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1

The use of laterally vectored thrust to counter thrust asymmetry in a tactical jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear, six degree-of-freedom flight simulator for a twin engine tactical jet was built on a hybrid computer to investigate lateral vectoring of the remaining thrust component for the case of a single engine failure at low dynamic pressures. Aircraft control was provided by an automatic controller rather than a pilot, and thrust vector control was provided by an open-loop controller that deflected a vane (located on the periphery of each exhaust jet and normally streamlined for noninterference with the flow). Lateral thrust vectoring decreased peak values of lateral control deflections, eliminated the requirement for steady-state lateral aerodynamic control deflections, and decreased the amount of altitude lost for a single engine failure.

1983-01-01

2

An Experimental/Modeling Study of Jet Attachment during Counterflow Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have shown the applicability of vectoring rectangular jets using asymmetrically applied counterflow in the presence of a short collar. This novel concept has applications in the aerospace industry where counterflow can be used to vector the thrust of a jet's exhaust, shortening take-off and landing distances and enhancing in-flight maneuverability of the aircraft. Counterflow thrust vectoring, 'CFTV' is desirable due to its fast time response, low thrust loss, and absence of moving parts. However, implementation of a CFTV system is only possible if bistable jet attachment can be prevented. This can be achieved by properly designing the geometry of the collar. An analytical model is developed herein to predict the conditions under which a two-dimensional jet will attach to an offset curved wall. Results from this model are then compared with experiment; for various jet exit Mach numbers, collar offset distances, and radii of curvature. Their excellent correlation permits use of the model as a tool for designing a CFTV system.

Strykowski, Paul J.

1997-01-01

3

Test stand for precise measurement of impulse and thrust vector of small attitude control jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test stand which accurately measures the impulse bit and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters used in the attitude control system of space vehicles has been developed. It can be used to measure, in a vacuum or ambient environment, both impulse and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters using hydrazine or inert gas propellants. The ballistic pendulum configuration was selected because of its accuracy, simplicity, and versatility. The pendulum is mounted on flexure pivots rotating about a vertical axis at the center of its mass. The test stand has the following measurement capabilities: impulse of 0.00004 to 4.4 N-sec (0.00001 to 1.0 lb-sec) with a pulse duration of 0.5 msec to 1 sec; static thrust of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) with a 5 percent resolution; and thrust angle alinement of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) thrusters with 0.01 deg accuracy.

Woodruff, J. R.; Chisel, D. M.

1973-01-01

4

Fluidic thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and testing of a fluidic control nozzle for tactical missile thrust vector control (TVC) are discussed. Attention is given to a nozzle with a circular cross section up to the point of flow separation, two control ports that alternately open and close, and a nozzle extension downstream of the control ports being a two-dimensional rectangular slot. Design of the TVC system involved characterizing the flow and the sensitivity parameters, the dynamic response, and the performance of hot-gas firings. The test firings verified the feasibility of a nozzle that could withstand 5000 F, the use of thrust vector angles of over 20 deg. A dynamic model test demonstrated a repeatable performance with pressures up to 2000 psia, driving frequencies up to 50 Hz, and a response of 10-15 msec. Adjustment of the chamber pressures permitted equivalent performance using with different heat ratios during cold dynamic tests with CH4.

Haloulakos, V. E.

5

Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

1999-01-01

6

STOL landing thrust: Reverser jet flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis tools and modeling concepts for jet flow fields encountered upon use of thrust reversers for high performance military aircraft are described. A semi-empirical model of the reverser ground wall jet interaction with the uniform cross flow due to aircraft forward velocity is described. This ground interaction model is used to demonstrate exhaust gas ingestion conditions. The effects of control of exhaust jet vector angle, lateral splay, and moving versus fixed ground simulation are discussed. The Adler/Baron jet-in-cross flow model is used in conjunction with three dimensional panel methods to investigate the upper surface jet induced flow field.

Kotansky, D. R.; Glaze, L. W.

1987-01-01

7

Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

1990-01-01

8

Analysis of stratified and closely spaced jets exhausting into a crossflow. [aerodynamic characteristics of lift-jet, vectored thrust, and lift fan V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures have been developed for determining the flow field about jets with velocity stratification exhausting into a crossflow. Jets with three different types of exit velocity stratification have been considered: (1) jets with a relatively high velocity core; (2) jets with a relatively low velocity core; and (3) jets originating from a vaned nozzle. The procedure developed for a jet originating from a high velocity core nozzle is to construct an equivalent nozzle having the same mass flow and thrust but having a uniform exit velocity profile. Calculations of the jet centerline and induced surface static pressures have been shown to be in good agreement with test data for a high velocity core nozzle. The equivalent ideal nozzle has also been shown to be a good representation for jets with a relatively low velocity core and for jets originating from a vaned nozzle in evaluating jet-induced flow fields. For the singular case of a low velocity core nozzle, namely a nozzle with a dead air core, and for the vaned nozzle, an alternative procedure has been developed. The internal mixing which takes place in the jet core has been properly accounted for in the equations of motion governing the jet development. Calculations of jet centerlines and induced surface static pressures show good agreement with test data these nozzles.

Ziegler, H.; Woller, P. T.

1973-01-01

9

Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring by Navier-Stokes solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induced aerodynamics from thrust vectoring are investigated by a computational fluid dynamic method. A thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code with multiblock capability is used. Jet properties are specified on the nozzle exit plane to simulate the jet momentum. Results for a rectangular jet in a cross flow are compared with data to verify the code. Further verification of the calculation is made by comparing the numerical results with transonic data for a wing-body combination. Additional calculations were performed to elucidate the following thrust vectoring effects: the thrust vectoring effect on shock and expansion waves, induced effects on nearby surfaces, and the thrust vectoring effect on the leading edge vortex.

Tseng, Jing-Biau; Lan, C. Edward

1991-01-01

10

Thrust-Vector-Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control gains computed via matrix Riccati equation. Software-based system controlling aim of gimbaled rocket motor on spacecraft adaptive and optimal in sense it adjusts control gains in response to feedback, according to optimizing algorithm based on cost function. Underlying control concept also applicable, with modifications, to thrust-vector control on vertical-takeoff-and-landing airplanes, control of orientations of scientific instruments, and robotic control systems.

Murray, Jonathan

1992-01-01

11

Thrust Vector Control System Study for a Large Liquid Booster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort consisted of evaluating six thrust vector control systems for application on a Large Liquid Booster. The thrust vector control systems evaluated were liquid injection thrust vector control, hot gas secondary injection thrust vector control and...

D. Stump, V. Olivier

1968-01-01

12

Tandem Cascade Thrust Vectoring Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous thrust vectoring from horizontal through vertical, to reversed thrust can be accomplished by the use of one or two cascades in series, each employing variable camber airfoils. An experimental wind tunnel evaluation of three types of variable ca...

J. R. Erwin, D. E. Clark, R. G. Giffin, J. G. Kirkpatrick

1964-01-01

13

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Characterization of a Counterflow Thrust Vectoring Scheme  

E-print Network

Vectoring Scheme on a Gas Turbine Engine Exhaust Jet Dores, D.* and Madruga Santos, M.. Academia da Força of the application of 2-D counterflow thrust vectoring to the exhaust of a gas turbine engine. The characterization vanes, nozzles or plates vectored the jet. The performance of this new flight control concept was tested

Collins, Emmanuel

14

Numerical solution of 2-D thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flowfield within and around two dimensional thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzles has been calculated using a new unfactored implicit method with a multiple zone grid. Computations are done for fully deployed thrust reversing nozzles, partially deployed thrust reversing nozzles with thrust vectoring, and a nozzle transitioning from partially to fully deployed. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

S. Imlay

1986-01-01

15

Numerical simulation of STOL operations using thrust-vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow field about a delta wing equipped with thrust reverser jets in slow speed flight near the ground has been computed. Results include the prediction of the flow about the delta wing at four fixed heights above the ground, and a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends towards the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations can capture at least the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect.

Chawla, Kalpana; Van Dalsem, W. R.

1992-01-01

16

Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

Wing, David J.

1996-01-01

17

Ascent thrust vector control system test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control System in support of the Ares 1-X program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available

2008-01-01

18

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

19

Multi-objective Optimal Design of a Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle  

E-print Network

Multi-objective Optimal Design of a Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Andr´as S´obester , Andy J to the shape of the main jet nozzle and the present work focuses on these. First, unless carefully designed flapless aircraft. One of the core components of a Coanda FTV device is the main jet nozzle, featuring

Sóbester, András

20

Nozzle Thrust Optimization While Reducing Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Bluebell nozzle design concept is proposed for jet noise reduction with minimal thrust loss or even thrust augmentation. A Bluebell nozzle has a sinusoidal lip line edge (chevrons) and a sinusoidal cross section shape with linear amplitude increasing downstream in the divergent nozzle part (corrugations). The experimental tests of several Bluebell nozzle designs have shown nose reduction relative to a convergent-divergent round nozzle with design exhaust number M(e) = 1.5. The best design provides an acoustic benefit near 4dB with about 1 percent thrust augmentation. For subsonic flow ((M(e)= 0.6)), the tests indicated that the present method for design of Bluebell nozzles gives less acoustic benefit and in most cases jet noise increased. The proposed designs incorporate analytical theory and 2D and 3D numerical simulations. Full Navier-Stokes and Euler solvers were utilized. Boundary layer effects were used. Several different designs were accounted for in the Euler applications.

Seiner, J. M.; Gilinsky, M. M.

1995-01-01

21

Flexible joints for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible joints have been used to achieve thrust vector control over a wide range of sizes of nozzles and have been demonstrated successfully in bench tests and static firings, and are operational on two motors. From these many joints the problems of flexible joints have been defined as establishment of the movable nozzle envelope, definition of the actuation power requirements, definition of the mechanical properties of joint materials, adhesive bonding, test methods, and quality control. These data and problem solutions are contained in a large number of reports. Data relating to joint configuration, design requirements, materials selection, joint design, structural analysis, manufacture, and testing are summarized.

Woodberry, R. F. H.

1975-01-01

22

Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

2013-01-01

23

Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

Wing, David J.

1994-01-01

24

High efficiency thrust vector control allocation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of control mixing algorithms for launch vehicles with multiple vectoring engines yields competing objectives for which no straightforward solution approach exists. The designer seeks to optimally allocate the effector degrees of freedom such that maneuvering capability is maximized subject to constraints on available control authority. In the present application, such algorithms are generally restricted to linear transformations so as to minimize adverse control-structure interaction and maintain compatibility with industry-standard methods for control gain design and stability analysis. Based on the application of the theory of ellipsoids, a complete, scalable, and extensible framework is developed to effect rapid analysis of launch vehicle capability. Furthermore, a control allocation scheme is proposed that simultaneously balances attainment of the maximum maneuvering capability with rejection of internal loads and performance losses resulting from thrust vectoring in the null region of the admissible controls. This novel approach leverages an optimal parametrization of the weighted least squares generalized inverse and exploits the analytic properties of the constraint geometry so as to enable recovery of more than ninety percent of the theoretical capability while maintaining linearity over the majority of the attainable set.

Orr, Jeb S.

25

Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated and the location of the sonic plane may be further stabilized.

Wing, David J.

1994-01-01

26

Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry design compromised thrust vector angle achieved, but some thrust vector control would be available, potentially for aircraft trim. The fixed area, expansion ratio of 1.0, Dual Throat Nozzle provided the best overall compromise for thrust vectoring and nozzle internal performance over the range of NPR tested compared to the variable geometry Dual Throat Nozzle.

Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

2007-01-01

27

Jet Propulsion with Special Reference to Thrust Augmenters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the possibility of using thrust augmented jets as prime movers was carried out. The augmentation was to be effected by allowing the jet to mix with the surrounding air in the presence of bodies which deflect the air set in motion by the jet.

Schubauer, G B

1933-01-01

28

Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

2006-01-01

29

Experimental Study of a Nozzle Using Fluidic Counterflow for Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static experimental investigation of a counterflow thrust vectoring nozzle concept was performed. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal performance characteristics were defined over a nozzle pressure ratio (jet total to ambient) range of 3.5 to 10.0. The effects of suction collar geometry and suction slot height on nozzle performance were examined. In the counterflow concept, thrust vectoring is achieved by applying a vacuum to a slot adjacent to a primary jet that is shrouded by a suction collar. Two flow phenomena work to vector the primary jet depending upon the test conditions and configuration. In one case, the vacuum source creates a secondary reverse flowing stream near the primary jet. The shear layers between the two counterflowing streams mix and entrain mass from the surrounding fluid. The presence of the collar inhibits mass entrainment and the flow near the collar accelerates, causing a drop in pressure on the collar. The second case works similarly except that the vacuum is not powerful enough to create a counterflowing stream and instead a coflowing stream is present. The primary jet is vectored if suction is applied asymmetrically on the top or bottom of the jet.

Flamm, Jeffrey D.

1998-01-01

30

Static performance of a cruciform nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring and reverse-thrust capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiaxis thrust vectoring nozzle designed to have equal flow turning capability in pitch and yaw was conceived and experimentally tested for internal, static performance. The cruciform-shaped convergent-divergent nozzle turned the flow for thrust vectoring by deflecting the divergent surfaces of the nozzle, called flaps. Methods for eliminating physical interference between pitch and yaw flaps at the larger multiaxis deflection angles was studied. These methods included restricting the pitch flaps from the path of the yaw flaps and shifting the flow path at the throat off the nozzle centerline to permit larger pitch-flap deflections without interfering with the operation of the yaw flaps. Two flap widths were tested at both dry and afterburning settings. Vertical and reverse thrust configurations at dry power were also tested. Comparison with two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles showed lower but still competitive thrust performance and thrust vectoring capability.

Wing, David J.; Asbury, Scott C.

1992-01-01

31

Aircraft ground test and subscale model results of axial thrust loss caused by thrust vectoring using turning vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA-Dryden F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle was modified to incorporate three independently controlled turning vanes located aft of the primary nozzle of each engine to vector thrust for pitch and yaw control. Ground measured axial thrust losses were compared with the results from a 14.25 pct. cold jet model for single and dual vanes inserted up to 25 degs into the engine exhaust. Data are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 and nozzle exit areas of 253 and 348 sq in. The results indicate that subscale nozzle test results properly predict trends but underpredict the full scale results by approx. 1 to 4.5 pct. in thrust loss.

Johnson, Steven A.

1992-01-01

32

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

Roth, Mary Ellen

33

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

Roth, Mary Ellen

1990-01-01

34

Ground test of the D shaped vented thrust vectoring nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static ground tests of a large scale lift/cruise thrust vectoring nozzle were conducted to establish: (1) vectoring performance 'in' and 'out' of ground effect; (2) thrust spoilage capability; (3) compatibility of the nozzle with a turbotip fan; and (4) the nozzle structural temperature distribution. Vectoring performance of a short coupled, vented nozzle design on a large scale, (60%) basis was compared with small scale (4.5%) test nozzle results. The test nozzle was a "boilerplate" model of the MCAIR "D" vented nozzle configured for operation with the LF336/J85 turbotip lift fan system. Calibration of the LF336/J85 test fan with a simple convergent nozzle was performed with four different nozzle exit areas to establish reference thrust, nozzle pressure ratio, and nozzle corrected flow characteristics for comparison with the thrust vectoring nozzle data. Thrust vectoring tests with the 'D' vented nozzle were conducted over the range of vector angles between 0 and 117 deg for several different nozzle exit areas.

Esker, D. W.

1976-01-01

35

Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

Lamb, Milton

1995-01-01

36

Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

37

Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

1996-01-01

38

Optimal dimensionless design and analysis of jet ejectors as compressors and thrust augmenters  

E-print Network

A jet ejector may be used as a compressor or to enhance thrust of watercraft or aircraft. Optimization of jet ejectors as compressors and thrust augmenters was conducted using the software GAMBIT (Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tool for geometry...

Mohan, Ganesh

2006-08-16

39

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major Solid Rocket Booster-Thrust Vector Control (SRB-TVC) subsystem components and subcomponents used in the Space Transportation System (STS) are identified. Simplified schematics, detailed schematics, figures, photographs, and data are included to acquaint the reader with the operation, performance, and physical layout as well as the materials and instrumentation used.

Redmon, J., Jr. (compiler)

1983-01-01

40

Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted at wind-off conditions in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with a thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg. Vectoring was accomplished by a downward rotation of a hinged upper convergent flap and a corresponding rotation of a center-pivoted lower convergent flap. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle and upper-rotating-flap geometry on internal nozzle performance characteristics were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 5.0.

Leavitt, L. D.

1985-01-01

41

Implicit time-marching solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzle flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implicit finite volume method is investigated for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for flows within thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzles. Thrust reversing nozzles typically have sharp corners, and the rapid expansion and large turning angles near these corners are shown to cause unacceptable time step restrictions when conventional approximate factorization methods are used. In this investigation

S. T. Imlay

1986-01-01

42

Conceptual design of a thrust-vectoring tailcone for underwater robotics  

E-print Network

Thrust-vectoring on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles is an appealing directional-control solution because it improves turning radius capabilities. Unfortunately, thrust-vectoring requires the entire propulsion system be ...

Nawrot, Michael T

2012-01-01

43

Static investigation of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap rotation of thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and deflection of flat yaw flaps hinged at the end of the sidewalls for yaw thrust vectoring. The hinge location of the yaw flaps was varied at four positions from the nozzle exit plane to the throat plane. The yaw flaps were designed to contain the flow laterally independent of power setting. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the yaw flap deflected into the exhaust stream and the divergent flaps, the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw flap deflection. The impact of varying the nozzle pitch vector angle, throat area, yaw flap hinge location, yaw flap length, and yaw flap deflection angle on nozzle internal performance characteristics, was studied. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.0. Static results indicate that configurations with the yaw flap hinge located upstream of the exit plane provide relatively high levels of thrust vectoring efficiency without causing large losses in resultant thrust ratio. Therefore, these configurations represent a viable concept for providing simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring.

Taylor, John G.

1990-01-01

44

Noise generated by STOL core-jet thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation on the noise generated by target-type thrust reversers is discussed. The experimental data are normalized and scaled up to sizes suitable for reversing the core jets of a 100,000 lb augmentor-wing-type STOL airplane. The scaling calculations yield perceived noise levels well above the 95-PNdB design goal for both sideline and flyover at 500 ft. V-gutter and semicylindrical reversers were tested with a 5.24-cm-diameter circular nozzle, and a semicylindrical reverser was also tested with a 7.78-cm-diameter circular nozzle. The thrust reversers, in addition to being noisier than the nozzle alone, also had a more uniform directivity. The maximum overall sound pressure level and the effective sound power level both varied with sixth power of the nozzle jet velocity.

Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

1972-01-01

45

Static internal performance of single-expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted at static conditions (wind off) in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle, sidewall containment, ramp curvature, lower-flap lip angle, and ramp length on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single-expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated. Geometric thrust-vector angle was varied from -20 deg. to 60 deg., and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 10.0.

Berrier, B. L.; Leavitt, L. D.

1984-01-01

46

Effect of thrust vectoring and wing maneuver devices on transonic aeropropulsive characteristics of a supersonic fighter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced fighter designed for supersonic cruise were determined in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the interactive effects of thrust vectoring and wing maneuver devices on lift and drag and to determine trim characteristics. The wing maneuver devices consisted of a drooped leading edge and a trailing-edge flap. Thrust vectoring was accomplished with two dimensional (nonaxisymmetric) convergent-divergent nozzles located below the wing in two single-engine podded nacelles. A canard was utilized for trim. Thrust vector angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, and 30 deg were tested in combination with a drooped wing leading edge and with wing trailing-edge flap deflections up to 30 deg. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, at angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg, and at nozzle pressure ratios from about 1 (jet off) to 10. Reynolds number based on mean aerodynamic chord varied from 9.24 x 10 to the 6th to 10.56 x 10 to the 6th.

Capone, F. J.; Reubush, D. E.

1983-01-01

47

Noise generated by STOL core-jet thrust reversers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on the noise generated by target-type thrust reversers. The experimental data are normalized and scaled up to sizes suitable for reversing the core jets of a 45,400-kg augmentor-wing-type STOL airplane. The scaling calculatings yield perceived noise levels well above the 95-PNdB design goal for both sideline and flyover at 152.5 m. V-gutter and semicylindrical reversers were tested with a 5.24-cm-diameter circular nozzle, and a semicylindrical reverser was also tested with a 7.78-cm-diameter circular nozzle. Other test variables were the spacing between nozzle and reverser, reverser orientation, and nozzle pressure ratio. The thrust reversers, in addition to being noisier than the nozzle alone, also had a more uniform directivity.

Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

1972-01-01

48

Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.

Enright, Paul J.

1993-01-01

49

Attitude Control for an Aero-Vehicle Using Vector Thrusting and Variable Speed Control Moment Gyros  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stabilization of passively unstable thrust-levitated vehicles can require significant control inputs. Although thrust vectoring is a straightforward choice for realizing these inputs, this may lead to difficulties discussed in the paper. This paper examines supplementing thrust vectoring with Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscopes (VSCMGs). The paper describes how to allocate VSCMGs and the vectored thrust mechanism for attitude stabilization in frequency domain and also shows trade-off between vectored thrust and VSCMGs. Using an H2 control synthesis methodology in LMI optimization, a feedback control law is designed for a thrust-levitated research vehicle and is simulated with the full nonlinear model. It is demonstrated that VSCMGs can reduce the use of vectored thrust variation for stabilizing the hovering platform in the presence of strong wind gusts.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

2005-01-01

50

Attitude control of a spinning rocket via thrust vectoring  

SciTech Connect

Two controllers are developed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that has a thrust vectoring capability. The first controller has a single-input/single-output design that ignores the gyroscopic coupling between the control channels. The second controller has a multi-input/multi-output structure that is specifically intended to account for the gyroscopic coupling effects. A performance comparison between the two approached is conducted for a range of roll rates. Each controller is tested for the ability to track step commands, and for the amount of coupling impurity. Both controllers are developed via a linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis procedure, which is motivated by the multi-input/multi-output nature of second controller. Time responses and a singular value analysis are used to evaluate controller performance. This paper describes the development and comparison of two controllers that are designed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that is equipped with thrust vector control. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

White, J.E.

1990-12-19

51

Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

1993-01-01

52

Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

1993-05-01

53

Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

1974-01-01

54

An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

1990-01-01

55

Summary of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Research Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in low-observable aircraft and in lowering an aircraft's exhaust system weight sparked decades of research for fixed geometry exhaust nozzles. The desire for such integrated exhaust nozzles was the catalyst for new fluidic control techniques; including throat area control, expansion control, and thrust-vector angle control. This paper summarizes a variety of fluidic thrust vectoring concepts that have been tested both experimentally and computationally at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concepts are divided into three categories according to the method used for fluidic thrust vectoring: the shock vector control method, the throat shifting method, and the counterflow method. This paper explains the thrust vectoring mechanism for each fluidic method, provides examples of configurations tested for each method, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Deere, Karen A.

2003-01-01

56

Static performance of an axisymmetric nozzle with post-exit vanes for multiaxis thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the flow-turning capability and the nozzle internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle with post-exit vanes installed for multiaxis thrust vectoring. The effects of vane curvature, vane location relative to the nozzle exit, number of vanes, and vane deflection angle were determined. A comparison of the post-exit-vane thrust-vectoring concept with other thrust-vectoring concepts is provided. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.6 to 6.0.

Berrier, Bobby L.; Mason, Mary L.

1988-01-01

57

NLO Vector Boson Production With Light Jets  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production. The production of a vector boson in association with several jets at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an important background for other Standard Model processes as well as new physics signals. In particular, the production of a W boson in association with many jets is an important background for processes involving one or more top quarks. Precise predictions for the backgrounds are crucial to measurement of top-quark processes. Vector boson production in association with multiple jets is also a very important background for many SUSY searches, as it mimics the signatures of many typical decay chains. Here we will discuss how polarization information can be used as an additional handle to differentiate top pair production from 'prompt' W-boson production. More generally, ratios of observables, for example for events containing a W boson versus those containing a Z boson, are expected to be better-behaved as many uncertainties cancel in such ratios. Precise calculation of ratios, along with measurement of one of the two processes in the ratio, can be used in data-driven techniques for estimating backgrounds.

Bern, Z.; Diana, G.; Dixon, L.J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Hoeche, S.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; Ozeren, K.

2012-02-15

58

Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

2007-01-01

59

Experimental investigation of the interaction of a thrust reverser jet with an external subsonic flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental modelization of a door-type thrust reverser is conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel. The geometry of the model is defined in order to simulate both the internal and external flow of a real thrust reverser. Different door configurations are studied for a selected value of the mass flux injection ratio of three. Visualizations illustrate qualitatively the jet interaction,

J.-M. Charbonnier; K. Deckers; G. Wens

1993-01-01

60

Decoupling control of thrust and attractive force of a LIM using a space vector control inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control method for magnetic levitation vehicles using linear induction motors which can generate both thrust and attractive force, is described. By selecting voltage vectors of PWM inverters appropriately, control with decoupling of the thrust and attractive force is achieved. Levitation control is accomplished by detecting the gap length and controlling the attractive force of each linear induction motor. Ultrasonic

Isao Takahashi; Yuji Ide

1993-01-01

61

Static internal performance of single expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust vectoring and reversing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of geometric design parameters on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to approximately 10. Forward-flight (cruise), vectored-thrust, and reversed-thrust nozzle operating modes were investigated.

Re, R. J.; Berrier, B. L.

1982-01-01

62

Internal performance of two nozzles utilizing gimbal concepts for thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle and a nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle, both of which utilized a gimbal type mechanism for thrust vectoring was evaluated in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle used the gimbal concept for yaw thrust vectoring only; pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by simultaneous deflection of the upper and lower divergent flaps. The model geometric parameters investigated were pitch vector angle for the axisymmetric nozzle and pitch vector angle, yaw vector angle, nozzle throat aspect ratio, and nozzle expansion ratio for the nonaxisymmetric nozzle. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 12.0.

Berrier, Bobby L.; Taylor, John G.

1990-01-01

63

Design of thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles for real-time applications using neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vectoring continues to be an important issue in military aircraft system designs. A recently developed concept of vectoring aircraft thrust makes use of flexible exhaust nozzles. Subtle modifications in the nozzle wall contours produce a non-uniform flow field containing a complex pattern of shock and expansion waves. The end result, due to the asymmetric velocity and pressure distributions, is vectored thrust. Specification of the nozzle contours required for a desired thrust vector angle (an inverse design problem) has been achieved with genetic algorithms. This approach is computationally intensive and prevents the nozzles from being designed in real-time, which is necessary for an operational aircraft system. An investigation was conducted into using genetic algorithms to train a neural network in an attempt to obtain, in real-time, two-dimensional nozzle contours. Results show that genetic algorithm trained neural networks provide a viable, real-time alternative for designing thrust vectoring nozzles contours. Thrust vector angles up to 20 deg were obtained within an average error of 0.0914 deg. The error surfaces encountered were highly degenerate and thus the robustness of genetic algorithms was well suited for minimizing global errors.

Prasanth, Ravi K.; Markin, Robert E.; Whitaker, Kevin W.

1991-01-01

64

Static performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles with yaw thrust-vectoring vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16 ft Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the effects of post exit vane vectoring on nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Three baseline nozzles were tested: an unvectored two dimensional convergent nozzle, an unvectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, and a pitch vectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Each nozzle geometry was tested with 3 exit aspect ratios (exit width divided by exit height) of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.0. Two post exit yaw vanes were externally mounted on the nozzle sidewalls at the nozzle exit to generate yaw thrust vectoring. Vane deflection angle (0, -20 and -30 deg), vane planform and vane curvature were varied during the test. Results indicate that the post exit vane concept produced resultant yaw vector angles which were always smaller than the geometric yaw vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust ratio increased with the magnitude of resultant yaw vector angle. The widest post exit vane produced the largest degree of flow turning, but vane curvature had little effect on thrust vectoring. Pitch vectoring was independent of yaw vectoring, indicating that multiaxis thrust vectoring is feasible for the nozzle concepts tested.

Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.

1988-01-01

65

Static Thrust and Vectoring Performance of a Spherical Convergent Flap Nozzle with a Nonrectangular Divergent Duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static internal performance of a multiaxis-thrust-vectoring, spherical convergent flap (SCF) nozzle with a non-rectangular divergent duct was obtained in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Duct cross sections of hexagonal and bowtie shapes were tested. Additional geometric parameters included throat area (power setting), pitch flap deflection angle, and yaw gimbal angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to 12 for dry power configurations and from 2 to 6 for afterburning power configurations. Approximately a 1-percent loss in thrust efficiency from SCF nozzles with a rectangular divergent duct was incurred as a result of internal oblique shocks in the flow field. The internal oblique shocks were the result of cross flow generated by the vee-shaped geometric throat. The hexagonal and bowtie nozzles had mirror-imaged flow fields and therefore similar thrust performance. Thrust vectoring was not hampered by the three-dimensional internal geometry of the nozzles. Flow visualization indicates pitch thrust-vector angles larger than 10' may be achievable with minimal adverse effect on or a possible gain in resultant thrust efficiency as compared with the performance at a pitch thrust-vector angle of 10 deg.

Wing, David J.

1998-01-01

66

Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

1987-01-01

67

The complete two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in soft-collinear effective theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we complete the calculation of the soft part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in e + e - annihilation. This jet mass observable is based on the thrust cone jet algorithm, which involves a veto scale for out-of-jet radiation. The previously uncomputed part of our result depends in a complicated way on the jet cone size, r, and at intermediate stages of the calculation we actually encounter a new class of multiple polylogarithms. We employ an extension of the coproduct calculus to systematically exploit functional relations and represent our results concisely. In contrast to the individual contributions, the sum of all global terms can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms. Our explicit two-loop calculation enables us to clarify the small r picture discussed in earlier work. In particular, we show that the resummation of the logarithms of r that appear in the previously uncomputed part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution is inextricably linked to the resummation of the non-global logarithms. Furthermore, we find that the logarithms of r which cannot be absorbed into the non-global logarithms in the way advocated in earlier work have coefficients fixed by the two-loop cusp anomalous dimension. We also show that in many cases one can straightforwardly predict potentially large logarithmic contributions to the integrated jet thrust distribution at L loops by making use of analogous contributions to the simpler integrated hemisphere soft function.

von Manteuffel, Andreas; Schabinger, Robert M.; Zhu, Hua Xing

2014-03-01

68

Development and qualification of a STAR 48 rocket motor with thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thrust vector control (TVC) nozzle for use on the STAR 48 rocket motor (STAR 48V) has been developed for use on the COMET program aboard the Conestoga launch vehicle. The first stages of qualification testing have been completed. The first STAR 48V has been successfully static-tested. The flexseal TVC nozzle design is based upon the qualified and flight-proven fixed nozzle design used on spin-stabilized spacecraft. The flexseal design and fabrication approach benefit from flight-proven and man-rated Thiokol Corporation flexseal designs. The thrust vector control system provides vectoring capability to 4 deg for use on nonspinning spacecraft. Electromechanical actuators coupled with a closed-loop controller provide thrust vector positioning and spacecraft attitude control.

Hamke, R.; Rade, J.; Weldin, R.

1992-07-01

69

Comparison of straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles using a six component thrust stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project compared the forces and moments produced by straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles. Using the six component thrust stand in the engines laboratory at California Polytechnic State University, several trials were performed. This data was then reduced using first a computer program and then later an electronic spreadsheet. This reduced data was graphed and compared. As a result of these comparisons some unexpected forces were discovered. Several more tests were run including a zero thrust test and a statistical comparison were done to discover the source of these discrepancies. As a direct result several nozzle changes were made and significant revisions to the thrust stand are being made.

Carpenter, Thomas W.; Flake, Scott

1991-01-01

70

Static investigation of two STOL nozzle concepts with pitch thrust-vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static investigation of the internal performance of two short take-off and landing (STOL) nozzle concepts with pitch thrust-vectoring capability has been conducted. An axisymmetric nozzle concept and a nonaxisymmetric nozzle concept were tested at dry and afterburning power settings. The axisymmetric concept consisted of a circular approach duct with a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by vectoring the approach duct without changing the nozzle geometry. The nonaxisymmetric concept consisted of a two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Pitch thrust vectoring was implemented by blocking the nozzle exit and deflecting a door in the lower nozzle flap. The test nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10.0, depending on model geometry. Results indicate that both pitch vectoring concepts produced resultant pitch vector angles which were nearly equal to the geometric pitch deflection angles. The axisymmetric nozzle concept had only small thrust losses at the largest pitch deflection angle of 70 deg., but the two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle concept had large performance losses at both of the two pitch deflection angles tested, 60 deg. and 70 deg.

Mason, M. L.; Burley, J. R., II

1986-01-01

71

On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

2011-01-01

72

Spreading characteristics and thrust of jets from asymmetric nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spreading characteristics of jets from several asymmetric nozzles are studied in comparison to those of an axisymmetric jet, over the Mach number (M(sub J)) range of 0.3 to 1.96. The effect of tabs in two cases, the axisymmetric nozzle fitted with four tabs and a rectangular nozzle fitted with two large tabs, is also included in the comparison. Compared to the axisymmetric jet, the asymmetric jets spread only slightly faster at subsonic conditions, while at supersonic conditions, when screech occurs, they spread much faster. Screech profoundly increases the spreading of all jets. The effect varies in the different stages of screech, and the corresponding unsteady flowfield characteristics are documented via phase-averaged measurement of the fluctuating total pressure. An organization and intensification of the azimuthal vortical structures under the screeching condition is believed to be responsible for the increased spreading. Curiously, the jet from a 'lobed mixer' nozzle spreads much less at supersonic conditions compared to all other cases. This is due to the absence of screech with this nozzle. Jet spreading for the two tab configurations, on the other hand, is significantly more than any of the no-tab cases. This is true in the subsonic regime, as well as in the supersonic regime in spite of the fact that screech is essentially eliminated by the tabs. The dynamics of the streamwise vortex pairs produced by the tabs cause the most efficient jet spreading thus far observed in the study.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

1995-01-01

73

Application of the DRBEM to model ablation characteristics of a thrust vector control vane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM) is implemented to predict ablation in model thrust vector control (TVC) vanes. A moving front algorithm is described. Experimental data are available from tests performed on scaled vanes. Numerical results for recession of quarter-scale and half-scale vanes compare well with experimental data. Future work includes full coupling of the flowfield and conduction solutions.

E. Divo; A. Kassab; R. Cavalleri

1999-01-01

74

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem verification test (V-2) report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the verification testing sequence V-2 performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. A detailed history of the hot firings plus additional discussion of the auxiliary power unit and the hydraulic component performance is presented. The test objectives, data, and conclusions are included.

Pagan, B.

1979-01-01

75

Fluidic scale model multi-plane thrust vector control test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has been conducted at the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Static Test Facility to determine the concept feasibility of using fluidics to achieve multiplane thrust vector control in a 2D convergent-divergent (2D-CD) fixed aperture nozzle. Pitch thrust vector control is achieved by injection of flow through a slot in the divergent flap into the primary nozzle flow stream. Yaw vector control results from secondary air delivered tangentially to vertical Coanda flaps. These flaps are offset laterally and aligned parallel to the primary nozzle side walls. All tests were conducted at static (no external flow) conditions. Flow visualization was conducted using a paint flow technique and Focus Schlieren. Significant levels of pitch deflection angles (19 deg) were achieved at low pressure ratios and practical levels (14 deg) resulted at typical intermediate power settings. The ability of the Coanda surface blowing concept to produce yaw deflection was limited to NPR not greater than 4.

Chiarelli, Charles; Johnsen, Raymond K.; Shieh, Chih F.; Wing, David J.

1993-01-01

76

Integral method for calculating a turbofan engine thrust reverser jet interacting with an external stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integral method is proposed for calculating a jet propagating from the turbofan engine thrust reverser and interacting\\u000a with a stream formed as a result of the after-landing aircraft run. The calculation results for the PS-90 engine are presented.\\u000a The calculation data obtained show that the mathematical model developed adequately describes a qualitative pattern of main\\u000a parameter variation in the

V. L. Varsegov

2010-01-01

77

Design and test of a high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA-Marshall is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for thrust-vector control (TVC) system testing and implementation in spacecraft control/gimballing systems, with a view to the replacement of hydraulic hardware. TVC system control is furnished by solid state controllers and power supplies; a pair of resolvers supply position feedback to the controller for precise positioning. Performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulic TVC systems are performed.

Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

1992-07-01

78

Vista/F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) control law design and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) program, a new control law was developed using multi-axis thrust vectoring to augment the aircraft's aerodynamic control power to provide maneuverability above the normal F-16 angle of attack limit. The control law architecture was developed using Lockheed Fort Worth's offline and piloted simulation capabilities. The final flight control laws were used in flight test to demonstrate tactical benefits gained by using thrust vectoring in air-to-air combat. Differences between the simulator aerodynamics data base and the actual aircraft aerodynamics led to significantly different lateral-directional flying qualities during the flight test program than those identified during piloted simulation. A 'dial-a-gain' flight test control law update was performed in the middle of the flight test program. This approach allowed for inflight optimization of the aircraft's flying qualities. While this approach is not preferred over updating the simulator aerodynamic data base and then updating the control laws, the final selected gain set did provide adequate lateral-directional flying qualities over the MATV flight envelope. The resulting handling qualities and the departure resistance of the aircraft allowed the 422nd_squadron pilots to focus entirely on evaluating the aircraft's tactical utility.

Zwerneman, W. D.; Eller, B. G.

1994-01-01

79

Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

1974-01-01

80

A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple dynamic engine model was developed for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. This paper includes a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring and the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000-ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000-ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

Johnson, Steven A.

1990-01-01

81

The development of H-II rocket solid rocket booster thrust vector control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the thrust-vector-control (TVC) system for the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) of the H-II rocket, which was started in 1984 and completed in 1989, is described. Special attention is given to the system's design, the trade-off studies, and the evaluation of the SRB-TVC system performance, as well as to problems that occurred in the course of the system's development and to the countermeasures that were taken. Schematic diagrams are presented for the H-II rocket, the SRB, and the SRB-TVC system configurations.

Nagai, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Yukio; Kazama, Hiroo; Asai, Tatsuro; Okaya, Shunichi; Watanabe, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Shoji

82

Multiphotons and photon jets from new heavy vector bosons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss an extension of the Standard Model with a new vector boson decaying predominantly into a multiphoton final state through intermediate light degrees of freedom. The model has a distinctive phase in which the photons are collimated. As such, they would fail the isolation requirements of standard multiphoton searches, but group naturally into a novel object, the photon-jet. Once defined, the photon-jet object facilitates more inclusive searches for similar phenomena. We present a concrete model, discuss photon jets more generally, and outline some strategies that may prove useful when searching for such objects.

Toro, Natalia; Yavin, Itay

2012-09-01

83

The effects on propulsion-induced aerodynamic forces of vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.

Capone, F. J.

1975-01-01

84

Performance of twin two-dimensional wedge nozzles including thrust vectoring and reversing effects at speeds up to Mach 2.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transonic tunnel and supersonic pressure tunnel tests were reformed to determine the performance characteristics of twin nonaxisymmetric or two-dimensional nozzles with fixed shrouds and variable-geometry wedges. The effects of thrust vectoring, reversing, and installation of various tails were also studied. The investigation was conducted statically and at flight speeds up to a Mach number of 2.20. The total pressure ratio of the simulated jet exhaust was varied up to approximately 26 depending on Mach number. The Reynolds number per meter varied up to 13.20 x 1 million. An analytical study was made to determine the effect on calculated wave drag by varying the mathematical model used to simulate nozzle jet-exhaust plume.

Capone, F. J.; Maiden, D. L.

1977-01-01

85

Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring  

E-print Network

that an air sample con- taining water-like particles can be concentrated by a fac- tor of 10 using AVPSParticle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring Zachary E. Humes processes, it is desir- able that the powder be comprised of particles of a rela- tively uniform size

Smith, Barton L.

86

Pneumatic motor powered Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for liquid propelled launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies performed for the Titan 4 launch vehicle indicate significant potential advantages in replacing the current stage 1 and 2 recirculating hydraulic TVC (thrust vector control) system with a PMA (pneumatic mechanical actuation) system. Some of the advantages of a PMA system over the recirculating hydraulic system include reduced part count and weight, reduced maintenance and life-cycle cost, and improved mission reliability. PMA technology, used in aircraft applications since the 1960s, is well suited in launch vehicle TVC applications where an existing pneumatic pressure source is available. A typical pneumatic motor TVC consists of a pneumatic power source, a dual rotor pneumatic motor, a gear box, a ball screw actuator, and the associated closed-loop servo-control elements. One key issue with implementing this mechanical approach is designing a TVC system to withstand large load transient disturbances during liquid engine starting. Hydraulic actuator transient loads have exceeded 60,000 lb(sub f) for a 30,000 lb(sub f) stall design actuator during ground starts of the Titan 3B, Stage 1 engine. A PMA TVC system must also withstand these start transients without imparting excessive reaction loads to the engine nozzle and thrust structure. Work completed to date with Martin Marietta to examine pneumatic motor powered TVC options and technology benefits is presented. The load transient issue is discussed along with potential solutions and the associated trades. General background on PMA technology and experience base is also presented.

Malone, Mark C.; Evans, P. S.

1992-02-01

87

Hot gas ingestion characteristics and flow visualization of a vectored thrust STOVL concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study presents results obtained at the compressor face of a 9.2-percent scale vectored thrust model in ground effects from Phases I and II of a test program to evaluate the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, and to conduct flow visualization of the model flowfield in and out of ground effects, respectively. A description of the model, facility, a new model support system, and a sheet laser illumination system are provided. The findings contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, compressor face temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane temperature and pressure distributions, model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation. Results from the sheet laser flow visualization test are also presented.

Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George H.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.; Williams, Ben R.

1990-01-01

88

Design and evaluation of single and dual flow thrust vector nozzles with post exit vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Thrust Vectored Research project required that a 1/24 scale model of the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, (HARV), propulsion system be constructed on the university campus. This propulsion system was designed for cold flow testing on a multicomponent test rig. Forces and moments were measured to study nozzle performance parameters. The flow visualization technique of color Schlieren photography was performed to investigate the flow phenomena at the nozzle exit. The flow interactions that were identified consisted of vane nozzleing between the outer and lower vanes and vane tip interference. The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed circumferentially on a maximum afterburner nozzle. The performance of the nozzle was investigated with the outer and lower vanes equally deflected, (-10 deg is less than delta(sub v) is less than 25 deg), and with the upper vane fully retracted, (delta(sub v) equals -10 deg). The nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 4 to 6. The results indicated that a vane nozzleing effect developed at nozzle pressure ratios of 4 and 6 when the outer and lower vanes were deflected far enough into the flow field such that the increase in vane area accelerated the flow past the vanes causing distorted shock waves. This accelerated flow was a result of a pressure differential existing between the inside surface of the vane and the ambient pressure. The stagnation pressure that developed along the inside surface of the vane accelerated the flow past the vanes causing it to equalize with ambient pressure, thus providing distorted shock waves. A tip interference was present at the trailing edge of the upper vane as a result of low nozzle pressure, NPR 4, with high vane deflection, delta(sub v) equals 25 degrees, and also with a high nozzle pressure, NPR 6, and low vane deflections, delta(sub v) equals 15 degrees.

Carpenter, Thomas W.; Vaccarezza, Stephen E.; Dobbins, Sean

1992-01-01

89

Classifier based on support vector machine for JET plasma configurationsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last flux surface can be used to identify the plasma configuration of discharges. For automated recognition of JET configurations, a learning system based on support vector machines has been developed. Each configuration is described by 12 geometrical parameters. A multiclass system has been developed by means of the one-versus-the-rest approach. Results with eight simultaneous classes (plasma configurations) show a success rate close to 100%.

Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Vega, J.; Dormido, R.; Snchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H.; Murari, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

2008-10-01

90

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Moschetta, Jean-Marc A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor for Micro Air Vehicle: Modeling, Design and Analysis. (2013) In: 21me  

E-print Network

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Moschetta, Jean-Marc A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr #12;A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor for Micro Air Vehicle: Modeling, Design and maneuverability. The purpose of this paper is to study a new configuration of coaxial rotor as applied to a micro

Mailhes, Corinne

91

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Moschetta, Jean-Marc A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor for Micro Air Vehicle: Modeling, Design and Analysis. (2013) In: 3AF -  

E-print Network

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Moschetta, Jean-Marc A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor be sent to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr #12;A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor is to study a new configuration of coaxial rotor as applied to a micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with the intention

Mailhes, Corinne

92

Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these

Ronald G. Huff

1989-01-01

93

Design and development of the quad redundant servoactuator for the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and theory of operation of the servoactuator used for thrust vector control of the space shuttle solid rocket booster is described accompanied by highlights from the development and qualification test programs. Specific details are presented concerning major anomalies that occurred during the test programs and the corrective courses of action pursued.

Lominick, J. M.

1980-01-01

94

Vectored jets-induced interference on aircraft, prediction and verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of vectored jet-induced effects on V/STOL configurations during transition phase and maneuvers constitutes an important aspect in the understanding, design, control, and operation of such aircraft. In this paper, a semiempirical modelling of the jet is used within the framework of subsonic singularity methods. Comparisons with experimental data on a wing-body configuration have been presented. In general, acceptable agreement has been demonstrated. Overall, the emphasis has been on predicting jet interference effects on practical configurations with multijet effects and forward and aft nozzles. Configuration effects include tails which operate in a much stronger jet downwash than the wing. Optimization studies can be enabled prior to experimental programs. This process will allow the design cycle to commence with a good idea of the relative effectiveness of the various controls and the changes needed in the flight control system to cope with partially jet-borne phases of flight. Therefore there is a significant potential for encouraging cost and time savings. Areas for further work and improvements of the model have been proposed. It is believed that these aspects will have a constructive impact on current and future practical VSTOL and ASTOVL developments.

Nangia, R. K.

1993-11-01

95

A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

Johnson, Steven A.

1990-01-01

96

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem FMEA/CIL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuator (ATVD) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATVC hardware. The IOA product for the ATVC actuator analysis consisted of 25 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 16 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 21 FMEAs and 13 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

Wilson, R. E.

1988-01-01

97

Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

2010-01-01

98

Results of solar electric thrust vector control system design, development and tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector control system TVCS for a solar-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of solar electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a solar electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved solar electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by control computer software, a significant advantage in control capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.

Fleischer, G. E.

1973-01-01

99

Robust vibration suppression of an adaptive circular composite plate for satellite thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel application of adaptive composite structures, a University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) smart composite platform, is developed for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of satellites. The device top plate of the UHM platform is an adaptive circular composite plate (ACCP) that utilizes integrated sensors/actuators and controllers to suppress low frequency vibrations during the thruster firing as well as to potentially isolate dynamic responses from the satellite structure bus. Since the disturbance due to the satellite thruster firing can be estimated, a combined strategy of an adaptive disturbance observer (DOB) and feed-forward control is proposed for vibration suppression of the ACCP with multi-sensors and multi-actuators. Meanwhile, the effects of the DOB cut-off frequency and the relative degree of the low-pass filter on the DOB performance are investigated. Simulations and experimental results show that higher relative degree of the low-pass filter with the required cut-off frequency will enhance the DOB performance for a high-order system control. Further, although the increase of the filter cut-off frequency can guarantee a sufficient stability margin, it may cause an undesirable increase of the control bandwidth. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive DOB with feed-forward control strategy is verified through simulations and experiments using the ACCP system.

Yan, Su; Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

2008-03-01

100

Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

Miller, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

101

Micro-Plasmajet Array: Multi-Jet-Effect for Thrust Performance Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfabrication of rectangular micro-nozzle arrays with each exit height of 500 P m using ultra-violet lasers and their operational tests were conducted. To evaluate thrust characteristics of the nozzle array, thrust performance was compared with single-nozzles. Significant increases of the thrust and specific impulse with mass flow could be obtained with the nozzle array cases (3x3 nozzle array and 4x4

Atsushi Koshiyama; Fujimi Sawada; Hideyuki Horisawa; Ikkoh Funaki

2007-01-01

102

Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of Exhaust Ingestion Due to Thrust Reversal on a Four-Engine Jet Transport during Ground Roll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted on a large-scale model of a swept-wing jet transport type airplane to study the factors affecting exhaust gas ingestion into the engine inlets when thrust reversal is used during ground roll. The model was equipped with four small jet engines mounted in nacelles beneath the wing. The tests included studies of both cascade and target type reversers. The data obtained included the free-stream velocity at the occurrence of exhaust gas ingestion in the outboard engine and the increment of drag due to thrust reversal for various modifications of thrust reverser configuration. Motion picture films of smoke flow studies were also obtained to supplement the data. The results show that the free-stream velocity at which ingestion occurred in the outboard engines could be reduced considerably, by simple modifications to the reversers, without reducing the effective drag due to reversed thrust.

Tolhurst, William H., Jr.; Hickey, David H.; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

1961-01-01

103

Vector boson + multi jets at NLO Harald Ita, UCLA  

E-print Network

, UCSC ­ May 21, 2010 #12;Physics Motivation W/Z/-processes at the heart of electro-weak symmetry for QCD processes: · Loops: unitarity method Bern, Dixon, Kosower, Dunbar and recent extensions Britto jet ETData/TheoryData/Theory #12;W+3 jets Jet algorithms: · SISCone R=0.4, f=0.5 Salam, Soyez · CDF

California at Santa Cruz, University of

104

Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

Huff, Ronald G.

1989-01-01

105

F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand at sunrise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft on a test stand at sunrise. Not shown in this photograph are the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The aircraft was originally built as an F-15B (Serial #71-0290).

1995-01-01

106

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Moschetta, Jean-Marc A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor for Micro Air Vehicle: Modeling, Design and Analysis. (2013) In  

E-print Network

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Moschetta, Jean-Marc A Vectoring Thrust Coaxial Rotor Coaxial Rotor for Micro Air Vehicle: Modeling, Design and Analysis Sebastien PROTHIN(1) , Jean configuration of coaxial rotor as applied to a micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with the intention to guarantee

Mailhes, Corinne

107

Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

1997-01-01

108

Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

1979-01-01

109

Vector Boson Jets with BlackHat and Sherpa  

SciTech Connect

We review recent NLO QCD results for W, Z + 3-jet production at hadron colliders, computing using BlackHat and SHERPA, and including also some new results for Z + 3-jet production for the LHC at 7 TeV. We report new progress towards the NLO cross section for W + 4-jet production. In particular, we show that the virtual matrix elements produced by BlackHat are numerically stable. We also show that with an improved integrator and tree-level matrix elements from BlackHat, SHERPA produces well-behaved real-emission contributions. As an illustration, we present the real-emission contributions - including dipole-subtraction terms - to the p{sub T} distribution of the fourth jet, for a single subprocess with the maximum number of gluons.

Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Cordero, F.Febres; /Simon Bolivar U.; Forde, D.; /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Gleisberg, T.; /SLAC; Ita, H.; /UCLA; Kosower, D.A.; /Saclay, SPhT; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

2010-08-25

110

Static thrust-vectoring performance of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles with post-exit yaw vanes. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Aug. 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the 16-ft transonic tunnel to determine the performance and turning effectiveness of post-exit yaw vanes installed on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles. One nozzle design that was previously tested was used as a baseline, simulating dry power and afterburning power nozzles at both 0 and 20 degree pitch vectoring conditions. Vanes were installed on these four nozzle configurations to study the effects of vane deflection angle, longitudinal and lateral location, size, and camber. All vanes were hinged at the nozzle sidewall exit, and in addition, some were also hinged at the vane quarter chord (double-hinged). The vane concepts tested generally produced yaw thrust vectoring angles much less than the geometric vane angles, for (up to 8 percent) resultant thrust losses. When the nozzles were pitch vectored, yawing effectiveness decreased as the vanes were moved downstream. Thrust penalties and yawing effectiveness both decreased rapidly as the vanes were moved outboard (laterally). Vane length and height changes increased yawing effectiveness and thrust ratio losses, while using vane camber, and double-hinged vanes increased resultant yaw angles by 50 to 100 percent.

Foley, Robert J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

1991-01-01

111

A static investigation of a simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring 2-D C-D nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance and flow-turning capability of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Thrust vectoring in the pitch plane was provided by rotation of the divergent flaps. The exhaust stream was turned in the yaw direction by deflection of yaw flaps hinged at the end of the nozzle sidewalls. The yaw flap hinge location was varied along the divergent region of the nozzle at four locations including the exit plane and the throat plane. The three hinge locations upstream of the nozzle exit plane required the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps to be cut off to eliminate interference when the yaw flaps were deflected. Three different lengths of yaw flaps were tested at several angles of deflection. The nozzle simulated a dry power setting with an expansion ratio typical of subsonic cruise and was tested at nozzle pressure ratios from 2.0 to 7.0.

Taylor, John G.

1988-01-01

112

Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Foster, John V.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Connelly, Patrick J.; Kelly, John W.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thomas, Michael; Wichman, Keith D.; Wilson, R. Joseph

1996-01-01

113

Search for vector-like quark production in the lepton+jets and dilepton+jets final states using 5.4 fb-1 of Run II data  

SciTech Connect

The Standard Model of particle physics provides an excellent description of particle interactions at energies up to {approx}1 TeV, but it is expected to fail above that scale. Multiple models developed to describe phenomena above the TeV scale predict the existence of very massive, vector-like quarks. A search for single electroweak production of such particles in p{anti p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is performed in the W+jets and Z+jets channels. The data were collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}. Events consistent with a heavy object decaying to a vector boson and a jet are selected. We observe no significant excess in comparison to the background prediction and set 95% confidence level upper limits on production cross sections for vector-like quarks decaying to W+jet and Z+jet. Assuming a vector-like quark -- standard model quark coupling parameter {tilde {kappa}}{sub qQ} of unity, we exclude vector-like quarks with mass below 693 GeV for decays to W+jet and mass below 449 GeV for decays to Z+jet. These represent the most sensitive limits to date.

Caughron, Seth; /Columbia U.

2010-10-01

114

Flight Measurements of the Effect of a Controllable Thrust Reverser on the Flight Characteristics of a Single-Engine Jet Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of a fully controllable thrust reverser on the flight characteristics of a single-engine jet airplane. Tests were made using a cylindrical target-type reverser actuated by a hydraulic cylinder through a "beep-type" cockpit control mounted at the base of the throttle. The thrust reverser was evaluated as an in-flight decelerating device, as a flight path control and airspeed control in landing approach, and as a braking device during the ground roll. Full deflection of the reverser for one reverser configuration resulted in a reverse thrust ratio of as much as 85 percent, which at maximum engine power corresponded to a reversed thrust of 5100 pounds. Use of the reverser in landing approach made possible a wide selection of approach angles, a large reduction in approach speed at steep approach angles, improved control of flight path angle, and more accuracy in hitting a given touchdown point. The use of the reverser as a speed brake at lower airspeeds was compromised by a longitudinal trim change. At the lower airspeeds and higher engine powers there was insufficient elevator power to overcome the nose-down trim change at full reverser deflection.

Anderson, Seth B.; Cooper, George E.; Faye, Alan E., Jr.

1959-01-01

115

Compact Ejector Thrust Augmentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ejectors offer interesting means for resolving problems arising from the additional power requirements of V/STOL aircraft. They are capable of turning and augmenting the cruise engine's thrust vector, but their efflux also serve to control circulation lif...

B. P. Quinn

1973-01-01

116

Near-Field and Far-Field Noise Measurements for a Blowdown-Wind-Tunnel Supersonic Exhaust Jet having about 475,000 Pounds of Thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-field and far-field noise surveys were made of the supersonic The exhaust jet of the Langley 9- by 6-foot thermal structures tunnel. The jet had a thrust rating of approximately 475,000 pounds. The sound power radiated was found to be about 3.6 x 10(exp 6) watts, and on an acoustical-mechanical efficiency basis this value is in reasonable agreement with data for smaller supersonic jets and for rocket engines of other investigations. Octave-band analyses of the near-field noise show that the maximum sound pressure levels in the low-frequency bands are greatest downstream, whereas maximum sound pressure levels in the high-frequency bands were greatest near the jet exit. A comparison of near-field noise measurements is made with data previously obtained for rocket engines. Noise survey measurements of the original jet are compared with similar data obtained after the addition of a 97-foot-long exit diffuser section, and an example of the application of this facility to the problem of acoustic environmental testing of a large space capsule is cited.

Mayes, William H.; Edge, Philip M., Jr.; OBrien, James S., Jr.

1961-01-01

117

Design of supersonic Coanda jet nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust vectoring of supersonic Coanda jets was improved by designing a nozzle to skew the initial jet velocity profile. A new nozzle design procedure, based on the method of characteristics, was developed to design a nozzle which produces a specified exit velocity profile. The thrust vectoring of a simple convergent nozzle, a convergent-divergent nozzle, and a nozzle which produces a skewed velocity profile matched to the curvature of the Coanda surface were expermentially compared over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 3.5. Elimination of the expansion shocks with the C-D nozzle is shown to greatly improve the thrust vectoring; elimination of turning shocks with the skewed profile nozzle further improves the vectoring.

Bevilaqua, Paul M.; Lee, John D.

1987-01-01

118

Effects of upper-surface blowing and thrust vectoring on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale supersonic transport model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale arrow-wing supersonic transport configured with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing, and conventional lower surface engines with provisions for thrust vectoring. A limited number of tests were conducted for the upper surface engine configuration in the high lift condition for beta = 10 in order to evaluate lateral directional characteristics, and with the right engine inoperative to evaluate the engine out condition.

Coe, P. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Shivers, J. P.

1975-01-01

119

Performance characteristics of a variable-area vane nozzle for vectoring an ASTOVL exhaust jet up to 45 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many conceptual designs for advanced short-takeoff, vertical landing (ASTOVL) aircraft need exhaust nozzles that can vector the jet to provide forces and moments for controlling the aircraft's movement or attitude in flight near the ground. A type of nozzle that can both vector the jet and vary the jet flow area is called a vane nozzle. Basically, the nozzle consists of parallel, spaced-apart flow passages formed by pairs of vanes (vanesets) that can be rotated on axes perpendicular to the flow. Two important features of this type of nozzle are the abilities to vector the jet rearward up to 45 degrees and to produce less harsh pressure and velocity footprints during vertical landing than does an equivalent single jet. A one-third-scale model of a generic vane nozzle was tested with unheated air at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility. The model had three parallel flow passages. Each passage was formed by a vaneset consisting of a long and a short vane. The longer vanes controlled the jet vector angle, and the shorter controlled the flow area. Nozzle performance for three nominal flow areas (basic and plus or minus 21 percent of basic area), each at nominal jet vector angles from -20 deg (forward of vertical) to +45 deg (rearward of vertical) are presented. The tests were made with the nozzle mounted on a model tailpipe with a blind flange on the end to simulate a closed cruise nozzle, at tailpipe-to-ambient pressure ratios from 1.8 to 4.0. Also included are jet wake data, single-vaneset vector performance for long/short and equal-length vane designs, and pumping capability. The pumping capability arises from the subambient pressure developed in the cavities between the vanesets, which could be used to aspirate flow from a source such as the engine compartment. Some of the performance characteristics are compared with characteristics of a single-jet nozzle previously reported.

Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

1993-01-01

120

Vectoring: Steering a Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two part activity, learners work in pairs or individually to discover how vectoring the thrust from a jet engine affects movement of an airplane. In part one, learners construct an F-15 ACTIVE model with a balloon engine. In part two, learners conduct a series of experiments by changing the angle of the straw to control the direction of the thrust. This activity emphasizes the scientific method including prediction, observation, data collection, and analysis. This lesson plan includes background information, an extension and a sample worksheet.

Nasa

2011-08-20

121

An Experimental Investigation of New Concepts in Ejector Thrust Augmentation for V/Stol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic concept involved in the investigation is the utilization of the Coanda effect in combination with an external cascade of airfoils. That combination served to achieve a more efficient rotation and amplification of the jet thrust vector as a resul...

C. A. Smith, G. L. Harris, M. Alperin

1969-01-01

122

Evaluation of dual flow thrust vectored nozzles with exhaust stream impingement. MS Thesis Final Technical Report, Oct. 1990 - Jul. 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this project was to predict the expansion wave/oblique shock wave structure in an under-expanded jet expanding from a convergent nozzle. The shock structure was predicted by combining the calculated curvature of the free pressure boundary with principles and governing equations relating to oblique shock wave and expansion wave interaction. The procedure was then continued until the shock pattern repeated itself. A mathematical model was then formulated and written in FORTRAN to calculate the oblique shock/expansion wave structure within the jet. In order to study shock waves in expanding jets, Schlieren photography, a form of flow visualization, was employed. Thirty-six Schlieren photographs of jets from both a straight and 15 degree nozzle were taken. An iterative procedure was developed to calculate the shock structure within the jet and predict the non-dimensional values of Prandtl primary wavelength (w/rn), distance to Mach Disc (Ld) and Mach Disc radius (rd). These values were then compared to measurements taken from Schlieren photographs and experimental results. The results agreed closely to measurements from Schlieren photographs and previously obtained data. This method provides excellent results for pressure ratios below that at which a Mach Disc first forms. Calculated values of non-dimensional distance to the Mach Disc (Ld) agreed closely to values measured from Schlieren photographs and published data. The calculated values of non-dimensional Mach Disc radius (rd), however, deviated from published data by as much as 25 percent at certain pressure ratios.

Carpenter, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

123

Probing the spin-parity of the Higgs boson via jet kinematics in vector boson fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the spin and the parity quantum numbers of the recently discovered Higgs-like boson at the LHC is a matter of great importance. In this Letter, we consider the possibility of using the kinematics of the tagging jets in Higgs production via the vector boson fusion (VBF) process to test the tensor structure of the Higgs-vector boson (HVV) interaction and to determine the spin and CP properties of the observed resonance. We show that an anomalous HVV vertex, in particular its explicit momentum dependence, drastically affects the rapidity between the two scattered quarks and their transverse momenta and, hence, the acceptance of the kinematical cuts that allow to select the VBF topology. The sensitivity of these observables to different spin-parity assignments, including the dependence on the LHC center of mass energy, are evaluated. In addition, we show that in associated Higgs production with a vector boson some kinematical variables, such as the invariant mass of the system and the transverse momenta of the two bosons and their separation in rapidity, are also sensitive to the spin-parity assignments of the Higgs-like boson.

Djouadi, A.; Godbole, R. M.; Mellado, B.; Mohan, K.

2013-06-01

124

Thrust rollers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust roller bearing system comprising an inner rotating member, an outer rotating member and multiple rollers coupling the inner rotating member with outer rotating member. The inner and outer rotating members include thrust lips to enable the rollers to act as thrust rollers. The rollers contact inner and outer rotating members at bearing contact points along a contact line. Consequently, the radial/tilt and thrust forces move synchronously and simultaneously to create a bearing action with no slipping.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

125

The scaling of model test results to predict intake hot gas reingestion for STOVL aircraft with augmented vectored thrust engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difficulties of modeling the complex recirculating flow fields produced by multiple jet STOVL aircraft close to the ground have led to extensive use of experimental model tests to predict intake Hot Gas Reingestion (HGR). Model test results reliability is dependent on a satisfactory set of scaling rules which must be validated by fully comparable full scale tests. Scaling rules devised in the U.K. in the mid 60's gave good model/full scale agreement for the BAe P1127 aircraft. Until recently no opportunity has occurred to check the applicability of the rules to the high energy exhaust of current ASTOVL aircraft projects. Such an opportunity has arisen following tests on a Tethered Harrier. Comparison of this full scale data and results from tests on a model configuration approximating to the full scale aircraft geometry has shown discrepancies between HGR levels. These discrepancies although probably due to geometry and other model/scale differences indicate some reexamination of the scaling rules is needed. Therefore the scaling rules are reviewed, further scaling studies planned are described and potential areas for further work are suggested.

Penrose, C. J.

1987-01-01

126

Thrust Characterization for Vortex Ring Thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic jets are zero net mass pulsatile jets that are commonly used in flow control applications in air. In these cases the natural resonant frequency of the actuators plays an important role. In this work we will present thrust characterization of vortex ring thrusters (VRTs) in liquid (equivalent of synthetic jets in liquid medium). VRTs design are motivated by pulsatile jet propulsion in squid and jellyfish. A prototype jet thruster was designed and build for this investigation. The effect of the actuation frequency and stroke ratio on the thrust level was experimentally studied. A simplified slug model was defined which predicted the thrust according to the momentum transfer. According to the model the thrust values for various frequencies converges to a single non-dimensionalized thrust, which is only a function of the stroke ratio. The accuracy of the model was defined in terms of a coefficient ? which related predicted thrust values to those measured experimentally. This coefficient was observed to be nearly unity for stroke ratios below the formation number of the jet, and for frequencies below critical cavitation frequencies. ? was seen to decrease (measured thrust drops below predicted thrust) with increasing frequency for all jets with stroke ratios above the formation number. The feasibility of using such a device in typical marine vehicles was tested by implementing the thruster in an unmanned underwater vehicle. The vehicle test-bed was operated in various dynamic maneuvers, including a simulated parallel park.

Krieg, Mike; Mohseni, Kamran

2007-11-01

127

Jet Shapes with the Broadening Axis  

E-print Network

Broadening is a classic jet observable that probes the transverse momentum structure of jets. Traditionally, broadening has been measured with respect to the thrust axis, which is aligned along the (hemisphere) jet momentum to minimize the vector sum of transverse momentum within a jet. In this paper, we advocate measuring broadening with respect to the "broadening axis", which is the direction that minimizes the scalar sum of transverse momentum within a jet. This approach eliminates many of the calculational complexities arising from recoil of the leading parton, and observables like the jet angularities become recoil-free when measured using the broadening axis. We derive a simple factorization theorem for broadening-axis observables which smoothly interpolates between the thrust-like and broadening-like regimes. We argue that the same factorization theorem holds for two-point energy correlation functions as well as for jet shapes based on a "winner-take-all axis". Using kinked broadening axes, we calculate event-wide angularities in e+e- collisions with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Defining jet regions using the broadening axis, we also calculate the global logarithms for angularities within a single jet. We find good agreement comparing our calculations both to showering Monte Carlo programs and to automated resummation tools. We give a brief historical perspective on the broadening axis and suggest ways that broadening-axis observables could be used in future jet substructure studies at the Large Hadron Collider.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Duff Neill; Jesse Thaler

2014-01-09

128

Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was created by Larry Friesen and Anne Gillis for Butler Community College. It will help physics and calculus students differentiate between the uses of vectors in mathematics vs. physics. This website provides two PDF documents that give detailed lessons about vectors, including an overview of terminology, sample problems, and an HTML worksheet is also provided. For educators or students, this site offers well laid-out lessons and/or practice with vectors.

Friesen, Larry; Gillis, Anne

2008-04-18

129

vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

130

Numerical simulations of volcanic jets: Importance of vent overpressure  

E-print Network

shock location in underexpanded gas and gas-particle jets,gas-thrust region is overpressured and develops a jet-like structure of standing shockgas-thrust region of volcanic jets may controlled by compressibility effects (and associated shock

Brodsky, Emily E.; Ogden, Darcy E.; Wohletz, Kenneth H.; Glatzmaier, Gary A.

2008-01-01

131

Support Vector Machine Classification on a Biased Training Set: Multi-Jet Background Rejection at Hadron Colliders  

E-print Network

This paper describes an innovative way to optimize a multivariate classifier, in particular a Support Vector Machine algorithm, on a problem characterized by a biased training sample. This is possible thanks to the feedback of a signal-background template fit performed on a validation sample and included both in the optimization process and in the input variable selection. The procedure is applied to a real case of interest at hadron collider experiments: the reduction and the estimate of the multi-jet background in the $W\\to e \

Federico Sforza; Vittorio Lippi

2014-07-01

132

Support Vector Machine Classification on a Biased Training Set: Multi-Jet Background Rejection at Hadron Colliders  

E-print Network

This paper describes an innovative way to optimize a multivariate classifier, in particular a Support Vector Machine algorithm, on a problem characterized by a biased training sample. This is possible thanks to the feedback of a signal-background template fit performed on a validation sample and included both in the optimization process and in the input variable selection. The procedure is applied to a real case of interest at hadron collider experiments: the reduction and the estimate of the multi-jet background in the $W\\to e \

Sforza, Federico

2014-01-01

133

May the Force Be With You: Thrust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will study how propellers and jet turbines generate thrust. This lesson focuses on Isaac Newton's 3rd Law of Motion, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

134

Styles of deformation and thrust interactions on the Paris, Laketown, and Crawford thrust faults, northern Utah  

SciTech Connect

Surface geology is combined with abundant industry seismic-reflection data in the central Bear River Range and Bear Lake Plateau to depict the form and interactions of the Paris-Willard, Laketown-Meade, and Crawford thrust faults. The Paris thrust loses displacement to the south, dying out into splays and a conical fold as displacement is transferred to the Willard thrust. West-southwest of Woodruff, Utah, splays of the Laketown-Meade and Woodruff thrust faults interfinger through extensive footwall imbrication and accommodate a major splay that trends northeast into the Crawford thrust fault, indicating a change in palinspastic thrust vectors. Reorientation of these vectors is possible due to the imbricate stack of thrusts acting as a pivot while simultaneously accommodating thrust-to-thrust displacement transfer. This thrust ramps lower Paleozoic rocks up to the base of the overlying Tertiary Wasatch Conglomerate. This relationship implies possible reactivation and incorporation of this older thrust into the Crawford thrust fault east of Bear Lake. The sharp bend in the surface trace of the Crawford normal fault southeast of Randolph, Utah reflects the separation of the Crawford thrust and this splay. Cross-sections indicate a major splay off the basal decollement in the Crawford thrust sheet that accommodated displacement during the transition from thrusting on the western thrust system to the structurally lower eastern thrust system. This thrust folds the Laketown-Meade thrust in the central Bear River Range and trends northeast where it forms a series of hanging-wall anticlines that have been extensively targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

Kendrick, R.D. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

135

Model-reference attitude control and reaction control jet engine placement for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies on the theoretical aspects of thrust vector control of large space vehicles were conducted. A system for attitude control of the space shuttle vehicle was developed. Major accomplishments of the project are: (1) investigation of a model-reference adaptive control scheme for controlling the space shuttle attitude and (2) determination of optimum placement of reaction control jet engines on space shuttles.

Boland, J. S., III

1973-01-01

136

A search for new intermediate vector bosons and excited quarks decaying to two-jets at the CERN pp collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-jet invariant mass spectrum as measured in the UA2 experiment is used to search for additional heavy vector bosons decaying to two-jets. The mass of an additional W boson that couples to fermions with a V+A form is constrained to be greater than 261 GeV to the 90% confidence level. A limit on the production cross section of additional

J. Alitti; G. Ambrosini; R. Ansari; D. Autiero; P. Bareyre; I. A. Bertram; G. Blaylock; P. Bonamy; K. Borer; M. Bourliaud; Damir Buskulic; G. Carboni; D. Cavalli; V. Cavasinni; P. Cenci; J. C. Chollet; C. Conta; G. Costa; F. Costantini; L. Cozzi; A. Cravero; M. Curatolo; A. dell'Acqua; T. Delprete; R. S. Dewolf; L. Dilella; Y. Ducros; G. F. Egan; K. F. Einsweiler; B. Esposito; Louis Fayard; A. Federspiel; R. Ferrari; M. Fraternali; Daniel Froidevaux; G. Fumagalli; Jean-Marc Gaillard; F. Gianotti; O. Gildemeister; C. Gssling; V. G. Goggi; S. Grnendahl; K. Hara; S. Hellman; J. Hrivnc; H. Hufnagel; E. Hugentobler; K. Hultqvist; E. Iacopini; J R Incandela; K. Jakobs; Peter Jenni; E. E. Kluge; N. Kurz; S. Lami; P. Lariccia; M. Lefebvre; Lucie Linssen; M. Livan; P. Lubrano; C. Magneville; L. Malgeri; L. Mandelli; Livio P Mapelli; M. Mazzanti; K. Meier; B. Merkel; J. P. Meyer; M. Moniez; R. Moning; M. Morganti; L. Mller; D. J. Munday; Marzio Nessi; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; Christopher J Onions; T. Pal; M. A. Parker; G. Parrour; F. Pastore; E. Pennacchio; J. M. Pentney; M. Pepe; L. Perini; C. Petridou; P. Petroff; Hartmute Plothow-Besch; G. Polesello; Alan Poppleton; Klaus P Pretzl; M. Primavera; M. Punturo; J. P. Repellin; A. Rimoldi; M. Sacchi; P. Scampoli; J. Schacher; B. Schmidt; V. Simk; S. L. Singh; V. Sondermann; R. Spiwoks; Steinar Stapnes; C. Talamonti; F. Tondini; Stuart N Tovey; E. Tsesmelis; G. Unal; M. Valdata-Nappi; V. Vercesi; A. R. Weidberg; P. S. Wells; T. O. White; D. R. Wood; S. A. Wotton; Henri Zaccone; A. Zylberstejn

1993-01-01

137

Thrust generation by an airfoil in hover modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small airfoil is operated in combined harmonic plunging and pitching motions to generate thrust in a still air environment. By full utilization of dynamic stall vortices large thrust coefficients were attained. The vortical signature of thrust is a simple vortex street with the character of a jet stream.

P. Freymuth; F. J. Seiler

1990-01-01

138

Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency from an Instructive Viewpoint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a typical engineering or physics curriculum, the momentum equation is used for the determination of jet engine thrust. Even a simple thrust analysis requires a heavy emphasis on mathematics that can cause students and engineers to lose a physical perspective on thrust. This article provides for this physical understanding using only static

Kaufman, Richard D.

2010-01-01

139

Study of an under-expanded sonic impinging jet array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The under-expanded impinging jet is used in various situations, such as the launch of a rocket, the takeoff and landing of a vertical/short take off and landing aircraft, jet engine exhaust impingement, or the thrust vector control system of a solid rocket motor. It is also of considerable interest to study the fluid dynamics of jet impingement on a surface with respect to heat transfer. Past investigations of sonic or supersonic impinging jets were limited to only a single jet and were primarily concentrated on fluid mechanics phenomena. No results exist in the literature for an under-expanded sonic impinging jet array. The present study is focused on the fluid dynamics for an array of under-expanded sonic impinging jets with the ultimate objective being to study the understanding of the interaction between impinging jets and the effect of jet-to-jet spacing (s/d), jet-to-plate spacing (z/d), and the degree of under-expansion (P0/Pa). Schlieren videography was applied to study the variation of structures that dominate the supersonic impinging flow, such as the intercepting shock, reflected shock, normal disk, stand-off-plate shock, and stagnation bubble. A high frequency transducer was used to measure the pressure field of the fluid flow near the impingement surface. Test configurations included non-dimensional jet-to-plate heights from 1 to 10, non-dimensional jet-to-jet spacing of 2 and 4, and pressure ratios from 3.3 to 12.9. Jets with orifice diameter of 12.7 and 25.4 mm were used. The fluid dynamics of an under-expanded sonic jet array differ largely from a single jet at s/d = 2. Midway between jets and near each stagnation bubble region, the jet array shows higher values in surface pressure due to the jet interaction. Both a single jet and a jet array have the linear dependence between z/d for the location of the shock cell and transition from supersonic wall jet to subsonic wall jet. However, the jet array show the location of the shock cell is changing over a slightly wider range of z/d and an earlier transition from a supersonic wall jet to subsonic wall jet. With an increase in s/d, the jet interaction becomes less noticeable and similar to a single jet. For z/d = 7, a remarkably interesting flow phenomenon exists at P 0 = 12.24 atm or greater, representing the repeatedly inward and outward diffusion. Schlieren images look like an intense explosion and the surface pressure distribution midway between jets shows an abrupt decrease.

Lee, Joon Ho

140

A search for new intermediate vector bosons and excited quarks decaying to two-jets at the CERN pp collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-jet invariant mass spectrum as measured in the UA2 experiment is used to search for additional heavy vector bosons decaying to two-jets. The mass of an additional W boson that couples to fermions with a V+ A form is constrained to be greater than 261 GeV to the 90% confidence level. A limit on the production cross section of additional W and Z bosons is given as a function of the boson mass. A limit on the production of excited quarks is also given as a function of the excited quark mass.

Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I. A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J. C.; Conta, C.; Costa, G.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R. S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G. F.; Einsweiler, K. F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J. M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Gssling, C.; Goggi, V. G.; Grnendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; H?ivn?, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E. E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Malgeri, L.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Mller, L.; Munday, D. J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M. A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J. M.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J. P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Schmidt, B.; imk, V.; Singh, S. L.; Sondermann, V.; Spiwoks, R.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A. R.; Wells, P. S.; White, T. O.; Wood, D. R.; Wotton, S. A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstejn, A.; UA2 Collaboration

1993-07-01

141

Deciphering cumulative fault slip vectors from fold scarps: relationships between long-term and co-seismic deformation at the piedmont of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document the 30-ka cumulative slip history and long-term slip vector azimuth on the Northern Chelungpu fault based on a series of fault-bend folded alluvial terraces and draw quantitative relationships between geological structure, deformation observed from the geomorphology, and coseismic displacements during the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. In our study area, three main terrace levels show progressive folding by kink-band migration in relation to the underlying fault geometry, forming a main N-S fold scarp up to ~193 m high and secondary E-W scarps. Detailed analysis using 5-m resolution DEM allows us to characterize the scarp morphology and quantify the deformation parameters, namely terrace heights, fold scarp relief, and fold limb width and slope angle. The 3D deformation of the highest terrace, OSL-dated at 30.2 4.0 ka, enables to simultaneously determine amplitude and azimuth of the long-term slip vector based on scarp relief. The long-term slip vector, oriented N338 6, is found to parallel the Chi-Chi coseismic displacements in this area. Cumulative slip and dating results yield a constant slip rate of 17.7 2.2 mm/a in the direction N338 6, which represents ~16% of total shortening across the mountain belt. Late Quaternary shortening rates observed at four sites vary along-strike in similar proportion to Chi-Chi coseismic displacements. Together with the colinearity of long-term and coseismic slip vectors at our study site, this suggests that Chi-Chi earthquake is a characteristic earthquake for the Chelungpu thrust with recurrence interval ~440 years. We also discuss implications for the regional and long-term distribution of shortening in the central Western Foothills.

Le Beon, Maryline; Suppe, John; Jaiswal, Manoj; Chen, Yue-Gau; Ustaszewski, Michaela

2014-05-01

142

Differential three-jet cross section in e+e--annihilation and comparison with second-order predictions of QCD and abelian vector theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential three-jet cross sections have been measured in e+e--annihilation at an average CM energy of 33.8 GeV and were compared to first- and second-order predictions of QCD and of a QED-like abelian vector theory. QCD provides a good description of the observed distributions. The inclusion of second-order effects reduced the observed quark-gluon coupling strength by about 20% to ?S = 0.16 +/- 0.015 (stat.) +/- 0.03 (syst.). The abelian vector theory is found to be incompatible with the data. Present address: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, England.

Bartel, W.; Cords, D.; Dietrich, G.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Krehbiel, H.; Meier, K.; Naroska, B.; O'Neill, L. H.; Steffen, P.; Elsen, E.; Petersen, A.; Warming, P.; Weber, G.; Kramer, G.; Schierholz, G.; Bethke, S.; Heintze, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hellenbrand, K. H.; Heuer, R. D.; von Krogh, J.; Lennert, P.; Kawabata, S.; Komamiya, S.; Matsumura, H.; Nozaki, T.; Olsson, J.; Rieseberg, H.; Wagner, A.; Bell, A.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Wriedt, H.; Allison, J.; Ball, A. H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.; Bowdery, C.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Glendinning, I.; Loebinger, F. K.; MacBeth, A. A.; McCann, H.; Mills, H. E.; Murphy, P. G.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.; Clarke, D.; Goddard, M. C.; Marshall, R.; Pearce, G. F.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Koshiba, M.; Minowa, M.; Nozaki, M.; Odaka, S.; Orito, S.; Sato, A.; Takeda, H.; Totsuka, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Yanagisawa, C.

1982-12-01

143

Design of high temperature high speed electromagnetic axial thrust bearing  

E-print Network

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is researching the magnetic bearings to use it as a better alternative to conventional bearings. This research was to develop an axial thrust electromagnetic bearing for high performance jet...

Mohiuddin, Mohammad Waqar

2012-06-07

144

Some notes on the thermodynamics of thrust reversal in flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that, in order to obtain a maximum braking effect in flight, the thrust reversal should take place in a manner leading to the greatest possible irreversibility through interaction of the jet with the external free flow. Thrust reversers should be tested, not on a test bench, but in a wind tunnel only.

P. Garriere

1974-01-01

145

Flow Control with Noncircular JETS1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncircular jets have been the topic of extensive research in the last fifteen years. These jets were identified as an efficient technique of passive flow control that allows significant improvements of performance in various practical systems at a relatively low cost because noncircular jets rely solely on changes in the geometry of the nozzle. The applications of noncircular jets discussed in this review include improved large- and small-scale mixing in low- and high-speed flows, and enhanced combustor performance, by improving combustion efficiency, reducing combustion instabilities and undesired emissions. Additional applications include noise suppression, heat transfer, and thrust vector control (TVC). The flow patterns associated with noncircular jets involve mechanisms of vortex evolution and interaction, flow instabilities, and fine-scale turbulence augmentation. Stability theory identified the effects of initial momentum thickness distribution, aspect ratio, and radius of curvature on the initial flow evolution. Experiments revealed complex vortex evolution and interaction related to self-induction and interaction between azimuthal and axial vortices, which lead to axis switching in the mean flow field. Numerical simulations described the details and clarified mechanisms of vorticity dynamics and effects of heat release and reaction on noncircular jet behavior. The research on noncircular jets has also led to technology transfer. A topic that started as an academic curiosity-an interesting flow phenomenon-subsequently has had various industrial applications. The investigations reviewed include experimental, theoretical, numerical, and technological aspects of the subject.

Gutmark, E. J.; Grinstein, F. F.

1999-01-01

146

Effects of Nozzle Geometries on Thrust Performance Improvement of Micro-Multi-Nozzle-Array Thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabrication of a 3 x 3 micro-plasmajet array with ultra-violet lasers and their thrust performance tests were conducted for nozzle elements with exit height of 0.5 mm and length of 1 mm. To evaluate the thrust characteristics of the nozzle-array, its thrust performance was compared with a single-nozzle. The thrust was measured by a calibrated cantilever-type thrust stand in vacuum. From the thrust performance tests, significant improvement of the thrust of each nozzle element with mass flow was obtained with the nozzle-arrays than those of only using a single-nozzle through multi-jet interaction phenomena.

Sawada, Fujimi; Koshiyama, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Shuji; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh

147

Control of VTOL Vehicles with Thrust-Tilting Augmentation  

E-print Network

and by extending a solution previously derived in the fixed thrust-direction case. The proposed control design in the same monitored tilted direction. 1. INTRODUCTION Mechanical design and feedback control of small aerial of the vehicle's center of mass (CoM) and thrust vectoring yields torque creation, as in the case of rocket

148

Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) acoustic and aerodynamic tests on a scale model over-the-wing thrust reverser and forward thrust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic and aerodynamic test program was conducted on a 1/6.25 scale model of the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) forward thrust over-the-wing (OTW) nozzle and OTW thrust reverser. In reverse thrust, the effect of reverser geometry was studied by parametric variations in blocker spacing, blocker height, lip angle, and lip length. Forward thrust nozzle tests determined the jet noise levels of the cruise and takeoff nozzles, the effect of opening side doors to achieve takeoff thrust, and scrubbing noise of the cruise and takeoff jet on a simulated wing surface. Velocity profiles are presented for both forward and reverse thrust nozzles. An estimate of the reverse thrust was made utilizing the measured centerline turning angle.

Stimpert, D. L.

1978-01-01

149

Robust nonlinear control of vectored thrust aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interdisciplinary program in robust control for nonlinear systems with applications to a variety of engineering problems is outlined. Major emphasis will be placed on flight control, with both experimental and analytical studies. This program builds on recent new results in control theory for stability, stabilization, robust stability, robust performance, synthesis, and model reduction in a unified framework using Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's), Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI's), and the structured singular value micron. Most of these new advances have been accomplished by the Caltech controls group independently or in collaboration with researchers in other institutions. These recent results offer a new and remarkably unified framework for all aspects of robust control, but what is particularly important for this program is that they also have important implications for system identification and control of nonlinear systems. This combines well with Caltech's expertise in nonlinear control theory, both in geometric methods and methods for systems with constraints and saturations.

Doyle, John C.; Murray, Richard; Morris, John

1993-01-01

150

V+jets production at the CMS  

E-print Network

Measurements of Vector Boson production in association with jets are presented, using p-p collision data at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. The measurements presented include Z + jets azimuthal correlations, event shapes, vector boson + jets differential cross section measurements, hard double-parton scattering using W + jets events and electroweak Z + forward - backward jet production.

B. Bilin; for the CMS Collaboration

2014-10-22

151

Measuring axial pump thrust  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

1988-11-08

152

Measuring axial pump thrust  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

Suchoza, Bernard P. (McMurray, PA); Becse, Imre (Washington, PA)

1988-01-01

153

Laser plasma thruster continuous thrust experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser plasma thruster (LPT) is a new microthruster for small satellites. We report on development and testing of a prototype LPT. Some advantages of the LPT are: thruster voltage 4 V, mass less than 1 kg, power-to-thrust ratio 10 kW/newton and Isp up to 1000 seconds. Typical thrust level is 250 (mu) N with PVC fuel. Thrust of 1 mN is expected with energetic fuel. The pre-prototype continuous thrust experiment includes the laser mount and heat sink, lens mounts, and focusing mechanism, which are coupled to the target material transport mechanism. The target material is applied to a transparent plastic tape, and the laser is focused on a series of tracks on the tape. The tape drive hardware and laser drive electronics, are described, as well as the control and diagnostic software. Design, construction, and calibration of the thrust stand are described. During continuous operation, the exhaust plume is deflected in the direction of the moving tape. When the laser is operated in pulsed mode, the exhaust plume is perpendicular to the tape (parallel to the optical axis). This provides some thrust vector control.

Luke, James R.; Phipps, Claude R.; McDuff, G. Glen

2002-09-01

154

Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems. All data gathered in this investigation are contained in the CD-ROM.

Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

155

Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems.

Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

156

PPT Thrust Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

Haag, Thomas W.

1995-01-01

157

Variable thrust cartridge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-11-07

158

SYNTHETIC JET THRUST OPTIMIZATION FOR APPLICATION  

E-print Network

sensing techniques as well as highly controllable remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). Most ROV's need research community. Furthermore, the required cable connection has limiting effects on ROV's operation underwater vessel or ROV could penetrate (e.g., below the ice regions and to the bottom of trenches

Mohseni, Kamran

159

Automated estimation of L\\/H transition times at JET by combining Bayesian statistics and support vector machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a pattern recognition method for off-line estimation of both L\\/H and H\\/L transition times in JET. The technique is based on a combined classifier to identify the confinement regime (L or H) at any time instant during a discharge. The classifier is a combination of two different classification systems: a Bayesian classifier whose likelihood is computed by

J. Vega; A. Murari; G. Vagliasindi; G. A. Ratt; JET-EFDA Contributors

2009-01-01

160

MPD thrust chamber flow dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow within the thrust chamber of a Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet is examined experimentally and modeled with a 2-D magnetohydrodynamic code. Two quasi-steady MPD thrusters are considered under the same input conditions of current (21 kA) and total mass flow rate (0.006 kg/s, argon + 1.5 percent hydrogen). The arcjets have the same basic design, consisting of a central cathode, 3.8 cm diameter and 5 cm long, separated from a coaxial anode of equal length by a uniform gap of 2.3 cm. Two different mass injection arrangements are used (100 percent at mid-radius, and 50 percent at the cathode base, with the remainder at mid-radius). A new spectroscopic analysis procedure is developed that allows distributions of radial speed, heavy particle temperature and turbulent speed to be extracted from chordal measurements of light emission by the two species in the plasma flow. Good qualitative (and reasonable quantitative) agreement exists with distributions calculated by the MHD code, indicating that flow within the thrust chamber expands from an electromagnetically pumped plasma base (vs a pumped jet off the cathode tip). The significant variation of internal flow dynamics with mass injector arrangement implies the need for extensive experimentally validated code modeling in order to evaluate the potential performance of MPD thrusters.

1990-08-01

161

Strawkets and Thrust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that thrust has on rocket flight. Students will make two paper rockets that they can launch themselves by blowing through a straw. These "strawkets" will differ in diameter, such that students will understand that a rocket with a smaller exit nozzle will provide a larger thrust. Students have the opportunity to compare the distances traveled by their two strawkets after predicting where they will land. Since each student will have a slightly different rocket and launching technique, they will observe which factors contribute to a strawket's thrust and performance.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

162

Measurement of vector boson scattering and search for new physics in events with two jets and two same-sign leptons  

E-print Network

A measurement of vector-boson scattering in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector. Candidate events are selected with exactly two leptons, electrons or muons, with the same charge, two jets with large rapidity separation and mass, and moderate missing transverse energy. The signal region is dominated by electroweak same-sign W-boson pair production. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. The observed significance is 2.0$\\sigma$, where a significance of 3.1$\\sigma$ is expected for the standard model. Cross section measurements of the $\\mathrm{W}^{\\pm}\\mathrm{W}^{\\pm}$ and $\\mathrm{W}\\mathrm{Z}$ processes in the fiducial region are reported. Bounds on the structure of quartic vector-boson interactions are given in the framework of dimension-eight effective field theory operators, as well as limits on the production of doubly-charged Higgs bosons.

Khachatryan, Vardan; CMS Collaboration; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hrmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knnz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krtschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Ccile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perni, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Ald Jnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custdio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jos; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrs; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Hrknen, Jaakko; Karimki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampn, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindn, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Menp, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice

2014-01-01

163

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

164

Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 3: Experimental technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The jet induced effects of several exhaust nozzle configurations (axisymmetric, and vectoring/modulating varients) on the aeropropulsive performance of a twin engine V/STOL fighter design was determined. A 1/8 scale model was tested in an 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach Numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The experimental aspects of the static and wind-on programs are discussed. Jet effects test techniques in general, fow through balance calibrations and tare force corrections, ASME nozzle thrust and mass flow calibrations, test problems and solutions are emphasized.

Schnell, W. C.

1982-01-01

165

Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz.

Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

2010-09-01

166

Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines.  

PubMed

A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz. PMID:20887003

Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

2010-09-01

167

Evolutionary Computing for Low-thrust Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of new mission concepts requires efficient methodologies to analyze, design and simulate the concepts before implementation. New mission concepts are increasingly considering the use of ion thrusters for fuel-efficient navigation in deep space. This paper presents parallel, evolutionary computing methods to design trajectories of spacecraft propelled by ion thrusters and to assess the trade-off between delivered payload mass and required flight time. The developed methods utilize a distributed computing environment in order to speed up computation, and use evolutionary algorithms to find globally Pareto-optimal solutions. The methods are coupled with two main traditional trajectory design approaches, which are called direct and indirect. In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. In the indirect approach, a thrust control problem is transformed into a costate control problem, and the initial values of the costate vector are optimized. The developed methods are applied to two problems: 1) an orbit transfer around the Earth and 2) a transfer between two distance retrograde orbits around Europa, the closest to Jupiter of the icy Galilean moons. The optimal solutions found with the present methods are comparable to other state-of-the-art trajectory optimizers and to analytical approximations for optimal transfers, while the required computational time is several orders of magnitude shorter than other optimizers thanks to an intelligent design of control vector discretization, advanced algorithmic parameterization, and parallel computing.

Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; vonAllmed, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Russell, Ryan P.; Terrile, Richard J.

2005-01-01

168

Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

1987-01-01

169

Turbulence modeling for thrust reverser flow field prediction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of thrust reversing on aircraft operating in ground effect produces complex flow fields, for which conventional turbulence models are inadequate. The main objective of the work was to produce an improved turbulence model. The work included experimental measurements of an impinging jet inclined 45 degrees into the crossflow. Large eddy simulation (LES) was used to identify the dominant

Robert E. Childs; Laura C. Rodman; Peter Bradshaw

1992-01-01

170

Environmental Thrust Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook was prepared as a tool to assist U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) employees coordinate their resources and efforts to help people improve their environment. Twenty-two projects are outlined as potential environmental thrusts at the community level. It is the role of USDA employees to encourage and assist, in every way possible,

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

171

Effects of internal yaw-vectoring devices on the static performance of a pitch-vectoring nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.

Asbury, Scott C.

1993-01-01

172

Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

1998-01-01

173

Numerical simulations of volcanic jets: Importance of vent overpressure  

E-print Network

the effects of shock waves on the gas-thrust region. These simulations are of free-jet decompression atmospheric pressure, the gas-thrust region is overpressured and develops a jet-like structure of standing shock waves. Using a pseudogas approximation for a mixture of tephra and gas, we numerically simulate

174

Thrust Forces in Underwater Swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instantaneous and mean static thrust levels were measured for eight underwater swimmers restrained in a submerged force platform. Swimming was examined barefoot and with two types of fins. The main beneficial effect of the fins was to eliminate the substantial negative thrust component associated with barefoot swimming. Higher maximal thrust outputs were achieved with curved fins than with straight-bladed ones.

Raymond A. Christianson; Gershon Weltman; Glen H. Egstrom

1965-01-01

175

Solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Electric Propulsion System developed under this program was designed to demonstrate all the thrust subsystem functions needed on an unmanned planetary vehicle. The demonstration included operation of the basic elements, power matching input and output voltage regulation, three-axis thrust vector control, subsystem automatic control including failure detection and correction capability (using a PDP-11 computer), operation of critical elements in thermal-vacuum-, zero-gravity-type propellant storage, and data outputs from all subsystem elements. The subsystem elements, functions, unique features, and test setup are described. General features and capabilities of the test-support data system are also presented. The test program culminated in a 1500-h computer-controlled, system-functional demonstration. This included simultaneous operation of two thruster/power conditioner sets. The results of this testing phase satisfied all the program goals.

Masek, T. D.

1973-01-01

176

Investigation of a Full-scale, Cascade-type Thrust Reverser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A double set of turning vanes was carried inside the jet tailpipe. To produce reverse thrust, the tailpipe opens into two side sections and the turning vanes move outward to form a V-shaped cascade, which deflects the exhaust-gas flow. Forward and reverse net thrust were measured over a range of engine speeds with the airplane stationary. Taxi tests were made to determine the comparative stopping distances using wheel braking and reverse thrust separately, and a combination of both. The effect of turning-vane spacing on thrust-reverser performance was determined by scale-model tests using unheated air.

Kohl, Robert C; Algranti, Joseph S

1957-01-01

177

Thrust-augmented vortex attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the vortex attenuating effect of engine thrust. Tests were made using a 0.03-scale model of the Boeing 747 transport aircraft as a vortex generating model. A Learjet-class probe model was used to measure the vortex induced rolling moment at a scale separation distance of 1.63 km. These tests were conducted at a lift coefficient of 1.4 at a model velocity of 30.48 m/s. The data presented indicate that engine thrust is effective as a vortex attenuating device when the engines are operated at high thrust levels and are positioned to direct the high energy engine wake into the core of the vortex. The greatest thrust vortex attenuation was obtained by operating the inboard engine thrust reversers at one-quarter thrust and the outboard engines at maximum forward thrust.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

178

Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors [axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts] of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of 2.3 was measured with the error of 0.2 under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y.

2007-11-01

179

Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors (axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts) of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of {+-}2.3 deg. was measured with the error of {+-}0.2 deg. under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2007-11-15

180

Study of Slanted Perforated Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the numerical simulation of the subsonic jets controlled by slanted perforated tabs and its performance of mixing efficiency is compared with the jet controlled by solid tab and free jet. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of slanted perforation geometry tabs in controlling high speed jets to enhance the mixing of jet with the ambient air, to suppress the noise level and to minimize the thrust loss. In this paper the simulations have been carried out using the commercial meshing and analysis software. Due to the effect of tabs the potential core decay occurs and velocity reduces drastically because of enhanced mixing produced by the tabs. From the results it is found that in slanted perforated tab the main jet interacts with the slanted perforated jet which causes in effective mixing, instability in jets and lower thrust loss when compared with the free jet. The decay of the potential core and velocity reduction is computed by simulation for 0.4 Mach number. Velocity plots are obtained at both near field and far field downstream locations to study the jet distortion with slanted perforated tabs and solid tabs. The results obtained for perforated tabs for 0.4 Mach number are also compared with various other Mach numbers. They have also been validated with experimental results which show good agreement with the computational results.

Ahmed, R. Asad; Thanigaiarasu, S.; Santhosh, J.; Elangovan, S.; Rathakrishnan, E.

2013-12-01

181

Experimental investigation of high performance, short, thrust augmenting ejectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air-to-air thrust augmenting ejectors utilizing short curved wall diffusers were designed and tested. Two of the three ejectors tested have identical mixing chambers with an inlet area to the primary nozzle area ratio lambda of 40. The overall ejector length-to-mixing chamber diameter ratios (L/D) were 6.09 and 6.16; diffuser area ratios were 1.33 and 1.46, respectively. The third ejector had an overall L/D of 6.02, a lambda of 20, and diffuser area ratio of 1.26. The best observed thrust augmentation ratio and the modified thrust augmentation ratio were 2.11 and 1.91 respectively for a sonic primary jet. The modified thrust augmentation ratio accounts for the penalty of suction in preventing flow separation in the diffuser. These levels of thrust ratio were derived from velocity measurements at the ejector exit. Independent thrust measurements obtained with strain gages on the mixing chamber agree with the force calculated from the momentum data. The experimentally observed ejector performance data correlate well with the predicted values.

Yang, T. T.; Ntone, F.; Tong, J.

1983-01-01

182

Low thrust vehicle concept study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low thrust chemical (hydrogen-oxygen) propulsion systems configured specifically for low acceleration orbit transfer of large space systems were defined. Results indicate that it is cost effective and least risk to combine the OTV and stowed spacecraft in a single 65 K Shuttle. The study shows that the engine for an optimized low thrust stage (1) does not require very low thrust; (2) 1-3 K thrust range appears optimum; (3) thrust transient is not a concern; (4) throttling probably not worthwhile; and (5) multiple thrusters complicate OTV/LSS design and aggravate LSS loads. Regarding the optimum vehicle for low acceleration missions, the single shuttle launch (LSS and expendable OTV) is most cost effective and least risky. Multiple shuttles increase diameter 20%. The space based radar structure short OTV (which maximizes space available for packaged LSS) favors use of torus tank. Propellant tank pressures/vapor residuals are little affected by engine thrust level or number of burns.

1980-01-01

183

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

184

The motion of thrust sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional average basal shear stress tau of a thrust sheet of thickness H is equal to the down-surface slope stress pgHalpha. Thrusts always move in the direction of surface slope alpha, even if they are moving up the dip beta of the base. The sole thrust beneath the Canadian Rockies had tau of the order of 5106 Pa (50

David Elliott

1976-01-01

185

Predicted flight characteristics of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An existing deHavilland C-8A airplane has been modified into an augmentor wing flight test vehicle. Research objectives are to verify the augmentor flap concept and to produce data for STOL airworthiness criteria. The Modified C-8A provides the means for jet-STOL flight research down to a 60 knot approach speed. The airplane has a high thrust-to-weight ratio, high-lift flap system, vectored thrust, powerful flight controls, and lateral-directional stability augmentation system. Normal performance and handling qualities are expected to be satisfactory. Analysis and piloted simulator results indicate that stability and control characteristics in conventional flight are rated satisfactory. Handling qualities in the STOL regime are also generally satisfactory, although pilot workload is high about the longitudinal axis.

Spitzer, R. E.

1972-01-01

186

Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a computationally efficient method of optimizing trajectories of spacecraft driven by propulsion systems that generate low thrusts and, hence, must be operated for long times. A common goal in trajectory-optimization problems is to find minimum-time, minimum-fuel, or Pareto-optimal trajectories (here, Pareto-optimality signifies that no other solutions are superior with respect to both flight time and fuel consumption). The present method utilizes genetic and simulated-annealing algorithms to search for globally Pareto-optimal solutions. These algorithms are implemented in parallel form to reduce computation time. These algorithms are coupled with either of two traditional trajectory- design approaches called "direct" and "indirect." In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. The indirect approach involves the primer-vector theory (introduced in 1963), in which the thrust control problem is transformed into a co-state control problem and the initial values of the co-state vector are optimized. In application to two example orbit-transfer problems, this method was found to generate solutions comparable to those of other state-of-the-art trajectory-optimization methods while requiring much less computation time.

Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; Russell, Ryan; Terrile, Richard; Petropoulos, Anastassios; vonAllmen, Paul

2007-01-01

187

Aeropropulsive characteristics of twin single-expansion-ramp vectoring nozzles installed with forward-swept wings and canards. [transonic tunnel tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel was used to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of twin single-expansion-ramp vectoring nozzles installed in a wing-body configuration with forward-swept wings. The configuration was tested with and without fixed canards. The test conditions included free-stream Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The model angle of attack ranged from -2 deg to 14 deg; the nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 1.0 (jet off) to 9.0. The Reynolds number based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord varied from 3.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 4.8 x 10 to the 6th power, depending on Mach number. Aerodynamic characteristics were analyzed to determine the effects of thrust vectoring and the canard effects on the wing-afterbody-nozzle and the wing-afterbody portions of the model. Thrust vectoring had no effect on the angle of attack for the onset of flow separation on the wing but resulted in reduced drag at angle-of-attack values above that required for wing flow separation. The canard was found to have little effect on the thrust-induced lift resulting from vectoring, since canard effects occurred primarily on the wing.

Mason, M. L.; Capone, F. J.

1983-01-01

188

Entrainment and thrust augmentation in pulsatile ejector flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study comprised direct thrust measurements, flow visualization by use of a spark shadowgraph technique, and mean and fluctuating velocity measurements with a pitot tube and linearized constant temperature hot-wire anemometry respectively. A gain in thrust of as much as 10 to 15% was observed for the pulsatile ejector flow as compared to the steady flow configuration. From the velocity profile measurements, it is concluded that this enhanced augmentation for pulsatile flow as compared to a nonpulsatile one was accomplished by a corresponding increased entrainment by the primary jet flow. It is also concluded that the augmentation and total entrainment by a constant area ejector critically depends upon the inlet geometry of the ejector. Experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of primary jet to ejector area ratio, ejector length, and presence of a diffuser on pulsatile ejector performance.

Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Bui, T.

1981-01-01

189

Jet production in {gamma}{gamma} interactions at PEP  

SciTech Connect

We have used the TPC/Two-Gamma Facility at the SLAC e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring PEP to study the photon-photon reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} + hadrons, in both the single-tagged mode (one outgoing e{sup {plus_minus}} detected) and the untagged mode (neither e{sup {plus_minus}} detected). A thrust algorithm was used to find the jet axis in the hadronic center-of-mass, and this axis was used to calculate the transverse momentum with respect to the {gamma}{gamma} collision axis (p{sub t}). The (preliminary) p{sub t} and thrust distributions of both tagged and untagged data are well-described by the predictions of vector meson dominance (VDM) at low p{sub t}. For 3 < p{sub t} < 4.5 GeV, the tagged data are consistent with the prediction of the Quark Parton Model (QPM). In the intermediate region -- 1.5 < p{sub t} < 3 GeV -- an excess of events is seen in both samples. The p{sub t} and event topology of these excess events are compared to a 3-jet model based on QCD.

TPC /Two-Gamma Collaboration

1988-12-31

190

Vacuum Thrust Optimised Expansion Deflection Nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ED nozzles have long been considered for launch vehicle applications, due to their postulated twin benefits of reduced length and altitude compensating capability. However, the difficulties involved in modelling the inviscid/viscous jet boundaries and associated flow phenomena during wake closure, have prevented the creation of a reliable method for the prediction of the performance characteristics of the type through atmospheric flight. However, if the operating regime of the nozzle is restricted to vacuum conditions (e.g. upper stages, and OTVs, etc), the wake region of the ED nozzle is permanently closed. Under these circumstances, the prediction of the pressure distribution along the viscous/inviscid flow boundary, and the complex interaction of the fluid flows during wake closure, becomes unnecessary. Therefore thrust calculation may be accomplished by conventional techniques, provided reliable methods are available for the prediction of the flow in the throat region (which may be arbitrarily displaced and inclined to the axis of revolution), and estimation of the pressure acting on the base of the central pintle. Prediction of ED nozzle throat flows has been accomplished by the use of CFD techniques, described in a previous paper. The analysis in this paper has been extended to complete nozzles by including a conventional method of characteristics based optimisation routine for the outer shroud contour, and a semi-empirical method for prediction of pintle base pressures. A brief parametric study is presented, outlining the effects of throat configuration (including throat wall radii, and radial displacement and inclination) on the performance of axisymmetric and planar ED nozzles under vacuum conditions. Whilst the method used for base pressure prediction requires several simplifying assumptions which affect the accuracy, results from an ongoing experimental program are reducing this uncertainty. Further as nozzles designed for vacuum operation are likely to have extremely high area ratios to maximise thrust coefficient, the relative magnitude of the pintle base pressure is small compared to the forces generated on the shroud, reducing the sensitivity of overall thrust calculations to errors in base pressure prediction. A comparison of thrust performance of bell and ED nozzles reveals that considerable reductions in length are possible, in the region of 30%. By implication this should result in a significant lowering of system mass. This conclusion is further supported by consideration of the unrealistic worst case scenario, which is the assumption of zero thrust contribution from the pintle. This analysis still produces length savings of over 20% when compared to conventional optimised bell nozzles.

Taylor, N. V.; Hempsell, C. M.

2002-01-01

191

Experimental results for a two-dimensional supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all supersonic V/STOL aircraft concepts are dependent on the thrust deflecting capability of a nozzle. In one unique concept, referred to as the reverse flow dual fan, not only is there a thrust deflecting nozzle for the fan and core engine exit flow, but because of the way the propulsion system operates during vertical takeoff and landing, the supersonic inlet is also used as a thrust deflecting nozzle. This paper presents results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of a supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle for this reverse flow dual fan concept. Results are presented in terms of nozzle thrust coefficient and thrust vector angle for a number of inlet/nozzle configurations. Flow visualization and nozzle exit flow survey results are also shown.

Johns, Albert L.; Burstadt, Paul L.

192

Measurement of the cross-section of high transverse momentum vector bosons reconstructed as single jets and studies of jet substructure in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a measurement of the cross-section for high transverse momentum W and Z bosons produced in pp collisions and decaying to all-hadronic final states. The data used in the analysis were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 f{{b}-1}. The measurement is performed by reconstructing the boosted W or Z bosons in single jets. The reconstructed jet mass is used to identify the W and Z bosons, and a jet substructure method based on energy cluster information in the jet centre-of-mass frame is used to suppress the large multi-jet background. The cross-section for events with a hadronically decaying W or Z boson, with transverse momentum {{p}T}\\gt 320 GeV and pseudorapidity |? |\\lt 1.9, is measured to be {{? }W+Z}=8.5+/- 1.7 pb and is compared to next-to-leading-order calculations. The selected events are further used to study jet grooming techniques.

Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; kesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; sman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimares da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.

2014-11-01

193

Micro thrust and heat generator  

DOEpatents

A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

Garcia, E.J.

1998-11-17

194

Micro thrust and heat generator  

SciTech Connect

A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

195

Low-thrust rocket trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed. First, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs.

Keaton, P. W.

1986-01-01

196

Trajectories for missions of low-thrust spacecraft aimed at delivery of soil samples from main belt asteroids and Phobos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trajectories of spacecraft with electro-jet low-thrust engines are studied for missions planning to deliver samples of matter from small bodies of the Solar System: asteroids Vesta and Fortuna, and Martian moon Phobos. Flight trajectories are analyzed for the mission to Phobos, the limits of optimization of payload spacecraft mass delivered to it are determined, and an estimate is given to losses in the payload mass when a low-thrust engine with constant outflow velocity is used. The model of an engine with ideally regulated low thrust is demonstrated to be convenient for calculations and analysis of flight trajectories of a low-thrust spacecraft.

Akhmetshin, R. Z.; Efimov, G. B.; Eneev, T. M.

2009-02-01

197

In-flight thrust determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

1986-01-01

198

Micro thrust and heat generator  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates generally to micromachines such as microengines or micromotors. More specifically, the invention is directed to a micro rocket which functions as a source of heat and thrust, and utilizes chemical energy to drive or power micromechanical apparatuses. The invention is adaptable to applications involving defense, bio-medical, manufacturing, consumer product, aviation, automotive, computer, inspection, and safety systems. A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachine techniques (LIGA).

Garcia, E.J.

1995-12-31

199

The application of parameter estimation to flight measurements to obtain lateral-directional stability derivatives of an augmented jet-flap STOL airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight experiments with an augmented jet flap STOL aircraft provided data from which the lateral directional stability and control derivatives were calculated by applying a linear regression parameter estimation procedure. The tests, which were conducted with the jet flaps set at a 65 deg deflection, covered a large range of angles of attack and engine power settings. The effect of changing the angle of the jet thrust vector was also investigated. Test results are compared with stability derivatives that had been predicted. The roll damping derived from the tests was significantly larger than had been predicted, whereas the other derivatives were generally in agreement with the predictions. Results obtained using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure are compared with those from the linear regression solutions.

Stephenson, J. D.

1983-01-01

200

14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97...Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine...must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25...

2014-01-01

201

14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97...Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine...must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25...

2010-01-01

202

14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97...Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine...must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25...

2011-01-01

203

14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97...Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine...must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25...

2012-01-01

204

14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97...Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine...must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25...

2013-01-01

205

Jet Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the general characteristics of upper-level jet streams (Polar Jet, Subtropical Jet, and Tropical Easterly Jet) and two major tropical low-level wind maxima (Somali Jet, African Easterly Jet). Included are discussions of their formation, maintenance, influence on synoptic weather, and role in the general circulation.

Comet

2012-11-13

206

The Aeroacoustics of Supersonic Coaxial Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instability waves have been established as the dominant source of mixing noise radiating into the downstream arc of a supersonic jet when the waves have phase velocities that are supersonic relative to ambient conditions. Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used the concepts of growing and decaying linear instability waves for predicting radiated noise. This analysis is extended to the prediction of noise radiation from supersonic coaxial jets. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytic functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The Reynolds averaged, compressible, boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number. Both normal and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. Comparisons with measurements for both single and coaxial jets show good agreement. The results from mean flow and stability calculations are used to predict the noise radiation from coaxial jets with different operating conditions. Comparisons are made between different coaxial jets and a single equivalent jet with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. Results indicate that normal velocity profile jets can have noise reductions compared to the single equivalent jet. No noise reductions are found for inverted velocity profile jets operated at the minimum noise condition compared to the single equivalent jet. However, it is inferred that changes in area ratio may provide noise reduction benefits for inverted velocity profile jets.

Dahl, Milo D.

1994-01-01

207

Low thrust propulsion literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

Monroe, Darrel

1989-01-01

208

Teach Engineering: May the Force Be With You: Thrust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the third of a four-part unit for Grades 5-8 on the key forces in flight: lift, weight, thrust, and drag. In this lesson students will study how propellers and jet turbines generate thrust. It focuses on Newton's Third Law of Motion, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The lesson includes objectives, warm-up questions, background information for teachers, assessment questions, classroom activity, and web-based reference material. TeachEngineering is a Pathway project of the National Science Digital Library. It provides a large collection of teacher-tested, research-based content for K-12 teachers to connect real-world experiences with curricular content.

2011-10-10

209

Twin Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

2010-01-01

210

Experimental performance of cascade thrust reversers at forward velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of static and wind tunnel tests were performed on four cowl cascade thrust reverser configurations which had various reversed jet emission patterns applicable to an externally blown flap STOL aircraft. The work was performed using a model fan which was 14.0 cm in diameter and passed a fan mass flow of 2.49 kg/sec at an approximate fan pressure ratio of 1.22 and fan corrected rotational speed of 35,800 rpm. The tests demonstrated that the reingestion of fan flow significantly reduced the reverser efficiency and that the thrust reverser efficiency was improved by reducing the reversed jet azimuthal emmission angle. The reverser efficiency at STOL landing speeds was as high as 0.95; however, configurations with lateral emission were adversely affected by yawing the nacelle at forward velocity. Measurements of the internal static pressure at the stator exit showed significant increases in the local static pressure for configurations with reduced jet emission angles.

Dietrich, D. A.; Luidens, R. W.

1973-01-01

211

Hybrid electrical power source for thrust vector control electromechanical actuation  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of launch vehicles propose to use electromechanical actuators (EMA`s) for engine gimbaling and aerosurface control to eliminate hydraulics and its associated systems and problems. The new actuation systems are not without their own challenges. An EMA`s duty cycle has two components: a high power pulse to initiate and perform the actuation, and a nominal load to maintain position. Conventional batteries must be sized to meet the pulse power requirement while maintaining a bus voltage in range to satisfy the needs of the EMA control electronics, and therein lies the problem. Restricting the voltage sag limits the discharge rate of the battery and therefore requires an increase in the Amp-hour rating, which relates directly to an increase in weight. An option to lower power source weight is a hybrid source consisting of a conventional battery and a capacitor bank. A hybrid source of this type would utilize the power density strengths of a capacitor bank to meet the high power pulse demands, and the energy density strengths of a battery to provide average power and capacitor recharging. Testing has been performed at NASA`s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with support from Auburn University`s Space Power Institute to investigate the validity of the hybrid power source concept. This proof-of-concept testing used chemical double layer (CDL) capacitor technology in the form of a {approx}5 farad-270 volt capacitor bank, standard deep cycle marine lead-acid batteries, and a 25 horse power EMA developed at MSFC. The test data was used to size a flight type Ag-Zn battery to perform the same task in a battery-only configuration, and also size a battery for a hybrid configuration. Test results and analysis show that a >50% weight savings can be realized with this type of hybrid power source with no negative effect on performance. These results support the need for further development in the area of CDL capacitors and hybrid configurations.

Hall, D.K. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center; Merryman, S.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Space Power Inst.

1995-12-31

212

Omni-axis secondary injection thrust vector control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept, development, design study and preliminary analysis and layout of the required digital logic scheme to be used for injection valve control are presented. An application and optimization study of an Omni-Axis Secondary Injection Control System applicable to the proposed Space Shuttle Pressure Fed Engine is reported. Technical definition and analysis control procedures and test routines, as well as a supporting set of drawing sketches and reference manual, are enclosed.

Kirkley, D. J.

1973-01-01

213

Thermal effects of thrust faulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations based on simple models of overthrust sheets in crystalline basement rocks show that significant thermal effects may result from their movements. If rates are sufficiently high (e.g. plate tectonic rates), the thrust sheets sufficiently thick (5, 10 and 15 km are modelled here), the distances moved sufficiently large, and for reasonable values of the coefficient of friction along the

Jon Brewer

1981-01-01

214

CFES RESEARCH THRUSTS: Energy Storage  

E-print Network

CFES RESEARCH THRUSTS: Energy Storage Wind Energy Solar Energy Smart Grids Smart Buildings For our industrial partners, the Energy Scholars program is an opportunity to connect with the talent of Rensselaer Energy Systems (CFES) actively partners with industry, government, and educational institutions

Lü, James Jian-Qiang

215

Port geometry effects on thrust reverser static performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to provide some insight into the effect of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of thrust reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles using a single port test apparatus. This test apparatus simulates thrust reversal (conceptually) which would occur in the convergent section of the forward flight nozzle or in the constant area duct just upstream. The port opening had an aspect ratio of 6.1 (throat width/throat height) and had constant passage area from the geometric throat to the exit. The geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and flow blocker angle. The apparatus had a single port so that thrust (vector) angle could be obtained from force balance measurements. The tests were conducted in the Static Test Stand of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.5 to 8.0 using high pressure air for propulsion simulation. Port angles (measured forward from a horizontal reference line) investigated were 75, 90, 120 and 135 deg. Sharp and rounded port corners were investigated for each port angle. Discharge coefficient, thrust ratio, and passage static pressures were measured.

Re, R. J.; Mason, M. L.

1985-01-01

216

Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.

Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

2011-01-01

217

Coaxial supersonic jet-flows, shock structure and related problems with noise-suppression assessment and prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now reasonably well established that the intense noise radiated by a single turbulent, heated, under or overexpanded round jet of high specific thrust can be significantly reduced if instead, 'equivalent' multinozzle coaxial supersonic jet flows of the same total thrust and mass flow rate were to be operated in the inverted pressure mode. A summary of some of

D. S. Dosanjh; R. S. McAfee Jr.

1983-01-01

218

A new type of decollement thrusting  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental rules of decollement tectonics is that decollement horizons form in mechanically weak layers1,2. Here we document two examples of decollement-style thrust faults that detach within thick platformal dolostones in preference to apparently weaker layers of shale, siltstone and limestone underlying the dolostones. The thrusts are the Keystone-Muddy Mountain-Glendale thrust system (the KMG thrust system), , and

B. Clark Burchfiel; Brian Wernicke; James H. Willemin; Garry J. Axen; C. Scott Cameron

1982-01-01

219

Ultra-High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The jet noise from a 1/15 scale model of a Pratt and Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was measured in the United Technology Research Center anechoic research tunnel (ART) under a range of operating conditions. Conditions were chosen to match engine operating conditions. Data were obtained at static conditions and at wind tunnel Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.27, and 0.35 to simulate inflight effects on jet noise. Due to a temperature dependence of the secondary nozzle area, the model nozzle secondary to primary area ratio varied from 7.12 at 100 percent thrust to 7.39 at 30 percent thrust. The bypass ratio varied from 10.2 to 11.8 respectively. Comparison of the data with predictions using the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Jet Noise Prediction Method showed that the current prediction method overpredicted the ADP jet noise by 6 decibels. The data suggest that a simple method of subtracting 6 decibels from the SAE Coaxial Jet Noise Prediction for the merged and secondary flow source components would result in good agreement between predicted and measured levels. The simulated jet noise flight effects with wind tunnel Mach numbers up to 0.35 produced jet noise inflight noise reductions up to 12 decibels. The reductions in jet noise levels were across the entire jet noise spectra, suggesting that the inflight effects affected all source noise components.

Low, John K. C.

1994-01-01

220

Ultra-high bypass ratio jet noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The jet noise from a 1/15 scale model of a Pratt and Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was measured in the United Technology Research Center anechoic research tunnel (ART) under a range of operating conditions. Conditions were chosen to match engine operating conditions. Data were obtained at static conditions and at wind tunnel Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.27, and 0.35 to simulate inflight effects on jet noise. Due to a temperature dependence of the secondary nozzle area, the model nozzle secondary to primary area ratio varied from 7.12 at 100 percent thrust to 7.39 at 30 percent thrust. The bypass ratio varied from 10.2 to 11.8 respectively. Comparison of the data with predictions using the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Jet Noise Prediction Method showed that the current prediction method overpredicted the ADP jet noise by 6 decibels. The data suggest that a simple method of subtracting 6 decibels from the SAE Coaxial Jet Noise Prediction for the merged and secondary flow source components would result in good agreement between predicted and measured levels. The simulated jet noise flight effects with wind tunnel Mach numbers up to 0.35 produced jet noise inflight noise reductions up to 12 decibels. The reductions in jet noise levels were across the entire jet noise spectra, suggesting that the inflight effects affected all source noise components.

Low, John K. C.

1994-10-01

221

Optimal thrust allocation for marine vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new thrust-allocation scheme which significantly reduces the fuel consumption for dynamic positioning of ships when rotatable azimuth thrusters are used. Thrust allocation is the problem of determining the thrust and the direction of each of the n thruster devices of a ship, given the desired forces and moment from the control law. The problem of singular

O. J. Srdalen

1997-01-01

222

Transient aerodynamic forces on a fighter model during simulated approach and landing with thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

1988-01-01

223

Reinterpretation of relationships among Keystone thrust, Red Springs thrust, contact thrust, and Cottonwood fault, Clark County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The basin-range and Sevier tectonic events are well-documented in Clark County, Nevada. Other tectonic events have been interpreted from structural relationships in the Spring Mountains. These include an early thrust-faulting event and a high-angle faulting event that occurred between emplacement of the early thrust and emplacement of the Keystone thrust. The results of this study indicate that there was not an early thrust event nor was there high-angle faulting prior to the Sevier deformational event. The Cottonwood fault and the Contact thrust in the Spring Mountains are interpreted here as a lateral ramp and floor thrust beneath a duplex fault zone. The Keystone thrust forms the roof thrust for the duplex fault zone that bows up the upper plate of the Keystone thrust. The Red Springs thrust is interpreted as the Keystone thrust, which was broken and differentially rotated during Neogene oroclinal bending associated with the Las Vegas shear zone. The structural relationships in the Spring Mountains do not require any Mesozoic or Cenozoic deformational episodes other than the well-known Sevier and basin-range events.

Matthews, V. III

1985-05-01

224

Low thrust orbit determination program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Logical flow and guidelines are provided for the construction of a low thrust orbit determination computer program. The program, tentatively called FRACAS (filter response analysis for continuously accelerating spacecraft), is capable of generating a reference low thrust trajectory, performing a linear covariance analysis of guidance and navigation processes, and analyzing trajectory nonlinearities in Monte Carlo fashion. The choice of trajectory, guidance and navigation models has been made after extensive literature surveys and investigation of previous software. A key part of program design relied upon experience gained in developing and using Martin Marietta Aerospace programs: TOPSEP (Targeting/Optimization for Solar Electric Propulsion), GODSEP (Guidance and Orbit Determination for SEP) and SIMSEP (Simulation of SEP).

Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Huling, K. R.; Ratliff, C. W.

1972-01-01

225

Three dimensional jet simulation in cross-flow using vortex method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of jet in a cross-flow is a frequent situation in real life applications. Among these cases are plumes, fuel injection systems, jets produces by thrust reversers and more generaly every jets developing in an external flow. A vortex particle method has been used to simulate the unsteady flow of an incompressible fluid. This is a grid-free method which make

Serge Huberson; Elie Rivoalen; Herv Bratec; Grgory Pinon

2003-01-01

226

A numerical model for coupling between atomization and spray dynamics in liquid rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a novel method of coupling the atomization and spray combustion processes encountered in coaxial injection elements of liquid rocket engine thrust chambers. This method is based on the Jet-Embedding technique in which the liquid jet core equations and the gas phase equations are solved separately. The liquid and gas phase solutions, however, are coupled through the boundary conditions at the interface between the phases. The computational grid for the gas phase calculations are adapted to the shape of the liquid jet core. The axial variation of droplet sizes are calculated using a stability analysis appropriate for the atomization regime of liquid jet breakup. The predictions of this method have been validated with experimental data on low speed water jets. Using this method, calculations are performed for the SSME fuel preburner single injector flow field. The results obtained are in good agreement with the predictions of the volume-of-fluid method.

Giridharan, M. G.; Lee, J. G.; Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gross, Klaus

1992-01-01

227

Tests of a D vented thrust deflecting nozzle behind a simulated turbofan engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A D vented thrust deflecting nozzle applicable to subsonic V/STOL aircraft was tested behind a simulated turbofan engine in the verticle thrust stand. Nozzle thrust, fan operating characteristics, nozzle entrance conditions, and static pressures were measured. Nozzle performance was measured for variations in exit area and thrust deflection angle. Six core nozzle configurations, the effect of core exit axial location, mismatched core and fan stream nozzle pressure ratios, and yaw vane presence were evaluated. Core nozzle configuration affected performance at normal and engine out operating conditions. Highest vectored nozzle performance resulted for a given exit area when core and fan stream pressure were equal. Its is concluded that high nozzle performance can be maintained at both normal and engine out conditions through control of the nozzle entrance Mach number with a variable exit area.

Watson, T. L.

1982-01-01

228

National Aeronautics and Space Administration SLS System Integration Lab and Thrust  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts SLS System Integration Lab and Thrust Vector Control Test Lab at Marshall Center's Propulsion Research Laboratory The MSFC System Integration Lab (SIL) supports development of NASA's Space Launch System--a new U.S. heavy-lift launch vehicle

Waliser, Duane E.

229

Dynamics, Structure, and Emission of Electron-Positron Jets  

E-print Network

The theory of gamma-ray emission from e$^{\\pm}$ jets and the implications for jet formation, dynamics and structure are reviewed. In particular, possible carriers of the jet's thrust on small scales, the transition from electromagnetic to particle dominance in Poynting flux jets, formation of pair cascades, synchrotron emission by cascading pairs, and formation of shocks due to unsteadiness in the jet parameters are considered, with emphasis on the observational consequences. Some recent progress in modeling transient emission from blazars is also briefly discussed.

A. Levinson

1997-08-10

230

Reinterpretation of relationships among Keystone thrust, Red Springs thrust, contact thrust, and Cottonwood fault, Clark County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basin-range and Sevier tectonic events are well-documented in Clark County, Nevada. Other tectonic events have been interpreted from structural relationships in the Spring Mountains. These include an early thrust-faulting event and a high-angle faulting event that occurred between emplacement of the early thrust and emplacement of the Keystone thrust. The results of this study indicate that there was not

Vincent Matthews; III

1985-01-01

231

Thrust Performance Test of a Micro Multi-Plasmajet-Array Thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabrication of a 3x3 micro-plasmajet array with ultra-violet lasers and its thrust performance tests were conducted for nozzle elements with exit height of 0.5 mm and length of 0.5 mm. Stable discharge and operational conditions were confirmed for the 3x3 micro-plasmajet array thruster. To evaluate thrust characteristics of the arrayed plasmajet, thrust characteristics of the thruster were compared with those of the micro-single-nozzle plasmajet. It was shown that the thrust and specific impulse of the micro-plasmajet array were higher than those of the micro-single-nozzle plasmajet due to the multi-jet effect. The typical values of the thrust, specific impulse and thrust efficiency averaged per nozzle element of the micro-plasmajet array thruster operated at 6.2 W with 1.46 mg/sec of propellant mass flow per nozzle element were 1.13 mN, 79 sec, and 24%, respectively.

Hagiwara, Shuji; Sawada, Fujimi; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh

232

A study of variable thrust, variable specific impulse trajectories for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of variable thrust and variable Isp (specific impulse) trajectories for solar system exploration. There have been several numerical research efforts for variable thrust, variable Isp, power-limited trajectory optimization problems. All of these results conclude that variable thrust, variable Isp (variable specific impulse, or VSI) engines are superior to constant thrust, constant Isp (constant specific impulse; or CSI) engines. However, most of these research efforts assume a mission from Earth to Mars, and some of them further assume that these planets are circular and coplanar. Hence they still lack the generality. This research has been conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Is a VSI engine always better than a CSI engine or a high thrust engine for any mission to any planet with any time of flight considering lower propellant mass as the sole criterion? (2) If a planetary swing-by is used for a VSI trajectory, is the fuel savings of a VSI swing-by trajectory better than that of a CSI swing-by or high thrust swing-by trajectory? To support this research, an unique, new computer-based interplanetary trajectory calculation program has been created. This program utilizes a calculus of variations algorithm to perform overall optimization of thrust, Isp, and thrust vector direction along a trajectory that minimizes fuel consumption for interplanetary travel. It is assumed that the propulsion system is power-limited, and thus the compromise between thrust and Isp is a variable to be optimized along the flight path. This program is capable of optimizing not only variable thrust trajectories but also constant thrust trajectories in 3-D space using a planetary ephemeris database. It is also capable of conducting planetary swing-bys. Using this program, various Earth-originating trajectories have been investigated and the optimized results have been compared to traditional CSI and high thrust trajectory solutions. Results show that VSI rocket engines reduce fuel requirements for any mission compared to CSI rocket engines. Fuel can be saved by applying swing-by maneuvers for VSI engines; but the effects of swing-bys due to VSI engines are smaller than that of CSI or high thrust engines.

Sakai, Tadashi

233

Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments. An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031010. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1966-01-01

234

Experimental investigation of jet-induced loads on a flat plate in hover out-of-ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of varying jet decay rate on jet-induced loads on a flat plate located in the plane of the jet exit perpendicular to the jet axis were investigated using a small-scale laboratory facility. Jet decay rate has been varied through use of two cylindrical centerbodies having either a flat or hemispherical tip, which were submerged various distances below the flat plate jet exit plane. Increased jet decay rate, caused by the presence of a center-body or plug in the jet nozzle, led to an increased jet-induced lift loss on the flat plate. Jet-induced lift losses reached 1 percent of the jet thrust for the quickest jet decay rates for plate areas equal to 100 times the effective jet exit area. The observed lift loss versus jet decay rate trend agreed well with results of previous investigations.

Kuhlman, J. M.; Warcup, R. W.

1979-01-01

235

Alternative model of thrust fault propagation  

SciTech Connect

Rules of thrust geometry abound in the literature (Rich, 1934; Douglas, 1950; Price, 1965; Dahlstrom, 1970). The authors wish to challenge one, namely that thrust faults initiate on deeply buried bedding planes and propagate foreward by ramping and footwall imbrication. Compatibility conditions demand that a thrust fault propagate both up- and down-section and rheological factors strongly support Gretener's (1972) beam failure mechanism for ramp formation. The authors have applied Gretener's idea to a multilayer situation and can explain most features of ramp-flat thrust geometry (duplex structures, back-thrusts, wedge faults) by invoking different beam failure sequences. Because of increasing ductility with depth, ramps are likely to form first near the surface. Foreland progression may therefore reflect a depth controlled sequence of faulting. In three dimensions, the multiplicity of thrusts seen in cross section probably reflects lateral migration of ramps into the plane of section from sources along strike.

Eisenstadt, G.; De Paor, D.G.

1985-01-01

236

Lateral variation in geometry of thrust planes and its significance, as studied in the Shumar allochthon, Lesser Himalayas, eastern Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features mapped indicate a SSE-striking displacement vector for the Shumar thrust of eastern Bhutan. Sections parallel to this direction show that the frontal flat segment of the thrust plane, along with the subthrust and the hanging-wall rocks, has been folded into a synform. A longitudinal section, however, shows a cuspate-lobate shape (broad concave-upward curves meeting along sharp crests) of

Sumit Kumar Ray

1995-01-01

237

Thrust faults that violate classic thrust belt rules: Marathon basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

One generally accepted rule of thrust belt geometry is that folding does not occur before thrust faulting; thrust do not cut across folds in cross-section view. Original mapping in the Marathon basin documents that the Hell's Half Acre thrust sheet was emplaced after an episode of large-scale folding. The Hell's Half Acre thrust fault is a shallow, low-angle fault which separates the northeasterly trending, broad (4-km or 2.5-mi wavelength), open folds on the north from the imbricately thrust faulted and overturned, tightly folded (1-km or 0.6-mi wavelength) Paleozoic rocks of the thrust sheet. The thrust fault trends east and truncates the structures on the north. Within the thrust sheet, folds plunge into and are truncated by thrust faults. The Tesnus Formation (Mississippian) is the principal formation of the sheet, but large blocks of younger Dimple Limestone (Morrowan) and Haymond Formation (Atokan) are lodged within fault planes bounded by Tesnus, thereby documenting folding thrust faulting. This nonclassic geometry is due to lithology. Classic thrust belt style was developed for a miogeoclinal sequence. The Ouachita stratigraphy is a eugeoclinal sequence composed of lower and middle Paleozoic, thin limestones and cherts with numerous shale interbeds and an upper Paleozoic flysch sequence with a low sand/shale ratio and numerous thick shale horizons. The many thick, incompetent horizons allowed the thrust fault to cut across preexisting structures.

Demis, W.D.

1984-04-01

238

Mechanical characteristics of a thrust magnetic bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic mechanical characteristics of a thrust magnetic bearing are studied owing to the inclination of the runner\\u000a disk. The application refers to a thrust magnetic bearing for a turbo-expander\\/compressor. The static tilt of the runner disk\\u000a has remarkable influence on the mechanical characteristics of thrust magnetic bearing, it can change the static load distribution\\u000a between two radial magnetic

Gang Zhang; Li-qun Chen; Lie Yu; You-bai Xie

2000-01-01

239

Comparison of Three Thrust Calculation Methods Using in-Flight Thrust Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gross thrust of an experimental airplane was determined by each method using the same flight maneuvers and generally the same data parameters. Coefficients determined from thrust stand calibrations for each of the three methods were then extrapolated ...

D. L. Hughes

1981-01-01

240

Weakening inside incipient thrust fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fold-and-thrust belts, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrust faults that nucleate along dcollement levels. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that these faults might be weak because of a combination of processes such as pressure-solution, phyllosilicates reorientation and delamination, and fluid pressurization. In this study we aim to decipher the processes and the kinetics responsible for weakening of tectonic dcollements. We studied the Millaris thrust (Southern Pyrenees): a fault representative of a dcollement in its incipient stage. This fault accommodated a total shortening of about 30 meters and is constituted by a 10m thick, intensively foliated phyllonite developed inside a homogeneous marly unit. Detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses have been carried out to characterize the mineralogical change, the chemical transfers and volume change in the fault zone compared to non-deformed parent sediments. We also carried out microstructural analysis on natural and experimentally deformed rocks. Illite and chlorite are the main hydrous minerals. Inside fault zone, illite minerals are oriented along the schistosity whereas chlorite coats the shear surfaces. Mass balance calculations demonstrated a volume loss of up to 50% for calcite inside fault zone (and therefore a relative increase of phyllosilicates contents) because of calcite pressure solution mechanisms. We performed friction experiments in a biaxial deformation apparatus using intact rocks sheared in the in-situ geometry from the Millaris fault and its host sediments. We imposed a range of normal stresses (10 to 50 MPa), sliding velocity steps (3-100 ?m/s) and slide-hold slide sequences (3 to 1000 s hold) under saturated conditions. Mechanical results demonstrate that both fault rocks and parent sediments are weaker than average geological materials (friction ?<<0.6) and have velocity-strengthening behavior because of the presence of phyllosilicate horizons. Fault rocks are remarkably weaker (?<0.3) than host marls (?> 0.35). Additionally, fault zone rocks do not show frictional healing, further supporting a non-seismic behavior and prolonged weakness. This study quantitatively demonstrates how tectonic detachments localize in incompetent formations and become readily weak, even after experiencing very small displacements.

Lacroix, B.; Tesei, T.; Collettini, C.; Oliot, E.

2013-12-01

241

Vector Voyage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use vector analysis to understand the concept of dead reckoning. Students will use vectors to plot their course based on a time and speed. They will then correct the positions with vectors representing winds and currents.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

242

Static internal performance evaluation of several thrust reversing concepts for 2D-CD nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent performance testing of the two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2D-CD) nozzle has established the concept as a viable alternative to the axisymmetric nozzle for advanced technology aircraft. This type of exhaust system also offers potential integration and performance advantages in the areas of thrust reversing and vectoring over axi-symmetric nozzles. These advantages include the practical integration of thrust reversers which operate not only to reduce landing roll but also operate in-flight for enhanced maneuvering and thrust spoiling. To date there is a very limited data base available from which criteria can be developed for the design and evaluation of this type of thrust reverser system. For this reason, a static scale model test was conducted in which five different thrust reverser designs were evaluated. Each of the five models had varying performance/integration requirements which dictated the five different designs. Some of the parameters investigated in this test included; variable angle external cascade vanes, fixed angle internal cascade vanes, variable position inner doors, external slider doors and internal slider valves. In addition, normal force and yawing moment generation was investigated using the thrust reverser system. Selected results from this test will be presented and discussed in this paper.

Rowe, R. K.; Duss, D. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

1984-01-01

243

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Jet Propulsion Cycle 1 Ideal JetPropulsion Cycle  

E-print Network

. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle called jet-propulsion cycle. Some of the major differences is developed turbine power just enough to drive the compressor air and fuel are mixed and burned drives the compressor and the propeller most of the thrust is from the propeller works by accelerating

Bahrami, Majid

244

An experimental study of a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow field measurements were obtained in a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. The primary nozzle, segmented into twelve slots of aspect ratio 3.0, was tested at a pressure ratio of 1.15. Results are presented on the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress progressions in the mixing chamber of the constant area ejector. The segmented nozzle was found to produce streamwise vortices that may increase the mixing efficiency of the ejector flow field. Compared to free jet results, the jet development is reduced by the presence of the ejector walls. The resulting thrust augmentation ratio of this ejector was also calculated to be 1.34.

Storms, Bruce Lowell

1989-01-01

245

An experimental study of a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow field measurements were obtained in a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. The primary nozzle, segmented into twelve slots of aspect ratio 3.0, was tested at a pressure ratio of 1.15. Results are presented on the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress progressions in the mixing chamber of the constant area ejector. The segmented nozzle was found to produce streamwise vortices that may increase the mixing efficiency of the ejector flow field. Compared to free jet results, the jet development is reduced by the presence of the ejector walls. The resulting thrust augmentation ratio of this ejector was also calculated to be 1.34.

Storms, Bruce Lowell

1989-05-01

246

On the k-jet degeneracy of singular points  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proves that the stable set of the origin for a gradient vector field whose k-jet vanishes at the origin is the union of immersed invariant C submanifolds of the ambient space. Furthermore, we prove a generalization of the Hopf bifurcation theorem for planar vector fields with vanishing k-jet at the origin. The asymptotic properties of the period of

Jens Chr. Larsen

1992-01-01

247

Low thrust rocket test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

1990-01-01

248

Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a

Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

2010-01-01

249

Thrust: Productivity-Oriented Library for CUDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust is a parallel algorithms library which resembles the C++ Standard Template Library (STL). Thrust's high-level interface greatly enhances programmer productivity while enabling performance portability between GPUs and multicore CPUs. Interoperability with established technologies (such as CUDA, TBB, and OpenMP) facilitates integration with existing software.

Bell, Nathan; Hoberock, Jared

2012-12-01

250

Solar-electric propulsion breadboard thrust subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-electric propulsion breadboard thrust subsystem has been designed, built, and tested. A 1500-h test was performed to demonstrate the functional capabilities of the subsystem. Described are the subsystem functions and testing process. The results show that the ground work has been established for development of an engineering model of the thrust subsystem.

Masek, T. D.

1972-01-01

251

Effect of boundary layer on thrust deduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that methods of computing thrust deduction usually ignore viscous effects and assume that the flow field of the ship and propeller is irrotational. The computed values of the thrust deduction with and without the boundary layer and wake were compared. A streamlined body of revolution was selected, and a sink on the axis behind the body was

S. P. G. Dinavahi; L. Landweber

1981-01-01

252

Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

Tadolini, Stephen C. (Lakewood, CO); Dolinar, Dennis R. (Golden, CO)

1992-01-01

253

Thrust reverser for high bypass turbofan engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a thrust reverser for a gas turbine engine of the type which includes an outer wall spaced from the center body of a core engine to define a bypass duct therebetween. The thrust reverser comprising: circumferentially displaced blocker doors, each of the doors being movable between a normal position generally aligned with the outer wall and a

R. K. Matta; P. K. Bhutiani

1990-01-01

254

The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of an over-the-wing target-type thrust reverser model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static test of a large-scale, over-the-wing (OTW) powered-lift model was performed. The OTW propulsion system had been modified to incorporate a simple target-type thrust reverser as well as the normal rectangular OTW exhaust nozzle. Tests were performed in both the reverse thrust and approach configurations. The thrust reverser noise created by jet turbulence mixing and the OTW approach noise were both low frequency and broadband. When scaled to a 45,400-kg (100,000-lb) aircraft, the thrust reverser and approach configurations produced peak 152-m (500-ft) sideline perceived noise levels of 110 and 105 PNdB, respectively. The aerodynamic performance of the model showed that 50% or greater reverser effectiveness can be achieved without experiencing ingestion of exhaust gas or ground debris into the engine inlets.

Falarski, M. D.

1976-01-01

255

Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

1999-01-01

256

Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

1982-01-01

257

Clamshell for Blandford-Rees jets  

SciTech Connect

A number of possible causes for one-sided radio jets are examined. I show that, although one-sided breakthrough of a shock in a confining cloud can produce a single jet, the characteristic time scales of such a mechanism are almost certainly those associated with orbital motions in the galactic nucleus, and these: except in contrived cases: do not fit sources like NGC 6251 or 4C 32.69. Instead, I propose that the one-sidedness of jets is due to the following ''thrust reverser,'' or clamshell, mechanism. Because the fluid in the central cavity of a Blandford-Rees jet must be forced from a spherically symmetric into a twin-exhaust pattern, the flow has a saddle point near the equatorial plane. The position of this point is determined by the balance of the momentum density in the jet cavity and in the gas ouside the jets. This external gas is set in motion by stress between the jets and their surroundings. The stress is mediated by turbulent viscosity, brought about by instabilities on the interface between the jet and its confining cloud. The resulting external flow, upon reaching the equatorial plane of the jets, shapes the central cavity and makes the jets asymmetric, in some cases switching one jet off altogether. Thus the clamshell mechanism contains as essential ingredients all the components that are known to exist in jet outflow: the flow in the cavity, through the nozzle, in the external medium, and in the shear layer between that medium and the jet fluid. The length and time scales implied by this mechanism agree tolerably well with the observations.

Icke, V.

1983-02-15

258

NLO Jet Physics with BlackHat  

SciTech Connect

We present several results obtained using the BLACKHAT next-to-leading order QCD program library, in conjunction with SHERPA. In particular, we present distributions for vector boson plus 1,2,3-jet production at the Tevatron and at the asymptotic running energy of the Large Hadron Collider, including new Z + 3-jet distributions. The Z + 2-jet predictions for the second-jet P{sub T} distribution are compared to CDF data. We present the jet-emission probability at NLO in W + 2-jet events at the LHC, where the tagging jets are taken to be the ones furthest apart in pseudorapidity. We analyze further the large left-handed W{sup {+-}} polarization, identified in our previous study, for W bosons produced at high P{sub T} at the LHC.

Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Cordero, F.Febres; /Simon Bolivar U.; Forde, D.; /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Gleisberg, T.; /SLAC; Ita, H.; /UCLA; Kosower, D.A.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

2010-02-15

259

Effect of varying internal geometry on the static performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effects of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Internal geometry was varied with a test apparatus which simulated a forward-flight nozzle with a single, fully deployed reverser port. The test apparatus was designed to simulate thrust reversal (conceptually) either in the convergent section of the nozzle or in the constant-area duct just upstream of the nozzle. The main geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and internal flow blocker angle. For all reverser port geometries, the port opening had an aspect ratio (throat width to throat height) of 6.1 and had a constant passage area from the geometric port throat to the exit. Reverser-port internal performance and thrust-vector angles computed from force-balance measurements are presented.

Re, Richard J.; Mason, Mary L.

1987-01-01

260

Low-thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for large structures in high orbit is reported in terms of the many mission opportunities which require such structures. Mission and transportation options for large structures are presented, and it is shown that low-thrust propulsion is an enabling requirement for some missions and greatly enhancing to many others. Electric and low-thrust chemical propulsion are compared, and the need for an requirements of low-thrust chemical propulsion are discussed in terms of the interactions that are perceived to exist between the propulsion system and the large structure.

Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

1979-01-01

261

Scramjet thrust measurement in a shock tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note reports tests in a shock tunnel in which a fully integrated scramjet configuration produced net thrust. The experiments not only showed that impulse facilities can be used for assessing thrust performance, but also were a demonstration of the application of a new technique to the measurement of thrust on scramjet configurations in shock tunnels. These two developments are of significance because scramjets are expected to operate at speeds well in excess of 2 km/sec, and shock tunnels offer a means of generating high Mach number flows at such speeds.

Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.; Mee, D. J.

1995-01-01

262

Kinematics in Vector Boson Fusion  

E-print Network

The vector boson fusion process leads to two forward/backward jets (tag jets) and the produced state, a Higgs boson in this case, moving slowly in the p-p C.M. frame at the LHC. For the case of Higgs decaying to W+W (W*) with Higgs mass below 180 GeV, the W bosons have low momentum in the Higgs C.M. For the case of W leptonic decays, this fact allows for an approximate reconstruction of the two final state neutrinos. In turn, those solutions then provide additional kinematic cuts against background.

D. Green

2006-03-02

263

Water Jetting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

1985-01-01

264

The NASA low thrust propulsion program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power, and Energy Division supports a low thrust propulsion program aimed at providing high performance options for a broad range of near-term and far-term mission and vehicles. Low thrust propulsion has a major impact on the mission performance of essentially all spacecraft and vehicles. On-orbit lifetimes, payloads, and trip times are significantly impacted by low thrust propulsion performance and integration features for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles, Earth-orbit and planetary spacecraft, and large platforms in Earth orbit. Major emphases are on low thrust chemical propulsion, both storables and hydrogen/oxygen; low-power (auxiliary) electric arcjects and resistojets; and high-power (primary) electric propulsion, including ion, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), and electrodeless concepts. The major recent accomplishments of the program are presented and their impacts discussed.

Stone, James R.; Bennett, Gary L.

1989-01-01

265

Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

Shoji, J. M.

1981-01-01

266

Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

267

One-equation modeling and validation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator thrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators with an asymmetric electrode configuration can generate a wall-bounded jet without mechanical moving parts, which require considerable modifications of existing aeronautical objects and which incur high maintenance costs. Despite this potential, one factor preventing the wider application of such actuators is the lack of a reliable actuator model. It is difficult to develop such a model because calculating the ion-electric field and fluid interaction consume a high amount calculation effort during the numerical analysis. Thus, the authors proposed a semi-empirical model which predicted the thrust of plasma actuators with a simple equation. It gave a numeric thrust value, and we implemented the value on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver to describe the two-dimensional flow field induced by the actuator. However, the model had a narrow validation range, depending on the empirical formula, and it did not fully consider environment variables. This study presents an improved model by replacing the empirical formulae in the previous model with physical equations that take into account physical phenomena and environmental variables. During this process, additional operation parameters, such as pressure, temperature and ac waveforms, are newly taken to predict the thrust performance of the actuators with a wider range of existing parameters, the thickness of the dielectric barrier, the exposed electrode, the dielectric constant, the ac frequency and the voltage amplitude. Thrust prediction curves from the model are compared to those of earlier experimental results, showing that the average error is less than 5% for more than one hundred instances of data. As in the earlier work, the predicted thrust value is implemented on a CFD solver, and two-dimensional wall-jet velocity profiles induced by the actuator are compared to the previous experimental results.

Yoon, Jae-San; Han, Jae-Hung

2014-10-01

268

Analysis of a Linear System for Variable-Thrust Control in the Terminal Phase of Rendezvous  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear system for applying thrust to a ferry vehicle in the 3 terminal phase of rendezvous with a satellite is analyzed. This system requires that the ferry thrust vector per unit mass be variable and equal to a suitable linear combination of the measured position and velocity vectors of the ferry relative to the satellite. The variations of the ferry position, speed, acceleration, and mass ratio are examined for several combinations of the initial conditions and two basic control parameters analogous to the undamped natural frequency and the fraction of critical damping. Upon making a desirable selection of one control parameter and requiring minimum fuel expenditure for given terminal-phase initial conditions, a simplified analysis in one dimension practically fixes the choice of the remaining control parameter. The system can be implemented by an automatic controller or by a pilot.

Hord, Richard A.; Durling, Barbara J.

1961-01-01

269

Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

Wang, Ten-See

2005-01-01

270

Control of Jet Noise Through Mixing Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of using mixing enhancement to reduce jet noise is not new. Lobed mixers have been around since shortly after jet noise became a problem. However, these designs were often a post-design fix that rarely was worth its weight and thrust loss from a system perspective. Recent advances in CFD and some inspired concepts involving chevrons have shown how mixing enhancement can be successfully employed in noise reduction by subtle manipulation of the nozzle geometry. At NASA Glenn Research Center, this recent success has provided an opportunity to explore our paradigms of jet noise understanding, prediction, and reduction. Recent advances in turbulence measurement technology for hot jets have also greatly aided our ability to explore the cause and effect relationships of nozzle geometry, plume turbulence, and acoustic far field. By studying the flow and sound fields of jets with various degrees of mixing enhancement and subsequent noise manipulation, we are able to explore our intuition regarding how jets make noise, test our prediction codes, and pursue advanced noise reduction concepts. The paper will cover some of the existing paradigms of jet noise as they relate to mixing enhancement for jet noise reduction, and present experimental and analytical observations that support these paradigms.

Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark; Brown, Cliff

2003-01-01

271

Design, fabrication, and testing of a SMA hybrid composite jet engine chevron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of jet noise continues to be an important research topic. Exhaust nozzle chevrons have been shown to reduce jet noise, but parametric effects are not well understood. Additionally, thrust loss due to chevrons at cruise suggests significant benefit from deployable chevrons. The focus of this study is development of an active chevron concept for the primary purpose of parametric

Travis L. Turner; Randolph H. Cabell; Roberto J. Cano; Gary A. Fleming

2006-01-01

272

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 579593 Estimator design in jet engine applications  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 579­593 Estimator design in jet; Neural networks 1. Introduction Thrust regulation is often the primary objective in jet engine control; this quantity, however, cannot be measured, so the designer is forced to regulate closely related measurable

273

Reattachment of a three-dimensional, incompressible jet to an adjacent axisymmetric inclined surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the fluid mechanics of a thrust reverser jet reattaching to an aircraft nozzle afterbody. The problem basically involves the Coanda effect flow of a three dimensional, incompressible jet to an adjacent axisymmetric, inclined surface. The equations were derived in integral form and programmed for numerical solution for the case of an exhaust flow with no

E. E. Niemi Jr.

1983-01-01

274

Jet noise suppressor nozzle development for augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (C-8A Buffalo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise and performance test results are presented for a full-scale advanced design rectangular array lobe jet suppressor nozzle (plain wall and corrugated). Flight design and installation considerations are also discussed. Noise data are presented in terms of peak PNLT (perceived noise level, tone corrected) suppression relative to the existing airplane and one-third octave-band spectra. Nozzle performance is presented in terms of velocity coefficient. Estimates of the hot thrust available during emergency (engine out) with the suppressor nozzle installed are compared with the current thrust levels produced by the round convergent nozzles.

Harkonen, D. L.; Marks, C. C.; Okeefe, J. V.

1974-01-01

275

A computational investigation of impulsive and pulsed starting annular jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational study is carried out on low Reynolds number impulsive and pulsating annular jets. This work is inspired by the biological flow of marine life that uses jet propulsion for self maneuver. Marine life such as squids and jellyfish propel themselves by discharging a water jet followed by a refilling phase. The discharging portion is a starting jet, i.e. the releasing of a moving fluid into a quiescent fluid, while the refilling phase can be viewed as an inflow jet. The combined jets will be called fully oscillating jets. Although fully oscillating jets have been indirectly examined experimentally, they have never been studied computationally. This dissertation is divided into three investigations that examine the starting jet, inflow jet, and fully oscillating jet based on the resultant force (i.e. either thrust or suction force) at the annulus exit plane, jet efficiency, and vortex dynamics. Furthermore, each of the following three performance criterion is examined under various velocity imposed boundaries (i.e. impulsive, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed jets), ambient pressure, and blocking ratios. An axisymmetric, incompressible and unsteady Navier Stokes numerical model was used to implement the analysis. The model was validated against theoretical and experimental results, where both result types bounded the computational results of this endeavor. In addition, numerical verification was carried out on each of the three investigations ensuring grid and time independent results. Several substantial outcomes were drawn from the results of the three investigations. The numerical results confirmed previously published experimental data regarding the universal dimensionless time scale (i.e. vortex formation number) of optimal vortex ring development triggered by starting jets. Moreover, the computational results showed evidence that the vortex formation number was not affected by ambient pressure nor blocking ratio. The computational results also confirmed earlier experimental findings that pulsed jet inflows trigger a standing vortex ring. Furthermore, the current study showed that impulsive jet inflows do not trigger vortex ring formation. In addition, unlike the expected net thrust of zero due to mass flux, fully oscillating jets showed evidence of thrust augmentation due to the enhanced entrainment caused by the vortex formation.

Abdel-Raouf, Emad Mohamed Refaat

276

Evaluation Report: AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Fluid Dynamics of Jets with Application to V/STOL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics covered include: (1) jet interactions with neighboring surfaces; (2) jet structure and development; (3) wind tunnel simulation of flow field, forces moments; (4) injection and thrust augmentation; (5) theoretical models and their assessments; (6) two dimensional wall jets; and (7) the use of a tracer gas method for measuring entrainment of an axisymmetric free jet. Conclusions of a panel on the impact of military applications on rotorcraft and V/STOL aircraft design are summarized.

Spee, B. M.

1982-07-01

277

Aerodynamics in ground effect and predicted landing ground roll of a fighter configuration with a secondary-nozzle thrust reverser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the in-ground effect aerodynamic characteristics and predicted landing-ground-roll performance of wing-canard fighter configuration with a secondary nozzle thrust reverser was completed. These tests were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel using a model equipped with a pneumatic jet for thrust simulation of nozzle pressure ratios up to 4.0. The model was tested in the landing rollout configuration at approx. wheel touchdown height for a range of decreasing dynamic pressure from 50 psf down to 10 psf. Landing-ground-roll predictions of the configuration were calculated using the wind tunnel results.

Banks, Daniel W.

1988-01-01

278

Vector Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vector fields are vectors which change from point to point. A standard example is the velocity of moving air, in other words, wind. For instance, the current wind pattern in the San Francisco area can be found at . This site has a 2-dimensional representation; careful reading of the webpage will tell you at what elevation the wind is shown. How would you represent a vector field in 3 dimensions? What features are important? Some simple examples are shown. Each can be rotated by clicking and dragging with the mouse. Explore!

Ay, Tevian

2006-01-01

279

Static internal performance of a single-engine onaxisymmetric-nozzle vaned-thrust-reverser design with thrust modulation capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted at wind-off conditions in the stati-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The tests were conducted on a single-engine reverser configuration with partial and full reverse-thrust modulation capabilities. The reverser design had four ports with equal areas. These ports were angled outboard 30 deg from the vertical impart of a splay angle to the reverse exhaust flow. This splaying of reverser flow was intended to prevent impingement of exhaust flow on empennage surfaces and to help avoid inlet reingestion of exhaust gas when the reverser is integrated into an actual airplane configuration. External vane boxes were located directly over each of the four ports to provide variation of reverser efflux angle from 140 deg to 26 deg (measured forward from the horizontal reference axis). The reverser model was tested with both a butterfly-type inner door and an internal slider door to provide area control for each individual port. In addition, main nozzle throat area and vector angle were varied to examine various methods of modulating thrust levels. Other model variables included vane box configuration (four or six vanes per box), orientation of external vane boxes with respect to internal port walls (splay angle shims), and vane box sideplates. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 approximately 7.0.

Leavitt, L. D.; Burley, J. R., II

1985-01-01

280

Equivalent Vectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The

Levine, Robert

2004-01-01

281

Vector quantization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

Gray, Robert M.

1989-01-01

282

Composite Octet Searches with Jet Substructure  

SciTech Connect

Many new physics models with strongly interacting sectors predict a mass hierarchy between the lightest vector meson and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons. We examine the power of jet substructure tools to extend the 7 TeV LHC sensitivity to these new states for the case of QCD octet mesons, considering both two gluon and two b-jet decay modes for the pseudoscalar mesons. We develop both a simple dijet search using only the jet mass and a more sophisticated jet substructure analysis, both of which can discover the composite octets in a dijet-like signature. The reach depends on the mass hierarchy between the vector and pseudoscalar mesons. We find that for the pseudoscalar-to-vector meson mass ratio below approximately 0.2 the simple jet mass analysis provides the best discovery limit; for a ratio between 0.2 and the QCD-like value of 0.3, the sophisticated jet substructure analysis has the best discovery potential; for a ratio above approximately 0.3, the standard four-jet analysis is more suitable.

Bai, Yang; /SLAC; Shelton, Jessie; /Yale U.

2012-02-14

283

Tubular copper thrust chamber design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

1992-01-01

284

Volcanic jet noise: infrasonic source processes and atmospheric propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruption columns are complex flows consisting of (possibly supersonic) injections of ash-gas mixtures into the atmosphere. A volcanic eruption column can be modeled as a lower momentum-driven jet (the gas-thrust region), which transitions with altitude into a thermally buoyant plume. Matoza et al. [2009] proposed that broadband infrasonic signals recorded during this type of volcanic activity represent a low-frequency form of jet noise. Jet noise is produced at higher acoustic frequencies by smaller-scale man-made jet flows (e.g., turbulent jet flow from jet engines and rockets). Jet noise generation processes could operate at larger spatial scales and produce infrasonic frequencies in the lower gas-thrust portion of the eruption column. Jet-noise-like infrasonic signals have been observed at ranges of tens to thousands of kilometers from sustained volcanic explosions at Mount St. Helens, WA; Tungurahua, Ecuador; Redoubt, AK; and Sarychev Peak, Kuril Islands. Over such distances, the atmosphere cannot be considered homogeneous. Long-range infrasound propagation takes place primarily in waveguides formed by vertical gradients in temperature and horizontal winds, and exhibits strong spatiotemporal variability. The timing and location of volcanic explosions can be estimated from remote infrasonic data and could be used with ash cloud dispersion forecasts for hazard mitigation. Source studies of infrasonic volcanic jet noise, coupled with infrasound propagation modeling, hold promise for being able to constrain more detailed eruption jet parameters with remote, ground-based geophysical data. Here we present recent work on the generation and propagation of volcanic jet noise. Matoza, R. S., D. Fee, M. A. Garcs, J. M. Seiner, P. A. Ramn, and M. A. H. Hedlin (2009), Infrasonic jet noise from volcanic eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08303, doi:10.1029/2008GL036486.

Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; Ogden, D. E.

2011-12-01

285

Pulsed thrust measurements using electromagnetic calibration techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thrust stand for accurately measuring impulse bits, which ranged from 10-1000 ?N s using a noncontact electromagnetic calibration technique is described. In particular, a permanent magnet structure was designed to produce a uniform magnetic field, and a multiturn coil was made to produce a calibration force less than 10 mN. The electromagnetic calibration force for pulsed thrust measurements was linear to the coil current and changed less than 2.5% when the distance between the coil and magnet changed 6 mm. A pulsed plasma thruster was first tested on the thrust stand, and afterward five single impulse bits were measured to give a 310 ?N s average impulse bit. Uncertainty of the measured impulse bit was analyzed to evaluate the quality of the measurement and was found to be 10 ?N s with 95% credibility.

Tang, Haibin; Shi, Chenbo; Zhang, Xin'ai; Zhang, Zun; Cheng, Jiao

2011-03-01

286

Earth-Mars Low Thrust Orbit Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-thrust trajectories with variable radial thrust is studied in this paper. The problem is tackled by solving the Hamilton- Jacobi-Bellman equation for the nonlinear dynamics. The dynamics of the system will be factorized in such a way that the new factorized system is accessible. The problem is tackled using the Approximating Sequence Riccati Equations (ASRE) method. The technique is based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with fixed terminal state, which guarantees closed loop solution, instead of solving the two-point boundary value problem in which the classical optimal control is stated, this technique allows us to derive closed-loop solutions. This technique can be applied to any planet-to-planet transfer; it has been applied here to the Earth-Mars low-thrust transfer.

Owis, Ashraf

287

Pulsed thrust measurements using electromagnetic calibration techniques  

SciTech Connect

A thrust stand for accurately measuring impulse bits, which ranged from 10-1000 {mu}N s using a noncontact electromagnetic calibration technique is described. In particular, a permanent magnet structure was designed to produce a uniform magnetic field, and a multiturn coil was made to produce a calibration force less than 10 mN. The electromagnetic calibration force for pulsed thrust measurements was linear to the coil current and changed less than 2.5% when the distance between the coil and magnet changed 6 mm. A pulsed plasma thruster was first tested on the thrust stand, and afterward five single impulse bits were measured to give a 310 {mu}N s average impulse bit. Uncertainty of the measured impulse bit was analyzed to evaluate the quality of the measurement and was found to be 10 {mu}N s with 95% credibility.

Tang Haibin; Shi Chenbo; Zhang Xin'ai; Zhang Zun; Cheng Jiao [School of Astronautics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

2011-03-15

288

Status of Low Thrust Work at JSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High performance low thrust (solar electric, nuclear electric, variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket) propulsion offers a significant benefit to NASA missions beyond low Earth orbit. As NASA (e.g., Prometheus Project) endeavors to develop these propulsion systems and associated power supplies, it becomes necessary to develop a refined trajectory design capability that will allow engineers to develop future robotic and human mission designs that take advantage of this new technology. This ongoing work addresses development of a trajectory design and optimization tool for assessing low thrust (and other types) trajectories. This work targets to advance the state of the art, enable future NASA missions, enable science drivers, and enhance education. This presentation provides a summary of the low thrust-related JSC activities under the ISP program and specifically, provides a look at a new release of a multi-gravity, multispacecraft trajectory optimization tool (Copernicus) along with analysis performed using this tool over the past year.

Condon, Gerald L.

2004-01-01

289

Scale independence of d??collement thrusting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Orogen-scale d??collements (detachment surfaces) are an enduring subject of investigation by geoscientists. Uncertainties remain as to how crustal convergence processes maintain the stresses necessary for development of low-angle fault surfaces above which huge slabs of rock are transported horizontally for tens to hundreds of kilometers. Seismic reflection profiles from the southern Appalachian crystalline core and several foreland fold-and-thrust belts provide useful comparisons with highresolution shallow-penetration seismic reflection profiles acquired over the frontal zone of the Michigan lobe of the Wisconsinan ice sheet northwest of Chicago, Illinois. These profiles provide images of subhorizontal and overlapping dipping reflections that reveal a ramp-and-flat thrust system developed in poorly consolidated glacial till. The system is rooted in a master d??collement at the top of bedrock. These 2-3 km long images contain analogs of images observed in seismic reflection profiles from orogenic belts, except that the scale of observation in the profiles in glacial materials is two orders of magnitude less. Whereas the d??collement beneath the ice lobe thrust belt lies ???70 m below thrusted anticlines having wavelengths of tens of meters driven by an advancing ice sheet, seismic images from overthrust terranes are related to lithospheric convergence that produces d??collements traceable for thousands of kilometers at depths ranging from a few to over 10 km. Dual vergence or reversals in vergence (retrocharriage) that developed over abrupt changes in depth to the d??collement can be observed at all scales. The strikingly similar images, despite the contrast in scale and driving mechanism, suggest a scale- and driving mechanism-independent behavior for d??collement thrust systems. All these systems initially had the mechanical properties needed to produce very similar geometries with a congressional driving mechanism directed subparallel to Earth's surface. Subduction-related accretionary complexes also produce thrust systems with similar geometries in semito unconsolidated materials.?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

McBride, J. H.; Pugin, A. J. M.; Hatcher, Jr. , R. D.

2007-01-01

290

Thrust chamber thermal barrier coating techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for applying thermal barrier coatings to the hot-gas side wall of rocket thrust chambers in order to significantly reduce the heat transfer in high heat flux regions has been the focus of technology efforts for many years. A successful technique developed by NASA-Lewis that starts with the coating on a mandrel and then builds the thrust chamber around it by electroforming appropriate materials is described. This results in a smooth coating with exceptional adherence, as was demonstrated in hot fire rig tests. The low cycle fatigue life of chambers with coatings applied in this manner was increased dramatically compared to uncoated chambers.

Quentmeyer, Richard J.

1989-01-01

291

Thrust chamber thermal barrier coating techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for applying thermal barrier coatings to the hot-gas side wall of rocket thrust chambers in order to significantly reduce the heat transfer in high heat flux regions was the focus of technology efforts for many years. This paper describes a successful technique developed by the Lewis Research Center that starts with the coating of a mandrel and then builds the thrust chamber around it by electroforming appropriate materials. This results in a smooth coating with exceptional adherence, demonstrated in hot fire rig tests. The low cycle fatigue life of chambers with coatings applied in this manner was increased dramatically compared to uncoated chambers.

Quentmeyer, Richard J.

1988-01-01

292

SEP thrust subsystem performance sensitivity analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a two-part report on solar electric propulsion (SEP) performance sensitivity analysis. The first part describes the preliminary analysis of the SEP thrust system performance for an Encke rendezvous mission. A detailed description of thrust subsystem hardware tolerances on mission performance is included together with nominal spacecraft parameters based on these tolerances. The second part describes the method of analysis and graphical techniques used in generating the data for Part 1. Included is a description of both the trajectory program used and the additional software developed for this analysis. Part 2 also includes a comprehensive description of the use of the graphical techniques employed in this performance analysis.

Atkins, K. L.; Sauer, C. G., Jr.; Kerrisk, D. J.

1973-01-01

293

Aeropropulsive characteristics of nonaxisymmetric-nozzle thrust reversers at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the performance of nonaxisymmetric-nozzle thrust reversers installed on a generic twin-engine fighter aircraft model. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.15 to 1.20 with jet exhaust simulated by high pressure air. Results showed that reverse-thrust levels of greater than 50 percent at static conditions and greater than 30 percent at in-flight conditions could be achieved. Internal reverser-port passage length was found to be very important in improving reverser performance. Increasing the reverser-port passage length improved reverse-thrust performance by as much as 28 percent at static conditions and by as much as 17 percent at Mach 1.20.

Carson, G. T., Jr.; Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.

1984-01-01

294

Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

1980-01-01

295

Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of steady-state reverse and forward-to-reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original QCSEE 4-segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30-deg half-angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30-deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress and approximately a 20% improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35% of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff-to-reverse thrust transients.

Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Bloomer, H. E.

1980-01-01

296

Limited variance control in statistical low thrust guidance analysis. [stochastic algorithm for SEP comet Encke flyby mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Difficulties arise in guiding a solar electric propulsion spacecraft due to nongravitational accelerations caused by random fluctuations in the magnitude and direction of the thrust vector. These difficulties may be handled by using a low thrust guidance law based on the linear-quadratic-Gaussian problem of stochastic control theory with a minimum terminal miss performance criterion. Explicit constraints are imposed on the variances of the control parameters, and an algorithm based on the Hilbert space extension of a parameter optimization method is presented for calculation of gains in the guidance law. The terminal navigation of a 1980 flyby mission to the comet Encke is used as an example.

Jacobson, R. A.

1975-01-01

297

Effect of Target-type Thrust Reverser on Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-engine Fighter Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief investigation of a target-type thrust reverser on a single-engine fighter model has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.05.At Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.92, and 1.05, a hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was operated with the thrust reverser extended. The angle of attack was varied from 0 degrees to 5 degrees at these Mach numbers. The Reynolds number of the free stream, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, was about 5 x 10(6). It was estimated that reversed jet operations separated the model boundary-layer flow over the upper surface of the horizontal tail and upper part of the afterbody. This resulted in a positive pitch increment due to reversed jet operation. Jet-on operation also tended to stabilize the severe lateral oscillations which occurred with the reverser extended and the jet off. It appeared that these jet-off oscillations were the result of an alternating separation and reattachment of the flow on the rearmost portions of the fuselage afterbody.

Swihert, John M

1958-01-01

298

Calculating track thrust with track functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a calorimetric measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a track-based measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape track thrust and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

2013-08-01

299

A Laser Surface Textured Parallel Thrust Bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of a new technology of laser surface texturing (LST) in parallel thrust bearings is theoretically investigated. The surface texture has the form of micro-dimples with pre-selected diameter, depth, and area density. It can be applied to only a portion of the bearing area (partial LST) or the full bearing area (full LST). Optimum parameters of the dimples,

V. Brizmer; Y. Kligerman; I. Etsion

2003-01-01

300

Thrust reverser for high bypass turbofan engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a thrust reverser for a gas turbine engine of the type which includes an outer wall spaced from the center body of a core engine to define a bypass duct therebetween. The thrust reverser comprising: circumferentially displaced blocker doors, each of the doors being movable between a normal position generally aligned with the outer wall and a thrust reversing position extending transversely of the bypass duct for blocking the exhaust of air through the bypass duct and directing the air through an opening in the outer wall for thrust reversal; each of the blocker doors being of lightweight construction and including a pit in the inner surface thereof in the normal position; means for covering the pit during normal flow of air through the bypass duct to reduce the pressure drop in the bypass duct and to reduce noise. The covering means including a pit cover hingedly mounted at one end thereof on the blocker door and means of biasing the pit cover away from the blocker door to a position providing smooth flow of air through the bypass duct during normal operation.

Matta, R.K.; Bhutiani, P.K.

1990-05-08

301

A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for a labscale hybrid rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor was designed, constructed, calibrated, and tested using the labscale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The system consisted of six independent legs: one parallel to the axis of symmetry of the rocket for main thrust measurement, two vertical legs near the nozzle end of the rocket, one vertical leg near the oxygen input end of the rocket, and two separated horizontal legs near the nozzle end. Each leg was composed of a rotational bearing, a load cell, and a universal joint above and below the load cell. The leg was designed to create point contact along only one direction and minimize the non-axial forces applied to the load cell. With this system, force in each direction and moments for roll, pitch, and yaw can be measured. The system was calibrated and tested using a labscale hybrid rocket using gaseous oxygen and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene solid fuel. The thrust stand proved to be stable during calibration tests. Thrust force vector components and roll, pitch, and yaw moments were calculated for test firings with an oxygen mass flow rate range of 0.0174-0.0348 kg s-1.

Wright, Ann M.; Wright, Andrew B.; Born, Traig; Strickland, Ryan

2013-12-01

302

Development of an indirect counterbalanced pendulum optical-lever thrust balance for micro- to millinewton thrust measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and testing of an indirect hanging pendulum thrust balance using a laser-optical-lever principle to provide micro- to millinewton thrust measurement for the development of electric propulsion systems. The design philosophy allows the selection of the total thrust range in order to maximize resolution through a counterbalanced pendulum principle, as well as passive magnetic damping in order to allow relatively rapid transient thrust measurement. The balance was designed for the purpose of hollow cathode microthruster characterization, but could be applied to other electric propulsion devices in the thrust range of micro- to millinewtons. An initial thrust characterization of the T5 hollow cathode is presented.

Grubii?, A. N.; Gabriel, S. B.

2010-10-01

303

Conditions for thrust faulting in a glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipping, arcuate bands of debris-rich ice outcropping near the margins of glaciers are often interpreted as thrust faults, assumed to originate in zones of longitudinal compression. Identification of thrusts is typically based either on the geometry and sedimentology of the debris bands or on the crystal fabric of surrounding ice, but the physical processes necessary to generate thrusts are rarely evaluated. Herein, we combine a numerical model of compressive ice flow near a glacier margin with theoretical stress and strain rate criteria for ice fracture and stress criteria for frictional slip to determine the conditions necessary for thrust faulting in glaciers. This model is applied to two different glaciological settings where longitudinal compression has been documented: (1) the transition between warm-based and cold-based ice near the terminus of Storglaciren, Sweden, and (2) the downglacier extent of the 1983 surge front of Variegated Glacier where surging ice encountered stagnant ice. Simulations representing the margin of Storglaciren indicate that peak compressive strain rates are six orders of magnitude too small to induce fracture, whereas at Variegated Glacier, strain rates were an order of magnitude too small for compressive fracture. In both groups of simulations, preexisting fractures governed by Coulomb friction are susceptible to slip if they span the ice thickness, are oriented close to the optimal fracture angle, and, in the case of Storglaciren, are subject to water pressures that are a large fraction of ice overburden pressure. Variations about the optimal fracture orientation, low or zero water pressure, high sliding friction coefficient, and limited vertical or lateral fracture extent each tend to suppress thrusting.

Moore, Peter L.; Iverson, Neal R.; Cohen, Denis

2010-06-01

304

A control-volume method for analysis of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting transient thrust augmenting ejector characteristics is presented. The analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with a control volume mixing region discretization to solicit transient effects in a new way. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region corresponds with the assumption of viscous-dominated phenomenon in the latter. Inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady analysis, justified by the assumptions that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Details of the theoretical foundation, the solution algorithm, and sample calculations are given.

Drummond, Colin K.

1988-01-01

305

Direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm ion thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct thrust measurement of a 30-cm diameter ion thruster was accomplished by means of a laser interferometer thrust stand. The thruster was supported in a pendulum manner by three 3.65-m long wires. Electrical power was provided by means of 18 mercury filled pots. A movable 23-button planar probe rake was used to determine thrust loss due to ion beam divergence. Values of thrust, thrust loss due to ion beam divergence, and thrust loss due to multiple ionization were measured for ion beam currents ranging from 0.5 A to 2.5 A. Measured thrust values indicate an accuracy of approximately 1% and are in good agreement with thrust values calculated by indirect measurements.

Banks, B.; Rawlin, V.; Weigand, A. J.; Walker, J.

1975-01-01

306

14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Thrust or power augmentation system. 25.945 Section 25.945...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system. (a) General....

2013-01-01

307

14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.  

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust or power augmentation system. 25.945 Section 25.945...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system. (a) General....

2014-01-01

308

14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust or power augmentation system. 25.945 Section 25.945...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system. (a) General....

2011-01-01

309

14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Thrust or power augmentation system. 25.945 Section 25.945...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system. (a) General....

2012-01-01

310

Transition from near-surface thrusting to Intrabasement Decollement, Schlinig Thrust, eastern Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West directed thrusting along the Schlinig thrust amounts to a minimum displacement of 45 km. A discrete plane of brittle thrusting is observed in the frontal part, where the tztal unit overrides the sediments of the Engadine Dolomites. Both shortening of the more ductile Lower and Middle Triassic and very substantial stretching by domino-type normal faults in the brittle Upper Triassic dolomites are contemporaneous with, and caused by, thrusting. Extension is related to extrusion of parts of the sediments in the footwall of the Schlinig thrust. A relatively rapid transition into an intrabasement shear zone, which is as much as 2-km-thick, occurs farther to the east in a region where a paleotemperature of 300C is indicated for Cretaceous metamorphism. Still farther to the east, localized shearing is transformed into a wider area affected by large-scale folding. This second transition corresponds to estimated temperatures in excess of 550C. Since the changes in structural style and deformation mechanisms toward the hinterland go hand in hand with increasing metamorphic grade, we regard thrusting as contemporaneous with metamorphism. This view is supported by geochronological data. The age of thrusting and metamorphism (90 Ma) indicates very rapid heating after the deposition of the youngest sediments (Cenomanian) involved in Cretaceous deformation. Our data suggest that localized detachment along a discrete thrust plane and within broader mylonite zones cannot always be traced indefinitely to greater depth. The transformation of localized shearing into large scale folding indicates a fundamentally different deformational style for lower crustal levels.

Schmid, S. M.; Haas, R.

1989-08-01

311

Thrusting and gravel progradation in foreland basins: A test of post-thrusting gravel dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of gravels as syntectonic indicators of thrusting has recently been questioned by foreland-basin models that assign gravels to a post-thrusting interval of progradation, except in very proximal areas. On the basis of precise temporal control provided by magnetostratigraphically dated sections, the history of gravel progradation after a major thrusting and uplift event in the northwestern Himalaya is shown to be a virtually syntectonic phenomenon. Despite considerable crustal subsidence driven by a thick-skinned thrust, gravels prograded 70 km during a 1.5-m.y.-long thrusting event. By 3 m.y. after the start off thrusting, gravels extended more than 110 km into the basin. Although delayed gravel progradation appears appropriate for many Rocky Mountain foreland basins, it is clearly not valid for the Himalaya. We attribute the difference in depositional response between these basins to differences in the quantity of sediment supplied to them (sediment starved vs. overfilled), the availability of resistates in the source area, and the size of the antecedent drainage.

Burbank, D. W.; Beck, R. A.; Raynolds, R. G. H.; Hobbs, R.; Tahirkheli, R. A. K.

1988-12-01

312

Aeroacoustics of Impinging High Speed Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound generated by the impingement of high speed jets on solid surfaces has been the subject of study for many years due to it's application to V/ STOL aircraft and rockets. Most of the previous studies have dealt with the discrete impinging tones and the mechanism associated with their generation. We are interested in the effect of these tones on the near field entrainment process, with a specific interest on hover lift loss. Axisymmetric jet from a convergent / convergent-divergent nozzle at nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) from 1.5 to 5.5 was considered for this purpose. A circular lift plate instrumented with pressure ports was mounted normal to the jet axis at the nozzle exit plane. An infinite flat ground plate was placed normal to the jet to produce the impinging jet flow. Near field sound spectrum and surface pressures on the lift plate were measured for several ground plate heights. The results show that the discrete impinging tones are dominant at NPRs below 3.7. When these tones are present, the lift loss due to entrainment (normalized with the nozzle thrust) increases. Also, the lift loss increases significantly with the decrease of the ground plate height. These preliminary experiments suggest that the impinging tones play an important role in the near field entrainment of impinging high speed jets.

Rajakuperan, E.; Krothapalli, A.

1997-11-01

313

Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

Henderson, Brenda

2012-01-01

314

Aerodynamics of a round jet in a counterflowing wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flows associated with the interaction of a circular jet and an unconfined, opposing stream are encountered during V/STOL, thrust reversal, and dispersive operations. The paper presents a numerical model of the flowfield resulting from such an interaction - a highly turbulent field characterized by a large stationary recirculation zone along the periphery of the jet. The model solves simultaneously the governing time-averaged differential equations for certain mass, momentum, and turbulence properties, and prescribes conditions at the periphery of the open, axisymmetric flowfield. Predicted values for the jet penetration distance as a function of approach velocity ratio are slightly lower than measured values. Predicted and experimental centerline velocity profiles, however, show good agreement with a jet-to-counterflow velocity ratio of 10. Predictions of the radial velocity distribution compare favorably with the experimental data, especially in the fully developed jet expansion region inside the stagnation streamline.

Peck, R. E.

1981-01-01

315

Summary of Scale-Model Thrust-Reverser Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to determine the characteristics of several basic types of thrust-reverser. Models of three types, target, tailpipe cascade, and ring cascade, were tested with unheated air. The effects of design variables on reverse-thrust performance, reversed-flow boundaries, and thrust modulation characteristics were determined.

Povolny, John H; Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

1957-01-01

316

Thrust measurements of a hollow-cathode discharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust measurements of a hollow cathode mercury discharge were made with a synthetic mica target on a torsion pendulum. Thrust measurements were made for various target angles, tip temperatures, flow rates, keeper discharge powers, and accelerator electrode voltages. The experimental thrust data are compared with theoretical values for the case where no discharge power was employed.

Snyder, A.; Banks, B. A.

1972-01-01

317

The Energy Balance and Deformation Mechanisms of Thrust Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total energy involved in emplacing a thrust sheet is expended in initiation and growth of the thrust surface, slip along this surface, and deformation within the main mass of the sheet. This total energy can be determined from potential energy considerations knowing the initial and final geometry from balanced cross sections after defining the thrust's thermodynamic system boundaries. Emplacement

D. Elliott

1976-01-01

318

Tertiary structural evolution of the Gangdese thrust system, southeastern Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and thermochronological investigations of southern Tibet (Xizang) suggest that intracontinental thrusting has been the dominant cause for formation of thickened crust in the southernmost Tibetan plateau since late Oligocene. Two thrust systems are documented in this study: the north dipping Gangdese system (GTS) and the younger south dipping Renbu-Zedong (RZT). West of Lhasa, the Gangdese thrust juxtaposes the Late

An Yin; T. Mark Harrison; F. J. Ryerson; Chen Wenji; W. S. F. Kidd; Peter Copeland

1994-01-01

319

Jet-diffuser Ejector - Attached Nozzle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attached primary nozzles were developed to replace the detached nozzles of jet-diffuser ejectors. Slotted primary nozzles located at the inlet lip and injecting fluid normal to the thrust axis, and rotating the fluid into the thrust direction using the Coanda Effect were investigated. Experiments indicated excessive skin friction or momentum cancellation due to impingement of opposing jets resulted in performance degradation. This indicated a desirability for location and orientation of the injection point at positions removed from the immediate vicinity of the inlet surface, and at an acute angle with respect to the thrust axis. Various nozzle designs were tested over a range of positions and orientations. The problems of aircraft integration of the ejector, and internal and external nozzle losses were also considered and a geometry for the attached nozzles was selected. The effect of leaks, protrusions, and asymmetries in the ejector surfaces was examined. The results indicated a relative insensitivity to all surface irregularities, except for large protrusions at the throat of the ejector.

Alperin, M.; Wu, J. J.

1980-01-01

320

Selective Vectorization for Short-Vector Instructions  

E-print Network

Multimedia extensions are nearly ubiquitous in today's general-purpose processors. These extensions consist primarily of a set of short-vector instructions that apply the same opcode to a vector of operands. Vector ...

Amarasinghe, Saman

2009-12-18

321

Fold-thrust styles in the Absaroka thrust sheet, Caribou National Forest area, Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bear Creek, Big Elk and Black Mountain anticlines are macroscopic structures located in the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust within the Idaho-Wyoming fold-thrust belt. Structural mapping of the area was conducted by draping existing geologic maps and digital orthophotos over digital elevation models (DEM) to obtain a three-dimensional perspective of the area. The map was further refined by reconnaissance field mapping of selected outcrops. Construction of balanced cross-sections suggests that these structures detach at three stratigraphic levels, within the Cambrian Gros Ventre Formation, Devonian Darby Formation, and Triassic Dinwoody Formation. The folds in the upper stratigraphic package consist of symmetric to asymmetric detachment folds, which show variable vergence along trend. The structures in the lower stratigraphic packages primarily evolved as low-amplitude detachment folds, which were subsequently displaced over fault ramps to form fault-bend folds or duplexes. The duplex geometries in the Cambro-Ordovician units under the Bear Creek and Poker Peak anticlines vary from independent anticlines in the south to completely overlapping stacks in the north. The macroscopic structural patterns of folds proposed in this study will be useful in interpreting subsurface structures in other parts of the Idaho-Wyoming fold-thrust belt.

Banerjee, Subhotosh; Mitra, Shankar

2005-01-01

322

Small-scale noise tests of a slot nozzle with V-gutter target thrust reverser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise generated by a 2.26- by 11.43-cm slot nozzle with a V-gutter reverser, as well as some aerodynamic data on flow, thrust-reversal efficiency, and nozzle jet velocity decay were studied. The experimental data are scaled up to sizes suitable for reversing the wing flow of a 45/400-kg augmentor-wing-type STOL airplane, yielding perceived noise levels well above the 95-PNdb design goal on the 152-m sideline. The reverser, in addition to being noisier than the nozzle alone, also had a more uniform directional distribution and more high frequency noise. The maximum overall sound pressure level and the effective sound power level both varied with the sixth power of nozzle jet velocity. Preliminary experiments indicated possible sideline noise reduction by shielding.

Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

1973-01-01

323

A New Paradigm for Flow Analyses and a Novel Technique to Enhance the Thrust from Scarfed Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new flow analysis paradigm and a novel technique to enhance scarfed nozzle thrust are presented. The new paradigm, the space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method, a truly unsteady and genuinely multi-dimensional flow solver that provides accurate solutions for Euler and Navier-Stokes flows, is well suited for next generation flow analyses.In this study, the space-time CESE method was applied to solve scarfed nozzles flow-fields. Nozzle scarfing is frequently used for vectoring control of a space propulsion sub-system; it reduces nozzle weight and length and lowers nozzle thrust. A novel technique to enhance scarfed nozzles' thrust is discussed and investigated. Results of 2D and 3D flow analyses are presented.

Chang, I-Shih; Chang, Sin-Chung; Glick, Robert L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Glick, Mailyn P.

2008-01-01

324

Thrust-induced effects on low-speed aerodynamics of fighter aircraft. [Langley 4- by 7-meter tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of NASA Langley has conducted wind-tunnel investigations of several fighter configurations conducted to determine the effects of both thrust vectoring and spanwise blowing are reviewed. A recent joint NASA/Grumman Aerospace Corporation/U.S. Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to examine the effects of spanwise blowing on the trailing-edge flap system. This application contrasts with the more familiar method of spanwise blowing near the wing leading edge. Another joint program among NASA/McDonnell Aircraft Company/U.S. Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory investigated the effects of reverse thrust on the low-speed aerodynamics of an F-15 configuration. The F-15 model was fitted with a rotating van thrust reverser concept which could simulate both in-flight reversing for approach and landing or full reversing for ground roll reduction. The significant results of these two joint programs are reported.

Banks, D. W.; Quinto, P. F.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

325

Group invariant solutions for radial jet having finite fluid velocity at orifice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group invariant solution for Prandtl's boundary layer equations for an incompressible fluid governing the flow in radial free, wall and liquid jets having finite fluid velocity at the orifice are investigated. For each jet a symmetry is associated with the conserved vector that was used to derive the conserved quantity for the jet elsewhere. This symmetry is then used

I. Naeem; R. Naz

2008-01-01

326

High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

327

MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain site was recommended by the President to be a geological repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The multi-barrier approach was adopted for assessing and predicting system behavior, including both natural barriers and engineered barriers. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in waste packages for long times and then to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. The goal of the Materials Performance Targeted Thrust program is to further enhance the understanding of the role of engineered barriers in waste isolation. In addition, the Thrust will explore technical enhancements and seek to offer improvements in materials costs and reliability.

DOE

2005-09-13

328

Low-thrust Isp sensitivity study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the cooling requirements and attainable specific impulse performance of engines in the 445 to 4448N thrust class utilizing LOX/RP-1, LOX/Hydrogen and LOX/Methane propellants is presented. The unique design requirements for the regenerative cooling of low-thrust engines operating at high pressures (up to 6894 kPa) were explored analytically by comparing single cooling with the fuel and the oxidizer, and dual cooling with both the fuel and the oxidizer. The effects of coolant channel geometry, chamber length, and contraction ratio on the ability to provide proper cooling were evaluated, as was the resulting specific impulse. The results show that larger contraction ratios and smaller channels are highly desirable for certain propellant combinations.

Schoenman, L.

1982-01-01

329

Advanced tube-bundle rocket thrust chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced rocket thrust chamber for future space application is described along with an improved method of fabrication. Potential benefits of the concept are improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. Performance improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced heat transfer into the coolant which will enable higher chamber pressure in expander cycle engines. Cyclic life, reusability and reliability improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber with a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes, and the bonding of these tubes by an electroforming operation. Further, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, jackets, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.

Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

1990-01-01

330

Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

1937-01-01

331

CFD Code Survey for Thrust Chamber Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the quest fo find analytical reference codes, responses from a questionnaire are presented which portray the current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program status and capability at various organizations, characterizing liquid rocket thrust chamber flow fields. Sample cases are identified to examine the ability, operational condition, and accuracy of the codes. To select the best suited programs for accelerated improvements, evaluation criteria are being proposed.

Gross, Klaus W.

1990-01-01

332

Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Cell Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional metals like steel and copper alloys have been used for many years to fabricate injector and chamber components of thruster assemblies. While the materials perform well, reducing engine weights would help existing and future vehicles gain performance and payload capability. It may now be possible to reduce current thruster weights up to 50% by applying composite materials. In this task, these materials are being applied to an existing thrust cell design to demonstrate new fabrication processes and potential weight savings. Two ceramic matrix composite (CMC) designs, three polymer matrix composite (PMC) designs, and two metal matrix composite (MMC) designs are being fabricated as small chamber demonstration units. In addition, a new alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium (Cu-8Cr-4Nb) is being investigated for thrust chamber liners since it offers higher strength and increased cycle life over traditional alloys. This new alloy is being used for the liner in each MMC and PMC demonstration unit. During June-August of 2000, hot-fire testing of each unit is planned to validate designs in an oxygen/hydrogen environment at chamber pressures around 850 psi. Although the weight savings using CMC materials is expected to be high, they have proven to be much harder to incorporate into chamber designs based on current fabrication efforts. However, the PMC & MMC concepts using the Cu-8Cr-4Nb liner are nearly complete and ready for testing. Additional efforts intend to use the PMC & MMC materials to fabricate a full size thrust chamber (60K lb(sub f) thrust class). The fabrication of this full size unit is expected to be complete by October 2000, followed by hot-fire testing in November-December 2000.

Elam, S.; Effinger, M.; Holmes, R.; Lee, J.; Jaskowiak, M.

2000-01-01

333

Low thrust insertion into orbit around Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspects of the low-thrust insertion of the Mars Observer spacecraft from its approach trajectory into an orbit around Mars, using four 110-lb(f) thrusters, are discussed. The strategy includes insertion into an elliptical capture orbit (4100 x 20,000 km), targeting for a 4150-km periapsis to compensate for reduction in periapsis altitude during burn, initiating the burn at about 20 deg

S. Parvez; J. M. L. Holman

1987-01-01

334

Low thrust viscous nozzle flow fields prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Navier-Stokes code was developed for low thrust viscous nozzle flow field prediction. An implicit finite volume in an arbitrary curvilinear coordinate system lower-upper (LU) scheme is used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes equations and species transportation equations. Sample calculations of carbon dioxide nozzle flow are presented to verify the validity and efficiency of this code. The computer results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

Liaw, G. S.; Mo, J. D.

1991-01-01

335

The induced thrust effect - A propulsion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'induced thrust' (IT) method whose theoretical fundamentals and basic implementation are presented is applicable to both nuclear and chemical rocket-propulsion systems. IT principles are illustrated in the framework of the back-to-back 'joined ship' model, in which the combustion chamber pressure within one vehicle is caused to act as the back pressure of the other vehicle to which it is

Salvatore C. Pais

1991-01-01

336

Minimum fuel continuous low thrust orbital transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum fuel continuous low thrust orbit transfer is an optimal control problem which requires the application of iterative numerical methods to solve the resulting two point boundary value problem. A combination gradient-neighboring extremal algorithm gives accurate results when both the initial and terminal orbits are coplanar. These results are then used to extend the problem to include out-of-plane transfers between

E. A. Smith

1974-01-01

337

Performance Characteristics of Cylindrical Target-type Thrust Reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From tests on cylindrical target-type thrust reversers, it was found that the reverser frontal area, lip angle, end-plate angle, and end-plate depth had important effects on reverse-thrust performance. Frontal area, reverser depth, lip angle, and end-plate angele had important effects on the spacing required for unrestricted nozzle flow. For reverse-thrust ratios greater than 64 percent, the reversed flow attached to the 7 degree cowl in quiescent air. Swept-type cylindrical reversers were generally unstable. The thrust-modulation characteristics of a cylindrical target-type thrust reverser were found to be satisfactory.

Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

1956-01-01

338

Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques and materials were developed and evaluated for the fabrication and coating of advanced, long life, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. Materials were analyzed as fillers for sputter application of OFHC copper as a closeout layer to channeled inner structures; of the materials evaluated, aluminum was found to provide the highest bond strength and to be the most desirable for chamber fabrication. The structures and properties were investigated of thick sputtered OFHC copper, 0.15 Zr-Cu, Al2O3,-Cu, and SiC-Cu. Layered structures of OFHC copper and 0.15 Zr-Cu were investigated as means of improving chamber inner wall fatigue life. The evaluation of sputtered Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, NASA IIb-11, aluminum and Al2O3-Al alloys as high strength chamber outer jackets was performed. Techniques for refurbishing degraded thrust chambers with OFHC copper and coating thrust chambers with protective ZrO2 and graded ZrO2-copper thermal barrier coatings were developed.

Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Schmid, T. E.; Torrey, C. T.

1975-01-01

339

Effect of boundary layer on thrust deduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that methods of computing thrust deduction usually ignore viscous effects and assume that the flow field of the ship and propeller is irrotational. The computed values of the thrust deduction with and without the boundary layer and wake were compared. A streamlined body of revolution was selected, and a sink on the axis behind the body was used as a simple mechanism to simulate the suction at the stern induced by a propeller. When the boundary layer and wake are present, the thick boundary near the tail of the body is first calculated by a previously developed method in which the equation of a thick boundary layer and wake are solved numerically by finite differences, and the outer irrotational flow is obtained as the solution of an integral equation. An iteration procedure in which the inner and outer flows are successively adjusted converges to the desired solution. It was found that results obtained in the wake were not sufficiently accurate, so that a momentum analysis using a special control volume was used to calculate the viscous drag with and without the sink. The calculated values of the thrust deuction are C sub D = 0.00021 from irrotational flow and 0.00043 from the boundary layer potential-flow interaction method.

Dinavahi, S. P. G.; Landweber, L.

1981-11-01

340

Erosion and the mechanics of shallow foreland thrusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model for the effects of erosion on the geometry and mechanics of shallow foreland thrusts allows prediction of maximum stable length of the thrust toe, location of initial failure within the toe, if total thrust displacement exceeds the maximum stable length, and estimates of average pore fluid pressures along the fault during thrust advance. For 'typical' rates of erosion and thrust advance, the maximum stable length of the toe may be very large (over 50 km) for relatively low values of fluid overpressure. Application of the theoretical results to the Keystone-Muddy Mountain thrust of southern Nevada predicts: maximum stable length, location and degree of imbrication in agreement with observation; relatively low pore fluid pressures along the fault (? between 0.5 and 0.6), and a rate of thrust advance between 4 and 8 km Ma -1.

Willemin, James H.

341

Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 2; Normal Velocity Profile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instability waves have been established as noise generators in supersonic jets. Recent analysis of these slowly diverging jets has shown that these instability waves radiate noise to the far field when the waves have components with phase velocities that are supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. This instability wave noise generation model has been applied to supersonic jets with a single shear layer and is now applied to supersonic coaxial jets with two initial shear layers. In this paper the case of coaxial jets with normal velocity profiles is considered, where the inner jet stream velocity is higher than the outer jet stream velocity. To provide mean flow profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is used to calculate the mean flow properties. Calculations are made for the stability characteristics in the coaxial jet shear layers and the noise radiated from the instability waves for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow and exit area as a single reference jet. The effects of changes in the velocity ratio, the density ratio and the area ratio are each considered independently.

Dahl, M. D.; Morris, P. J.

1997-01-01

342

K (transverse) jet algorithms in hadron colliders: The D0 experience  

SciTech Connect

D0 has implemented and studied a k{sub {perpendicular}} jet algorithm for the first time in a hadron collider. The authors have submitted two physics results for publication: the subjet multiplicity in quark and gluon jets and the central inclusive jet cross section measurements. A third result, a measurement of thrust distributions in jet events, is underway. A combination of measurements using several types of algorithms and samples taken at different center-of-mass energies is desirable to understand and distinguish with higher accuracy between instrumentation and physics effects.

V. Daniel Elvira

2002-12-05

343

Evaluation and modeling of autonomous attitude thrust control for the Geostation Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 experienced a series of orbital perturbations from autonomous attitude control thrusting before perigee raising maneuvers. These perturbations influenced differential correction orbital state solutions determined by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The maneuvers induced significant variations in the converged state vector for solutions using increasingly longer tracking data spans. These solutions were used for planning perigee maneuvers as well as initial estimates for orbit solutions used to evaluate the effectiveness of the perigee raising maneuvers. This paper discusses models for the incorporation of attitude thrust effects into the orbit determination process. Results from definitive attitude solutions are modeled as impulsive thrusts in orbit determination solutions created for GOES-8 mission support. Due to the attitude orientation of GOES-8, analysis results are presented that attempt to absorb the effects of attitude thrusting by including a solution for the coefficient of reflectivity, C(R). Models to represent the attitude maneuvers are tested against orbit determination solutions generated during real-time support of the GOES-8 mission. The modeling techniques discussed in this investigation offer benefits to the remaining missions in the GOES NEXT series. Similar missions with large autonomous attitude control thrusting, such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft and the INTELSAT series, may also benefit from these results.

Forcey, W.; Minnie, C. R.; Defazio, R. L.

1995-01-01

344

A computational study of thrust augmenting ejectors based on a viscous-inviscid approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's VSTOL designer is in need of an accurate theoretical model that can swiftly evaluate various ejector configurations. A viscous-inviscid interaction technique is advocated as both an efficient and accurate means of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. The flowfield is divided into a viscous region that contains the turbulent jet, and an inviscid region that contains the ambient fluid drawn into the device. The inviscid region is computed with a higher order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. The strong viscous-inviscid interaction present within the injector is simulated in an iterative process where two regions influence each other en route to a converged solution. This formulation retains much of the essential physics of the problem, but at the same time requires only a small amount of computing effort. The model is applied to a variety of parametric and optimization studies involving ejectors having either one or two primary jets. In all cases, it was found that the dual-jet ejector out performs its single jet counterpart. This fact is attributed to enhanced mixing due to an increase in effective ejector length.

Lund, Thomas Scott

345

Measurement of Z \\/ ? ? + jet + X angular distributions in p p collisions at s = 1.96 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first measurements at a hadron collider of differential cross sections for Z\\/??+jet+X production in ??(Z,jet), |?y(Z,jet)| and |yboost(Z+jet)|. Vector boson production in association with jets is an excellent probe of QCD and constitutes the main background to many small cross section processes, such as associated Higgs production. These measurements are crucial tests of the predictions of perturbative

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; M. Adams; T. Adams; E. Aguilo; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; L. S. Ancu; M. S. Anzelc; M. Aoki; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; M. Arthaud; A. Askew; B. sman; O. Atramentov; C. Avila; J. BackusMayes; F. Badaud; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; D. V. Bandurin; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; A.-F. Barfuss; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; D. Bauer; S. Beale; A. Bean; M. Begalli; M. Begel; C. Belanger-Champagne; L. Bellantoni; A. Bellavance; J. A. Benitez; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besanon; R. Beuselinck; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; G. Blazey; S. Blessing; K. Bloom; A. Boehnlein; D. Boline; T. A. Bolton; E. E. Boos; G. Borissov; T. Bose; A. Brandt; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; D. Brown; X. B. Bu; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; V. Bunichev; S. Burdin; T. H. Burnett; C. P. Buszello; P. Calfayan; B. Calpas; S. Calvet; J. Cammin; M. A. Carrasco-Lizarraga; E. Carrera; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; E. Cheu; D. K. Cho; S. W. Cho; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; T. Christoudias; S. Cihangir; D. Claes; J. Clutter; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; M. Corcoran; F. Couderc; M.-C. Cousinou; D. Cutts; M. ?wiok; A. Das; G. Davies; K. De; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; K. DeVaughan; F. Dliot; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; A. Dominguez; T. Dorland; A. Dubey; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; D. Duggan; A. Duperrin; S. Dutt; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; J. Ellison; V. D. Elvira; Y. Enari; S. Eno; M. Escalier; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; G. Facini; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; M. Fortner; H. Fox; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; A. Garcia-Bellido; V. Gavrilov; P. Gay; W. Geist; W. Geng; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Ginther; B. Gmez; A. Goussiou; P. D. Grannis; S. Greder; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; G. Grenier; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; A. Grohsjean; S. Grnendahl; M. W. Grnewald; F. Guo; J. Guo; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; P. Haefner; S. Hagopian; J. Haley; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; L. Han; K. Harder; A. Harel; J. M. Hauptman; J. Hays; T. Hebbeker; D. Hedin; J. G. Hegeman; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; I. Heredia-De La Cruz; K. Herner; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; T. Hoang; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. Hossain; P. Houben; Y. Hu; Z. Hubacek; N. Huske; V. Hynek; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; M. Jaffr; S. Jain; K. Jakobs; D. Jamin; R. Jesik; K. Johns; C. Johnson; M. Johnson; D. Johnston; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; A. Juste; E. Kajfasz; D. Karmanov; P. A. Kasper; I. Katsanos; V. Kaushik; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; N. Khalatyan; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. N. Kharzheev; D. Khatidze; M. H. Kirby; M. Kirsch; B. Klima; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kraus; T. Kuhl; A. Kumar; A. Kupco; T. Kur?a; V. A. Kuzmin; J. Kvita; F. Lacroix; D. Lam; S. Lammers; G. Landsberg; P. Lebrun; H. S. Lee; W. M. Lee; A. Leflat; J. Lellouch; L. Li; Q. Z. Li; S. M. Lietti; J. K. Lim; D. Lincoln; J. Linnemann; V. V. Lipaev; R. Lipton; Y. Liu; Z. Liu; A. Lobodenko; M. Lokajicek; P. Love; H. J. Lubatti; R. Luna-Garcia; A. L. Lyon; A. K. A. Maciel; D. Mackin; P. Mttig; R. Magaa-Villalba; P. K. Mal; S. Malik; V. L. Malyshev; Y. Maravin; B. Martin; R. McCarthy; C. L. McGivern; M. M. Meijer; A. Melnitchouk; L. Mendoza; D. Menezes; P. G. Mercadante; M. Merkin; K. W. Merritt; A. Meyer; J. Meyer; N. K. Mondal; R. W. Moore; T. Moulik; G. S. Muanza; M. Mulhearn; O. Mundal; L. Mundim; E. Nagy; M. Naimuddin; M. Narain; H. A. Neal; J. P. Negret; P. Neustroev; H. Nilsen; H. Nogima; S. F. Novaes; T. Nunnemann; G. Obrant; C. Ochando; D. Onoprienko; J. Orduna; N. Oshima; N. Osman; J. Osta; R. Otec; G. J. Otero y Garzn; M. Owen; M. Padilla; P. Padley; M. Pangilinan; N. Parashar; S.-J. Park; J. Parsons; R. Partridge; N. Parua; A. Patwa; B. Penning; M. Perfilov; K. Peters; Y. Peters; P. Ptroff; R. Piegaia; J. Piper; M.-A. Pleier; P. L. M. Podesta-Lerma; V. M. Podstavkov; Y. Pogorelov; M.-E. Pol; P. Polozov; A. V. Popov; M. Prewitt; S. Protopopescu; J. Qian; A. Quadt; B. Quinn; A. Rakitine; M. S. Rangel; K. Ranjan; P. N. Ratoff; P. Renkel; P. Rich; M. Rijssenbeek; I. Ripp-Baudot; F. Rizatdinova; S. Robinson; M. Rominsky; C. Royon; P. Rubinov; R. Ruchti; G. Safronov; G. Sajot; A. Snchez-Hernndez; M. P. Sanders; B. Sanghi; G. Savage; L. Sawyer; T. Scanlon; D. Schaile; R. D. Schamberger; Y. Scheglov; H. Schellman; T. Schliephake; S. Schlobohm; C. Schwanenberger; R. Schwienhorst; J. Sekaric; H. Severini; E. Shabalina; M. Shamim; V. Shary; A. A. Shchukin; R. K. Shivpuri; V. Siccardi; V. Simak

2010-01-01

346

Measurement of Z\\/gamma*+jet+X angular distributions in pp collisions at s=1.96 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first measurements at a hadron collider of differential cross sections for Z\\/gamma*+jet+X production in Deltavarphi(Z,jet), |Deltay(Z,jet)| and |y(Z+jet)|. Vector boson production in association with jets is an excellent probe of QCD and constitutes the main background to many small cross section processes, such as associated Higgs production. These measurements are crucial tests of the predictions of perturbative

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; M. Adams; T. Adams; E. Aguilo; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; L. S. Ancu; M. S. Anzelc; M. Aoki; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; M. Arthaud; A. Askew; B. sman; O. Atramentov; C. Avila; J. Backusmayes; F. Badaud; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; D. V. Bandurin; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; A.-F. Barfuss; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; D. Bauer; S. Beale; A. Bean; M. Begalli; M. Begel; C. Belanger-Champagne; L. Bellantoni; A. Bellavance; J. A. Benitez; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besanon; R. Beuselinck; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; G. Blazey; S. Blessing; K. Bloom; A. Boehnlein; D. Boline; T. A. Bolton; E. E. Boos; G. Borissov; T. Bose; A. Brandt; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; D. Brown; X. B. Bu; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; V. Bunichev; S. Burdin; T. H. Burnett; C. P. Buszello; P. Calfayan; B. Calpas; S. Calvet; J. Cammin; M. A. Carrasco-Lizarraga; E. Carrera; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; E. Cheu; D. K. Cho; S. W. Cho; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; T. Christoudias; S. Cihangir; D. Claes; J. Clutter; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; M. Corcoran; F. Couderc; M.-C. Cousinou; D. Cutts; M. Cwiok; A. Das; G. Davies; K. de; S. J. de Jong; E. de La Cruz-Burelo; K. Devaughan; F. Dliot; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; A. Dominguez; T. Dorland; A. Dubey; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; D. Duggan; A. Duperrin; S. Dutt; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; J. Ellison; V. D. Elvira; Y. Enari; S. Eno; M. Escalier; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; G. Facini; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; M. Fortner; H. Fox; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; A. Garcia-Bellido; V. Gavrilov; P. Gay; W. Geist; W. Geng; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Ginther; B. Gmez; A. Goussiou; P. D. Grannis; S. Greder; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; G. Grenier; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; A. Grohsjean; S. Grnendahl; M. W. Grnewald; F. Guo; J. Guo; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; P. Haefner; S. Hagopian; J. Haley; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; L. Han; K. Harder; A. Harel; J. M. Hauptman; J. Hays; T. Hebbeker; D. Hedin; J. G. Hegeman; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; I. Heredia-de La Cruz; K. Herner; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; T. Hoang; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. Hossain; P. Houben; Y. Hu; Z. Hubacek; N. Huske; V. Hynek; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; M. Jaffr; S. Jain; K. Jakobs; D. Jamin; R. Jesik; K. Johns; C. Johnson; M. Johnson; D. Johnston; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; A. Juste; E. Kajfasz; D. Karmanov; P. A. Kasper; I. Katsanos; V. Kaushik; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; N. Khalatyan; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. N. Kharzheev; D. Khatidze; M. H. Kirby; M. Kirsch; B. Klima; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kraus; T. Kuhl; A. Kumar; A. Kupco; T. Kurca; V. A. Kuzmin; J. Kvita; F. Lacroix; D. Lam; S. Lammers; G. Landsberg; P. Lebrun; H. S. Lee; W. M. Lee; A. Leflat; J. Lellouch; L. Li; Q. Z. Li; S. M. Lietti; J. K. Lim; D. Lincoln; J. Linnemann; V. V. Lipaev; R. Lipton; Y. Liu; Z. Liu; A. Lobodenko; M. Lokajicek; P. Love; H. J. Lubatti; R. Luna-Garcia; A. L. Lyon; A. K. A. Maciel; D. Mackin; P. Mttig; R. Magaa-Villalba; P. K. Mal; S. Malik; V. L. Malyshev; Y. Maravin; B. Martin; R. McCarthy; C. L. McGivern; M. M. Meijer; A. Melnitchouk; L. Mendoza; D. Menezes; P. G. Mercadante; M. Merkin; K. W. Merritt; A. Meyer; J. Meyer; N. K. Mondal; R. W. Moore; T. Moulik; G. S. Muanza; M. Mulhearn; O. Mundal; L. Mundim; E. Nagy; M. Naimuddin; M. Narain; H. A. Neal; J. P. Negret; P. Neustroev; H. Nilsen; H. Nogima; S. F. Novaes; T. Nunnemann; G. Obrant; C. Ochando; D. Onoprienko; J. Orduna; N. Oshima; N. Osman; J. Osta; R. Otec; G. J. Otero Y Garzn; M. Owen; M. Padilla; P. Padley; M. Pangilinan; N. Parashar; S.-J. Park; J. Parsons; R. Partridge; N. Parua; A. Patwa; B. Penning; M. Perfilov; K. Peters; Y. Peters; P. Ptroff; R. Piegaia; J. Piper; M.-A. Pleier; P. L. M. Podesta-Lerma; V. M. Podstavkov; Y. Pogorelov; M.-E. Pol; P. Polozov; A. V. Popov; M. Prewitt; S. Protopopescu; J. Qian; A. Quadt; B. Quinn; A. Rakitine; M. S. Rangel; K. Ranjan; P. N. Ratoff; P. Renkel; P. Rich; M. Rijssenbeek; I. Ripp-Baudot; F. Rizatdinova; S. Robinson; M. Rominsky; C. Royon; P. Rubinov; R. Ruchti; G. Safronov; G. Sajot; A. Snchez-Hernndez; M. P. Sanders; B. Sanghi; G. Savage; L. Sawyer; T. Scanlon; D. Schaile; R. D. Schamberger; Y. Scheglov; H. Schellman; T. Schliephake; S. Schlobohm; C. Schwanenberger; R. Schwienhorst; J. Sekaric; H. Severini; E. Shabalina; M. Shamim; V. Shary; A. A. Shchukin; R. K. Shivpuri; V. Siccardi; V. Simak; V. Sirotenko

2010-01-01

347

Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 2: Baseline thrust system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30- cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high-power missions (60 to 100 kW) such as a Halley's comet rendezvous. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. The baseline thrust system design features modular construction, conventional power processing, and a concentractor solar array concept and is designed to interface with the space shuttle.

Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

1977-01-01

348

DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS  

SciTech Connect

By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A., E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.go [Space Science Office, VP62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2010-09-01

349

Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

2010-01-01

350

Stress, strain, and fault behavior at a thrust ramp: Insights from the Naukluft thrust, Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observations from a kilometer-scale thrust ramp on the Naukluft thrust, Namibia. The Naukluft thrust is a low angle thrust that was active at subgreenschist facies conditions and accommodated several tens of kilometers of displacement at the base of the Naukluft Nappe Complex in the Pan-African Damara Orogeny. The fault zone is generally planar and a few meters thick, comprising predominantly a dolomite-rich cataclasite. At the ramp, the fault-rock assemblage increases in thickness, and the hanging-wall, which elsewhere is relatively intact, contains a high density network of inclined quartz veins, subvertical dolomite and calcite veins, breccia zones, as well as injectites of cataclastic fault rock emanating from the fault surface. The geometry of the hanging-wall structures indicates local subhorizontal extension. Local tensile stress can be explained by bending in the hanging-wall as it deformed to slide above the ramp structure. High fluid pressures created dynamically during fast slip by decarbonation of carbonate fault rock, and by dewatering of the footwall under an impermeable fault during interseismic periods, led to additional reduction in local effective compressive stresses. In this location, the ramp is more optimally oriented for slip in the inferred regional stress field, and therefore likely to fail before the contiguous thrust flats that are subparallel to the maximum principal stress. As such, the ramp represents the likely location for nucleation of fault slip, which could both trigger dynamic failure of the adjacent thrust faults, and produce hanging-wall extensional structures.

Fagereng, ke; Smith, Zach; Rowe, Christie D.; Makhubu, Bandile; Sylvester, Fernando Y. G.

2014-01-01

351

Thrust Augmentation of a Turbojet Engine at Simulated Flight Conditions by Introduction of a Water-Alcohol Mixture into the Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted at simulated high-altitude flight conditions to evaluate the use of compressor evaporative cooling as a means of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation. Comparison of the performance of the engine with water-alcohol injection at the compressor inlet, at the sixth stage of the compressor, and at the sixth and ninth stages was made. From consideration of the thrust increases achieved, the interstage injection of the coolant was considered more desirable preferred over the combined sixth- and ninth-stage injection because of its relative simplicity. A maximum augmented net-thrust ratio of 1.106 and a maximum augmented jet-thrust ratio of 1.062 were obtained at an augmented liquid ratio of 2.98 and an engine-inlet temperature of 80 F. At lower inlet temperatures (-40 to 40 F), the maximum augmented net-thrust ratios ranged from 1.040 to 1.076 and the maximum augmented jet-thrust ratios ranged from 1.027 to 1.048, depending upon the inlet temperature. The relatively small increase in performance at the lower inlet-air temperatures can be partially attributed to the inadequate evaporation of the water-alcohol mixture, but the more significant limitation was believed to be caused by the negative influence of the liquid coolant on engine- component performance. In general, it is concluded that the effectiveness of the injection of a coolant into the compressor as a means of thrust augmentation is considerably influenced by the design characteristics of the components of the engine being used.

Useller, James W.; Auble, Carmon M.; Harvey, Ray W., Sr.

1952-01-01

352

Velocity field measurement of a round jet using quantitative schlieren  

SciTech Connect

This paper utilizes the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to measure the velocity field of a variable density round jet. The density field of the jet is computed based on the light deflection created during the passage of light through the understudy jet. The deflection vector estimation was carried out using phase-based optical flow algorithms. The density field is further exploited to extract the axial and radial velocity vectors with the aid of continuity and energy equations. The experiment is conducted at six different jet-exit temperature values. Additional turbulence parameters, such as velocity variance and power spectral density of the vector field, are also computed. Finally, the measured velocity parameters are compared with the hot wire anemometer measurements and their correlation is displayed.

Iffa, Emishaw D.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.; Malik, Aamir S.

2011-02-10

353

Velocity field measurement of a round jet using quantitative schlieren.  

PubMed

This paper utilizes the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to measure the velocity field of a variable density round jet. The density field of the jet is computed based on the light deflection created during the passage of light through the understudy jet. The deflection vector estimation was carried out using phase-based optical flow algorithms. The density field is further exploited to extract the axial and radial velocity vectors with the aid of continuity and energy equations. The experiment is conducted at six different jet-exit temperature values. Additional turbulence parameters, such as velocity variance and power spectral density of the vector field, are also computed. Finally, the measured velocity parameters are compared with the hot wire anemometer measurements and their correlation is displayed. PMID:21343981

Iffa, Emishaw D; Aziz, A Rashid A; Malik, Aamir S

2011-02-10

354

Jets from compact objects  

E-print Network

Some topics in the theory of jets are reviewed. These include jet precession, unconfined jets, the origin of knots, the internal shock model as a unifying theme from protostellar jets to Gamma-ray bursts, relations between the Blandford-Znajek and MHD disk-wind models, and jet collimation in magnetic acceleration models.

H. C. Spruit

2000-03-03

355

High-power, null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand.  

PubMed

This article presents the theory and operation of a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand. The thrust stand design supports thrusters having a total mass up to 250 kg and measures thrust over a range of 1 mN to 5 N. The design uses a conventional inverted pendulum to increase sensitivity, coupled with a null-type feature to eliminate thrust alignment error due to deflection of thrust. The thrust stand position serves as the input to the null-circuit feedback control system and the output is the current to an electromagnetic actuator. Mechanical oscillations are actively damped with an electromagnetic damper. A closed-loop inclination system levels the stand while an active cooling system minimizes thermal effects. The thrust stand incorporates an in situ calibration rig. The thrust of a 3.4 kW Hall thruster is measured for thrust levels up to 230 mN. The uncertainty of the thrust measurements in this experiment is +/-0.6%, determined by examination of the hysteresis, drift of the zero offset and calibration slope variation. PMID:19485530

Xu, Kunning G; Walker, Mitchell L R

2009-05-01

356

Beam Thrust Cross Section for Drell-Yan Production at Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Logarithmic Order  

SciTech Connect

At the LHC and Tevatron strong initial-state radiation (ISR) plays an important role. It can significantly affect the partonic luminosity available to the hard interaction or contaminate a signal with additional jets and soft radiation. An ideal process to study ISR is isolated Drell-Yan production, pp{yields}Xl{sup +}l{sup -} without central jets, where the jet veto is provided by the hadronic event shape beam thrust {tau}{sub B}. Most hadron collider event shapes are designed to study central jets. In contrast, requiring {tau}{sub B}<<1 provides an inclusive veto of central jets and measures the spectrum of ISR. For {tau}{sub B}<<1 we carry out a resummation of {alpha}{sub s}{sup n}ln{sup m{tau}}{sub B} corrections at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic order. This is the first resummation at this order for a hadron-hadron collider event shape. Measurements of {tau}{sub B} at the Tevatron and LHC can provide crucial tests of our understanding of ISR and of {tau}{sub B}'s utility as a central jet veto.

Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-01-21

357

Results of boron-aluminum thrust structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of testing-to-failure a two member boron-aluminum thrust structure. The structure represented one section of a more complex planar truss and was designed to test the integrity of a diffusion bonded joint. The structure failed at 107 percent of the ultimate design load in the diffusion bond region. Strain gages and displacement transducers were used to measure loads and deflections of the truss. The experimentally derived axial loads, bending moments, and torsion in the various members are presented and compared with predicted values.

Hyer, M. W.; Lightfoot, M. C.

1976-01-01

358

Optimal finite-thrust time-bounded direct-ascent interception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimum-time and maximum final mass solutions are obtained for the problem of direct-ascent interception, from an arbitrary launch point on the surface of the Earth, of a target in a circular orbit. The intercepting rocket is assumed to have finite, bounded thrust and is subject to aerodynamic forces including lift and drag. The effect of Earth rotation is included and an initial waiting period or coast arc prior to launch is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem with the objective of determining the thrust magnitude, aerodynamic pointing angle (pitch and yaw), and thrust vectoring angle histories to accomplish the interception. The continuous optimal control problem is converted to a discrete nonlinear programming problem and direct collocation is used to find numerical solutions. Solutions are found for both time-open and time-fixed problems. Optimal solutions include both postgrade and retrograde intercept trajectories. Solutions are obtained for a range of target orbit radii, inclinations, launch points, and initial target locations relative to the launch points. Problems which may include a singular arc as part of the optimal trajectory are also considered, and a method is demonstrated which allows such problems to be solved using direct collocation.

Downey, James Reagle

1992-06-01

359

Optimal Finite-Thrust Time-Bounded Direct-Ascent Interception.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimum-time and maximum final mass solutions are obtained for the problem of direct-ascent interception, from an arbitrary launch point on the surface of the Earth, of a target in a circular orbit. The intercepting rocket is assumed to have finite, bounded thrust and is subject to aerodynamic forces including lift and drag. The effect of Earth rotation is included and an initial waiting period or coast arc prior to launch is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem with the objective of determining the thrust magnitude, aerodynamic pointing angle (pitch and yaw), and thrust vectoring angle histories to accomplish the interception. The continuous optimal control problem is converted to a discrete nonlinear programming problem and direct collocation is used to find numerical solutions. Solutions are found for both time-open and time-fixed problems. Optimal solutions include both posigrade and retrograde intercept trajectories. Solutions are obtained for a range of target orbit radii, inclinations, launch points, and initial target locations relative to the launch points. Problems which may include a singular arc as part of the optimal trajectory are also considered and a method is demonstrated which allows such problems to be solved using direct collocation.

Downey, James Reagle

1992-01-01

360

Thrust bearing assembly for a downhole drill motor  

SciTech Connect

A bidirectional thrust bearing assembly is used between a downhole fluid motor and a rock bit for drilling oil wells. The bearing assembly has a stationary housing with radial journal bearing sleeves and a rotatable drive shaft also having radial bearing sleeves. A pair of oppositely facing thrust bearing rings are mounted in the housing. A second pair of thrust bearing rings are mounted on the shaft so as to have faces opposing the bearing faces on the first pair of rings. Belleville springs resiliently bias a pair of the thrust bearing rings apart and carry the thrust load between such rings. Each ring has a plurality of inserts of hard material, preferably polycrystalline diamond, at the bearing surface. Means are provided for circulating drilling fluid from the motor through the thrust bearing faces for forming hydrodynamic fluid bearing films in the bearing interfaces.

Geczy, B. A.

1985-12-24

361

Operating limitations of high speed jet lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 degrees. The bearings had either an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage, and lubrication was by recirculating oil jets which had either a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN, and bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets, but under-race lubrication produced lower bearing temperatures under all conditions of operation with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

362

Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

1993-01-01

363

Three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of experimental piggyback thrusting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of piggyback stacks of imbricate thrust sheets are illustrated and discussed using a single model shortened in a squeeze box. Strike-parallel geometric elements simulated include lateral ramps, eyed sheath folds, splays, and thrust\\/thrust interference. Fine details of these structures were exposed by eroding a shortened wedge of sand using a newly developed vacuum-eroding technique. A

Genene Mulugeta; Hemin Koyi

1987-01-01

364

Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 3; Inverted Velocity Profile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instability wave noise generation model is used to study the instability waves in the two shear layers of an inverted velocity profile, supersonic, coaxial jet and the noise radiated from the dominant wave. The inverted velocity profile jet has a high speed outer stream surrounding a low speed inner stream and the outer shear layer is always larger than the inner shear layer. The jet mean flows are calculated numerically. The operating conditions are chosen to exemplify the effect of the coaxial jet outer shear layer initial spreading rates. Calculations are made for the stability characteristics in the coaxial jet shear layers and the noise radiated from the instability waves for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow and exit area as a single reference jet. Results for inverted velocity profile jets indicate that relative maximum instability wave amplitudes and far field peak noise levels can be reduced from that of the reference jet by having higher spreading rates for the outer shear layer, low velocity ratios, and outer streams hotter than the inner stream.

Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

1997-01-01

365

Thrust Removal Scheme for the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model Tested in the National Transonic Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.

2014-01-01

366

Experimental Results of Schlicher's Thrusting Antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to test the claims by Rex L. Schlicher, et al., (Patent 5,142,86 1) that a certain antenna geometry produces thrust greatly exceeding radiation reaction, when driven by repetitive, fast rise, and relatively slower decay current pulses. In order to test this hypothesis, the antenna was suspended by strings as a 3 in pendulum. Current pulses were fed to the antenna along the suspension path by a very flexible coaxial line constructed from loudspeaker cable and copper braid sheath. When driving the antenna via this cabling, our pulser was capable of sustaining 1200 A pulses at a rate of 30 per second up to a minute. In this way, bursts of pulses could be delivered in synch with the pendulum period in order to build up any motion. However, when using a laser beam passing through a lens attached to the antenna to amplify linear displacement by a factor of at least 25, no correlated motion of the beam spot could be detected on a distant wall. We conclude, in agreement with the momentum theorem of classical electromagnetic theory, that any thrust produced is far below practically useful levels. Hence, within classical electrodynamics, there is little hope of detecting any low level motion that cannot be explained by interactions with surrounding structural steel and the Earth's magnetic field.

Fralick, Gustave C.; Niedra, Janis M.

2001-01-01

367

OMV/VTE variable thrust engine analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present work is to develop a predictive CFD based analytical tool for the variable thrust engine (VTE) in the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). This objective is being accomplished within the framework of the Los Alamos KIVA computer code for chemically reactive flows with sprays. For the OMV application, the main structure of KIVA is to be retained while reformulating many of the phenomenological submodels, enhancing some of the numerics, and adding more features. The analytical model consists of the general conservation equations for two phase reactive flows and of submodels for turbulence, chemical reactions, and bipropellant sprays. Tailoring this model to the OMV engine brings about the added complexities of combustion and flow processes that occur in a liquid hypergolic propellant rocket chamber. This report exposes the foundation upon which the analytical tool is being constructed and developed. Results from a cursory computational exercise involving the simulation of the flow and combustion processes in a hypothetical N2H4/N2O4 rocket engine thrust chamber is presented and discussed.

Larosillere, Louis; Litchford, Ron; Jeng, San-Mou

1989-01-01

368

The scour of cohesive soils by an inclined submerged water jet  

E-print Network

of motion. Implicit in this definition is the fact that the moving fluid exerts forces on the particles comprising the boundary. " Thus, the scour of a submerged and inclined cohesive soil initiated by jet thrust is an extremely complex pzoblem due... velocity which decreases due to shear along the wall boundary. Thus, the wall jet velocity profile will grow proportionately with respect to radial distance. 22 Glauert's experiment used a rigid, smooth and impervious boundary, but these conditions do...

Hedges, Joseph Delbert

2012-06-07

369

Thrust Enhancement in Hypervelocity Nozzles by Chemical Catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the hypersonic flight regime, the air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) has been shown to be a viable propulsion system. The current designs of scramjet engines provide performance benefits only up to a Mach number of 14. Performance losses increase rapidly as the Mach number increases. To extend the applicability of scram'jets beyond Mach 14, research is being conducted in the area of inlet and wave drag reduction, skin-friction and heat-transfer reduction, nozzle loss minimization, low-loss mixing, and combustion enhancement. For high Mach number applications, hydrogen is the obvious fuel choice because of its high energy content per unit mass in comparison with conventional fuels. These flight conditions require engines to operate at supersonic internal velocities, high combustor temperatures, and low static pressures. The high static temperature condition enhances the production of radicals such as H and OH, and the low-pressure condition slows the reaction rates, particularly the recombination reactions. High-temperature and low-pressure constraints, in combination with a small residence time, result in a radical-rich exhaust gas mixture exiting the combustor. At high Mach number conditions (due to low residence time), H and OH do not have enough time to recombine ; thus, a significant amount of energy is lost as these high-energy free radical are exhausted. The objective of the present study is to conduct a flowfield analysis for a typical nozzle geometry for NASP-type vehicle to assess for thrust enhancement in hypervelocity nozzles by substituting small amount of phosphine for hydrogen.

Singh, D. J.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Drummond, J. P.

1997-01-01

370

Radiation from a double layer jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic radiation caused by two acoustic point sources located symmetrically on the sides of a double layer jet which produces a velocity discontinuity was examined, with attention given to the effect on the sound by the stream. Basic equations were defined in terms of wave propagation in the fluid in motion and a Fourier transformation. It was found that the radiation due to a point source on one side of the jet is enhanced by the presence of sound transmitted from the other side. The effect is expressed as a function of the reflection coefficient, wherein the reflections take place at the vortex interfaces separating the fluid in motion from the fluid at rest. The intensity patterns were determined to be kidney-shaped, lung-shaped, and heart-shaped, and characterized by a deep valley in the directivity pattern. The significance of the findings for STOL aircraft ejector thrust augmentation is mentioned.

Dash, R.

1983-01-01

371

The smallest man-made jet engine.  

PubMed

The design of catalytic engines powered by chemical fuels is an exciting and emerging field in multidisciplinary scientific communities. Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled scientists to shrink the size of macroengines down to microscopic, but yet powerful, engines. Since a couple of years ago, we have reported our progress towards the control and application of catalytic microtubular engines powered by the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide fuel which produces a thrust of oxygen bubbles. Efforts were undertaken in our group to prove whether the fabrication of nanoscale jets is possible. Indeed, the smallest jet engine (600 nm in diameter and 1 picogram of weight) was synthesized based on heteroepitaxially grown layers. These nanojets are able to self-propel in hydrogen peroxide solutions and are promising for the realisation of multiple tasks. PMID:21898776

Sanchez, Samuel; Solovev, Alexander A; Harazim, Stefan M; Deneke, Christoph; Mei, Yong Feng; Schmidt, Oliver G

2011-12-01

372

14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.73 Power or thrust response. The design and...

2010-01-01

373

14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.73 Power or thrust response. The design and...

2013-01-01

374

14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.73 Power or thrust response. The design and...

2012-01-01

375

14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.73 Power or thrust response. The design and...

2011-01-01

376

14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.  

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines 33.73 Power or thrust response. The design and...

2014-01-01

377

Acoustics and aerodynamics of over-the-wing thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine Program, model tests were conducted to determine the effects of thrust reverser geometric parameters on noise and reverse thrust. The acoustic tests used a 1/6 scale model thrust reverser while the aerodynamic performance tests used a 1/12 scale model reverser. Parameters which were varied in both tests include blocker spacing, blocker height, lip angle, and lip length. The impact of these parameters on peak sideline noise and reverse thrust performance is discussed.

Stimpert, D. L.; Ammer, R. C.

1976-01-01

378

Vector Addition Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition Calculator lets students add vectors graphically in 2 dimensions by dragging the tips of the vectors. The results of a component method of addition for the same problem are also displayed.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

379

Jet radiation radius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet radiation patterns are indispensable for the purpose of discriminating partons with different quantum numbers. However, they are also vulnerable to various contaminations from the underlying event, pileup, and radiation of adjacent jets. In order to maximize the discrimination power, it is essential to optimize the jet radius used when analyzing the radiation patterns. We introduce the concept of jet radiation radius, which quantifies how the jet radiation is distributed around the jet axis. We study the color and momentum dependence of the jet radiation radius and discuss two applications: quark-gluon discrimination and W -jet tagging. In both cases, smaller (sub)jet radii are preferred for jets with higher pT's, albeit due to different mechanisms: the running of the QCD coupling constant and the boost to a color-singlet system. A shrinking cone W -jet tagging algorithm is proposed to achieve better discrimination than previous methods.

Han, Zhenyu

2014-10-01

380

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

E-print Network

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Roloff, Philipp

2013-01-01

381

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

E-print Network

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Philipp Roloff

2013-10-23

382

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Roloff, P.

383

Jet Radiation Radius  

E-print Network

Jet radiation patterns are indispensable for the purpose of discriminating partons' with different quantum numbers. However, they are also vulnerable to various contaminations from the underlying event, pileup, and radiation of adjacent jets. In order to maximize the discrimination power, it is essential to optimize the jet radius used when analyzing the radiation patterns. We introduce the concept of jet radiation radius which quantifies how the jet radiation is distributed around the jet axes. We study the color and momentum dependence of the jet radiation radius, and discuss two applications: quark-gluon discrimination and $W$ jet tagging. In both cases, smaller (sub)jet radii are preferred for jets with higher PTs, albeit due to different mechanisms: the running of the QCD coupling constant and the boost to a color singlet system. A shrinking cone W jet tagging algorithm is proposed to achieve better discrimination than previous methods.

Zhenyu Han

2014-02-06

384

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends upon knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined which accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2005-01-01

385

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least-squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

386

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine's performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

387

Erosional history and possible passive uplift of Paris-Willard Thrust allochthon, Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic distribution of clast lithologies in Sevier foreland basin synorogenic conglomerates in the southwestern Wyoming-southeastern Idaho-northeastern Utah thrust belt provides evidence of the erosional history of the Paris-Willard thrust allochthon. Conglomerates of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Gannett Group were deposited in response to initial movement along the Paris-Willard thrust system and are comprised of cobbles and pebbles of Ordovician through Jurassic strata, with upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic clasts most common. Thus, by conclusion of initial Paris-Willard thrust movement, the allochthon had been affected by widespread erosion of lower Paleozoic through lower Mesozoic strata. Evidence for subsequent erosion to deeper stratigraphic levels is contained in the basal Hams Fork Conglomerate Member of the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene Evanston Formation. This unit contains abundant Precambrian quartzite cobbles, which must have been derived from the Paris-Willard allochthon, the only thrust sheet that contains Precambrian quartzite units. Genesis of the Hams Fork Conglomerate has been related to latest Cretaceous major movement along the Absaroka thrust. Thus, either the Paris-Willard thrust was fortuitously reactivated at the same time as major Absaroka thrust movement or uplift associated with movement along the Absaroka thrust resulted in coeval uplift of the Paris-Willard allochthon.

Schmitt, J.G.

1985-05-01

388

A computational study of thrust augmenting ejectors based on a viscous-inviscid approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viscous-inviscid interaction technique is advocated as both an efficient and accurate means of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. The flow field is subdivided into a viscous region that contains the turbulent jet and an inviscid region that contains the ambient fluid drawn into the device. The inviscid region is computed with a higher-order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. The strong viscous-inviscid interaction present within the ejector is simulated in an iterative process where the two regions influence each other en route to a converged solution. The model is applied to a variety of parametric and optimization studies involving ejectors having either one or two primary jets. The effects of nozzle placement, inlet and diffuser shape, free stream speed, and ejector length are investigated. The inlet shape for single jet ejectors is optimized for various free stream speeds and Reynolds numbers. Optimal nozzle tilt and location are identified for various dual-ejector configurations.

Lund, Thomas S.; Tavella, Domingo A.; Roberts, Leonard

1987-01-01

389

Saturn: A Giant Thrust into Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saturn: A Giant Thrust into Space. The film provides an introduction and overview of the Saturn launch vehicle. It is designed with stages to drop off as fuel is spent. There may be two, three, or four stages, depending on the payload. The Saturn rocket will be used to send Apollo missions to the Moon and back. Guidance systems and booster engine rockets are based on proven mechanisms. Scale models are used to test the engines. Hardware, airframes, guidance systems, instrumentation, and the rockets are produced at sites throughout the country. The engines go to Marshall Space Flight Center for further tests. After partial assembly, the vehicle is shipped to Cape Canaveral in large pieces where it is assembled using specially built equipment and structures. Further trials are performed to assure successful launches. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030961. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

390

Temporary tongue thrust: failure during orthodontic treatment.  

PubMed

This report presents the case of a 25-year-old male patient who sought orthodontic treatment. Oral examination revealed an Angle Class I relation, with a bimaxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, evidence of anterior crowding, and a large overbite and overjet. Radiographic examination revealed a skeletal Class I occlusion. During the distal movement of the canines, occlusal interferences between the canines occurred and the commencement of a tongue thrust was observed. After correction of the applied forces, the canine movement was completed and the habit was no longer detectable. The incident indicates that an unusual oral habit suspiciously occurring during treatment should lead to an immediate reconsideration of the orthodontic treatment strategy. PMID:12502128

Piyapattamin, Thosapol; Soma, Kunimichi; Hisano, Masataka

2002-03-01

391

Mean streamwise velocity measurements in a triple jet of equilateral triangular configuration  

SciTech Connect

Multijet flows arise in several applications such as jet engine/rocket combustors, the thrust augmenting ejectors for VTOL/STOL aircraft, and industrial gas burners. In order to achieve proper combustion, thrust development, and reduction in the noise level, it is often desirable to control the inter-mixing between the jets and also the entrainment of the surrounding atmosphere. This, in turn, requires a detailed study of the behavior of high speed jets in multijet configuration. The situation of interest here is an array of three axisymmetric nozzles set in a common end wall with equal spacing in a triangular configuration. The reason why this particular configuration has been chosen is that it promotes bending of the jet axes toward each other, thus leading to greater mixing. In the present study, experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of stagnation pressure ratio and nozzle spacing upon the mean flow characteristic of compressible jets in triangular configuration. The individual flow features of the vertex jet and the base twin jet are analyzed and their contributions to the axis switching as well as the overall triple jet behavior are highlighted.

Moustafa, G.H. (Menoufia Univ. (Egypt). Coll. of Engineering); Sundararajan, T. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rathakrishnan, E. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)

1993-09-01

392

Jet inclusive cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

Del Duca, V.

1992-11-01

393

Supersonic nonisobaric gas jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and methods of investigation of supersonic nonisobaric gas jets are examined, with allowance made for the effect of viscosity phenomena, nonequilibrium physicochemical processes, and multiphase nature of the flow. A classification of supersonic nonisobaric jet flows is proposed, and the shock wave structure of jets is analyzed for various flow conditions. Particular attention is given to jets issuing

V. S. Avduevskii; E. A. Ashratov; A. V. Ivanov; U. G. Pirumov

1985-01-01

394

Enhancing liquid jet erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process and apparatus for enhancing the erosive intensity of a high velocity liquid jet when the jet is impacted against a surface for cutting, cleaning, drilling or otherwise acting on the surface. A preferred method comprises the steps of forming a high velocity liquid jet, oscillating the velocity of the jet at a preferred Strouhal number, and impinging the pulsed

Johnson V. E. Jr

1984-01-01

395

Jet noise from ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern commercial jet transport aircraft are powered by turbofan engines. Thrust from a turbofan engine is derived in part from the exhaust of a ducted fan, which may or may not be mixed with the core exhaust before exiting the nacelle. The historical trend has been toward ever higher bypass ratios (BPRs). The BPR is the ratio of air mass passing through the fan to that going through the core. The higher BPR engines can be more efficient and quieter. In general, a higher BPR results in lower average exhaust velocities and less jet noise. In order to address a scarcity of noise data for BPRs greater than 6, an extensive database collection effort was undertaken using the Jet Engine Simulator in NASA Langley's Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel. Forward flight simulations of Mach 0.1, 0.2, and 0.28 were used with BPRs of 5, 8, 11, and 14. Data was taken over the entire operating line of the simulated engines along with parametric deviations to provide a complete set of sensitivity measurements. The results will be used to develop an empirical jet noise prediction capability for ultrahigh bypass engines.

Posey, Joe W.; Norum, Thomas D.; Brown, Martha C.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

2002-05-01

396

Nozzle optimization for water jet propulsion with a positive displacement pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

Yang, You-sheng; Xie, Ying-chun; Nie, Song-lin

2014-06-01

397

Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

1977-01-01

398

Propagation of a turbulent jet impinging on a plane surface in an external stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an investigation of the three-dimensional vortex zone which forms near a plane surface when a turbulent jet impinges on it in an external stream are presented. Problems of this kind occur, for example, in a study of the effects of the entry of exhaust gases into the air intakes of engines when aircraft with thrust reversers turned

Yu. M. Klestov

1978-01-01

399

Experiments on thermal effects in a hydrodynamic thrust bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to analyse the characteristics of a fixed-geometry thrust bearing in typical operating conditions and to give experimental results in order to validate future thermohydrodynamic models. The influence of the applied load, the rotational speed and the feeding temperature on the thrust bearing performance is presented and discussed.

A Dadouche; M Fillon; J. C Bligoud

2000-01-01

400

Dynamic Visual Acuity during Passive Head Thrusts in Canal Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA

Michael C. Schubert; Americo A. Migliaccio; Charles C. Della Santina

2006-01-01

401

Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

2006-07-01

402

Impact of plasma noise on a direct thrust measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a pendulum-type thrust measurement system, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and a laser optical displacement sensor have been used simultaneously to determine the displacement resulting from an applied thrust. The LVDT sensor uses an analog interface, whereas the laser sensor uses a digital interface to communicate the displacement readings to the data acquisition equipment. The data collected by both sensors show good agreement for static mass calibrations and validation with a cold gas thruster. However, the data obtained using the LVDT deviate significantly from that of the laser sensor when operating two varieties of plasma thrusters: a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma thruster, and a DC powered plasma thruster. Results establish that even with appropriate shielding and signal filtering the LVDT sensor is subject to plasma noise and radio frequency interactions which result in anomalous thrust readings. Experimental data show that the thrust determined using the LVDT system in a direct current plasma environment and a RF discharge is approximately a factor of three higher than the thrust values obtained using a laser sensor system for the operating conditions investigated. These findings are of significance to the electric propulsion community as LVDT sensors are often utilized in thrust measurement systems and accurate thrust measurement and the reproducibility of thrust data is key to analyzing thruster performance. Methods are proposed to evaluate system susceptibility to plasma noise and an effective filtering scheme presented for DC discharges.

Pottinger, S. J.; Lamprou, D.; Knoll, A. K.; Lappas, V. J.

2012-03-01

403

Friction torque in grease lubricated thrust ball bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrust ball bearings lubricated with several different greases were tested on a modified Four-Ball Machine, where the Four-Ball arrangement was replaced by a bearing assembly. The friction torque and operating temperatures in a thrust ball bearing were measured during the tests. At the end of each test a grease sample was analyzed through ferrographic techniques in order to quantify and

Tiago Cousseau; Beatriz Graa; Armando Campos; Jorge Seabra

2011-01-01

404

Advanced power and on-board propulsion thrust area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose or objective of the Advanced Power and On-Board Propulsion Thrust is to provide critical technology advancements to meet the needs of the NASA Enterprises and Strategic Technology Areas. Where appropriate, the Thrust will also consider the needs of the commercial industry and the DOD from the point of view of leveraging resources, and more rapid technology infusion.

J. J. Nainiger

2000-01-01

405

Airfoil Thickness Effects on the Thrust Generation of Plunging Airfoils  

E-print Network

Airfoil Thickness Effects on the Thrust Generation of Plunging Airfoils Meilin Yu, Z. J. Wang to investigate the effects of airfoil thickness on the thrust generation of plunging airfoils and to assess the contributions of pressure and viscous forces in flapping propulsion. A series of NACA symmetric airfoils

Hu, Hui

406

Reactor thrust during boost in a high altitude trajectory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactor startup of a submarine based missile must be accomplished during boost., so that at burnout the reactor maximum wall temperature is at or near the design value. Because cooling air must be supplied during this period, there exists the possibility of obtaining some thrust to augment the booster. To find how much reactor thrust might be available, a representative

1962-01-01

407

Investigation of Flow Turning in a Natural Blockage Thrust Reverser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and computational low speed tests have been conducted on a 50% scale model of a two- dimensional natural blockage fan flow cascade thrust reverser. The aim of the work is to provide a reference database for future work investigating innovative flow control in fan flow thrust reversers. Results are presented for a reverser with cascade solidity = 1.3. The

R. K. Cooper; E. Benard; S. Raghunathan

408

The 30-centimeter ion thrust subsystem design manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal characteristics of the 30-centimeter ion propulsion thrust subsystem technology that was developed to satisfy the propulsion needs of future planetary and early orbital missions are described. Functional requirements and descriptions, interface and performance requirements, and physical characteristics of the hardware are described at the thrust subsystem, BIMOD engine system, and component level.

1979-01-01

409

Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Area report FY'84  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work of the Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Areas for FY'84: diagnostics and microelectronic engineering; signal and control engineering; microwave and pulsed power engineering; computer-aided engineering; engineering modeling and simulation; and systems engineering. For each Thrust Area, an overview and a description of the goals and achievements of each project is provided.

Minichino, C.; Phelps, P.L. (eds.)

1984-01-01

410

Numerical Simulation on Flow Fields of the Blockerless Thrust Reverser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow fields of a blockerless thrust reverser model were studied using computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The numerical simulations were performed with the bypass ratio of 9. The effects of cascade flow ratio and the injection flow ratio with variation of injection parameters at different fan nozzle pressure ratio (FNPR) were studied. According to detailed analysis of the thrust reverser

Yun-Hao Zhang; Qitai Eri; Xiao-Xing Li

2011-01-01

411

Heat pipe technology for advanced rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of heat pipe technology to the design of rocket engine thrust chambers is discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) evaporator wick development, (2) specific heat pipe designs and test results, (3) injector design, fabrication, and cold flow testing, and (4) preliminary thrust chamber design.

Rousar, D. C.

1971-01-01

412

Impact of plasma noise on a direct thrust measurement system.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a pendulum-type thrust measurement system, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and a laser optical displacement sensor have been used simultaneously to determine the displacement resulting from an applied thrust. The LVDT sensor uses an analog interface, whereas the laser sensor uses a digital interface to communicate the displacement readings to the data acquisition equipment. The data collected by both sensors show good agreement for static mass calibrations and validation with a cold gas thruster. However, the data obtained using the LVDT deviate significantly from that of the laser sensor when operating two varieties of plasma thrusters: a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma thruster, and a DC powered plasma thruster. Results establish that even with appropriate shielding and signal filtering the LVDT sensor is subject to plasma noise and radio frequency interactions which result in anomalous thrust readings. Experimental data show that the thrust determined using the LVDT system in a direct current plasma environment and a RF discharge is approximately a factor of three higher than the thrust values obtained using a laser sensor system for the operating conditions investigated. These findings are of significance to the electric propulsion community as LVDT sensors are often utilized in thrust measurement systems and accurate thrust measurement and the reproducibility of thrust data is key to analyzing thruster performance. Methods are proposed to evaluate system susceptibility to plasma noise and an effective filtering scheme presented for DC discharges. PMID:22462919

Pottinger, S J; Lamprou, D; Knoll, A K; Lappas, V J

2012-03-01

413

Characterization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airport noise impact on communities has been an area of considerable study. However, it has been determined that thrust reverser engagement is an area requiring further research. This paper presents findings on thrust reverser from a noise study done at Washington-Dulles International Airport (IAD) in October of 2004. Previous studies have found that high levels of acoustic energy in commercial

Remy M. Gutierrez; Anthony A. Atchley; Kathleen K. Hodgdon

2005-01-01

414

Low thrust minimum-fuel orbital transfer: a homotopic approach  

E-print Network

to the transfer time and maximal thrust. PhD student, email: thomas.haberkorn@enseeiht.fr PhD student, email orbital transfer, in which we want to move a satellite from a low, elliptic, and inclined initial orbitLow thrust minimum-fuel orbital transfer: a homotopic approach T. Haberkorn , P. Martinon , and J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Nanobalance: An automated interferometric balance for micro-thrust measurement  

E-print Network

Nanobalance: An automated interferometric balance for micro-thrust measurement Enrico Canuto micro-thrusters in the range 0­1 mN with submicronewton accuracy. Low-noise micro-thrusters pendulums suspended at a constant distance, one of which carrying the micro-thruster under test. Any thrust

Canuto, Enrico

416

Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accommodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part 1: Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2: Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3: Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine. two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5.000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC materials in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

Halliwell, Ian

2001-01-01

417

Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accomodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part I-Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2-Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25.800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3-Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine, two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC material in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

Halliwell, Ian

2001-01-01

418

Inside the Jet Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The jet stream is a complex phenomenon involving the interplay between many variables. This resource provides a variety of materials, including Giving Rise to the Jet Stream, which is a simplified introduction that shows what generates the jet stream and why it flows from west to east. The site also contains a five-day view of the jet stream, which is a realistic depiction of how the jet stream flows; a page that provides some answers to frequently asked questions about the jet stream; and a glossary of terms used in the Giving Rise to the Jet Stream feature.

Groleau, Rick

419

The fluid motion physics: The interaction mechanics of a free liquid jet with a body and with the other free liquid jet  

E-print Network

Solution of a problem on the interaction mechanics of a free liquid jet with a flat plate, body and with other jet has been achieved by means of a graphic-analytical method, developed by author of the given article. This method has allowed physically adequately and visually to describe the flow field near the streamlined surface and to give expressions for quantitative evaluation of the jet pressure profile onto this surface. This method is equally correct for both a flat jet and a jet with a round cross-section. Analysis of the flow field has allowed to detect a jet component, induced by the body fore part in the unrestricted fluid stream and determining the body form drag. Besides that, it has been ascertained that a friction also induces the jet component in the potential boundary layer. It has been introduced a new notion of the stream total head vector, determining an origin of the possible jet flow in the stream.

Arsenjev, S L

2008-01-01

420

Six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for hybrid rocket.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust is the reactive force experienced by a rocket due to the ejection of high velocity matter. The Hybrid Rocket Facility at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) uses strain gauges mounted to an s-beam to measure axial direction thrust of the rocket. A new six degree of freedom thrust sensor has been built for the UALR Hybrid Rocket Facility. The six degrees of freedom are the thrust force components in the three spacial directions (Fx, Fy, Fz) plus the three moments (roll, pitch, yaw). Even though the majority of the rocket's thrust is in the axial direction, the components in the other directions are non-zero, and must be measured to account for the total work done by the rocket motor. The sensor design and fabrication are now complete. Calibration of the load cells on each of the six uni-axial legs of the sensor and any preliminary data available will be presented.

Wilson, Joshua

2008-04-01

421

Distributed Exhaust Nozzles for Jet Noise Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this study is to validate the jet noise reduction potential of a concept associated with distributed exhaust nozzles. Under this concept the propulsive thrust is generated by a larger number of discrete plumes issuing from an array of small or mini-nozzles. The potential of noise reduction of this concept stems from the fact that a large number of small jets will produce very high frequency noise and also, if spaced suitably, they will coalesce at a smaller velocity to produce low amplitude, low frequency noise. This is accomplished through detailed acoustic and fluid measurements along with a Computational Fluidic Dynamic (CFD) solution of the mean (DE) Distributed Exhaust nozzle flowfield performed by Northrop-Grumman. The acoustic performance is quantified in an anechoic chamber. Farfield acoustic data is acquired for a DE nozzle as well as a round nozzle of the same area. Both these types of nozzles are assessed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques. The CFD analysis ensures that both nozzles issued the same amount of airflow for a given nozzle pressure ratio. Data at a variety of nozzle pressure ratios are acquired at a range of polar and azimuthal angles. Flow visualization of the DE nozzle is used to assess the fluid dynamics of the small jet interactions. Results show that at high subsonic jet velocities, the DE nozzle shifts its frequency of peak amplitude to a higher frequency relative to a round nozzle of equivalent area (from a S(sub tD) = 0.24 to 1. 3). Furthermore, the DE nozzle shows reduced sound pressure levels (as much as 4 - 8 dB) in the low frequency part of the spectrum (less than S(sub tD) = 0.24 ) compared to the round nozzle. At supersonic jet velocities, the DE nozzle does not exhibit the jet screech and the shock-associated broadband noise is reduced by as much as 12 dB.

Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J.; Hellman, B.; Schein, D. B.; Solomon, W. D., Jr.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

422

Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the test campaigns designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasmadynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QVPT), but instead will describe the recent test campaign. In addition, it contains a brief description of the supporting radio frequency (RF) field analysis, lessons learned, and potential applications of the technology to space exploration missions. During the first (Cannae) portion of the campaign, approximately 40 micronewtons of thrust were observed in an RF resonant cavity test article excited at approximately 935 megahertz and 28 watts. During the subsequent (tapered cavity) portion of the campaign, approximately 91 micronewtons of thrust were observed in an RF resonant cavity test article excited at approximately 1933 megahertz and 17 watts. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level. Test campaign results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma.

Brady, David A.; White, Harold G.; March, Paul; Lawrence, James T.; Davies, Frank J.

2014-01-01

423

Motion filter vector quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion-compensated prediction of video is formulated as a novel vector quantization scheme called motion filter vector quantiza- tion (MFVQ). In MFVQ, the motion vector and the pixel-intensity interpolation filter are combined into a motion filter and the en- tire filter is vector quantized. A codebook design algorithm is proposed for designing unit gain and entropy constrained MFVQ codebooks. The algorithm

Dariusz Blasiak; Wai-yip Chan

2002-01-01

424

Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears

Pina, E.

2011-01-01

425

14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. 23.934 Section...General 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan...

2011-01-01

426

14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25...Powerplant General 25.934 Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must...

2010-01-01

427

14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. 23.934 Section...General 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan...

2013-01-01

428

14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. 23.934 Section...General 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan...

2012-01-01