; XU, JIANGANG; YU, MINBIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who could not obtain target intraocular pressure (IOP) through post-trabeculectomy medication. Sixteen patients with POAG (18 eyes), who could not obtain target IOP following medication and surgery, were treated with 360° SLT. The IOP, anterior chamber inflammation, and daytime and long-term IOP fluctuations before and 2 h, 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months after SLT were documented. SLT treatment success was defined as >20% IOP reduction compared with the baseline IOP at 6 and 9 months after the laser treatment date. Prior to SLT, the patients were administered different types (average, 2.8±0.8) of anti-glaucoma drugs and had an average IOP of 21.3±3.4 mmHg. Following SLT, the average IOP decreased to 16.2±3.0 mmHg and the success rate was 77.7%. The pre-SLT daytime IOP fluctuation was 4.1±1.4 mmHg, which decreased to 2.6±1.1 mmHg following the laser treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that SLT could reduce the IOP in post-trabeculectomy patients with POAG, and reduce the daytime IOP fluctuations. PMID:26998042

  17. Extracting Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma from Electronic Medical Records for Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Nicole A.; Farber-Eger, Eric; Goodloe, Robert; Haines, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are being widely implemented for use in genetic and genomic studies. As a phenotypic rich resource, EMRs provide researchers with the opportunity to identify disease cohorts and perform genotype-phenotype association studies. The Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study, has genotyped more than 15,000 individuals of diverse genetic ancestry in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s biorepository linked to a de-identified version of the EMR (EAGLE BioVU). Here we develop and deploy an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in African Americans from EAGLE BioVU for genetic association studies. The algorithm described here was designed using a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, and free text searches to identify POAG status in situations where gold-standard digital photography cannot be accessed. The case algorithm identified 267 potential POAG subjects but underperformed after manual review with a positive predictive value of 51.6% and an accuracy of 76.3%. The control algorithm identified controls with a negative predictive value of 98.3%. Although the case algorithm requires more downstream manual review for use in large-scale studies, it provides a basis by which to extract a specific clinical subtype of glaucoma from EMRs in the absence of digital photographs. PMID:26061293

  18. Ocular Decompression Retinopathy Following Canaloplasty for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Gai-Yun; Alantaree, Samer; Wang, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Ocular decompression retinopathy (ODR), a rare postoperative complication following glaucoma surgery, is characterized by the transient appearance of scattered retinal hemorrhages.Here, we present a unique case of ODR in a patient with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent canaloplasty. A 31-year-old male patient presented with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 60 mm Hg in the right eye. The IOP remained over 40 mm Hg, even when treated with maximum tolerated antiglaucoma medication. Canaloplasty drastically lowered IOP in the right eye from 40 to 7 mm Hg. However, fundus examination revealed ODR after surgery. The patient was treated with tobramycin and dexamethasone. Three months after canaloplasty, IOP remained in control at 16 mm Hg and all retinal hemorrhages had completely resolved.This case demonstrates that ODR can occur following canaloplasty and physicians should be aware of this potential complication in patients with severely elevated IOP. Sufficiently lowering IOP before surgery and gradually decreasing IOP during surgery may prevent ODR from occurring. PMID:26945386

  19. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A; Constable, Ian J; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h(2)g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h(2)g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h(2)g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  20. A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Allingham, R. Rand; Nakano, Masakazu; Jia, Liyun; Chen, Yuhong; Ikeda, Yoko; Mani, Baskaran; Chen, Li-Jia; Kee, Changwon; Garway-Heath, David F.; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Fuse, Nobuo; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Huang, Chukai; Namburi, Prasanthi; Burdon, Kathryn; Perera, Shamira A.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lin, Ying; Ueno, Morio; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Krishnadas, Subbiah Ramasamy; Osman, Essam A.; Lee, Mei Chin; Chan, Anita S.Y.; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A.; Do, Tan; Goncalves, Aurelien; Reynier, Pascal; Zhang, Hong; Bourne, Rupert; Goh, David; Broadway, David; Husain, Rahat; Negi, Anil K.; Su, Daniel H; Ho, Ching-Lin; Blanco, Augusto Azuara; Leung, Christopher K.S.; Wong, Tina T.; Yakub, Azhany; Liu, Yutao; Nongpiur, Monisha E.; Han, Jong Chul; Hon, Do Nhu; Shantha, Balekudaru; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, NiHong; Sato, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Kengo; Panda-Jonas, Songhomita; Ashley Koch, Allison E.; Herndon, Leon W.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Challa, Pratap; Foo, Jia Nee; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Simmons, Cameron P.; Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Sharmila, Philomenadin Ferdinamarie; Chew, Merwyn; Lim, Blanche; Tam, Pansy O.S.; Chua, Elaine; Ng, Xiao Yu; Yong, Victor H.K.; Chong, Yaan Fun; Meah, Wee Yang; Vijayan, Saravanan; Seongsoo, Sohn; Xu, Wang; Teo, Yik Ying; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Kang, Jae H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cheng, Ching Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Richards, Julia E.; Ritch, Robert; Gaasterland, Douglas E.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Liu, Jianjun; Jonas, Jost B.; Milea, Dan; George, Ronnie; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.; Mori, Kazuhiko; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Zhang, Mingzhi; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Vijaya, Lingam; Mackey, David A.; Wong, Tien Yin; Craig, Jamie E.; Sun, Xinghuai; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wiggs, Janey L.; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Ningli; Hauser, Michael A.; Tashiro, Kei; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10−33), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7–TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10−8). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis. PMID:25861811

  1. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  2. Fascicular Visual Field Defects in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluation with Microperimetry

    PubMed Central

    Fratipietro, Manuela; Malagola, Romualdo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Use of microperimetry (Mp-1), correlating with Humphrey perimetry (30-2 program), in patients affected by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with perimetric defects, in order to obtain an evaluation of the accuracy of the results obtained by Mp-1. Materials and Methods. In this study 40 eyes of 25 patients affected by POAG with perimetric defects were included. All patients underwent microperimetry test by Nidek Mp-1 (NAVIS software version 1.7.2, Nidek Technologies). Mean sensitivity values expressed in decibel (dB) of all tested dots and mean values for each quadrant obtained by microperimetric test were correlated with corresponding quadrants obtained by static perimetry analysis. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Interpolated data showed that mean sensitivity values in all spots tested by Mp-1 (11.98 dB, SD 4.31) may be significantly correlated with mean total values obtained by Humphrey 30-2 perimetry (17.95, SD 4.32), with correlation coefficient of 0.556. Conclusions. Topographic visualization of the perimetric alteration by microperimetry allows retesting areas with reduced sensitivity which are topographically visualized and displayable on the ocular fundus examination, avoiding worsening of the functional defect by better modulation of the antiglaucoma therapy and therefore it allows better monitoring of the pathologic functional damage. PMID:27366329

  3. Activity of lysosomal enzymes of blood in open-angle glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir A.; Stroev, Evgeney A.; Cherkunov, Boris P.; Mironenko, Larisa V.

    1997-05-01

    Recently more attention has been given to the role of the lysosomal enzymes in the development of various pathological conditions. There were indications on the participation of lysosomal ferments in the development of various eye diseases such as glaucoma. Studies on the (beta) - galactosidase and cathepsins B and D activity in the blood's serum of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were conducted. The activity of enzymes was determined by the spectrophotometry method. Cardiovascular and chronic lungs diseases accompanied ones in the main group. Patients included in the control group were of the same age and with the similar somatic patholegym. Statistically authentic galactosidase activity in the serum of patients with glaucoma as compared with control group was statistically unauthentic. Cathepsin B activity in the serum of patients with glaucoma was authentically increased at all stages of disease. In the contrary, cathepsin D activity increased at stages 2 and 3 in comparison with the control. On the basis of these studies we come to conclusion that primary glaucoma is accompanied by the increase of activity of cathepsins B and D in the serum.

  4. [Functional morphology of the outflow pathways of aqueous humor and their changes in open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Tamm, E R

    2013-11-01

    Aqueous humor exits the eye through the trabecular and uveoscleral outflow pathways. Under normal conditions intraocular pressure is maintained in the trabecular outflow pathways in which aqueous humor passes through the trabecular meshwork into Schlemm's canal. Intraocular pressure is generated through an outflow resistance in the juxtacanalicular region which consists of juxtacanalicular tissue and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal. The resistance of this region is under the influence of two contractile systems, the anterior longitudinal portion of the ciliary muscle and the contractile myofibroblast-like cells in the trabecular outflow pathways. Resistance is lowered through contraction of the ciliary muscle or relaxation of the contractile cells in the trabecular outflow pathways. In primary open angle glaucoma, resistance in the juxtacanalicular region is abnormally high. The cause of the increase is related to an increased activity in transforming growth factor beta and connective tissue growth factor signaling. The cells of the trabecular meshwork outflow pathways are stimulated to form a stronger contractile phenotype involving both an increase in the actin cytoskeleton and the surrounding fibrillar extracellular matrix. As a result there is an increase in cellular tone in the trabecular outflow pathways leading to an increase in rigidity and outflow resistance. PMID:24231909

  5. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Sabel, Bernhard A.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Hongwei; Li, Jianhong; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Ningli; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/2), amygdala and hippocampus. While VBA showed no significant differences in the gray matter volumes of patients, SBA revealed significantly reduced cortical thickness in the right frontal pole and ROI-based analysis volume shrinkage in LGN bilaterally, right V1 and left amygdala. Structural abnormalities were correlated with clinical parameters in a subset of the patients revealing that the left LGN volume was negatively correlated with bilateral cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), the right LGN volume was positively correlated with the mean deviation of the right visual hemifield, and the right V1 cortical thickness was negatively correlated with the right CDR in glaucoma. These results demonstrate that POAG affects both vision-related structures and non-visual cortical regions. Moreover, alterations of the brain visual structures reflect the clinical severity of glaucoma. PMID:26743811

  6. An Updated Review on the Genetics of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amero, Khaled; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that by 2020 the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is estimated to increase to 76.0 million, and to 111.8 million by 2040 globally due to the population aging. The prevalence of POAG is the highest among those of African descent, followed by Asians, and the lowest in Europeans. POAG is a genetically complex trait with a substantial fraction exhibiting a significant heritability. Less than 10% of POAG cases in the general population are caused by specific gene mutations and the remaining cases are polygenic. Quantitative traits related to POAG pathogenesis such as intra-ocular pressure (IOP), vertical cup/disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area, and central corneal thickness (CCT) are highly heritable, and likely to be influenced at least in part by genes and show substantial variation in human populations. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at different loci including CAV1/CAV2, TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, CDC7-TGFBR3, SIX1/SIX6, GAS7 and ATOH7 to be associated with POAG and its related quantitative traits (endophenotypes). The chapter provides a brief overview on the different GWAS and SNP association studies and their correlation with various clinical parameters important for POAG in the population worldwide, including the Middle East. PMID:26690118

  7. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: A rarely reported association

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R.; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature. PMID:25230966

  8. Risk Factors for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) Progression: A Study Ruled in Torino

    PubMed Central

    Actis, A.G.; Versino, E.; Brogliatti, B.; Rolle, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this retrospective, observational study is to describe features of a population sample, affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in order to evaluate damage progression on the basis of the emerged individual risk factors. Methods: We included 190 caucasian patients (377 eyes), evaluating relationship between individual risk factors (explicative variables) and MD (Mean Deviation) of standard automated perimetry. We also considered the dependent variable NFI (Neural Fiber Index) of GDx scanning laser polarimetry. Progression has been evaluated through a statistic General Linear Model on four follow up steps (mean follow up 79 months). Results: Factors reaching statistical significance, determining a worsening of the MD variable, are: age (P<0.0001), intraocular pressure (IOP) at follow up (P < 0.0001), female gender (P<0.0001), hypertension (P< 0.0001) and familiarity (P = 0.0006). Factors reaching statistical significance, determining a worsening of the NFI variable, are only IOP at follow up (P = 0.0159) and depression (P = 0.0104). Conclusion: Results of this study confirm and enforce data coming from most recent studies: IOP remains the main risk factor for glaucoma assess and progression; age and familiarity are great risk factors as underlined in the last decades; female sex can be an important risk factors as emerged only in the last years; arterial hypertension should always be evaluated in timing of our clinic follow up. PMID:27347249

  9. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: a rarely reported association.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-08-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature. PMID:25230966

  10. Cosmic Ray Energy Determination by the Reduced-Opening Angle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1998-01-01

    The reduced opening angle technique offers a simple way with minimal model dependence to measure cosmic ray energies over a broad range with out any normalization uncertainties. The emulsion film and CR39 detectors proposed are well established techniques and should perform adequately. The analysis method depends on accurate automatic scanning of the CR39 plates. UAH have developed such a capability. With the proposed geometry energy measurements to approx. 5 TeV/a can be made. The expected iron event rate (E greater than or equal to 500 GeV/a) is 10/sq m day. The expected energy resolution, from accelerator calibrations at 200 GeV/a, is -50% to +80%. Since the absolute flux has some sensitivity to the assumed power law index it is essential that good energy resolution is obtained. The expected charge resolution is approx. 0.3 charge units for the CNO group falling to approx. 1 charge unit for the iron group. A suitable event trigger would be a measurable (greater than 2 micrometer) deflected heavy (Z greater than 2) fragment. One potential background is electromagnetic dissociation that predominantly couples to individual protons or alphas. Although the cross- sections can be appreciable such events will not pass the event trigger.

  11. Risk of open angle glaucoma due to tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mona Abdel; Moemen, Leqaa; Labib, Hany; Helmy, Hazem; Elsergany, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Axonal degeneration and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the risk of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in the Egyptian population and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms. Methods Sixty OAG patients and 26 healthy unrelated controls were used to analyze TNF-α polymorphism G-308A using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results the GG genotype was found at a higher frequency in the controls than in the patients, and the AA and GA genotypes were associated strongly with OAG. Conclusion In this study, we found that the TNF-α polymorphism G-308A was associated significantly with OAG in the Egyptian population. However, there is a need for population-based studies with large numbers of subjects. Also, long-term follow up is required to verify the association between TNF-α polymorphism G-308A and glaucoma susceptibility. PMID:27054008

  12. [Surgery in the treatment of primary advanced open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P P

    1995-01-01

    A series of 25 cases of advanced open-angle primitive glaucoma (C/D higher than 0.8, visual field stages C, D, E according to Greve's classification), operated upon by extended and adapted trabeculectomy, surgery being the initial step in the treatment of this affection, was reviewed. After a 18.5-month follow up, the progression of glaucoma was arrested in 60% of the cases, and a regression of papilloperimetric alterations was found in 8% of the cases. There was a significant correlation between the obtained IOP level and glaucoma course (in the cases with a favourable course postoperative IOP was of 15.5 mmHg, while in those evolving unfavorably IOP was of 18 mmHg). Our experience suggests that antiglaucoma surgery may be recommended as an initial treatment in those patients in whom a short-term drug trial (topic administration of 3 drugs for few days) induces a lowering of IOP to less than 15.5 mmHg, and life expectancy is not short. PMID:7766591

  13. [Effect of fundus image devices for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying-zi

    2009-10-01

    Evaluation of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer measurements (RNFL) with stereophotography is the current "gold standard" for the diagnosis of early primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), but it is still subjective and is dependent too much upon an experienced observer. Substantial variability exists in the interpretation of optic disc change over time. There are consistent evidences that image analysis devices such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT-II) can detect early to moderate glaucoma as well as expert assessment of stereoscopic optic disc and RNFL photographs. Optic disc and RNFL defect can be quantitatively measured by these devices. But the sensitivity and specificity of the measurements obtained with these devices are not good enough for the early diagnosis of POAG at this time due to several reasons, such as individual variety of the structure parameters in normal subjects, lack of powerful normative database, lack of diagnostic parameters which are good enough both in sensitivity and specificity for detecting early glaucoma damage. However, information obtained from these image analysis devices might be helpful in early POAG diagnosis if clinicians can understand the advantages and limitations of these instruments. PMID:20137444

  14. Progressive Thinning of Visual Cortex in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma of Varying Severity

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao; Xie, Bing; Liang, Minglong; Zhao, Lu; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes of cortical thickness in the visual cortex in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) of varying severity. Twenty normal controls (NC), 20 mild (MP) and 17 severe (SP) POAG patients were recruited and scanned using magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness analyses with regions of interest (V1, V2, ventral V3, V4 and V5/MT+) were used to assess the cortical changes among the three groups. Furthermore, the associations of cortical thickness with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and mean deviation of visual field were analyzed. Compared with the NC group, decreased cortical thickness was detected in the bilateral V5/MT+ areas in the MP group and the left V1, bilateral V2 and V5/MT+ areas in the SP group. Cortical thinning of the bilateral V2 areas was detected in the SP group compared with the MP group. In addition, cortical thinning of these visual areas was related to the ophthalmologic measurements. In conclusion, POAG patients exhibit cortical thinning in the bilateral V5/MT+ in the early stage of disease. The cortical degeneration in visual areas is discrepant with disease progressing and the dorsal pathway might be selectively damaged in POAG. Therefore, the cortical thinning of these visual areas may play a key role in the progression of POAG and can serve as a novel biomarker for accurately evaluating the severity of POAG. PMID:25816070

  15. Comparison of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Marcelo; Chen, Enping

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective The aim of the present study was to compare intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and inflammation after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) treatment in patients suffering from primary open angle (POAG) vs pseudoexfoliative (PXFG) glaucoma. Study design/patients and methods Sixty patients (60 eyes) participated in the study. Glaucoma patients (POAG or PXFG) scheduled for treatment with SLT were included. Inflammation was measured with a laser flare meter (Kowa FM-500). Measurements were made before SLT and 2 hours, 1 week, and 1 month after SLT treatment. IOP was also checked at the same time intervals. Results Inflammation after SLT showed no significant difference between the groups (t-test, before: P = 0.16; 2 hours: P = 0.14; 1 week: P = 0.12; and 1 month: P = 0.36). IOP reduction was the same in both groups (t-test, P = 0.27). Conclusion SLT safely reduces IOP in both POAG and PXFG. Pseudoexfoliation does not seem to be a risk factor for post-laser complications. PMID:22069348

  16. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertelmann, Thomas; Strempel, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM) has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG) received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG) did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared. Results A total of 25 (61%)/16 (39%) patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB) development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states), and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups. Conclusion Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. PMID:26543350

  17. Elevated Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Plasma of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuchtey, John; Kunkel, Jessica; Burgess, L. Goodwin; Parks, Megan B.; Brantley, Milam A.; Kuchtey, Rachel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To test the hypothesis that primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients have a systemic elevation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Methods. Plasma was prepared from blood samples drawn from patients of the Vanderbilt Eye Institute during clinic visits. Concentrations of total TGFβ1 and thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) in plasma were determined by ELISA. Statistical significance of differences between POAG and control samples was evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Regression analysis was used to evaluate correlations between plasma TGFβ1 and patient age and between plasma TGFβ1 and TSP1. Results. Plasma samples were obtained from 148 POAG patients and 150 controls. Concentration of total TGFβ1 in the plasma of POAG patients (median = 3.25 ng/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in controls (median = 2.46 ng/mL). Plasma TGFβ1 was not correlated with age of patient (P = 0.17). Thrombospondin-1 concentration was also significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in POAG patients (median = 0.774 μg/mL) as compared to controls (median = 0.567 μg/mL). Plasma total TGFβ1 and TSP1 concentrations were linearly correlated (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Plasma samples from POAG patients display elevated total TGFβ1 compared to controls, consistent with elevated systemic TGFβ1 in POAG patients. PMID:25061114

  18. Elevated urine formaldehyde in elderly patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Su, Tao; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Huang, Ping; He, Ying-Ge; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Ritch, Robert; He, Rong-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the risk factor of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), which is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. An abnormally high level of endogenous formaldehyde (FA) has recently been found correlated with cell death and neurodegenerative disease, raising the possibility of a putative correlation of abnormal endogenous FA with POAG. METHODS Thirty-four elderly patients with POAG and sixteen healthy controls were enrolled. Glaucomatous visual defects were present at both the functional (visual field) and structural [retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness] levels. Morning urine samples were obtained and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the endogenous FA level in a double blind manner. RESULTS Patients with POAG (P<0.05) had significantly higher urine FA levels. The urine FA level of patients with severe visual field defects [mean deviation (MD)≥12 dB] was significantly (P<0.001) greater than that of patients with mild to moderate defects (MD<12 dB). By optical coherence tomography (OCT), the superior and inferior RNFL thickness of POAG group was significantly (P<0.001) thinner than in controls. Furthermore, the superior and inferior thinning of the RNFL was correlated with the elevation of urine FA concentration. CONCLUSION Endogenous FA level is positively correlated with the neuronal defects of POAG. PMID:27158612

  19. Evaluation of the significance of some diagnostic parameters in making an early diagnose of primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Polaczek-Krupa, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic parameters and analysis of their advantages and limitations in early diagnostics of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Cup/disc ratio (C/D), nerve fiber index (NFI) and mean deviation of retinal sensitivity (MD) were considered. Material/Methods Fifty primary open-angle glaucoma patients (95 eyes), 67 primary open-angle glaucoma suspects (128 eyes), and 77 healthy subjects (148 eyes) underwent full ophthalmologic examination and also HRT, GDx and FDT examinations for determination of C/D, NFI, and MD parameters. Student’s t test was used to confirm the statistical significance of the differences between the particular group pairs. Histograms of distribution of the occurrence frequency of the parameter values in the groups were plotted. Results The mean values of C/D were 0.65±0.11, 0.58±0.11 and 0.43±0.11, NFI 37.0±22.7, 18.5±5.6 and 15.1±4.8 and MD −3.00±5.07, −077±2.49 and −0.29±1.94, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the particular groups were found. There was a partial overlapping of the histograms of distribution of the occurrence frequency of the parameter values. Conclusions The basic diagnostic C/D NFI and MD parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma patients, primary open-angle glaucoma suspects and healthy subjects differed significantly. These parameters are important diagnostic tools in glaucoma diagnosis. A limitation of their applicability is related to a high scatter of the results and their overlapping in particular groups. PMID:22739736

  20. Still Water: Dead Zones and Collimated Ejecta from the Impact of Granular Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellowitz, Jake; Turlier, Hervé; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Zhang, Wendy W.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2013-10-01

    When a dense granular jet hits a target, it forms a large dead zone and ejects a highly collimated conical sheet with a well-defined opening angle. Using experiments, simulations, and continuum modeling, we find that this opening angle is insensitive to the precise target shape and the dissipation mechanisms in the flow. We show that this surprising insensitivity arises because dense granular jet impact, though highly dissipative, is nonetheless controlled by the limit of perfect fluid flow.

  1. Effective Field Theory for Jet Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Rothen, Lorena; Shao, Ding Yu

    2016-05-01

    Processes involving narrow jets receive perturbative corrections enhanced by logarithms of the jet opening angle and the ratio of the energies inside and outside the jets. Analyzing cone-jet processes in effective field theory, we find that in addition to soft and collinear fields their description requires degrees of freedom that are simultaneously soft and collinear to the jets. These collinear-soft particles can resolve individual collinear partons, leading to a complicated multi-Wilson-line structure of the associated operators at higher orders. Our effective field theory provides, for the first time, a factorization formula for a cone-jet process, which fully separates the physics at different energy scales. Its renormalization-group equations control all logarithmically enhanced higher-order terms, in particular also the nonglobal logarithms.

  2. Effective Field Theory for Jet Processes.

    PubMed

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Rothen, Lorena; Shao, Ding Yu

    2016-05-13

    Processes involving narrow jets receive perturbative corrections enhanced by logarithms of the jet opening angle and the ratio of the energies inside and outside the jets. Analyzing cone-jet processes in effective field theory, we find that in addition to soft and collinear fields their description requires degrees of freedom that are simultaneously soft and collinear to the jets. These collinear-soft particles can resolve individual collinear partons, leading to a complicated multi-Wilson-line structure of the associated operators at higher orders. Our effective field theory provides, for the first time, a factorization formula for a cone-jet process, which fully separates the physics at different energy scales. Its renormalization-group equations control all logarithmically enhanced higher-order terms, in particular also the nonglobal logarithms. PMID:27232017

  3. Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Kim, Dai Woo; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC) posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes) and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes) were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID) was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch’s membrane openings (BMO). The mean LC depth (mLCD) was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated. Results The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). The LC curvature index was significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls on both the horizontal (85.8 ± 34.1 vs. 68.2 ± 32.3 μm) and vertical meridians (49.8 ± 38.5 vs. 32.2 ± 31.1 μm, all P < 0.001). Multivariate regression showed significant associations of greater disc area (P < 0.001), vertical C/D ratio (P < 0.001) and mLCD (P < 0.001), smaller rim area (P = 0.001), thinner average RNFLT (P < 0.001), and myopic refraction (P = 0.049) with increased LC curvature index. There was no difference in the LC curvature index between mild (MD > –6 dB) and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < –6 dB, P = 0.95). Conclusions LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH) changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change. PMID:26963816

  4. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  5. Association Between Statin Use and Open-angle Glaucoma in Hyperlipidemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the association between statin use and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) risk in hyperlipidemia patients. We used the research database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to conduct a population-based case-control study. A total of 1276 patients with newly diagnosed OAG were identified from 2004 to 2011. Controls comprised of 12,760 patients without glaucoma and were frequency-matched for age, sex, history of diabetes mellitus, and year of hyperlipidemia diagnosis at a 1:10 ratio. Accumulated defined daily doses (DDDs) of statins prescribed during follow-up were calculated. Average statin use was calculated as the sum of DDDs divided by the duration from the initial statin prescription date to the index date (per year), and was subdivided into 3 levels: <30, 30 to 119, and ≥120 DDDs. Comorbidity, including hypertension, depression, and the Charlson comorbidity index, the frequency of eye care visits, and the use of nonstatin cholesterol-lowering drugs, were all considered as confounding factors. For the group with statin use, the adjusted odds ratio of OAG was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.90–1.15) when compared with the group without statin use. Subanalysis showed that a high dosage of statin use (≥120 DDD/y) resulted in a1.24-fold increased risk of OAG (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.49). The incidence of OAG was increased with the increase of the dosage of statin use (P for trend = 0.0458). Clinicians should be cautious of hyperlipidemia patients with a high dosage of statin use because it might be associated with an increased risk of OAG. Ophthalmologist consultation is necessary for this high-risk group. PMID:26559301

  6. Stab Incision Glaucoma Surgery: A Modified Guarded Filtration Procedure for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Soosan; Figus, Michele; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Areeckal Incy, Saijimol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a modified guarded filtration surgery, stab incision glaucoma surgery (SIGS), for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This prospective, interventional case series included patients with POAG (IOP ≥21 mmHg with glaucomatous visual field defects). After sliding superior conjunctiva down over limbus, 2.8 mm bevel-up keratome was used to create conjunctival entry and superficial corneoscleral tunnel in a single step starting 1.5 mm behind limbus. Lamellar corneoscleral tunnel was carefully dissected 0.5–1 mm into cornea and anterior chamber (AC) was entered. Kelly Descemet's punch (1 mm) was slid along the tunnel into AC to punch internal lip of the tunnel, thereby compromising it. Patency of ostium was assessed by injecting fluid in AC and visualizing leakage from tunnel. Conjunctival incision alone was sutured. Results. Mean preoperative IOP was 27.41 ± 5.54 mmHg and mean postoperative IOP was 16.47 ± 4.81 mmHg (n = 17). Mean reduction in IOP was 38.81 ± 16.55%. There was significant reduction of IOP (p < 0.000). 64.7% had IOP at final follow-up of <18 mmHg without medication and 82.35% had IOP <18 mmHg with ≤2 medications. No sight threatening complications were encountered. Conclusion. Satisfactory IOP control was noted after SIGS in interim follow-up (14.18 ± 1.88 months). PMID:27144015

  7. Comparison of Prelaminar Thickness between Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youn Hea; Park, Hae-Young L.; Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-01-01

    Main Objective The thinning of prelaminar tissue and prelamina cupping is known to occur by ischemia, as we see in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Since normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is thought to be more related to vascular factor than in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), we hypothesized that prelamina thinning may occur prominently in NTG patients. This study investigated the difference in prelaminar tissue thickness between patients with POAG and NTG and verified the factors related to prelaminar thinning. Methods Complete ophthalmic examination including standard automatic perimetry was performed in all patients. The prelaminar tissue thickness was measured in all patients by performing enhanced depth imaging with a Heidelberg Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography. The retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters were obtained using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography II and Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography. Various ocular factors and their relationships with prelaminar thickness were analyzed. Results The mean prelaminar tissue thickness was significantly thinner in patients with POAG than in those with NTG. The difference in the prelaminar thickness between patients with POAG and those with NTG was greater in the early field defect group than in the moderate and severe field groups. In multivariate analysis, the mean prelaminar thickness was related to the intraocular pressure, mean deviation, cup-disc ratio, and cup volume. Conclusions The prelaminar tissue was thinner in patients with POAG than in patients with NTG, and intraocular pressure had a strong influence on the prelaminar thickness in both POAG and NTG. This may indicate that mechanical compression is the main pathogenic factor in both POAG and NTG. PMID:25793734

  8. Axial Myopia Is Associated with Visual Field Prognosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chen; Qian, Shaohong; Sun, Xinghuai; Zhou, Chuandi; Meng, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify whether myopia was associated with the visual field (VF) progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A total of 270 eyes of 270 POAG followed up for more than 3 years with ≥9 reliable VFs by Octopus perimetry were retrospectively reviewed. Myopia was divided into: mild myopia (-2.99 diopter [D], 0), moderate myopia (-5.99, 3.00 D), marked myopia (-9.00, -6.00 D) and non-myopia (0 D or more). An annual change in the mean defect (MD) slope >0.22 dB/y and 0.30 dB/y was defined as fast progression, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to determine prognostic factors for VF progression. Results For the cutoff threshold at 0.22 dB/y, logistic regression showed that vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR; p = 0.004) and the extent of myopia (p = 0.002) were statistically significant. When logistic regression was repeated after excluding the extent of myopia, axial length (AL; p = 0.008, odds ratio [OR] = 0.796) reached significance, as did VCDR (p = 0.001). Compared to eyes with AL≤23 mm, the OR values were 0.334 (p = 0.059), 0.309 (p = 0.044), 0.266 (p = 0.019), 0.260 (p = 0.018), respectively, for 23 26 mm. The significance of vertical cup-to-disk ratio of (p = 0.004) and the extent of myopia (p = 0.008) did not change for the cutoff threshold at 0.30dB/y. Conclusions VCDR and myopia were associated with VF prognosis of POAG. Axial myopia may be a protective factor against VF progression. PMID:26214313

  9. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R2 = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R2 = −0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field. PMID:26923106

  10. Ethnic specific association of the CAV1/CAV2 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Shi Song; Chen, Li Jia; Leung, Christopher K. S.; Matsushita, Kenji; Jia, Liyun; Miki, Atsuya; Chiang, Sylvia W. Y.; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Hashida, Noriyasu; Young, Alvin L.; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Ningli; Nishida, Kohji; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4236601 at the CAV1/CAV2 locus is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Rs4236601 is common in Caucasians but rare in East Asians. Here we conducted a haplotype-tagging SNP analysis followed by replication in a total of 848 POAG cases and 1574 controls drawn from 3 cities in China and 1 city in Japan. Two SNPs, rs4236601 (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; P = 0.0086) and a tagging-SNP rs3801994 (OR = 1.32; P = 0.042), were associated with POAG in the Hong Kong Chinese cohort after age and gender adjustments. Rs4236601 was associated with POAG also in Shantou (OR = 6.09; P = 0.0037) and Beijing (OR = 3.92; P = 0.030) cohorts after age and gender adjustment, with a pooled-OR of 5.26 (P = 9.0 × 10−6) in Chinese; but it is non-polymorphic in the Osaka cohort. SNP rs3801994 showed a similar trend of effect in the Shantou and Beijing cohorts, with a pooled-OR of 1.23 (P = 0.022) and 1.20 (P = 0.063) in Chinese, prior to and after age and gender adjustment, respectively; but it showed a reverse effect in the Osaka cohort (OR = 0.58; P = 0.033) after the adjustments. We have thus confirmed the association of rs4236601 with POAG in different Chinese cohorts. Also, we found a common SNP rs3801994 of diverse associations with POAG between Chinese and Japanese. PMID:27297022

  11. A new empirical calibration of the quartz c-axis fabric opening-angle deformation thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiros, F. M.; Moraes, R.; Pavan, M.; Campanha, G. A. C.

    2016-03-01

    The opening-angle of quartz c-axis fabrics (OA) is strongly temperature dependent and has proven to be a powerful deformation thermometer for natural metamorphic rocks. Previous considerations of empirical data have identified a linear correlation between OA and temperature between 250 and 650 °C, and no correlation above 650 °C. However, possible effects of pressure have not been investigated. We expanded the data set of OA versus temperature, including data from rocks deformed over 300-1050 °C and 2.5-15 kbar. Disregarding possible effects of pressure, the OA-temperature relationship can be described by two linear correlations for the intervals ~ 250-650 °C and ~ 650-1050 °C: The change on the curve slope of the OA-temperature relationship correlates approximately to the low- to high-quartz transition and to changes in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism from subgrain rotation to grain boundary migration. The available data suggest that pressure has a secondary effect accompanying the major temperature dependence of OA, which is particularly important for temperatures above 650 °C, where the correlation between OA and temperature is less pronounced. For fixed pressures, the OA has logarithmic relationships with temperature over the range 250-1050 °C. The following thermometer equation is formulated from a multiple regression: An uncertainty of ± 50 °C is inherited from the petrological temperature estimates of the natural samples. The data suggest the gradual increasing importance of prism [c] slip relative to < a > slip in quartz with rising temperature. Under conditions of 'average' geological strain rate and water weakening, prism [c] slip dominates for deformation above ~ 700 °C.

  12. Nailfold Capillary Abnormalities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Hanyuda, Akiko; Ren, Ai; Giovingo, Michael; Greenstein, Scott H.; Cousins, Clara; Patrianakos, Thomas; Tanna, Angelo P.; Wanderling, Christopher; Norkett, William; Wiggs, Janey L.; Green, Kelsey; Kang, Jae H.; Knepper, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is considerable evidence for systemic vascular dysfunction in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed nailfold capillary video microscopy to observe directly the nature of nonocular microvasculature abnormalities in POAG. Methods We enrolled 199 POAG patients and 124 control subjects from four sites. We used JH-1004 capillaroscopes to perform nailfold capillary video microscopy on the fourth and fifth digits of each subject's nondominant hand. Videos were evaluated for hemorrhages, dilated capillary loops > 50 μm, and avascular zones > 100 μm by graders masked to case status. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POAG were obtained by means of logistic regression analyses that were applied to data from all cases and controls. Corresponding estimates of moderate or severe POAG versus mild POAG (based on the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish scale) were obtained among cases only. Results After controlling for demographic factors, family history of glaucoma, systemic diseases, and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, for each 100 nailfold capillaries assessed, all types of microvascular abnormalities were significantly associated with POAG. Specifically, the presence of any dilated capillaries (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6–5.6), avascular zones (OR = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7–11.3) and hemorrhages (OR = 12.2; 95% CI, 5.9–25.1) were associated with POAG. Among cases, the frequency of microvascular abnormalities was not associated with glaucoma severity (P ≥ 0.43). Conclusions These data provided support for nonocular capillary bed abnormalities in POAG. Comparable vascular abnormalities in the optic nerve may render it susceptible to glaucomatous damage. PMID:26523386

  13. Association between systemic oxidative stress and visual field damage in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanito, Masaki; Kaidzu, Sachiko; Takai, Yasuyuki; Ohira, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Local and systemic oxidative stress in intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and optic nerve damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. We reported previously that a lower level of systemic antioxidative capacity is associated with IOP elevation in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). We assessed the correlation between the visual field sensitivity value, i.e., mean deviation (MD), and systemic levels of prooxidants and antioxidants by analyzing the blood biochemistry in 202 patients with glaucoma. Serum levels of lipid peroxides, ferric-reducing activity, and thiol antioxidant activity were measured using the diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and sulfhydryl (SH) tests, respectively, using a free-radical analyzer. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested a positive correlation between MD and BAP (R = 0.005 and P = 0.0442 by a multiple regression model adjusted for seven demographic parameters), but no significant associations between the MD and the dROM (R = 0.002 and P = 0.8556) and SH tests (R = −0.001 and P = 0.8280). Use of more antiglaucoma medication and primary OAG rather than normal tension glaucoma also were associated significantly with worse visual field damage. This large and comprehensive assessment of the association between systemic redox status and visual field damage in OAG suggests that lower systemic antioxidant capacity measured by ferric-reducing activity is associated with more severe visual field damage in OAG that partly explained its roles in IOP elevation. PMID:27165400

  14. Intraocular pressure after phacoemulsification in patients with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, R; Corbu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rationale (hypothesis). Although cataract and glaucoma represent an increasingly common situation encountered concomitantly, the management of this association is still debatable. Objective (aim). We aimed to assess intraocular pressure dynamics after phacoemulsification in patients with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods and Results. The present study was designed as a prospective, non-randomized, cohort study. The study population comprised of 38 patients with medically uncontrolled POAG who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification between 2011 and 2012. Most of the patients (32/38, 84.2%) needed glaucoma surgery after a variable time (mean time between surgeries was 11.6 +/- 4.18 months). Mean preoperative IOP decreased with 2,1 +/- 3,7 mmHg at 6 months (CI 95% 1.96 to 3.56) and with 1,9 +/- 3,9 mmHg at 12 months compared with the baseline IOP. Postoperative IOP was statistically significant lower compared with its preoperative value at 6 months (p=9.11 x 10⁻⁸) and at one year (p=9.2 x 10⁻⁵). The difference between mean IOP at 6 months and 1 year after cataract surgery was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Preoperatively, all the patients received topical antiglaucoma therapy. After phacoemulsification, their number did not change statistically significant, but it showed a slight increase. Average number of topical glaucoma medications used preoperatively was 2.66 + / -0.66, while at 6 months after surgery it was 2.71 + / - 0,75 and at 12 months postoperatively, 2.9 +/- 0.53. Discussion. IOP decreased statistically significant after phacoemulsification in patients with uncontrolled POAG, but the decrease was not sufficient for optimal glaucoma management; therefore, many patients needed subsequent glaucoma surgery. PMID:24653751

  15. Mitochondrial Sequence Variation in African-American Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David W.; Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin T.; Jerrehian, Matthew; Gorry, Thomasine; Merritt III, William T.; Rhodes, Allison L.; Sankar, Prithvi S.; Regina, Meredith; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; O’Brien, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of blindness and results from irreversible retinal ganglion cell damage and optic nerve degeneration. In the United States, POAG is most prevalent in African-Americans. Mitochondrial genetics and dysfunction have been implicated in POAG, and potentially pathogenic sequence variations, in particular novel transversional base substitutions, are reportedly common in mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) from POAG patient blood. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of sequence variation in mtDNA from African-American POAG patients and determine whether novel nonsynonymous, transversional or other potentially pathogenic sequence variations are observed more commonly in POAG cases than controls. mtDNA from African-American POAG cases (n = 22) and age-matched controls (n = 22) was analyzed by deep sequencing of a single 16,487 base pair PCR amplicon by Ion Torrent, and candidate novel variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. Sequence variants were classified and interpreted using the MITOMAP compendium of polymorphisms. 99.8% of the observed variations had been previously reported. The ratio of novel variants to POAG cases was 7-fold lower than a prior estimate. Novel mtDNA variants were present in 3 of 22 cases, novel nonsynonymous changes in 1 of 22 cases and novel transversions in 0 of 22 cases; these proportions are significantly lower (p<.0005, p<.0004, p<.0001) than estimated previously for POAG, and did not differ significantly from controls. Although it is possible that mitochondrial genetics play a role in African-Americans’ high susceptibility to POAG, it is unlikely that any mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is due to an abnormally high incidence of novel mutations that can be detected in mtDNA from peripheral blood. PMID:24146900

  16. Mitochondrial sequence variation in African-American primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Collins, David W; Gudiseva, Harini V; Trachtman, Benjamin T; Jerrehian, Matthew; Gorry, Thomasine; Merritt, William T; Rhodes, Allison L; Sankar, Prithvi S; Regina, Meredith; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; O'Brien, Joan M

    2013-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of blindness and results from irreversible retinal ganglion cell damage and optic nerve degeneration. In the United States, POAG is most prevalent in African-Americans. Mitochondrial genetics and dysfunction have been implicated in POAG, and potentially pathogenic sequence variations, in particular novel transversional base substitutions, are reportedly common in mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) from POAG patient blood. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of sequence variation in mtDNA from African-American POAG patients and determine whether novel nonsynonymous, transversional or other potentially pathogenic sequence variations are observed more commonly in POAG cases than controls. mtDNA from African-American POAG cases (n = 22) and age-matched controls (n = 22) was analyzed by deep sequencing of a single 16,487 base pair PCR amplicon by Ion Torrent, and candidate novel variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. Sequence variants were classified and interpreted using the MITOMAP compendium of polymorphisms. 99.8% of the observed variations had been previously reported. The ratio of novel variants to POAG cases was 7-fold lower than a prior estimate. Novel mtDNA variants were present in 3 of 22 cases, novel nonsynonymous changes in 1 of 22 cases and novel transversions in 0 of 22 cases; these proportions are significantly lower (p<.0005, p<.0004, p<.0001) than estimated previously for POAG, and did not differ significantly from controls. Although it is possible that mitochondrial genetics play a role in African-Americans' high susceptibility to POAG, it is unlikely that any mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is due to an abnormally high incidence of novel mutations that can be detected in mtDNA from peripheral blood. PMID:24146900

  17. Ethnic specific association of the CAV1/CAV2 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rong, Shi Song; Chen, Li Jia; Leung, Christopher K S; Matsushita, Kenji; Jia, Liyun; Miki, Atsuya; Chiang, Sylvia W Y; Tam, Pancy O S; Hashida, Noriyasu; Young, Alvin L; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Ningli; Nishida, Kohji; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4236601 at the CAV1/CAV2 locus is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Rs4236601 is common in Caucasians but rare in East Asians. Here we conducted a haplotype-tagging SNP analysis followed by replication in a total of 848 POAG cases and 1574 controls drawn from 3 cities in China and 1 city in Japan. Two SNPs, rs4236601 (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; P = 0.0086) and a tagging-SNP rs3801994 (OR = 1.32; P = 0.042), were associated with POAG in the Hong Kong Chinese cohort after age and gender adjustments. Rs4236601 was associated with POAG also in Shantou (OR = 6.09; P = 0.0037) and Beijing (OR = 3.92; P = 0.030) cohorts after age and gender adjustment, with a pooled-OR of 5.26 (P = 9.0 × 10(-6)) in Chinese; but it is non-polymorphic in the Osaka cohort. SNP rs3801994 showed a similar trend of effect in the Shantou and Beijing cohorts, with a pooled-OR of 1.23 (P = 0.022) and 1.20 (P = 0.063) in Chinese, prior to and after age and gender adjustment, respectively; but it showed a reverse effect in the Osaka cohort (OR = 0.58; P = 0.033) after the adjustments. We have thus confirmed the association of rs4236601 with POAG in different Chinese cohorts. Also, we found a common SNP rs3801994 of diverse associations with POAG between Chinese and Japanese. PMID:27297022

  18. DNA Copy Number Variants of Known Glaucoma Genes in Relation to Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yutao; Garrett, Melanie E.; Yaspan, Brian L.; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John H.; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kang, Jae H.; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E.; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Allingham, R. Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Hauser, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the role of DNA copy number variants (CNVs) of known glaucoma genes in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Our study included DNA samples from two studies (NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN). All the samples were genotyped with the Illumina Human660W_Quad_v1 BeadChip. After removing non–blood-derived and amplified DNA samples, we applied quality control steps based on the mean Log R Ratio and the mean B allele frequency. Subsequently, data from 3057 DNA samples (1599 cases and 1458 controls) were analyzed with PennCNV software. We defined CNVs as those ≥5 kilobases (kb) in size and interrogated by ≥5 consecutive probes. We further limited our investigation to CNVs in known POAG-related genes, including CDKN2B-AS1, TMCO1, SIX1/SIX6, CAV1/CAV2, the LRP12-ZFPM2 region, GAS7, ATOH7, FNDC3B, CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, SRBD1, TBK1, and GALC. Results. Genomic duplications of CDKN2B-AS1 and TMCO1 were each found in a single case. Two cases carried duplications in the GAS7 region. Genomic deletions of SIX6 and ATOH7 were each identified in one case. One case carried a TBK1 deletion and another case carried a TBK1 duplication. No controls had duplications or deletions in these six genes. A single control had a duplication in the MYOC region. Deletions of GALC were observed in five cases and two controls. Conclusions. The CNV analysis of a large set of cases and controls revealed the presence of rare CNVs in known POAG susceptibility genes. Our data suggest that these rare CNVs may contribute to POAG pathogenesis and merit functional evaluation. PMID:25414181

  19. An updated meta-analysis: Apolipoprotein E genotypes and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Rongfeng; Ye, Minjie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods After a systematic literature search, all relevant studies evaluating the association between APOE polymorphisms and POAG were included. All statistical tests were calculated with Stata 11.0. Results Twelve independent studies on the APOE gene (1,971 cases, 1,756 controls) and POAG were included. A significant association between the APOE gene and POAG was found in the genetic model of ε4/ε4 versus ε3/ε3 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–3.88, p = 0.02). However, no association was detected in the models of ε2/ε2 versus ε3/ε3, ε2/ε3 versus ε3/ε3, ε2/ε4 versus ε3/ε3, ε3/ε4 versus ε3/ε3, allele ε2 versus allele ε3, and allele ε4 versus allele ε3. Subgroup analyses showed that a statistically significant association between the APOE gene and the risk of POAG existed in the genetic model of ε4/ε4 versus ε3/ε3 in Asians (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.06–11.87, p = 0.04). No association was identified between the APOE gene and the risk of POAG in Caucasians. Conclusions The present meta-analysis indicated that the ε4/ε4 genotype is associated with increased risk of POAG in Asians. PMID:25053873

  20. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants

    PubMed Central

    Balouch, F; Jalalian, E; Nikkheslat, M; Ghavamian, R; Toopchi, Sh; Jallalian, F; Jalalian, S

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. Purpose: This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray) on 15 degree angled implants. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants. The central implant was straight and the other two implants were 15° angled. The two angled implants had 5 cm distance from each other and 3.5 cm from the central implant. Dental stone, high strength (type IV) was used for the main casts. Impression trays were filled with poly ether, and then the two impression techniques (open tray and closed tray) were compared. To evaluate positions of the implants, each cast was analyzed by CMM device in 3 dimensions (x,y,z). Differences in the measurements obtained from final casts and laboratory model were analyzed using t-Test. Results: The obtained results indicated that closed tray impression technique was significantly different in dimensional accuracy when compared with open tray method. Dimensional changes were 129 ± 37μ and 143.5 ± 43.67μ in closed tray and open tray, while coefficient of variation in closed- tray and open tray were reported to be 27.2% and 30.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Closed impression technique had less dimensional changes in comparison with open tray method, so this study suggests that closed tray impression technique is more accurate. PMID:24724130

  1. Visualization research on high efficiency and low NOx combustion technology with multiple air-staged and large angle counter flow of fuel-rich jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Li, Y.; Lin, Z. C.; Fan, W. D.; Zhang, M. C.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a new technique for tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler, high efficiency and low NOx combustion technology with multiple air-staged and large angle counter flow of fuel-rich jet (ACCT for short), is proposed. Based on traditional air staged and rich-lean combustion technique, a NOx reduction area is introduced through air injection between primary combustion zone and secondary combustion zone. To verify the characters of this technique, experiment with a new developed visualization method, image processing on smog tracing with fractal dimension, is carried out on a cold model of 300 MW furnace designed with this technique. The result shows, compared to injection without counter flow, the center lines of counter flow injection go deeper into the chamber and form a smaller tangential circle, which means the rotating momentum of entire vortex is feebler and the exit gyration is weaker. It also shows that with counter flow, the fractal dimensions of boundary between primary jet and front fire side air is bigger, which means more intense turbulence and better mix. As a conclusion, with fractal dimension, image processing on smog tracing method can be a quantificational, convenient and effective visualization way without disturbing the flow field, and it's also acknowledged that ACCT has the following superiorities: high burn out rate, low NOx emission, stable burning, slagging preventing, and temp-bias reducing.

  2. Radiative jets from variable sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; de Colle, F.; Esquivel, A.; Kajdic, P.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Velázquez, P. F.

    2009-08-01

    We present a series of numerical simulations which explore different aspects of the formation of working surfaces in HH jets. These working surfaces can be at the head of the jet (resulting from a ``turning on'' of the ejection) or within the body of the jet (resulting from a time-variability of the ejection). We explore the effect of having a conical outflow of different opening angles and the effect of having a non-top hat ejection velocity cross section. We also illustrate the differences that are obtained by varying the resolution of the simulations, and by changing from 2D (axisymmetric) to 3D descriptions of the flow. Finally, we describe the effect of a toroidal magnetic field on the working surfaces of the jet.

  3. Anisotropy of partially self-absorbed jets and the jet of Cyg X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Paul, Debdutta; Osborne, Ruaraidh; Rao, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    We study the angular dependence of the flux from partially synchrotron self-absorbed conical jets (proposed by Blandford & Königl). We consider the jet viewed from either a side or close to on axis, and in the latter case, either from the jet top or bottom. We derive analytical formulae for the flux in each of these cases, and find the exact solution for an arbitrary angle numerically. We find that the maximum of the emission occurs when the jet is viewed from top on-axis, which is contrast to a previous result, which found the maximum at some intermediate angle and null emission on-axis. We then calculate the ratio of the jet-to-counterjet emission for this model, which depends on the viewing angle and the index of power-law electrons. We apply our results to the black-hole binary Cyg X-1. Given the jet-to-counterjet flux ratio of ga50 found observationally and the current estimates of the inclination, we find the jet velocity to be ≳ 0.8c. We also point out that when the projection effect is taken into account, the radio observations imply the jet half-opening angle of ≲ 1°, a half of the value given before. When combined with the existing estimates of Γj, the jet half-opening angle is low, ≪1/Γj, and much lower than values observed in blazars, unless Γj is much higher than currently estimated.

  4. Macular microvasculature alterations in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Yu, Jian; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate and compare macular microvasculature changes in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to normal eyes, and to assess associations among the retinal microvasculature, neural structural damage, and visual field loss.Ninety-nine eyes (68 patients with POAG and 31 normal subjects) were enrolled in this study. Thirty-five eyes with early-stage glaucoma (EG), 33 eyes with advanced-stage glaucoma (AG), and 31 normal eyes were included. An optical coherence tomography system with a split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm was used to measure the macular capillary vessel area density and retinal thickness. Visual field testing (30-2 and 10-2 programs) was performed using a Humphrey field analyzer. Correlations between the capillary vessel area density, retinal thickness, and visual field parameters were analyzed.Compared to normal eyes, those with EG and AG had a lower macular capillary vessel area density and lesser retinal thickness (P < 0.001, all). Results of multivariate linear regression analyses showed that each standard deviation (SD) decrease in the vessel area density was associated with a 1.5% and 4.2% thinning of the full retinal thickness and inner retinal layer thickness, respectively. Each SD decrease in the vessel area density was also associated with a 12.9% decrease in the mean sensitivity and a 33.6% increase in the pattern standard deviation (P < 0.001, both). The Pearson partial regression analysis model showed that the vessel area density was most strongly associated with the inner retinal layer thickness and inferior hemimacular thickness. Furthermore, a lower vessel area density was strongly associated with a more severe hemimacular visual field defect and the corresponding hemimacular retinal thickness.The macular capillary vessel area density and retinal thickness were significantly lower in eyes with POAG than in normal eyes. A diminished macular microvasculature network is closely associated with

  5. Relationship between visual field progression and baseline refraction in primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Umeda, Yuzo; Shiraga, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between visual field (VF) progression and baseline refraction in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) including normal-tension glaucoma. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, the subjects were patients with POAG who had undergone VF tests at least ten times with a Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm standard, Central 30-2 program). VF progression was defined as a significantly negative value of mean deviation (MD) slope at the final VF test. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to detect an association between MD slope deterioration and baseline refraction. Results A total of 156 eyes of 156 patients were included in this analysis. Significant deterioration of MD slope was observed in 70 eyes of 70 patients (44.9%), whereas no significant deterioration was evident in 86 eyes of 86 patients (55.1%). The eyes with VF progression had significantly higher baseline refraction compared to those without apparent VF progression (−1.9±3.8 diopter [D] vs −3.5±3.4 D, P=0.0048) (mean ± standard deviation). When subject eyes were classified into four groups by the level of baseline refraction applying spherical equivalent (SE): no myopia (SE > −1D), mild myopia (−1D ≥ SE > −3D), moderate myopia (−3D ≥ SE > −6D), and severe myopia (−6D ≥ SE), the Cochran–Armitage trend analysis showed a decreasing trend in the proportion of MD slope deterioration with increasing severity of myopia (P=0.0002). The multivariate analysis revealed that baseline refraction (P=0.0108, odds ratio [OR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.25) and intraocular pressure reduction rate (P=0.0150, OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99) had a significant association with MD slope deterioration. Conclusion In the current analysis of Japanese patients with POAG, baseline refraction was a factor significantly associated with MD slope deterioration as well as intraocular

  6. Measurement of the azimuthal angle dependence of inclusive jet yields in Pb+Pb collisions at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; 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Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M S; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-10-11

    Measurements of the variation of inclusive jet suppression as a function of relative azimuthal angle, Δφ, with respect to the elliptic event plane provide insight into the path-length dependence of jet quenching. ATLAS has measured the Δφ dependence of jet yields in 0.14 nb(-1) of √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC for jet transverse momenta p(T)>45 GeV in different collision centrality bins using an underlying event subtraction procedure that accounts for elliptic flow. The variation of the jet yield with Δφ was characterized by the parameter, v(2)(jet), and the ratio of out-of-plane (Δφ~π/2) to in-plane (Δφ~0) yields. Nonzero v(2)(jet) values were measured in all centrality bins for p(T)<160 GeV. The jet yields are observed to vary by as much as 20% between in-plane and out-of-plane directions. PMID:24160592

  7. Impact of Socioeconomic Status on the Diagnosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yu-Chieh; Hwang, De-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To understand the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Taiwan. Methods Subjects with glaucoma were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of year 2006, which included one million randomly selected insurants. Individuals who had ≥4 ambulatory visits within one year which had the diagnosis code of POAG (ICD-9-CM 365.11 or 365.12) or PACG (365.23) and concurrent prescription of anti-glaucoma medication or surgery were selected. Individual SES was represented by monthly income calculated from the insurance premium. Neighborhood SES was defined based on neighborhood household income averages. Urbanization level of habitation was categorized into 3 levels. The odds ratio of having POAG or PACG in subjects with different SES was evaluated by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results In total, 752 and 561 subjects with POAG and PACG, respectively, who were treated on a regular basis, were identified. The diagnosis of glaucoma was affected by age, gender, frequency of healthcare utilization, individual SES, and urbanization level of habitation. With the adjustment of age, gender, healthcare utilization, neighborhood SES and level of urbanization, subjects with lower income were more likely to be diagnosed as PACG, but less likely as POAG. Conclusions Subjects with more frequent healthcare utilization were more likely to be diagnosed with glaucoma. Subjects with low SES were more susceptible to PACG, but subjects with high SES were more likely to be diagnosed as POAG. This information is useful for the design and target participant setting in glaucoma education and screening campaign to maximize the efficacy of limited resources in preventing glaucoma blindness. PMID:26905307

  8. Alleviation of Facility/Engine Interactions in an Open-Jet Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Emami, Saied

    2001-01-01

    Results of a series of shakedown tests to eliminate facility/engine interactions in an open-jet scramjet test facility are presented. The tests were conducted with the NASA DFX (Dual-Fuel eXperimental scramjet) engine in the NASA Langley Combustion Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) in support of the Hyper-X program, The majority of the tests were conducted at a total enthalpy and pressure corresponding to Mach 5 flight at a dynamic pressure of 734 psf. The DFX is the largest engine ever tested in the CHSTF. Blockage, in terms of the projected engine area relative to the nozzle exit area, is 81% with the engine forebody leading edge aligned with the upper edge of the facility nozzle such that it ingests the nozzle boundary layer. The blockage increases to 95% with the engine forebody leading edge positioned 2 in. down in the core flow. Previous engines successfully tested in the CHSTF have had blockages of no more than 51%. Oil flow studies along with facility and engine pressure measurements were used to define flow behavior. These results guided modifications to existing aeroappliances and the design of new aeroappliances. These changes allowed fueled tests to be conducted without facility interaction effects in the data with the engine forebody leading edge positioned to ingest the facility nozzle boundary layer. Interaction effects were also reduced for tests with the engine forebody leading edge positioned 2 in. into the core flow, however some interaction effects were still evident in the engine data. A new shroud and diffuser have been designed with the goal of allowing fueled tests to be conducted with the engine forebody leading edge positioned in the core without facility interaction effects in the data. Evaluation tests of the new shroud and diffuser will be conducted once ongoing fueled engine tests have been completed.

  9. Lens Position Parameters as Predictors of Intraocular Pressure Reduction After Cataract Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Patients With Open Angles

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Kakigi, Caitlin L.; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Porco, Travis; Lin, Shan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between lens position parameters and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles. Methods The main outcome of the prospective study was percentage of IOP change, which was calculated using the preoperative IOP and the IOP 4 months after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles. Lens position (LP), defined as anterior chamber depth (ACD) + 1/2 lens thickness (LT), was assessed preoperatively using parameters from optical biometry. Preoperative IOP, central corneal thickness, ACD, LT, axial length (AXL), and the ratio of preoperative IOP to ACD (PD ratio) were also evaluated as potential predictors of percentage of IOP change. The predictive values of the parameters we found to be associated with the primary outcome were compared. Results Four months after cataract surgery, the average IOP reduction was 2.03 ± 2.42 mm Hg, a 12.74% reduction from the preoperative mean of 14.5 ± 3.05 mm Hg. Lens position was correlated with IOP reduction percentage after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.002). Higher preoperative IOP, shallower ACD, shorter AXL, and thicker LT were significantly associated with percentage of IOP decrease. Although not statistically significant, LP was a better predictor of percentage of IOP change compared to PD ratio, preoperative IOP, and ACD. Conclusions The percentage of IOP reduction after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles is greater in more anteriorly positioned lenses. Lens position, which is convenient to compute by basic ocular biometric data, is an accessible predictor with considerable predictive value for postoperative IOP change. PMID:26650901

  10. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Brinzolamide/brimonidine: a review of its use in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L; Deeks, Emma D

    2015-03-01

    Brinzolamide 1 %/brimonidine 0.2 % ophthalmic suspension (Simbrinza(®)) is a fixed-combination of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in both the USA and EU (with the EU indication restricted to patients for whom monotherapy provides insufficient IOP reduction). In phase III randomized trials, both three-times-daily and twice-daily administration of brinzolamide/brimonidine provided significantly greater IOP-lowering efficacy over 3-6 months than either of its individual components alone, and twice-daily brinzolamide/brimonidine was noninferior to concomitant administration of brinzolamide plus brimonidine over 6 months in this regard. Brinzolamide/brimonidine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was consistent with its individual components and with no unexpected safety findings. Therefore, brinzolamide/brimonidine is an effective treatment option for patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, providing a convenient alternative for those patients who require multiple IOP-lowering medications. Brinzolamide/brimonidine is the first available fixed-combination that does not contain timolol, and maybe particularly suited to patients with comorbidities that restrict treatment with β-adrenergic receptor antagonists. PMID:25732405

  12. Whipping of electrified liquid jets.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Josefa; Rivero, Javier; Gundabala, Venkata R; Perez-Saborid, Miguel; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2014-09-23

    We apply an electric field to a moderately conducting liquid surrounded by another coflowing liquid, all inside a glass-based microfluidic device, to study nonaxisymmetric instabilities. We find that the bending of the electrified jet results in a steady-state, helicoidal structure with a constant opening angle. Remarkably, the characteristic phase speed of the helicoidal wave only depends on the charge carried by the jet in the helicoidal region and its stability critically depends on the properties of the coflowing liquid. In fact, the steady-state helical structure becomes chaotic when the longest characteristic time is that of the inner liquid rather than that of the outer coflowing liquid. We also perform a numerical analysis to show that the natural preference of the jet is to adopt the conical helix structure observed experimentally. PMID:25201984

  13. Whipping of electrified liquid jets

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Josefa; Rivero, Javier; Gundabala, Venkata R.; Perez-Saborid, Miguel; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We apply an electric field to a moderately conducting liquid surrounded by another coflowing liquid, all inside a glass-based microfluidic device, to study nonaxisymmetric instabilities. We find that the bending of the electrified jet results in a steady-state, helicoidal structure with a constant opening angle. Remarkably, the characteristic phase speed of the helicoidal wave only depends on the charge carried by the jet in the helicoidal region and its stability critically depends on the properties of the coflowing liquid. In fact, the steady-state helical structure becomes chaotic when the longest characteristic time is that of the inner liquid rather than that of the outer coflowing liquid. We also perform a numerical analysis to show that the natural preference of the jet is to adopt the conical helix structure observed experimentally. PMID:25201984

  14. Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations are used by meteorological services world-wide for their numerical weather prediction models. In addition, climate studies increasingly rely on validated GNSS-RO data sets of atmospheric parameters. GNSS-RO profiles typically cover an altitude range from the boundary layer up to the upper stratosphere; their highest accuracy and precision, however, are attained at the tropopause level. In the lower troposphere, multipath ray propagation tend to induce signal amplitude and frequency fluctuations which lead to the development and implementation of open-loop signal tracking methods in GNSS-RO receiver firmwares. In open-loop mode the feed-back values for the carrier tracking loop are derived not from measured data, but from a Doppler frequency model which usually is extracted from an atmospheric climatology. In order to ensure that this receiver-internal parameter set, does not bias the carrier phase path observables, dual-channel open-loop GNSS-RO signal tracking was suggested. Following this proposal the ground-based "GLESER" (GPS low-elevation setting event recorder) campaign was established. Its objective was to disproof the existence of model-induced frequency biases using ground-based GPS observations at very low elevation angles. Between January and December 2014 about 2600 validated setting events, starting at geometric elevation angles of +2° and extending to ‑1°… ‑ 1.5°, were recorded by the single frequency "OpenGPS" GPS receiver at a measurement site located close to Potsdam, Germany (52.3808°N, 13.0642°E). The study is based on the assumption that these ground-based observations may be used as proxies for space-based RO measurements, even if the latter occur on a one order of magnitude faster temporal scale. The "GLESER" data analysis shows that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived frequency profile

  15. Relation between cusp ion structures and dayside reconnection for four IMF clock angles: OpenGGCM-LTPT results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, H. K.; Raeder, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Trattner, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    When, where, and which type of reconnection (antiparallel or component) happens on the dayside magnetopause are long-standing unsolved questions due to insufficient in situ observation of reconnection sites. Previous studies showed that the dispersed ion signatures observed in the magnetospheric cusps depend on the reconnection mechanism, suggesting that cusp ion signatures can be a good tool to investigate the locations and properties of dayside reconnection. We investigate this close relation between cusp signatures and magnetopause reconnection for four different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angles (CA) using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) and the Liouville Theorem Particle Tracer(LTPT). OpenGGCM produces dayside reconnection under the resistive MHD theory, and LTPT calculates cusp ion signatures caused by the simulated reconnection. Our model results show that for CA = 0°, antiparallel reconnection at both the northern and southern lobes causes a reverse dispersion in which ion energies increase with increasing latitude. For CA = 60°, unsteady antiparallel reconnection at both the northern and southern lobes causes double reverse dispersions. For CA = 120°, component reconnection near the subsolar point produces a dispersionless signature in the low-latitude cusp, and antiparallel reconnection on the duskside northern magnetopause produces a normal dispersion in the high-latitude cusp in which ion energies decrease with increasing latitude. For CA = 180°, antiparallel reconnection near the subsolar point causes a normal dispersion.

  16. Evidence for Highly Relativistic Velocities in the Kiloparsec-scale Jet of the Quasar 3C 345

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David H.; Wardle, John F. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we use radio polarimetric observations of the jet of the nearby bright quasar 3C 345 to estimate the fluid velocity on kiloparsec scales. The jet is highly polarized, and surprisingly, the electric vector position angles in the jet are "twisted" with respect to the jet axis. Simple models of magnetized jets are investigated in order to study various possible origins of the electric vector distribution. In a cylindrically symmetric transparent jet a helical magnetic field will appear either transverse or longitudinal due to partial cancellations of Stokes parameters between the front and back of the jet. Synchrotron opacity can break the symmetry, but it leads to fractional polarization less than that observed and to strong frequency dependence that is not seen. Modeling shows that differential Doppler boosting in a diverging jet can break the symmetry, allowing a helical magnetic field to produce a twisted electric vector pattern. Constraints on the jet inclination, magnetic field properties, intrinsic opening angle, and fluid velocities are obtained and show that highly relativistic speeds (β >~ 0.95) are required. This is consistent with the observed jet opening angle, with the absence of a counter-jet, with the polarization of the knots at the end of the jet, and with some inverse-Compton models for the X-ray emission from the 3C 345 jet. This model can also apply on parsec scales and may help explain those sources where the electric vector position angles in the jet are neither parallel nor transverse to the jet axis.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR HIGHLY RELATIVISTIC VELOCITIES IN THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE JET OF THE QUASAR 3C 345

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David H.; Wardle, John F. C.

    2012-11-10

    In this paper we use radio polarimetric observations of the jet of the nearby bright quasar 3C 345 to estimate the fluid velocity on kiloparsec scales. The jet is highly polarized, and surprisingly, the electric vector position angles in the jet are 'twisted' with respect to the jet axis. Simple models of magnetized jets are investigated in order to study various possible origins of the electric vector distribution. In a cylindrically symmetric transparent jet a helical magnetic field will appear either transverse or longitudinal due to partial cancellations of Stokes parameters between the front and back of the jet. Synchrotron opacity can break the symmetry, but it leads to fractional polarization less than that observed and to strong frequency dependence that is not seen. Modeling shows that differential Doppler boosting in a diverging jet can break the symmetry, allowing a helical magnetic field to produce a twisted electric vector pattern. Constraints on the jet inclination, magnetic field properties, intrinsic opening angle, and fluid velocities are obtained and show that highly relativistic speeds ({beta} {approx}> 0.95) are required. This is consistent with the observed jet opening angle, with the absence of a counter-jet, with the polarization of the knots at the end of the jet, and with some inverse-Compton models for the X-ray emission from the 3C 345 jet. This model can also apply on parsec scales and may help explain those sources where the electric vector position angles in the jet are neither parallel nor transverse to the jet axis.

  18. Recent Developments in Understanding the Role of Aqueous Humor Outflow in Normal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of blindness in the world's rapidly aging population. POAG is characterized by progressive degeneration of neural structures in the posterior segment, often associated with a concomitant elevation of intraocular pressure. Changes in IOP are believed to be caused by a disruption in the normal outflow of aqueous humor. This article reviews recent research associated with normal and POAG aqueous humor outflow. Novel findings elucidating biochemical and pathological changes in the ocular tissues affected in POAG are presented. Stem cell research, identification of lymphatic markers, and increased use of mouse models give researchers exciting new tools to understand aqueous humor outflow, changes associated with POAG and identify underlying causes of the disease. PMID:26236568

  19. [The use of biologically controlled ultrasound therapy for the combined treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Novikova, E G; Baranov, V I

    2010-01-01

    The present study included 160 patients (206 eyes) presenting with the initial and advanced stages of primary open-angle glaucoma. 120 patients (157 eyes) were treated using biologically controlled ultrasound therapy besides traditional medicamentous therapy, the remaining 40 ones (49 eyes) were given only conventional medication. Results of the treatment were evaluated based on a set of commonly used hydrodynamic and electrophysiological characteristics of the quality of visual function. Biologically controlled massage of trabecular structures of the affected eyes made it possible to stabilize and improve major hydrodynamic characteristics of the eyeball drainage system, visual function, and electrophysiological parameters. Biologically controlled ultrasound therapy proved to produce a more pronounced beneficial effect on ocular hydrodynamics than the traditional ultrasonic treatment. The positive action of biologically controlled therapy persisted during 8 months; its repeated sessions prolonged this period up to 2 years. PMID:21328903

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mandy Oi Man; Lee, Jacky Wai Yip; Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Chan, Jonathan Cheuk Hung; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is a relatively new type of laser used in treating open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and is reported to be equally efficacious to a first-line medication and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT). We summarize available evidence for considering SLT as an alternative treatment in OAG through systematic review and meta-analysis. Among OAG patients who range from newly diagnosed to those on maximally tolerated medical therapy, SLT results in a 6.9-35.9% intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Complications are rare and include an IOP spike requiring surgery, persistent macular edema, and corneal haze and thinning. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials shows that SLT is non-inferior to ALT and medication in IOP reduction and also in achieving treatment success. Number of medications reduction is similar between SLT and ALT. More robust evidence is needed to determine its efficacy as a repeated procedure. PMID:25113610

  1. Mapping of a gene for autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 1 q

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.E.; Lichter, P.R.; Torrez, D.; Wong, D.; Johnson, A.T.; Boehnke, M.; Uro, J.L.A. )

    1994-01-01

    A large Caucasian family is presented, in which a juvenile-onset form of open-angle glaucoma is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Sixteen affected family members were identified from 31 at-risk individuals descended from the affected founder. Affected patients developed high intraocular pressures (sometimes >40 mm Hg) within the first 2 decades of life. Linkage analysis between the disease phenotype and 12 microsatellite repeat markers located on chromosome 1 q gave a maximum lod score of 8.38 at a recombination fraction of zero for marker D1S210. Analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggests a total inclusion region of about 14 cM between markers D1S194 and D1S218 at 1q21-q31. This represents the second juvenile-glaucoma family, in which the disease has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 1. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Surgical results of dissection of the superficial temporal artery in patients with preglaucoma and initial open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Shilkin, G A; Iartseva, N S; Mironova, E M; Oreshkina, R M; Mikhaĭlova, G D

    1989-01-01

    Results of superficial temporal artery dissection performed in 42 patients (44 eyes) with preglaucoma and initial open-angle glaucoma have shown no impairement of visual field, visual acuity, optic disc in the period from 0.5 to 1.5 years after it. The increased linear rate of bloodflow after the operation remained stable in 17 eyes of patients with preglaucoma and in 14 eyes of patients with glaucoma. Intraocular pressure became normalized in 20 and 19 eyes as well as intraocular fluid outflow in 14 and 13 eyes, respectively. In both groups there was a tendency to normalization of retinal functions and hydrodynamics of the eye. Thus, the operation produces improvement of regional bloodflow, tonographic and electrophysiologic indices. Its usage is considered to be reasonable, but, when determining indications to it, an individual approach is necessary. PMID:2755669

  3. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  4. The effects of the stellar wind and orbital motion on the jets of high-mass microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High-mass microquasar jets propagate under the effect of the wind from the companion star, and the orbital motion of the binary system. The stellar wind and the orbit may be dominant factors determining the jet properties beyond the binary scales. Aims: This is an analytical study, performed to characterise the effects of the stellar wind and the orbital motion on the jet properties. Methods: Accounting for the wind thrust transferred to the jet, we derive analytical estimates to characterise the jet evolution under the impact of the stellar wind. We include the Coriolis force effect, induced by orbital motion and enhanced by the wind's presence. Large-scale evolution of the jet is sketched, accounting for wind-to-jet thrust transfer, total energy conservation, and wind-jet flow mixing. Results: If the angle of the wind-induced jet bending is larger than its half-opening angle, the following is expected: (i) a strong recollimation shock; (ii) bending against orbital motion, caused by Coriolis forces and enhanced by the wind presence; and (iii) non-ballistic helical propagation further away. Even if disrupted, the jet can re-accelerate due to ambient pressure gradients, but wind entrainment can weaken this acceleration. On large scales, the opening angle of the helical structure is determined by the wind-jet thrust relation, and the wind-loaded jet flow can be rather slow. Conclusions: The impact of stellar winds on high-mass microquasar jets can yield non-ballistic helical jet trajectories, jet partial disruption and wind mixing, shocks, and possibly non-thermal emission. Among other observational diagnostics, such as radiation variability at any band, the radio morphology on milliarcsecond scales can be informative on the wind-jet interaction.

  5. Comparison of Schlemm's canal's biological parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal human eyes with swept source optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Guohua; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-11-01

    Thirty-seven normal and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects were noninvasively imaged by a tailor-made real-time anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to demonstrate the differences of the Schlemm's canal (SC) between POAG and normal eyes. After the cross-section images of the anterior chamber angle were acquired by SS-OCT, SC was confirmed by two independent masked observers and the average area, long diameter, and perimeter of the SC were measured. In normal subjects the circumference, area, and long diameter is 580.34±87.81 μm, 8023.89±1486.10 μ, and 272.83±49.39 μm, respectively, and these parameters were 393.25±98.04 μm, 3941.50±1210.69 μ, and 190.91±46.47 μm in the POAG subjects. The area of SC in the normal ones was significantly larger than that in POAG eyes (p<0.001), so as the long diameter and the perimeter (p<0.001 p<0.001).

  6. Two-particle momentum correlation in jets at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Jindariani, Sergo; /Florida U.

    2006-05-01

    Presented are the measurements of two-particle momentum correlations in jets produced in p-pbar collisions at center of mass frame energy 1.96 TeV. Studies were performed for charged particles within a restricted opening angle of 0.5 rad around the jet axis and for dijet events with various dijet masses. Comparison of the experimental results to the theoretical predictions obtained for partons within the framework of the resummed perturbative QCD (Next-to-Leading Log Approximation) shows that the parton momentum correlations do survive the hadronization stage of jet fragmentation, thus, giving further support to the hypothesis of Local Parton-Hadron Duality.

  7. Core shifts, magnetic fields and magnetization of extragalactic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Sikora, Marek; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We study the effect of radio-jet core shift, which is a dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the observational frequency. We derive a new method of measuring the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed radio flux, which complements the standard method that assumes equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, ≃0.1-0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, Γj. Larger values, e.g. 1/Γj, would imply magnetic fields much above equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of ≪1. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking into account this effect. We find that the transverse-averaged jet magnetic flux is fully compatible with the model of jet formation due to black hole (BH) spin-energy extraction and the accretion being a magnetically arrested disc (MAD). We calculate the jet average mass-flow rate corresponding to this model and find it consists of a substantial fraction of the mass accretion rate. This suggests the jet composition with a large fraction of baryons. We also calculate the average jet power, and find it moderately exceeds the accretion power, dot{M} c^2, reflecting BH spin energy extraction. We find our results for radio galaxies at low Eddington ratios are compatible with MADs but require a low radiative efficiency, as predicted by standard accretion models.

  8. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  9. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  10. OpenFOAM investigations of cavitation in a flushed water-jet inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattoronchieri, A.; Bensow, R.

    2015-12-01

    The cavitation on the lip of a flushed water-jet inlet has been simulated with a transient RANS model and the results has been validated against experiments. The k-ω SST turbulence model has been adopted together with the cavitation correction proposed by Reboud. The defined setup shows promising results and the vortex shedding has been qualitatively predicted. Moreover, the importance of the sufficient spatial resolution to capture the cavity closure and its extension has been studied and proved to be crucial.

  11. Phacoemulsification combined with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin and amniotic membrane implantation in chronic primary open angle glaucoma with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Hazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of combined phacoemulsification plus Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) and sub-flap implantation of amniotic membrane for the management of uncontrolled, chronic, primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods This prospective study included 41 patients with chronic, primary, open-angle glaucoma and cataract uncontrolled with medical treatment who underwent combined phacoemulsification augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) application and amniotic membrane implantation under the scleral flap. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, glaucoma medications, stabilization of visual field, complications, and viability of the success rate were assessed a 36-month follow-up period. Results The mean age of cases was 54.8 ± 5.3 years. Sixty-one percent of cases were males, and 39% were females. The mean IOP decreased from 23.8 ± 1.8 mmHg preoperatively to 16.8 ± 2.3 mmHg postoperatively. The overall success rate was 97.5, 95, and 92.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. The overall success rate was 90% in the first year, but that decreased to 85.3 and 78% in the second and third year, respectively. Qualified success was 7.5, 10, and 14.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. Failure was recorded as 2.5, 5, and 7.3% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. IOP reduction was sustained through the follow-up period. Visual acuity improved from 0.13 ± 0.06 to 0.9 ± 0.07 (p < 0.001). The visual field improved significantly in the first assessment, from 14.0 ± 2.7 preoperatively to 12.6 ± 2.6 at three months postoperatively (p < 0.001), after which it became stable for the remainder of the follow-up period. One hundred percent of cases were on three anti-glaucoma drugs preoperatively, while postoperatively, 12.2% were on three drugs, 4.2% were on two drugs, and 82.9% were controlled without anti

  12. Microquasar jets in the supernova remnant G11.2-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushak, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The radio and X-ray fine structure of the supernova remnant G11.2-0.3 is analyzed using VLA and Chandra data. A possible pair of bipolar X-ray jets inside the remnant shell was reported earlier; caps or terminal X-ray hot spots of these jets have now been discovered outside the shell. These hot spots lie on the jet axis, which is oriented in position angle 66° (measured from North through East). The proper motions of them are measured, and age is determined to be more than 160 years. The estimated physical parameters of the jets agree with the parameters of micro quasar jets. Three broad gaps with opening angles of 9° have been revealed in the radio shell, as well as radio bulges with opening angles of 2°-4° displaying tube-like structures at the shell periphery. Signs of the motion of material along position angle 124.5° have been found in the shell, suggesting the past activity of another pair of bipolar centrally symmetrical jets that were older than those first detected. These structural features provide direct evidence that the shell has been subject to multiple perforation by expanding fragments of matter from the supernova explosion, and by one or two pairs of bipolar jets with different orientations.

  13. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Rotsos, Tryfon G.; Kliafa, Vasso G.; Asher, Kevin J.; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03% and timolol 0.5% (BTFC) in patients in Greece with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) whose previous therapy provided insufficient lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS A multicenter, prospective, open-label, non-interventional, observational study of the use of BTFC in clinical practice was conducted at 41 sites in Greece. The primary endpoint was the reduction in IOP from baseline at study end, approximately 12wk after initiation of BTFC therapy. RESULTS A total of 785 eligible patients were enrolled in the study and 97.6% completed the study. The mean±SD IOP reduction from baseline at 12wk after initiation of BTFC was 6.3±2.8 mm Hg (n=764; P<0.001). In patients (n=680) who replaced their previous IOP-lowering monotherapy (a single drug, or a fixed combination of 2 drugs in a single ophthalmic drop) with once-daily BTFC, the mean±SD IOP reduction from baseline at 12wk was 6.2±2.8 mm Hg (P<0.001). IOP was reduced from baseline in 99.2% of patients, and 58.0% of patients reached or exceeded their target IOP. Substantial mean IOP reductions were observed regardless of the previous therapy. BTFC was well tolerated, with 96.0% of patients who completed the study rating the tolerability of BTFC as “good” or “very good.” Adverse events were reported in 8.3% of patients; only 0.6% of patients discontinued the study due to adverse events. CONCLUSION In clinical practice in Greece, BTFC is well tolerated and effectively lower the IOP in patients with POAG or OHT who requires additional IOP lowering on their previous therapy. PMID:26949613

  14. Jets of incipient liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  15. Biodegradable 3D-Porous Collagen Matrix (Ologen) Compared with Mitomycin C for Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Results at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Li, Lei; Chen, Xiuping; Yan, Xiang; Wang, Liyang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Ologen as an aid for trabeculectomy performed for primary open-angle glaucoma compared with mitomycin C. Methods. In this prospective, randomized, parallel assignment, comparative study, 31 eyes of 21 primary open-angle glaucoma patients were allocated for trabeculectomy with the Ologen implant; another 32 eyes of 23 patients were treated with trabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C. The patients were followed up for 5 years and evaluated for intraocular pressure, rate of success, status of the bleb, and adverse events. Result. The mean postoperative intraocular pressure was statistically different at 3 m, 6 m, 1 y, 3 y, and 5 y follow-up. The rates of both complete success (P = 0.017) and overall success (P = 0.031) in the Ologen group were significantly higher than those in the mitomycin C group. The difference of the bleb extent and vascularity was statistically significant in both groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative complication. Conclusions. Ologen provides higher rates of surgical success compared with mitomycin C for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma undergoing trabeculectomy. It may be a new, safe, simple, and effective therapeutic approach for treating primary open-angle glaucoma. PMID:26078875

  16. PRE-OPERATIVE PLANNING AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE OF THE OPEN WEDGE SUPRACONDYLAR OSTEOTOMY FOR CORRECTION OF VALGUS KNEE AND FIXATION WITH A FIXED-ANGLE IMPLANT

    PubMed Central

    Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The step-by-step preoperative planning for supracondylar opening wedge osteotomy of the femur for precise correction of the load axis of the lower limb using a fixed-angle implant (95° AO blade plate) is presented. The surgical technique and the use of a bone graft from the same site for filling in the defect are also presented. PMID:27026976

  17. Evaluation of genetic association of the INK4 locus with primary open angle glaucoma in East Indian population.

    PubMed

    Vishal, Mansi; Sharma, Anchal; Kaurani, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhadip; Ray, Jharna; Sen, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Ray, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    INK4 locus at chromosome 9p21 has been reported to be associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and its subtypes along with the associated optic disc parameters across the populations of European, Japanese and African ancestries. The locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes namely CDKN2A, ARF, CDKN2B and a long non-coding RNA CDKN2B-AS1 (also known as ANRIL). Here, we report association study of 34 SNPs from INK4 locus with POAG in a population of Indo-European ancestry from the eastern part of India (350 patients and 354 controls). With 81% power to detect genetic association we observed only nominal association of rs1011970 (uncorrected p = 0.048) with POAG and rs10120688 (uncorrected p = 0.048) in patients without a high intra-ocular pressure (IOP<21 mm of Hg) compared to controls. This study, in contrast to the previous reports, suggests lack of significant genetic association of INK4 locus with POAG in East Indian population which needs to be replicated in larger studies in diverse world populations. PMID:24875940

  18. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Yvonne M.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Gaspo, Rania; Kwok, Kenneth; Hutnik, Cindy M. L.; Blondeau, Pierre; Birt, Catherine M.; Piemontesi, Robert L. G.; Gould, Lisa F.; Lesk, Mark R.; Ahmed, Iqbal K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1%) with OAG and 113 (27.9%) with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P < 0.0001) for disc notch, 5.36 (P < 0.0001) for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P = 0.001) for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P < 0.0001) for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P = 0.030), and 0.36 (P = 0.010) for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis. PMID:21869921

  19. Common variants near ABCA1, AFAP1 and GMDS confer risk of primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Rhys; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W.; Martin, Sarah; Law, Matthew H.; Cremin, Katie; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hauser, Michael A.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; McGuffin, Peter; Topouzis, Fotis; Foster, Paul J.; Graham, Stuart L; Casson, Robert J; Chehade, Mark; White, Andrew J; Zhou, Tiger; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Landers, John; Fitzgerald, Jude T; Klebe, Sonja; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Goldberg, Ivan; Healey, Paul R; Mills, Richard A.; Wang, Jie Jin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Radford-Smith, Graham; Whiteman, David C.; Brown, Matthew A.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Mackey, David A; Mitchell, Paul; MacGregor, Stuart; Craig, Jamie E.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. We performed a genome-wide association study in an Australian discovery cohort comprising 1,155 advanced POAG cases and 1,992 controls. Association of the top SNPs from the discovery stage was investigated in two Australian replication cohorts (total 932 cases, 6,862 controls) and two US replication cohorts (total 2,616 cases, 2,634 controls). Meta-analysis of all cohorts revealed three novel loci associated with development of POAG. These loci are located upstream of ABCA1 (rs2472493 [G] OR=1.31, P= 2.1 × 10−19), within AFAP1 (rs4619890 [G] OR=1.20, P= 7.0 × 10−10) and within GMDS (rs11969985 [G] OR=1.31, and P= 7.7 × 10−10). Using RT-PCR and immunolabelling, we also showed that these genes are expressed within human retina, optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and that ABCA1 and AFAP1 are also expressed in retinal ganglion cells. PMID:25173105

  20. Identification of MYOC gene mutation and polymorphism in a large Malay family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mimiwati, Z; Nurliza, K; Marini, M; Liza-Sharmini, AT

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To screen for mutations in the coding region of the myocilin (MYOC) gene in a large Malay family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG). Methods A total of 122 family members were thoroughly examined and screened for JOAG. Venipuncture was conducted. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The presence of a mutation and a polymorphism was ascertained with PCR amplification followed by the direct sequencing technique. Results Thirty-two of the 122 screened family members were identified to have JOAG (11 new cases and 21 known cases). An autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with incomplete penetrance was observed. A C→A substitution at position 1440 in exon 3 that changes asparagine (AAC) to lysine (AAA) was identified in affected family members except two probands (III:5 and IV:6). Six probands were identified as having the Asn480Lys mutation but have not developed the disease yet. An intronic polymorphism IVS2 730 +35 G>A was also identified. There was a significant association between Asn480Lys (p<0.001) and IVS2 730+35G>A (p<0.001) in the affected and unaffected probands in this family. Conclusions The Asn480Lys mutation and the IVS2 730+35 G>A polymorphism increased susceptibility to JOAG in this large Malay pedigree. Identifying the MYOC mutations and polymorphisms is important for providing presymptomatic molecular diagnosis. PMID:24883016

  1. Macular Pigment Optical Density in Chinese Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Using the One-Wavelength Reflectometry Method

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuying; Zuo, Chengguo; Lin, Mingkai; Zhang, Xiongze; Li, Miaoling; Mi, Lan; Liu, Bing; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and its relationship with retinal thickness in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using the one-wavelength reflectometry method. Methods. A total of 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients (18 males and 12 females, mean age 47.27 ± 16.93) and 52 eyes from 52 controls (27 males and 25 females, mean age 49.54 ± 19.15) were included in this prospective, observational, case-control study. MPOD was measured in a 7-degree area using one-wavelength reflectometry method. Two parameters, max and mean optical density (OD), were used for analyses. Spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography was used to measure retinal thickness, including central retinal thickness (CRT), the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Results. Both maxOD and meanOD were significantly reduced in POAG patients compared with normal subjects (P < 0.001). GCC, CRT, and RNFL thicknesses were also significantly reduced in POAG patients (P < 0.001). GCC thickness had a positive relationship with MPOD. Conclusions. MPOD within the 7-degree area was significantly lower in Chinese POAG patients than in control subjects, and GCC thickness was significantly and positively associated with MPOD. Whether the observed lower MPOD in POAG contributes to the disease process or is secondary to pathological changes caused by the disease (such as loss of ganglion cells) warrants further and longitudinal study. PMID:27144013

  2. Family-based analysis identified CD2 as a susceptibility gene for primary open angle glaucoma in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Xie, Lin; Ye, Jian; He, Xiangge

    2014-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by optic disc cupping and irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells. Few genes have been detected that influence POAG susceptibility and little is known about its genetic architecture. In this study, we employed exome sequencing on three members from a high frequency POAG family to identify the risk factors of POAG in Chinese population. Text-mining method was applied to identify genes associated with glaucoma in literature, and protein–protein interaction networks were constructed. Furthermore, reverse transcription PCR and Western blot were performed to confirm the differential gene expression. Six genes, baculoviral inhibitors of apoptosis protein repeat containing 6 (BIRC6), CD2, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), polycystic kidney and hepatic disease gene 1 (PKHD1), phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and fucosyltransferase 7 (FUT7), which might be associated with POAG, were identified. Both the mRNA expression levels and protein expression levels of HSP27 were increased in astrocytes from POAG patients compared with those from normal control, suggesting that mutation in CD2 might pose a risk for POAG in Chinese population. In conclusion, novel rare variants detected by exome sequencing may hold the key to unravelling the remaining contribution of genetics to complex diseases such as POAG. PMID:24597656

  3. Association of Common Variants in eNOS Gene with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yang; Dong, Yi; Li, Xuan; Tang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To clarify the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. After a systematic literature search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases, all relevant studies evaluating the association between the polymorphisms (rs2070744 and rs1799983) of eNOS gene and POAG were screened and included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in five genetic models were estimated using fixed-effect model if I2 < 50% in the test for heterogeneity; otherwise the random-effects model was used. Results. Thirty-one records were obtained, with five being suitable for meta-analysis. The overall results showed that both TT genotype in rs2070744 and GG genotype in rs1799983 are associated with decreased risk of POAG susceptibility. Stratified analysis based on ethnicity showed that the association of rs2070744 with POAG remained only in Caucasians. Results of subgroup analysis by sex indicated association between both polymorphisms and POAG in female group, but not in male group. Conclusions. TT genotype and/or T-allele in rs2070744, as well as GG genotype and/or G-allele in rs1799983, was associated with decreased risk for POAG overall and in female group. PMID:27242919

  4. Micro-Bypass Implantation for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Combined with Phacoemulsification: 4-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Consolandi, Giulia; Zola, Marta; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola; Lavia, Carlo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the long-term follow-up results in patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) randomly assigned to cataract surgery combined with micro-bypass stent implantation or phacoemulsification alone. Methods. 36 subjects with cataract and POAG were randomized in a 1 : 2 ratio to either iStent implantation and cataract surgery (combined group) or cataract surgery alone (control group). 24 subjects agreed to be evaluated again 48 months after surgery. Patients returned one month later for unmedicated washout assessment. Results. At the long-term follow-up visit we reported a mean IOP of 15,9 ± 2,3 mmHg in the iStent group and 17 ± 2,5 mmHg in the control group (p = NS). After washout, a 14,2% between group difference in favour of the combined group was statistically significant (p = 0,02) for mean IOP reduction. A significant reduction in the mean number of medications was observed in both groups compared to baseline values (p = 0,005 in the combined group and p = 0,01 in the control group). Conclusion. Patients in the combined group maintained low IOP levels after long-term follow-up. Cataract surgery alone showed a loss of efficacy in controlling IOP over time. Both treatments reduced the number of ocular hypotensive medications prescribed. This trial is registered with: NCT00847158. PMID:26587282

  5. Short-term effects of acupuncture on open-angle glaucoma in retrobulbar circulation: additional therapy to standard medication.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Nakazawa, Toru; Aizawa, Naoko; Takahashi, Seri; Watanabe, Masashi; Izumi, Masayuki; Kaneko, Soichiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Matsuda, Ayane; Kikuchi, Akiko; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Nitta, Shin-Ichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Background. The relation between glaucoma and retrobulbar circulation in the prognosis has been indicated. Purpose. To investigate the effects of acupuncture on retrobulbar circulation in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients. Methods. Eleven OAG patients (20 eyes with OAG) who were treated by topical antiglaucoma medications for at least 3 months were enrolled. Acupuncture was performed once at acupoints BL2, M-HN9, ST2, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, GB20, BL18, and BL23 bilaterally. Retrobulbar circulation was measured with color Doppler imaging, and intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured at rest and one hour after rest or before and after acupuncture. Results. The Δ value of the resistive index in the short posterior ciliary artery (P < .01) and the Δ value of IOP (P < .01) were decreased significantly by acupuncture compared with no acupuncture treatment. Conclusions. Acupuncture can improve the retrobulbar circulation and IOP, which may indicate the efficacy of acupuncture for OAG. PMID:21437193

  6. Systemic Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Lee, Naeun; Lee, Hye Sun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Systemic hypertension is thought to increase the risk for developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) through several mechanisms. However, previous epidemiological studies have shown conflicting results regarding this potential association. We systematically evaluated this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of population-based studies. Methods A comprehensive search for articles published before 31 March 2014 was performed using PubMed, Embase, and reference lists. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the fixed- and random-effects models, and meta-regression was performed according to age. Subgroup analyses were also conducted, and publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. Results This meta-analysis included 16 studies involving 60,084 individuals, with substantial homogeneity among the studies. The pooled OR for OAG was 1.22 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.36) using the fixed-effects model and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08–1.37) using the random-effects model in all included studies. For subgroup analyses, the pooled OR for high-tension glaucoma (HTG) was higher than that for normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) (OR = 1.92 and 0.94, respectively). No significant difference was detected between Asian and Western populations, and no publication bias was detected in either analysis. Conclusions Systemic hypertension increases the risk for developing OAG, especially in those with HTG. PMID:25254373

  7. Prediction of stable tearing of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy using the crack-tip opening angle approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) approach was incorporated into a damage growth finite element program, MADGIC (Micromechanics Analysis and Damage Growth in Composites), and was used to predict stable tearing in a middle-crack tension 2024-T3 aluminum alloy specimen. The MADGIC code is a displacement based finite element program implemented with an incremental elastic-plastic algorithm used to model elastic-plastic behavior and a nodal splitting and nodal force relaxation algorithm used to generate crack surfaces. Predictions of the applied stress as a function of crack extension and applied stress as a function of load-line displacement were in good agreement with experiments and with similar predictions made using an existing finite element program, ZIP2D. In addition, path integrals, namely, the J-integral and T*-integral, were also evaluated and compared with the CTOA approach. There appears to be a weak relationship between the CTOA and the T*-integral evaluated on a specific integration path during crack extension beyond maximum applied stress. This study further verifies that the CTOA can be used as an effective elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter to predict crack growth.

  8. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Influences of Ancestry and Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuejun; Liu, Yutao; Gibson, Jason R.; Santiago-Turla, Cecilia; Larocque-Abramson, Karen R.; Del Bono, Elizabeth; Challa, Pratap; Herndon, Leon W.; Akafo, Stephen; Wiggs, Janey L.; Schmidt, Silke; Hauser, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma and one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. The genetic etiology of POAG is complex and poorly understood. The purpose of this work is to identify genomic regions of interest linked to POAG. This study is the largest genetic linkage study of POAG performed to date: genomic DNA samples from 786 subjects (538 Caucasian ancestry, 248 African ancestry) were genotyped using either the Illumina GoldenGate Linkage 4 Panel or the Illumina Infinium Human Linkage-12 Panel. A total of 5233 SNPs was analyzed in 134 multiplex POAG families (89 Caucasian ancestry, 45 African ancestry). Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed on the overall dataset and within race-specific datasets (Caucasian ancestry and African ancestry). Ordered subset analysis was used to stratify the data on the basis of age of glaucoma diagnosis. Novel linkage regions were identified on chromosomes 1 and 20, and two previously described loci—GLC1D on chromosome 8 and GLC1I on chromosome 15—were replicated. These data will prove valuable in the context of interpreting results from genome-wide association studies for POAG. PMID:21765929

  9. Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Potential of Subthreshold Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Fan; Xu, Jian Gang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the efficacy of subthreshold and conventional selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in the patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Fifty-two eyes from fifty-two POAG patients were randomized into two groups, one group treated with subthreshold SLT using two-thirds of the conventional energy and the other one treated with the conventional energy. IOP was measured with the Goldmann tonometer and the anterior chamber inflammation was determined using laser flare meter. Results. The initial energy dosage used in subthreshold SLT group was significantly lower than the amount of the energy used in conventional SLT group (0.4 ± 0.1 mJ versus 0.6 ± 0.1 mJ, P = 0.030). The total energy dosage was also significantly lower in subthreshold SLT group compared to the other group (37.6 ± 3.3 mJ versus 51.8 ± 5.7 mJ, P = 0.036). However, the level of inflammation in aqueous humor, amount of reduction in IOP, and the success rate in controlling IOP was the same in both groups. Conclusion. The efficacy of subthreshold SLT group in reducing IOP in POAG patients is comparable to the efficacy of conventional SLT group. PMID:27529032

  10. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevalent Cases of Glaucoma (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Because of their longer life ... Prevalent Cases of Glaucoma (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Glaucoma (2010-2030- ...

  11. Aeroacoustics of hot jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    2004-10-01

    A systematic study has been undertaken to quantify the effect of jet temperature on the noise radiated by subsonic jets. Nozzles of different diameters were tested to uncover the effects of Reynolds number. All the tests were carried out at Boeing's Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility, with simultaneous measurement of thrust and noise. It is concluded that the change in spectral shape at high jet temperatures, normally attributed to the contribution from dipoles, is due to Reynolds number effects and not dipoles. This effect has not been identified before. A critical value of the Reynolds number that would need to be maintained to avoid the effects associated with low Reynolds number has been estimated to be {˜}400 000. It is well-known that large-scale structures are the dominant generators of noise in the peak radiation direction for high-speed jets. Experimental evidence is presented that shows the spectral shape at angles close to the jet axis from unheated low subsonic jets to be the same as from heated supersonic jets. A possible mechanism for the observed trend is proposed. When a subsonic jet is heated with the Mach number held constant, there is a broadening of the angular sector in which peak radiation occurs. Furthermore, there is a broadening of the spectral peak. Similar trends have been observed at supersonic Mach numbers. The spectral shapes in the forward quadrant and in the near-normal angles from unheated and heated subsonic jets also conform to the universal shape obtained from supersonic jet data. Just as for unheated jets, the peak frequency at angles close to the jet axis is independent of jet velocity as long as the acoustic Mach number is less than unity. The extensive database generated in the current test programme is intended to provide test cases with high-quality data that could be used for the evaluation of theoretical/semi-theoretical jet noise prediction methodologies.

  12. JET COLLIMATION IN THE EJECTA OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGERS: A NEW CANONICAL PICTURE OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2014-04-01

    The observations of jet breaks in the afterglows of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) indicate that the jet has a small opening angle of ≲ 10°. The collimation mechanism of the jet is a longstanding theoretical problem. We numerically analyze the jet propagation in the material ejected by a double neutron star (NS) merger, and demonstrate that if the ejecta mass is ≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}, the jet is well confined by the cocoon and emerges from the ejecta with the required collimation angle. Our results also suggest that there are some populations of choked (failed) SGRBs or new types of events with low luminosity. By constructing a model for SGRB 130603B, which is associated with the first kilonova/macronova candidate, we infer that the equation of state of NSs would be soft enough to provide sufficient ejecta to collimate the jet, if this event is associated with a double NS merger.

  13. Relativistic jet models for the BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 during three epochs of observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mufson, S. L.; Hutter, D. J.; Kondo, Y.; Wisniewski, W. Z.

    1988-01-01

    Coordinated observation of the nearby BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 obtained during May 1980, January 1984, and March 1984 are described. These observations give a time-frozen picture of the continuous spectrum of Mrk 421 at X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio wavelengths. The observed spectra have been fitted to an inhomogeneous relativistic jet model. In general, the models reproduce the data well. Many of the observed differences during the three epochs can be attributed to variations in the opening angle of the jet and in the angle that the jet makes to the line of sight. The jet models obtained here are compared with the homogeneous, spherically symmetric, synchrotron self-Compton models for this source. The models are also compared with the relativistic jet models obtained for other active galactic nuclei.

  14. Correlations between corneal and optic nerve head variables in healthy subjects and patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Frances, Federico; Jañez, Luis; Borrego-Sanz, Lara; Berrozpe-Villabona, Clara; Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose Maria; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Garcia-Sanchez, Julian; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To correlate corneal variables (determined using the Pentacam) with optic nerve head (ONH) variables determined using the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) in healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS Measurements were made in 75 healthy eyes and 73 eyes with POAG and correlations examined through Pearson correlation coefficients between the two sets of variables in the two subject groups. The corneal variables determined were corneal volume (CVol), central corneal thickness (CCT), overall corneal thickness (OvCT), the mean thickness of a circular zone centered at the corneal apex of 1 mm radius (zone I) and the mean thickness of several concentric rings, also centered at the apex until the limbus, each of 1 mm width (zones II to VI respectively). The ONH variables were determined using the HRT. RESULTS The following pairs of variables were correlated in the control group: CCT-disc area (DAr) (-0.48; P<0.0001), Zone I-DAr (-0.503; P<0.0001) and Zone II-DAr (-0.443; P<0.0001); and in the POAG group: CCT-cup-to-disc area ratio (CDRa) (-0.402; P<0.0001), Zone I-CDRa (-0.418; P<0.0001), Zone II-CDRa (-0.405; P=0.006), Zone I-cup shape measure (CSM) (-0.415; P=0.002), Zone II-CSM (-0.405; P=0.001), Zone IV-height variation contour (HVC) (0.378; P=0.002); Zone V-HVC (0.388, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS In the healthy subjects, significant negative correlation was detected between central and paracentral corneal thickness and optic disc area. In contrast, the POAG patients showed significant negative correlation between central and paracentral corneal thickness and the cup-disc ratio and CSM, and positive correlation between peripheral corneal thickness and HVC. PMID:26682165

  15. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Kearns, Lisa S.; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W.; Mackey, David A.; Trounce, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower). Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function. PMID:26496696

  16. Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. The literature search included two databases (PubMed and Embase) and the reference lists of the retrieved studies. Separate meta-analyses for case-control studies and cohort studies were conducted using random-effects models, with results reported as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and relative risks (RRs), respectively. Results Thirteen studies—seven case-control studies and six population-based cohort studies—were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled RR of the association between DM and POAG based on the risk estimates of the six cohort studies was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.25–1.57). The pooled OR of the association between DM and POAG based on the risk estimates of the seven case-control studies was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.17–1.88). There was considerable heterogeneity among the case-control studies that reported an association between DM mellitus and POAG (P<0.001) and no significant heterogeneity among the cohort studies (P = 0.377). After omitting the case-control study that contributed significantly to the heterogeneity, the pooled OR for the association between DM and POAG was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.06–1.74). Conclusions Individuals with DM have an increased risk of developing POAG. PMID:25137059

  17. Differences between Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Open Angle Glaucoma with Altitudinal Visual Field Defect

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sangyoun; Jung, Jong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) change and optic nerve head parameters between non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and open angle glaucoma (OAG) with altitudinal visual field defect. Methods Seventeen NAION patients and 26 OAG patients were enrolled prospectively. The standard visual field indices (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation) were obtained from the Humphrey visual field test and differences between the two groups were analyzed. Cirrus HD-OCT parameters were used, including optic disc head analysis, average RNFL thickness, and RNFL thickness of each quadrant. Results The mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were not significantly different between the groups. In the affected eye, although the disc area was similar between the two groups (2.00 ± 0.32 and 1.99 ± 0.33 mm2, p = 0.586), the rim area of the OAG group was smaller than that of the NAION group (1.26 ± 0.56 and 0.61 ± 0.15 mm2, respectively, p < 0.001). RNFL asymmetry was not different between the two groups (p = 0.265), but the inferior RNFL thickness of both the affected and unaffected eyes were less in the OAG group than in the NAION group. In the analysis of optic disc morphology, both affected and unaffected eyes showed significant differences between two groups. Conclusions To differentiate NAION from OAG in eyes with altitudinal visual field defects, optic disc head analysis of not only the affected eye, but also the unaffected eye, by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography may be helpful. PMID:26635459

  18. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Burak; Kaya, Murat; Arslan, Sermal; Demir, Tamer; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Study design: A prospective controlled trial. Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI). One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05). It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03) and POAG (P = 0.025) versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively. Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research. PMID:20458351

  19. Estrogen pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open angle glaucoma: An analysis accounting for gender from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Stephanie J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Kang, Jae H.; Yaspan, Brian L.; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Lee, Richard K.; Scott, William K.; Lichter, Paul R.; Budenz, Donald L.; Liu, Yutao; Realini, Tony; Friedman, David S.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Olson, Lana; Schuman, Joel S.; Singh, Kuldev; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Brilliant, Murray; Sit, Arthur J.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John; Kraft, Peter; Zhang, Kang; Allingham, R. Rand; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Richards, Julia E.; Hauser, Michael A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Circulating estrogen levels are relevant in glaucoma phenotypic traits. We assessed the association between an estrogen metabolism single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), accounting for gender. Methods We included 3,108 POAG cases and 3,430 controls of both genders from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium genotyped on the Illumina 660W-Quad platform. We assessed the relation between the SNP panels representative of estrogen metabolism and POAG using pathway- and gene-based approaches with the Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure (PARIS) software. PARIS executes a permutation algorithm to assess statistical significance relative to the pathways and genes of comparable genetic architecture. These analyses were performed using the meta-analyzed results from the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR data sets. We evaluated POAG overall as well as two subtypes of POAG defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥22 mmHg (high-pressure glaucoma [HPG]) or IOP <22 mmHg (normal pressure glaucoma [NPG]) at diagnosis. We conducted these analyses for each gender separately and then jointly in men and women. Results Among women, the estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG overall (permuted p=0.006) and HPG (permuted p<0.001) but not NPG (permuted p=0.09). Interestingly, there was no relation between the estrogen SNP pathway and POAG when men were considered alone (permuted p>0.99). Among women, gene-based analyses revealed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene showed strong associations with HTG (permuted gene p≤0.001) and NPG (permuted gene p=0.01). Conclusions The estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG among women. PMID:23869166

  20. Crack-tip-opening angle measurements and crack tunneling under stable tearing in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The stable tearing behavior of thin sheets 2024-T3 aluminum alloy was studied for middle crack tension specimens having initial cracks that were: flat cracks (low fatigue stress) and 45 degrees through-thickness slant cracks (high fatigue stress). The critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) values during stable tearing were measured by two independent methods, optical microscopy and digital image correlation. Results from the two methods agreed well. The CTOA measurements and observations of the fracture surfaces showed that the initial stable tearing behavior of low and high fatigue stress tests is significantly different. The cracks in the low fatigue stress tests underwent a transition from flat-to-slant crack growth, during which the CTOA values were high and significant crack tunneling occurred. After crack growth equal to about the thickness, CTOA reached a constant value of 6 deg and after crack growth equal to about twice the thickness, crack tunneling stabilized. The initial high CTOA values, in the low fatigue crack tests, coincided with large three-dimensional crack front shape changes due to a variation in the through-thickness crack tip constraint. The cracks in the high fatigue stress tests reach the same constant CTOA value after crack growth equal to about the thickness, but produced only a slightly higher CTOA value during initial crack growth. For crack growth on the 45 degree slant, the crack front and local field variables are still highly three-dimensional. However, the constant CTOA values and stable crack front shape may allow the process to be approximated with two-dimensional models.

  1. Mutated myocilin and heterozygous Sod2 deficiency act synergistically in a mouse model of open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Myung Kuk; Nakaya, Naoki; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tomarev, Stanislav I.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axonal degeneration leading to irreversible blindness. Mutations in the MYOCILIN (MYOC) gene are the most common genetic factors of primary open-angle glaucoma. To develop a genetic mouse model induced by the synergistic interaction of mutated myocilin and another significant risk factor, oxidative stress, we produced double-mutant mice (Tg-MYOCY437H/+/Sod2+/−) bearing human MYOC with a Y437H point mutation and a heterozygous deletion of the gene for the primary antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Sod2 is broadly expressed in most tissues including the trabecular meshwork (TM) and heterozygous Sod2 knockout mice exhibit the reduced SOD2 activity and oxidative stress in all studied tissues. Accumulation of Y437H myocilin in the TM induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and led to a 45% loss of smooth muscle alpha-actin positive cells in the eye drainage structure of 10- to 12-month-old Tg-MYOCY437H/+/Sod2+/− mice as compared with wild-type littermates. Tg-MYOCY437H/+/Sod2+/− mice had higher intraocular pressure, lost about 37% of RGCs in the peripheral retina, and exhibited axonal degeneration in the retina and optic nerve as compared with their wild-type littermates. Single-mutant littermates containing MYOCY437H/+ or Sod2+/− exhibited no significant pathological changes until 12 months of age. Additionally, we observed elevated expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, a human glaucoma marker, in the TM of Tg-MYOCY437H/+/Sod2+/− mice. This is the first reported animal glaucoma model that combines expression of a glaucoma-causing mutant gene and an additional mutation mimicking a deleterious environment factor that acts synergistically. PMID:25740847

  2. Linkage analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma excludes the juvenile glaucoma region on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Acott, T.S.; Samples, J.R. |

    1994-09-01

    The gene for one form of juvenile glaucoma has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. This raises the possibility of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) also mapping to this region if the same defective gene causes both diseases. To ask this question linkage analysis was performed on a large POAG kindred. Blood samples or skin biopsies were obtained from 40 members of this family. Individuals were diagnosed as having POAG if they met two or more of the following criteria: (1) Visual field defects compatible with glaucoma on automated perimetry; (2) Optic nerve head and/or nerve fiber layer analysis compatible with glaucomatous damage; (3) high intraocular pressures (> 20 mm Hg). Patients were considered glaucoma suspects if they only met one criterion. These individuals were excluded from the analysis. Of the 40 members, seven were diagnosed with POAG; four were termed suspects. The earliest age of onset was 38 years old, while the average age of onset was 65 years old. We performed two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, using five markers which encompass the region 1q21-q31; specifically, D1S194, D1S210, D1S212, D1S191 and LAMB2. Two-point lod scores excluded tight linkage with all markers except D1S212 (maximum lod score of 1.07 at theta = 0.0). In the multipoint analysis, including D1S210-D1S212-LAMB2 and POAG, the entire 11 cM region spanned by these markers was excluded for linkage with POAG; that is, lod scores were < -2.0. In conclusion, POAG in this family does not map to chromosome 1q21-q31 and, thus, they carry a gene that is distinct from the juvenile glaucoma gene.

  3. Examining the wake structure in Saturn's rings from microwave observations over varying ring opening angles and wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, David E.; de Pater, Imke; Molnar, Lawrence A.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 15 to 20 years several high quality, high resolution data have been taken with the very large array (VLA). These data exhibit a wide range of ring opening angles ( |B|=0 to 26°) and wavelengths ( λ=0.7 to 20 cm). At these wavelengths the primary flux from the rings is scattered saturnian thermal emission, with a small contribution coming from the ring particles' own thermal emission. Much of the data do show signs of asymmetries due to wakes either on the ansae or the portion of the rings which occult the planet. As in previous work, we use our Monte Carlo radiative transfer code including idealized wakes [Dunn, D.E., Molnar, L.A., Fix, J.D., 2002. Icarus 160, 132-160; Dunn, D.E., Molnar, L.A., Niehof, J.T., de Pater, I., Lissauer, J.L., 2004. Icarus 171, 183-198] to model the relative contributions of the scattered and thermal radiation emanating from the rings and compare the results to that seen in the data. Although the models do give satisfactory fits to all of our data, we find that no single model can simulate the data at all different |B| and λ. We find that one model works best for moderate and low |B| and another one at higher |B|. The main difference between these models is the ratio of the wake width to their separation. We similarly find that the 2 cm data require higher density wakes than the longer wavelength data, perhaps caused by a preponderance of somewhat smaller ring material in the wakes. We further find evidence for an increase in the physical temperature of the rings with increasing |B|. Continuous observations are required to determine whether the above results regarding variations in wake parameters with |B| and λ are indeed caused by these parameters, or instead by changes over time.

  4. The Relationship between Central Visual Field Damage and Motor Vehicle Collisions in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Kenya; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between visual field (VF) damage and history of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods MVC history and driving habits were recorded using patient questionnaires in 247 POAG patients. Patients' driving attitudes (carefulness) were estimated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between MVC outcomes and 52 total deviation (TD) values of integrated binocular VF (IVF), better and worse visual acuities (VAs), age and gender was analyzed using principal component analysis and logistic regression. Results 51 patients had the history of MVCs. Significant difference was observed between patients with and without history of MVCs only for: better VA, a single TD value in the superior-right VF, and the typical distance driven in a week (unpaired t-test, p = 0.002, 0.015 and 0.006, respectively). There was not a significant relationship between MVCs and mean deviation (MD) of IVF (p = 0.41, logistic regression). None of the principal components were significantly correlated with MVC outcome (p>0.05, polynomial logistic regression analysis). There was a significant relationship between IVF MD and Rasch derived Person parameter (R2 = 0.023, p = 0.0095). There was also a significant positive relationship between MVCs and the distance driven in a week (p = 0.005, logistic regression). Conclusions In this study of POAG patients, MVCs were not related to central binocular VF damage. These results suggest the relationship between visual function and driving is not straightforward, and careful consideration should be given when predicting patients' driving ability using their VF. PMID:25545660

  5. Comparison of ab externo trabeculotomy in primary open-angle glaucoma and uveitic glaucoma: long-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    William, Antony; Spitzer, Martin S; Doycheva, Deshka; Dimopoulos, Spyridon; Leitritz, Martin Alexander; Voykov, Bogomil

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of ab externo trabeculotomy in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and uveitic glaucoma (UG). Design This was a retrospective single-center case series study. Participants Twenty eyes of 17 patients with POAG and 22 eyes of 18 patients with UG were included in this study. Patients and methods The medical records of all consecutive patients with POAG and UG who underwent ab externo trabeculotomy since 2004 were reviewed. Main outcome measure The main outcome measure was change in median intraocular pressure (IOP). Success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg (success 1) and IOP ≤21 mmHg and at least 25% reduction from baseline (success 2). Results In the POAG group, the median IOP decreased significantly from 22 mmHg (95% CI 21–25 mmHg; n=20) at baseline to 14 mmHg (95% CI 12–16; n=13) after 4 years, P<0.001. In the UG group, the median IOP decreased significantly from 27 mmHg (95% CI 24.5–30.5 mmHg; n=22) at baseline to 12 mmHg (95% CI 9–15 mmHg; n=15) after 4 years, P<0.001. Seven eyes in the UG group failed within the first year after surgery compared to none in the POAG group. Of these, four eyes had Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome and two had granulomatous uveitis. No sight-threatening complications occurred in both POAG and UG groups. Conclusion Ab externo trabeculotomy effectively reduced IOP in both UG and POAG groups. However, the success rates in the UG group were significantly lower due to the high failure rate in patients with Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome and granulomatous uveitis. The procedure demonstrated a high safety profile in both UG and POAG patients. PMID:27284237

  6. Age-based analysis of choroidal thickness and choroidal vessel diameter in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Ibrahim; Yaylalı, Volkan; Yildirim, Cem

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess choroidal thickness and vessel diameter in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) with age-based analysis. Fifty-four patients with a confirmed diagnosis of POAG and 44 age-sex matched healthy subjects were included into the study. A masked physician performed measurements of largest choroidal vessel diameter and choroidal thicknesses (subfoveal, nasal, and temporal) using EDI OCT. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare choroidal measurements based on age (with a cut point of 70 years). The study cohort comprised 54 patients with POAG (mean age of 63.2 ± 8.8 years) and 44 healthy control subjects (mean age of 62.9 ± 8.5 years) (P = 0.870). We found no significant differences in terms of choroidal measurements (P > 0.05) between the glaucoma and control groups. However, in the glaucoma group, patients with an age ≥70 years had significantly thinner subfoveal and nasal choroid compared to those of the patients with <70 years of age (P = 0.017, 0.002 respectively). In the control group, choroidal thickness and vessel measurements showed no significant difference when the subjects were subgrouped according to the age cut point (P > 0.05). Choroidal thickness and vessel caliber seem not to differ between patients with POAG and healthy controls. However, an age ≥70 years might be associated with thinning in subfoveal and nasal choroid in patients with POAG. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether choroidal thinning is a cause or result in POAG. PMID:26077882

  7. Clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1%-brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sourabh; Trikha, Sameer; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2015-01-01

    The main first-line treatment strategy for glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) by topical ocular hypotensive medications, but many patients require multiple medications for adequate IOP control. Fixed-combination therapies provide several benefits, including simplified treatment regimens, theoretical improved treatment adherence, elimination of the potential for washout of the first drug by the second, and the reduction in ocular exposure to preservatives. β-Adrenoceptor antagonists (particularly 0.5% timolol) are the most commonly used agents in combination with other classes of drugs as fixed-combination eyedrops, but they are contraindicated in many patients, owing to local allergy or systemic side effects. A fixed-combination preparation without a β-blocker is therefore warranted. This paper reviews the clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC) for use in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. We searched PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry, and identified three randomized controlled trials comparing BBFC vs its constituents (brimonidine vs brinzolamide), and one comparing BBFC with unfixed brimonidine and brinzolamide. All of the studies demonstrated mean diurnal IOP to be statistically significantly lower in the BBFC group compared with constituent groups and noninferior to that with the concomitant group using two separate bottles. The safety profile of BBFC was consistent with that of its individual components, the most common ocular adverse events being ocular hyperemia, visual disturbances, and ocular allergic reactions. Common systemic adverse effects included altered taste sensation, oral dryness, fatigue, somnolence, and decreased alertness. BBFC seems to be a promising new fixed combination for use in glaucoma patients. However, long-term effects of BBFC on IOP, treatment adherence, and safety need to be determined. PMID:26648686

  8. Oxygen saturation measurements of the retinal vasculature in treated asymmetrical primary open-angle glaucoma using hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mordant, D J; Al-Abboud, I; Muyo, G; Gorman, A; Harvey, A R; McNaught, A I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether there are differences in retinal vascular oxygen saturation measurements, estimated using a hyperspectral fundus camera, between normal eyes and treated eyes of subjects with asymmetrical primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A noninvasive hyperspectral fundus camera was used to acquire spectral images of the retina at wavelengths between 556 and 650 nm in 2-nm increments. In total, 14 normal eyes and both eyes of 11 treated POAG subjects were imaged and analyzed using algorithms that use the spectral variation of the optical densities of blood vessels to estimate the oxygen saturation of blood within the retinal vasculature. In the treated POAG group, each of the eyes were categorized, based on the mean deviation of the Humphrey visual-field analyzer result, as either more-advanced or less-advanced, glaucomatous eyes. Unpaired t-tests (two-tailed) with Welch's correction were used to compare the mean oxygen saturation between the normal subjects and the treated POAG subgroups. Results In less-advanced and more-advanced-treated POAG eyes, mean retinal venular oxygen saturations (48.2±21.6% and 42.6±18.8%, respectively) were significantly higher than in normal eyes (27.9±9.9% P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Arteriolar oxygen saturation was not significantly different between normal eyes and treated POAG eyes. Conclusions The increased oxygen saturation of the retinal venules in advanced-treated POAG eyes may indicate reduced metabolic consumption of oxygen in the inner retinal tissues. PMID:25060843

  9. Optic Disc Perfusion in Primary Open Angle and Normal Tension Glaucoma Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Joanne C.; Zhang, Qinqin; Xin, Chen; Gupta, Divakar; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Philip P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate optic disc perfusion differences in normal, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes using optical microangiography (OMAG) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography technique. Design Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects Twenty-eight normal, 30 POAG, and 31 NTG subjects. Methods One eye from each subject was scanned with a 68 kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5,000-based OMAG prototype system centered at the optic nerve head (ONH) (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA). Microvascular images were generated from the OMAG dataset by detecting the differences in OCT signal between consecutive B-scans. The pre-laminar layer (preLC) was isolated by a semi-automatic segmentation program. Main Outcome Measures Optic disc perfusion, quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux (flux normalized by the vessel area) within the ONH. Results Glaucomatous eyes had significantly lower optic disc perfusion in preLC in all three perfusion metrics (p<0.0001) compared to normal eyes. The visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were similar between the POAG and NTG groups, and no differences in optic disc perfusion were observed between POAG and NTG. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between optic disc perfusion and VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in both POAG and NTG groups (p≤0.0288). However, normalized optic disc perfusion was correlated with some structural measures (retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ONH cup/disc ratio) only in POAG eyes. Conclusions Optic disc perfusion detected with OMAG was significantly reduced in POAG and NTG groups compared to normal controls, but no difference was seen between POAG and NTG groups with similar levels of VF damage. Disc perfusion was significantly correlated with VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in glaucomatous eyes. Vascular changes at the optic disc as measured using OMAG may provide useful information for

  10. Mutated myocilin and heterozygous Sod2 deficiency act synergistically in a mouse model of open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Joe, Myung Kuk; Nakaya, Naoki; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tomarev, Stanislav I

    2015-06-15

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axonal degeneration leading to irreversible blindness. Mutations in the myocilin (MYOC) gene are the most common genetic factors of primary open-angle glaucoma. To develop a genetic mouse model induced by the synergistic interaction of mutated myocilin and another significant risk factor, oxidative stress, we produced double-mutant mice (Tg-MYOC(Y437H/+)/Sod2(+/-)) bearing human MYOC with a Y437H point mutation and a heterozygous deletion of the gene for the primary antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Sod2 is broadly expressed in most tissues including the trabecular meshwork (TM) and heterozygous Sod2 knockout mice exhibit the reduced SOD2 activity and oxidative stress in all studied tissues. Accumulation of Y437H myocilin in the TM induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and led to a 45% loss of smooth muscle alpha-actin positive cells in the eye drainage structure of 10- to 12-month-old Tg-MYOC(Y437H/+)/Sod2(+/-) mice as compared with wild-type littermates. Tg-MYOC(Y437H/+)/Sod2(+/-) mice had higher intraocular pressure, lost about 37% of RGCs in the peripheral retina, and exhibited axonal degeneration in the retina and optic nerve as compared with their wild-type littermates. Single-mutant littermates containing MYOC(Y437H/+) or Sod2(+/-) exhibited no significant pathological changes until 12 months of age. Additionally, we observed elevated expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, a human glaucoma marker, in the TM of Tg-MYOC(Y437H/+)/Sod2(+/-) mice. This is the first reported animal glaucoma model that combines expression of a glaucoma-causing mutant gene and an additional mutation mimicking a deleterious environment factor that acts synergistically. PMID:25740847

  11. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Kim, Hyunjoong; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface depth (LCD) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT) at the anterior LC surface. Methods Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral) according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length. Results Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023). On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002), together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001), higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010), and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003) on the larger LCD. Conclusion In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship. PMID:27355646

  12. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Takeda, Ryuji; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD) value and glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG), including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma. Patients and methods The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program). The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening) at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%), while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%). There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test). A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224) and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008) consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282). The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0.01). Conclusion This retrospective study has shown that three or more consecutive deterioration of MD value might be a predictor to future significant MD slope worsening in OAG. PMID:26648689

  13. Effect of dorzolamide and timolol on ocular blood flow in patients with primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, G; Wally, B; Rainer, G; Buehl, W; Aggermann, T; Kolodjaschna, J; Weigert, G; Polska, E; Eichler, H-G; Vass, C; Schmetterer, L

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that perfusion abnormalities of the optic nerve head are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. There is therefore considerable interest in the effects of topical antiglaucoma drugs on ocular blood flow. A study was undertaken to compare the ocular haemodynamic effects of dorzolamide and timolol in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods: One hundred and forty patients with POAG or OHT were included in a controlled, randomised, double blind study in two parallel groups; 70 were randomised to receive timolol and 70 to receive dorzolamide for a period of 6 months. Subjects whose intraocular pressure (IOP) did not respond to either of the two drugs were switched to the alternative treatment after 2 weeks. Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow in the temporal neuroretinal rim and the cup of the optic nerve head. Pulsatile choroidal blood flow was assessed using laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation amplitude. Results: Five patients did not respond to timolol and were changed to the dorzolamide group, and 18 patients changed from dorzolamide treatment to timolol. The effects of both drugs on IOP and ocular perfusion pressure were comparable. Dorzolamide, but not timolol, increased blood flow in the temporal neuroretinal rim (8.5 (1.6)%, p<0.001 versus timolol) and the cup of the optic nerve head (13.5 (2.5)%, p<0.001 versus timolol), and fundus pulsation amplitude (8.9 (1.3)%, p<0.001 versus timolol). Conclusions: This study indicates augmented blood flow in the optic nerve head and choroid after 6 months of treatment with dorzolamide, but not with timolol. It remains to be established whether this effect can help to reduce visual field loss in patients with glaucoma. PMID:16170119

  14. Diabetes Pathology and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluating Causal Mechanisms by Using Genetic Information.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ling; Walter, Stefan; Melles, Ronald B; Glymour, M Maria; Jorgenson, Eric

    2016-01-15

    Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) predicts glaucoma, the potential for unmeasured confounding has hampered causal conclusions. We performed separate sample genetic instrumental variable analyses using the Genetic Epidemiology Research Study on Adult Health and Aging cohort (n = 69,685; 1995-2013) to estimate effects of T2D on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; 3,554 cases). Genetic instrumental variables for overall and mechanism-specific (i.e., linked to T2D via influences on adiposity, β-cell function, insulin regulation, or other metabolic processes) T2D risk were constructed by using 39 genetic polymorphisms established to predict T2D in other samples. Instrumental variable estimates indicated that T2D increased POAG risk (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 6.11). The instrumental variable for β-cell dysregulation also significantly predicted POAG (odds ratioβ-cell = 5.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.75, 15.85), even among individuals without diagnosed T2D, suggesting that metabolic dysregulation may increase POAG risk prior to T2D diagnosis. The T2D risk variant in the melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) predicted risk of POAG independently of T2D status, indicating possible pleiotropic physiological functions of melatonin, but instrumental variable effect estimates were significant even excluding MTNR1B variants. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic instrumental variable study of T2D and glaucoma, providing a novel approach to evaluating this hypothesized relationship. Our findings substantially bolster observational evidence that T2D increases POAG risk. PMID:26608880

  15. Does Helicobacter pylori Eradication Reduce the Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication would influence the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients with peptic ulcer disease. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6061 patients with peptic ulcer and receiving H pylori eradication therapy were recruited. The study cohort was subdivided into early (within 1 year) and late (after 1 year) eradication cohorts. The 24,244 control cohort subjects were those who without peptic ulcer and without receiving H pylori eradication therapy and were frequency-matched with the H pylori eradication cohort by age, sex, and the year of receiving H pylori eradication therapy. The higher incidence of POAG was observed in late H pylori eradication cohort and in early H pylori eradication cohort than in control cohort (1.57, 1.32, and 0.95, per 1000 person-year, respectively). However, overall risk of glaucoma was not significantly higher in the late eradication than in the early eradication (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.53). The POAG incidence was greater in the late H pylori eradication cohort when follow-up duration ≤ 5 years (1.59, per 1000 person-years). However, when follow-up duration >5 years, the incidence of POAG was greater in the early H pylori eradication cohort (1.68, per 1000 person-years). These relationships were not associated with a significantly increased or decreased risk of POAG in multivariable analyses. Either early or late H pylori eradication does not significantly reduce the risk of glaucoma in patients with peptic ulcer disease compared with normal control. PMID:26426633

  16. Does Helicobacter pylori Eradication Reduce the Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication would influence the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients with peptic ulcer disease. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6061 patients with peptic ulcer and receiving H pylori eradication therapy were recruited. The study cohort was subdivided into early (within 1 year) and late (after 1 year) eradication cohorts. The 24,244 control cohort subjects were those who without peptic ulcer and without receiving H pylori eradication therapy and were frequency-matched with the H pylori eradication cohort by age, sex, and the year of receiving H pylori eradication therapy. The higher incidence of POAG was observed in late H pylori eradication cohort and in early H pylori eradication cohort than in control cohort (1.57, 1.32, and 0.95, per 1000 person-year, respectively). However, overall risk of glaucoma was not significantly higher in the late eradication than in the early eradication (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.48–1.53). The POAG incidence was greater in the late H pylori eradication cohort when follow-up duration ≤5 years (1.59, per 1000 person-years). However, when follow-up duration >5 years, the incidence of POAG was greater in the early H pylori eradication cohort (1.68, per 1000 person-years). These relationships were not associated with a significantly increased or decreased risk of POAG in multivariable analyses. Either early or late H pylori eradication does not significantly reduce the risk of glaucoma in patients with peptic ulcer disease compared with normal control. PMID:26426633

  17. Field of Flow About a Jet and Effect of Jets on Stability of Jet-Propelled Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, Herbert S.

    1946-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted on jet-induced flow deviation. Analysis is given of flow inclination induced outside cold and hot jets and jet deflection caused by angle of attack. Applications to computation of effects of jet on longitudinal stability and trim are explained. Effect of jet temperature on flow inclination was found small when thrust coefficient is used as criterion for similitude. The average jet-induced downwash over tail plane was obtained geometrically.

  18. Reconfinement shocks in relativistic AGN jets

    SciTech Connect

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek

    2008-12-24

    Stationary knots observed in many AGN jets can be explained in terms of a reconfinement shock that forms when relativistic flow of the jet matter collides with the external medium. The position of these knots can be used, together with information on external pressure profile, to constrain dynamical parameters of the jet. We present a semi-analytical model for the dynamical structure of reconfinement shocks, taking into account exact conservation laws both across the shock surface and in the zone of the shocked jet matter. We show that, due to the transverse pressure gradient in the shock zone, the position of the reconfinement is larger than predicted by simple models. A portion of kinetic energy is converted at the shock surface to internal energy, with efficiency increasing strongly with both bulk Lorentz factor of the jet matter and the jet half-opening angle. Our model may be useful as a framework for modeling non-thermal radiation produced within the stationary features.

  19. Highly efficient photocatalytic TiO2 coatings deposited by open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet with aerosolized TTIP precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, H.; Ben Salem, D.; Carton, O.; Pulpytel, J.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.

    2014-07-01

    A simple method to deposit photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, at a high rate (20-40 µm s-1), and with a high porosity, is reported in this paper. This method, which allows the treatment of membranes (with an 800 nm pore size), is based on the introduction of a liquid precursor sprayed into an open-air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin films prepared by APPJ have been compared with our best N-doped TiO2 thin films, deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, previously reported in the literature. The morphology, chemical composition, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings have been studied in this paper. Significant control of the porosity and crystallinity was achieved by varying the deposition parameters and the annealing temperature. Under optimized conditions, the TiO2 coatings deposited by APPJ are characterized by a higher photocatalytic activity as compared to the optimized thin films deposited by RF sputtering. This difference can be explained by the higher specific surface of the APPJ coatings. Finally, the most interesting characteristic of this APPJ-liquid spray process is its capacity to treat membranes without blocking the pores, and to produce photocatalytic membranes which can efficiently combine filtration and photocatalysis for water treatment.

  20. Alternate Search for Jet Breaks in Long GRB X-ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    In the standard fireball models of GRB afterglows, the jet opening angle can be determined from the achromatic jet break by measuring the time at which this break in the light curves occurs. This measure allows us to estimate the energy budget of the GRB explosion. Swift XRT observations have shown that jet breaks are not observed in the first several days or weeks of a typical X-ray afterglow. We have already exploited Chandra's better sensitivity to observe late XRT afterglows and put more stringent constraints on jet break times, and started a program to interpret results with more realistic jet models. We propose to observe 3 more exceptionally bright X-ray afterglows of GRBs from the past year that in absence of jet break would still be detectable in this cycle.

  1. Linked opening angle and histological and mechanical aspects of the proximal pulmonary arteries of healthy and pulmonary hypertensive rats and calves.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Philip H; Reusser, Mark; Stenmark, Kurt R; Hunter, Kendall S; Qi, H Jerry; Shandas, Robin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding how arterial remodeling changes the mechanical behavior of pulmonary arteries (PAs) is important to the evaluation of pulmonary vascular function. Early and current efforts have focused on the arteries' histological changes, their mechanical properties under in vitro mechanical testing, and their zero-stress and no-load states. However, the linkage between the histology and mechanical behavior is still not well understood. To explore this linkage, we investigated the geometry, residual stretch, and histology of proximal PAs in both adult rat and neonatal calf hypoxic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH), compared their changes due to chronic hypoxia across species, and proposed a two-layer mechanical model of artery to relate the opening angle to the stiffness ratio of the PA outer to inner layer. We found that the proximal PA remodeling in calves was quite different from that in rats. In rats, the arterial wall thickness, inner diameter, and outer layer thickness fraction all increased dramatically in PH and the opening angle decreased significantly, whereas in calves, only the arterial wall thickness increased in PH. The proposed model predicted that the stiffness ratio of the calf proximal PAs changed very little from control to hypertensive group, while the decrease of opening angle in rat proximal PAs in response to chronic hypoxia was approximately linear to the increase of the stiffness ratio. We conclude that the arterial remodeling in rat and calf proximal PAs is different and the change of opening angle can be linked to the change of the arterial histological structure and mechanics. PMID:21856906

  2. Primary open angle glaucoma due to T377M MYOC: Population mapping of a Greek founder mutation in Northwestern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kitsos, George; Petrou, Zacharias; Grigoriadou, Maria; Samples, John R; Hewitt, Alex W; Kokotas, Haris; Giannoulia-Karantana, Aglaia; Mackey, David A; Wirtz, Mary K; Moschou, Marilita; Ioannidis, John PA; Petersen, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mutations in the MYOC gene have been shown to explain 5% of unrelated primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in different populations. In particular, the T377M MYOC mutation has arisen at least three separate times in history, in Great Britain, India, and Greece. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of the mutation among different population groups in the northwestern region of Greece. Materials and methods: We explored the distribution of the “Greek” T377M founder mutation in the Epirus region in Northwestern Greece, which could be its origin. Genotyping was performed in POAG cases and controls by PCR amplification of the MYOC gene, followed by digestion with restriction enzyme. Statistical analyses were performed by an exact test, the Kaplan–Meier method and the t-test. Results: In the isolated Chrysovitsa village in the Pindus Mountains, a large POAG family demonstrated the T377M mutation in 20 of 66 family members while no controls from the Epirus region (n = 124) carried this mutation (P < 0.001). Among other POAG cases from Epirus, 2 out of 14 familial cases and 1 out of 80 sporadic cases showed the mutation (P = 0.057). The probability of POAG diagnosis with advancing age among mutation carriers was 23% at age 40, and reached 100% at age 75. POAG patients with the T377M mutation were diagnosed at a mean age of 51 years (SD ± 13.9), which is younger than the sporadic or familial POAG cases: 63.1 (SD ± 11) and 66.8 (SD ± 9.8) years, respectively. Conclusions: The T377M mutation was found in high proportion in members of the Chrysovitsa family (30.3%), in lower proportion in familial POAG cases (14.2%) and seems rare in sporadic POAG cases (1.2%), while no controls (0%) from the Epirus region carried the mutation. Historical and geographical data may explain the distribution of this mutation within Greece and worldwide. PMID:20390039

  3. TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP4 are increased in aqueous humor from primary open angle glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Esther L. Ashworth; Toh, Tze’Yo; Eri, Rajaraman; Hewitt, Alex W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only known modifiable risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and it can be caused by reduced aqueous humor outflow from the anterior chamber. Outflow is predominantly regulated by the trabecular meshwork, consisting of specialized cells within a complex extracellular matrix (ECM). An imbalance between ECM-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) within the trabecular meshwork is thought to contribute to POAG. This study aimed to quantify levels of TIMPs and MMPs in aqueous humor samples from glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes, analyze MMP/TIMP ratios, and correlate results with age, IOP, and Humphrey’s visual field pattern standard deviation (PSD). Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 26 non-glaucomatous control subjects before cataract surgery and 23 POAG patients undergoing trabeculectomy or cataract surgery. Analyte concentrations were measured using multiplexed immunoassays. Statistical significance was assessed with Mann–Whitney U tests, and Spearman’s method was used to assess correlations with age, IOP, and PSD. Results Concentrations of TIMP1 (p = 0.0008), TIMP2 (p = 0.002), TIMP4 (p = 0.002), and MMP2 (p = 0.020) were significantly increased in aqueous humor samples from POAG versus cataract samples. For the majority of MMP/TIMP molar ratios calculated for the cataract group, TIMPs outweighed MMPs. In POAG, molar ratios of MMP2/TIMP1 (p = 0.007) and MMP9/TIMP1 (p = 0.005) showed a significant decrease, corresponding to an elevated excess of TIMPs over MMPs in POAG compared to cataract samples. Conversely, MMP2/TIMP3 (p = 0.045) and MMP3/TIMP3 (p = 0.032) molar ratios increased. Several MMP/TIMP molar ratios correlated with IOP (r = 0.476–0.609, p = 0.007–0.034) and PSD (r = -0.482 to −0.655, p = 0.005–0.046) in POAG samples and with age in cataract control samples. Conclusions An imbalance among MMPs and TIMPs was found

  4. A Common Variant in MIR182 Is Associated With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in the NEIGHBORHOOD Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yutao; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Helwa, Inas; Dismuke, W. Michael; Cai, Jingwen; Drewry, Michelle; Brilliant, Murray H.; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Fingert, John H.; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Gordon, Mae O.; Igo, Robert P.; Kang, Jae H.; Kass, Michael A.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E.; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Song, Yeunjoo E.; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Medeiros, Felipe; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Gonzalez, Pedro; Stamer, W. Daniel; Kuchtey, John; Kuchtey, Rachel W.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael A.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. We aimed to identify common variants in miRNA coding genes (MIR) associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Using the NEIGHBORHOOD data set (3853 cases/33,480 controls with European ancestry), we first assessed the relation between 85 variants in 76 MIR genes and overall POAG. Subtype-specific analyses were performed in high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal-tension glaucoma subsets. Second, we examined the expression of miR-182, which was associated with POAG, in postmortem human ocular tissues (ciliary body, cornea, retina, and trabecular meshwork [TM]), using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-Seq) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Third, miR-182 expression was also examined in human aqueous humor (AH) by using miRNA-Seq. Fourth, exosomes secreted from primary human TM cells were examined for miR-182 expression by using miRNA-Seq. Fifth, using ddPCR we compared miR-182 expression in AH between five HTG cases and five controls. Results Only rs76481776 in MIR182 gene was associated with POAG after adjustment for multiple comparisons (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.42, P = 0.0002). Subtype analysis indicated that the association was primarily in the HTG subset (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08–1.47, P = 0.004). The risk allele T has been associated with elevated miR-182 expression in vitro. Data from ddPCR and miRNA-Seq confirmed miR-182 expression in all examined ocular tissues and TM-derived exosomes. Interestingly, miR-182 expression in AH was 2-fold higher in HTG patients than nonglaucoma controls (P = 0.03) without controlling for medication treatment. Conclusions Our integrative study is the first to associate rs76481776 with POAG via elevated miR-182 expression. PMID:27579667

  5. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  6. Bupropion Use and Risk of Open-Angle Glaucoma among Enrollees in a Large U.S. Managed Care Network

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Talwar, Nidhi; Kang, Jae H.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) mediates retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. Anti-TNF drugs are neuroprotective in an animal model of glaucoma. It is unclear whether medications with anti-TNF properties such as bupropion have an impact on the risk of developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in humans. The purpose of this study is to determine whether bupropion use alters the risk of developing OAG. Methods Claims data for beneficiaries age ≥35 years with no pre-existing OAG enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network continuously for ≥4 years between 2001-2011 was analyzed to identify patients who had been newly-diagnosed with OAG. The amount of bupropion use as captured from outpatient pharmacy claims over a four-year period was also quantified for each beneficiary. Multivariable Cox regression modeling assessed the impact of bupropion and other antidepressant medications on the risk of developing OAG with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics of the enrollees along with medical and ocular comorbidities. Results Of 638,481 eligible enrollees, 15,292 (2.4%) developed OAG. After adjustment for confounding factors including use of other antidepressant medication classes, each additional month of bupropion use was associated with a 0.6% reduced risk of OAG (HR = 0.994, (95% CI: 0.989-0.998), p = 0.007). Compared to nonusers, those with 24-48 months of bupropion use had a 21% reduced hazard (HR=0.79, (CI: 0.65-0.94), p = 0.0099) of OAG. This association did not differ among persons taking bupropion for depression or for other reasons (p-interaction = 0.82). There was no significant association between use of tricyclic antidepressants (HR = 1.000, (CI: 0.997-1.004), p = 0.95) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR = 0.999, (CI: 0.997-1.001), p = 0.39) and development of OAG. Conclusion These findings suggest bupropion use may be beneficial in reducing the risk of OAG. If prospective studies confirm the findings of this analysis

  7. Selective laser trabeculoplasty in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma vs primary open angle glaucoma: a one-year comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Nilforushan, Naveed; Nassiri, Nariman; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the efficacy of single-session 360-degree selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXFG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS This is a single-center, prospective, nonrandomized comparative study. Patients older than 18 years of age with uncontrolled PXFG or POAG eyes requiring additional therapy while on maximally tolerated IOP-lowering medications were included. The primary outcome measure changed in IOP from baseline. Success was defined as IOP reduction ≥20% from baseline without any additional IOP-lowering medication. All patients were examined at 1d, 1wk, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12mo after SLT. RESULTS Nineteen patients (20 eyes) with PXFG and 27 patients (28 eyes) with POAG were included in the study. In the visual fields mean deviation was -2.88 (±1.67) in the POAG and -3.1 (±1.69) in the PXFG groups (P=0.3). The mean (±SD) IOP was 22.9 (±3.7) mm Hg in the POAG group and 25.7 (±4.4) mm Hg in the PXFG group at baseline and decreased to 18.4 (±3.2) and 18.0 (±3.9) mm Hg in the POAG group (P<0.001 and P=0.02), and to 17.9 (±4.0) and 21.0 (±6.6) mm Hg in the PXFG group (P<0.001 and P=0.47) at 6 and 12mo, respectively. The number of medications was 2.6 (±0.8) in the POAG group and 2.5 (±0.8) in the PXFG group at baseline, and did not change at all follow-up visits in both groups (P=0.16 in POAG and 0.57 in PXFG). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the success rate was 75% in the POAG group compared to 94.1% in the PXFG group (P=0.08; log rank test) at 6mo, and 29.1% and 25.0% at 12mo, respectively (P=0.9; log rank). CONCLUSION The 360-degree SLT is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic modality in patients with POAG and PXFG by reducing IOP without any change in number of medications. The response was more pronounced early in the postoperative period in patients with PXFG whereas there was no statistically significant difference at 12

  8. Association of Geroprotective Effects of Metformin and Risk of Open-Angle Glaucoma in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Stein, Joshua D.; Nan, Bin; Childers, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Thompson, Debra A.; Richards, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Caloric restriction mimetic drugs have geroprotective effects that delay or reduce risks for a variety of age-associated systemic diseases, suggesting that such drugs might also have the potential to reduce risks of blinding ophthalmologic conditions for which age is a major risk factor. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the caloric restriction mimetic drug metformin hydrochloride is associated with reduced risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in persons with diabetes mellitus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective cohort study of patients aged 40 years or older with diabetes mellitus and no preexisting record of OAG in a large US managed care network from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010. EXPOSURES Quantity of metformin and other prescribed diabetes medications as captured from outpatient pharmacy records. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Risk of developing OAG. RESULTS Of 150 016 patients with diabetes mellitus, 5893 (3.9%) developed OAG. After adjusting for confounding factors, those prescribed the highest quartile of metformin hydrochloride (> 1110 g in 2 years) had a 25% reduced OAG risk relative to those who took no metformin (hazard ratio = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59–0.95; P = .02). Every 1-g increase in metformin hydrochloride use was associated with a 0.16% reduction in OAG risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.99984; 95% CI, 0.99969–0.99999; P = .04), which predicts that taking a standard dose of 2 g of metformin hydrochloride per day for 2 years would result in a 20.8% reduction in risk of OAG. After accounting for potential confounders, including metformin and diabetic medications, the risk of developing OAG was increased by 8% (hazard ratio = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03–1.13; P = .003) for each unit of increase in glycated hemoglobin level. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Metformin use is associated with reduction in risk of developing OAG, and risk is reduced even when accounting for glycemic control in the form of glycated hemoglobin level. Other diabetes

  9. A survey of preoperative blood tests in primary open-angle glaucoma patients versus cataract surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Laura P.; Wong, Jessica; Jiwani, Aliya Z.; Greenstein, Scott H.; Brauner, Stacey C.; Chen, Sherleen C.; Turalba, Angela V.; Chen, Teresa C.; Shen, Lucy; Rhee, Douglas J.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Kang, Jae Hee; Loomis, Stephanie; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate biomarker differences in routine preoperative blood tests performed on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) case and control patients presenting for anterior segment eye surgery. Methods POAG cases and age-related cataract surgery patients (controls) who underwent anterior segment surgery at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from January 2009 through March 2012 were identified by retrospective record review. Patients with diabetes mellitus, secondary glaucoma, and cataract due to trauma or steroid exposure were excluded. Data on demographic features, preoperative ophthalmological and medical diagnosis, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, basic metabolic panel, and complete blood count were extracted from the medical records. Univariate differences in lab values between POAG cases and controls were assessed using unpaired t tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the independent associations of biomarkers with POAG. Results A total of 150 cases and 150 age-related controls were included. In multivariate analysis, higher AG was inversely associated with POAG (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80–1.00), and higher Cl− level was positively associated with POAG (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02–1.29). The lower AG in POAG patients could be explained by higher IgG levels as the available data in post hoc analysis showed a nonsignificant trend toward higher IgG in cases compared to controls (17 vs 23; 1142 ± 284 mg/dl vs 1028 ± 291 mg/dl; P = 0.22). Furthermore, in multivariable analysis, a higher red blood cell count was also associated with POAG (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.11–3.28). Conclusions Patients with POAG presenting for anterior segment surgery had a lower AG compared to age-related cataract surgery patients. The etiology of this reduced gap is unclear but the possible contribution of IgG warrants further exploration. The etiology of higher red blood cell counts in POAG cases is unknown and

  10. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.