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1

An Experimental/Modeling Study of Jet Attachment during Counterflow Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have shown the applicability of vectoring rectangular jets using asymmetrically applied counterflow in the presence of a short collar. This novel concept has applications in the aerospace industry where counterflow can be used to vector the thrust of a jet's exhaust, shortening take-off and landing distances and enhancing in-flight maneuverability of the aircraft. Counterflow thrust vectoring, 'CFTV' is desirable due to its fast time response, low thrust loss, and absence of moving parts. However, implementation of a CFTV system is only possible if bistable jet attachment can be prevented. This can be achieved by properly designing the geometry of the collar. An analytical model is developed herein to predict the conditions under which a two-dimensional jet will attach to an offset curved wall. Results from this model are then compared with experiment; for various jet exit Mach numbers, collar offset distances, and radii of curvature. Their excellent correlation permits use of the model as a tool for designing a CFTV system.

Strykowski, Paul J.

1997-01-01

2

Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

1989-01-01

3

Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

1999-01-01

4

Solid rocket thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vector control systems that superimpose a side force on the motor thrust, steering being achieved by the side force causing a moment about the vehicle center of gravity are described. A brief review of thrust vector control systems is presented, and two systems, flexible joint and liquid injection, are treated in detail. Treatment of the flexible-joint thrust vector control system is limited to the design of the flexible joint and its insulation against hot motor gases. Treatment of the liquid injection thrust vector control system is limited to discussion of the injectant, valves, piping, storage tanks, and pressurization system; no evaluation is presented of the nozzle except for (1) the effect of the injectant and erosion at the injection port and (2) the effect of injection on pressure distribution within the nozzle.

1974-01-01

5

STOL landing thrust: Reverser jet flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis tools and modeling concepts for jet flow fields encountered upon use of thrust reversers for high performance military aircraft are described. A semi-empirical model of the reverser ground wall jet interaction with the uniform cross flow due to aircraft forward velocity is described. This ground interaction model is used to demonstrate exhaust gas ingestion conditions. The effects of control of exhaust jet vector angle, lateral splay, and moving versus fixed ground simulation are discussed. The Adler/Baron jet-in-cross flow model is used in conjunction with three dimensional panel methods to investigate the upper surface jet induced flow field.

Kotansky, D. R.; Glaze, L. W.

1987-01-01

6

Thrust vector control by liquid injection for solid propellant rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In liquid injection thrust vector control, a rocket jet is deflected for steering purposed by injecting a liquid into the nozzle exit cone. The liquid is preferably both dense and reactive so that it adds mass and energy and generates shocks in the supersonic exhaust. This behavior increases thrust in the affected part of the jet producing not only a side force for steering but an addition to axial thrust. This paper presents a summary of current liquid injection thrust vector control technology, including procedures for design, development, analysis, testing and evaluation, together with supporting data and references.

Zeamer, R. J.

1975-01-01

7

Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring by Navier-Stokes solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induced aerodynamics from thrust vectoring are investigated by a computational fluid dynamic method. A thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code with multiblock capability is used. Jet properties are specified on the nozzle exit plane to simulate the jet momentum. Results for a rectangular jet in a cross flow are compared with data to verify the code. Further verification of the calculation is made by comparing the numerical results with transonic data for a wing-body combination. Additional calculations were performed to elucidate the following thrust vectoring effects: the thrust vectoring effect on shock and expansion waves, induced effects on nearby surfaces, and the thrust vectoring effect on the leading edge vortex.

Tseng, Jing-Biau; Lan, C. Edward

1991-01-01

8

Analysis of stratified and closely spaced jets exhausting into a crossflow. [aerodynamic characteristics of lift-jet, vectored thrust, and lift fan V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures have been developed for determining the flow field about jets with velocity stratification exhausting into a crossflow. Jets with three different types of exit velocity stratification have been considered: (1) jets with a relatively high velocity core; (2) jets with a relatively low velocity core; and (3) jets originating from a vaned nozzle. The procedure developed for a jet originating from a high velocity core nozzle is to construct an equivalent nozzle having the same mass flow and thrust but having a uniform exit velocity profile. Calculations of the jet centerline and induced surface static pressures have been shown to be in good agreement with test data for a high velocity core nozzle. The equivalent ideal nozzle has also been shown to be a good representation for jets with a relatively low velocity core and for jets originating from a vaned nozzle in evaluating jet-induced flow fields. For the singular case of a low velocity core nozzle, namely a nozzle with a dead air core, and for the vaned nozzle, an alternative procedure has been developed. The internal mixing which takes place in the jet core has been properly accounted for in the equations of motion governing the jet development. Calculations of jet centerlines and induced surface static pressures show good agreement with test data these nozzles.

Ziegler, H.; Woller, P. T.

1973-01-01

9

Thrust-Vector-Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control gains computed via matrix Riccati equation. Software-based system controlling aim of gimbaled rocket motor on spacecraft adaptive and optimal in sense it adjusts control gains in response to feedback, according to optimizing algorithm based on cost function. Underlying control concept also applicable, with modifications, to thrust-vector control on vertical-takeoff-and-landing airplanes, control of orientations of scientific instruments, and robotic control systems.

Murray, Jonathan

1992-01-01

10

Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

Wing, David J.

1996-01-01

11

Thrust Vector Control using movable probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was undertaken to determine if movable probes or struts positioned in the nozzle can be used to provide Thrust Vector Control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The study employed CFD to determine estimates of the shock standoff distance from the probe. An empirical correlation was used to construct the shock shape and the pressure distribution generated by the probe. The TVC performance for a single and multiple number of probes was then used to determine requirements for a maximum thrust angle offset of 7.5 degrees. Consideration was given to what materials would be suitable for the probe and if active cooling is required. Based on the performance analysis and thermal requirements, a Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) system was sized. Indications are that a PTVC system weight is in the 1500 1bm weight range, compared to the existing weight of 7500 1bm for the SRB nozzle gimble system.

Cavalleri, Robert; Tiarn, Weihnurng; Readey, Harvey

1990-01-01

12

Hovering control of vectored thrust aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a vectored thrust aerial vehicle( VTAV) that has three ducted fans is considered. Since ducted fans are powerful and effective in providing lift, they are suitable for thrusters of UAVs, but modeling their aerodynamic effects such as ram drag is very difficult. The VTAV has one ducted fan fixed to its body and two ducted fans that

Makoto Kumon; Jayantha Katupitiya

2010-01-01

13

Ascent thrust vector control system test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control System in support of the Ares 1-X program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available

2008-01-01

14

Hot gas thrust vector control motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hot gas thrust vector control (HGTVC) motor developed in the framework of a Foreign Weapon Evaluation program is discussed. Two HGTVC versions were evaluated on the two nozzles of the program, normal injection with a blunt pintle and 10 deg upstream injection with a tapered pintle. The HGTVC system was tested on a modified ORBUS-1 motor which is based

Michel Berdoyes; Russell A. Ellis

1992-01-01

15

Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

1992-01-01

16

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Characterization of a Counterflow Thrust Vectoring Scheme  

E-print Network

components to redirect a thrust producing jet. This system relies on fixed curved surfaces (named collars of the application of 2-D counterflow thrust vectoring to the exhaust of a gas turbine engine. The characterization = collar radius RX = X component of the reaction force in the control volume used to estimate v RY = Y

Collins, Emmanuel

17

Nozzle Thrust Optimization While Reducing Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Bluebell nozzle design concept is proposed for jet noise reduction with minimal thrust loss or even thrust augmentation. A Bluebell nozzle has a sinusoidal lip line edge (chevrons) and a sinusoidal cross section shape with linear amplitude increasing downstream in the divergent nozzle part (corrugations). The experimental tests of several Bluebell nozzle designs have shown nose reduction relative to a convergent-divergent round nozzle with design exhaust number M(e) = 1.5. The best design provides an acoustic benefit near 4dB with about 1 percent thrust augmentation. For subsonic flow ((M(e)= 0.6)), the tests indicated that the present method for design of Bluebell nozzles gives less acoustic benefit and in most cases jet noise increased. The proposed designs incorporate analytical theory and 2D and 3D numerical simulations. Full Navier-Stokes and Euler solvers were utilized. Boundary layer effects were used. Several different designs were accounted for in the Euler applications.

Seiner, J. M.; Gilinsky, M. M.

1995-01-01

18

Reaction thrust of water jet for conical nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear knowledge on the reaction thrust of water jet is valuable for better design of water jet propulsion system. In this\\u000a paper, theoretical, numerical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effects of the nozzle geometry\\u000a as well as the inlet conditions on the reaction thrust of water jet. Comparison analyses reveal that the reaction thrust has\\u000a a

Guo-qin Huang; You-sheng Yang; Xiao-hui Li; Yu-quan Zhu

2009-01-01

19

Flexible joints for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible joints have been used to achieve thrust vector control over a wide range of sizes of nozzles and have been demonstrated successfully in bench tests and static firings, and are operational on two motors. From these many joints the problems of flexible joints have been defined as establishment of the movable nozzle envelope, definition of the actuation power requirements, definition of the mechanical properties of joint materials, adhesive bonding, test methods, and quality control. These data and problem solutions are contained in a large number of reports. Data relating to joint configuration, design requirements, materials selection, joint design, structural analysis, manufacture, and testing are summarized.

Woodberry, R. F. H.

1975-01-01

20

Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

2013-01-01

21

Reduced-length scarfed-nozzles for thrust vector adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an investigation into the utilization of scarfed, truncated perfect-nozzles for thrust vector adjustment in tactical strap-on boosters is presented. The use of truncated perfect-nozzle expansion contours was evaluated as a means of achieving significant nozzle length reductions over conical nozzle designs without degrading axial thrust or thrust vector adjustment capability. Previously developed perfect-nozzle and scarfed-nozzle performance analysis

Jay S. Lilley

1993-01-01

22

MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL  

E-print Network

and Pado, 2000) and a helicopter experi- ment in (Wan and Bogdanov, 2001). In (Singh and Fuller, 2001), MPCMODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL EXPERIMENT William B. Dunbar ,1 Mark B ducted fan, a thrust-vectored flight experiment. A real-time trajectory generation software based

Murray, Richard M.

23

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

Roth, Mary Ellen

1990-01-01

24

Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry design compromised thrust vector angle achieved, but some thrust vector control would be available, potentially for aircraft trim. The fixed area, expansion ratio of 1.0, Dual Throat Nozzle provided the best overall compromise for thrust vectoring and nozzle internal performance over the range of NPR tested compared to the variable geometry Dual Throat Nozzle.

Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

2007-01-01

25

Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated and the location of the sonic plane may be further stabilized.

Wing, David J.

1994-01-01

26

Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

2006-01-01

27

Aircraft ground test and subscale model results of axial thrust loss caused by thrust vectoring using turning vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA-Dryden F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle was modified to incorporate three independently controlled turning vanes located aft of the primary nozzle of each engine to vector thrust for pitch and yaw control. Ground measured axial thrust losses were compared with the results from a 14.25 pct. cold jet model for single and dual vanes inserted up to 25 degs into the engine exhaust. Data are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 and nozzle exit areas of 253 and 348 sq in. The results indicate that subscale nozzle test results properly predict trends but underpredict the full scale results by approx. 1 to 4.5 pct. in thrust loss.

Johnson, Steven A.

1992-01-01

28

Experimental Study of a Nozzle Using Fluidic Counterflow for Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static experimental investigation of a counterflow thrust vectoring nozzle concept was performed. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal performance characteristics were defined over a nozzle pressure ratio (jet total to ambient) range of 3.5 to 10.0. The effects of suction collar geometry and suction slot height on nozzle performance were examined. In the counterflow concept, thrust vectoring is achieved by applying a vacuum to a slot adjacent to a primary jet that is shrouded by a suction collar. Two flow phenomena work to vector the primary jet depending upon the test conditions and configuration. In one case, the vacuum source creates a secondary reverse flowing stream near the primary jet. The shear layers between the two counterflowing streams mix and entrain mass from the surrounding fluid. The presence of the collar inhibits mass entrainment and the flow near the collar accelerates, causing a drop in pressure on the collar. The second case works similarly except that the vacuum is not powerful enough to create a counterflowing stream and instead a coflowing stream is present. The primary jet is vectored if suction is applied asymmetrically on the top or bottom of the jet.

Flamm, Jeffrey D.

1998-01-01

29

Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

Roth, Mary Ellen

1990-01-01

30

Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

Lamb, Milton

1995-01-01

31

Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

32

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major Solid Rocket Booster-Thrust Vector Control (SRB-TVC) subsystem components and subcomponents used in the Space Transportation System (STS) are identified. Simplified schematics, detailed schematics, figures, photographs, and data are included to acquaint the reader with the operation, performance, and physical layout as well as the materials and instrumentation used.

Redmon, J., Jr. (compiler)

1983-01-01

33

MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL  

E-print Network

MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL EXPERIMENT William B. Dunbar ,1 Mark B Author to whom correspondence should be addressed, email: dunbar@cds.caltech.edu. Fig. 1. Caltech ducted the computational demand of attempting to use MPC with first principles-based models. Following the large number

Dunbar, William

34

Conceptual design of a thrust-vectoring tailcone for underwater robotics  

E-print Network

Thrust-vectoring on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles is an appealing directional-control solution because it improves turning radius capabilities. Unfortunately, thrust-vectoring requires the entire propulsion system be ...

Nawrot, Michael T

2012-01-01

35

Thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vector control (TVC) for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is obtained by omniaxis vectoring of the nozzle. The development and integration of the system are under the cognizance of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The nozzle and flexible bearing have been designed and will be built by Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Division. The vector requirements of the system, the impact of multiple reuse on the components, and the unique problems associated with a large flexible bearing are discussed. The design details of each of the major TVC subcomponents are delineated. The subscale bearing development program and the overall development schedule also are presented.

Counter, D. N.; Brinton, B. C.

1975-01-01

36

CFD evaluation of an advanced thrust vector control concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A potential concept that can offer an alternate method for thrust vector control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the use of a cylindrical probe that is inserted (on demand) through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternate to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector (LITVC) system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment can be time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment can be very time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the proposed concept are PTVC vectoring performance and the active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. An active thermal cooling method is the injection of coolant around the pheriphery of the probe. How much coolant is required and how this coolant distributes itself in the flow field is of major concern. The objective of the work reported here is the use of CFD to answer these question and in the design of test hardware to substantiate the results of the CFD predictions.

Tiarn, Weihnurng; Cavalleri, Robert

1990-01-01

37

Noise generated by STOL core-jet thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation on the noise generated by target-type thrust reversers is discussed. The experimental data are normalized and scaled up to sizes suitable for reversing the core jets of a 100,000 lb augmentor-wing-type STOL airplane. The scaling calculations yield perceived noise levels well above the 95-PNdB design goal for both sideline and flyover at 500 ft. V-gutter and semicylindrical reversers were tested with a 5.24-cm-diameter circular nozzle, and a semicylindrical reverser was also tested with a 7.78-cm-diameter circular nozzle. The thrust reversers, in addition to being noisier than the nozzle alone, also had a more uniform directivity. The maximum overall sound pressure level and the effective sound power level both varied with sixth power of the nozzle jet velocity.

Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

1972-01-01

38

Viking Orbiter 1975 thrust vector control system accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust vector control (TVC) system of the Viking Orbiter 1975 is discussed. The purpose of the TVC system is to point the engine thrust at the vehicle center of mass and to maintain attitude stability during propulsive maneuvers. This is accomplished by mounting the engine in a two-axis gimbal system. The TVC system then controls the pointing of the engine by closed loop control of two linear actuators which extend or retract and rotate the engine in its gimbal system. The effect of the TVC on the velocity vector pointing error incurred during a propulsive maneuver is analyzed. Models for predicting the magnitude of the error for various propulsive maneuvers are developed.

Mcglinchey, L. F.

1974-01-01

39

QCD -Jets: The thrust of SCET Bjrn O. Lange, Ph.D. (Cornell)  

E-print Network

Factorization of thrust resummation of large logs Cusp anomalous dimension Renormalization-group equationsQCD - Jets: The thrust of SCET Björn O. Lange, Ph.D. (Cornell) Lecture in Theoretical Particle into SCET and an application in jet physics 03.-05. October 2012 B. Lange The thrust of SCET 1 / 43 #12

Rossak, Wilhelm R.

40

Multiaxis thrust vectoring using axisymmetric nozzles and postexit vanes on an F/A-18 configuration vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based investigation was conducted on an operational system of multiaxis thrust vectoring using postexit vanes around an axisymmetric nozzle. This thrust vectoring system will be tested on the NASA F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. The system provides thrust vectoring capability in both pitch and yaw. Ground based data were gathered from two separate tests at NASA Langley Research Center. The first was a static test in the 16-foot Transonic Tunnel Cold-Jet Facility with a 14.25 percent scale model of the axisymmetric nozzle and the postexit vanes. The second test was conducted in the 30 by 60 foot wind tunnel with a 16 percent F/A-18 complete configuration model. Data from the two sets are being used to develop models of jet plume deflection and thrust loss as a function of vane deflection. In addition, an aerodynamic interaction model based on plume deflection angles will be developed. Results from the scale model nozzle test showed that increased vane deflection caused exhaust plume turning. Aerodynamic interaction effects consisted primarily of favorable interaction of moments and unfavorable interaction of forces caused by the vectored jet plume.

Bowers, Albion H.; Noffz, Gregory K.; Grafton, Sue B.; Mason, Mary L.; Peron, Lee R.

1991-01-01

41

Noise generated by STOL core-jet thrust reversers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on the noise generated by target-type thrust reversers. The experimental data are normalized and scaled up to sizes suitable for reversing the core jets of a 45,400-kg augmentor-wing-type STOL airplane. The scaling calculatings yield perceived noise levels well above the 95-PNdB design goal for both sideline and flyover at 152.5 m. V-gutter and semicylindrical reversers were tested with a 5.24-cm-diameter circular nozzle, and a semicylindrical reverser was also tested with a 7.78-cm-diameter circular nozzle. Other test variables were the spacing between nozzle and reverser, reverser orientation, and nozzle pressure ratio. The thrust reversers, in addition to being noisier than the nozzle alone, also had a more uniform directivity.

Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

1972-01-01

42

Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.

Enright, Paul J.

1993-01-01

43

Design of high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Marshall has undertaken the development of electromechanical actuators (EMAs) for thrust vector control (TVC) augmentation system implementation. The TVC EMA presented has as its major components two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two-pass gear-reduction system, and a roller screw for rotary-to-linear motion conversion. System control is furnished by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply; a pair of resolvers deliver position feedback to the controller, such that precise positioning is achieved. Peformance comparisons have been conducted between the EMA and comparable-performance hydraulic systems applicable to TVCs.

Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

1991-01-01

44

Attitude Control for an Aero-Vehicle Using Vector Thrusting and Variable Speed Control Moment Gyros  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stabilization of passively unstable thrust-levitated vehicles can require significant control inputs. Although thrust vectoring is a straightforward choice for realizing these inputs, this may lead to difficulties discussed in the paper. This paper examines supplementing thrust vectoring with Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscopes (VSCMGs). The paper describes how to allocate VSCMGs and the vectored thrust mechanism for attitude stabilization in frequency domain and also shows trade-off between vectored thrust and VSCMGs. Using an H2 control synthesis methodology in LMI optimization, a feedback control law is designed for a thrust-levitated research vehicle and is simulated with the full nonlinear model. It is demonstrated that VSCMGs can reduce the use of vectored thrust variation for stabilizing the hovering platform in the presence of strong wind gusts.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

2005-01-01

45

Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Characteristics of a Model Representative of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 70 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.

Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.

1995-01-01

46

Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

1993-01-01

47

Attitude control of a spinning rocket via thrust vectoring  

SciTech Connect

Two controllers are developed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that has a thrust vectoring capability. The first controller has a single-input/single-output design that ignores the gyroscopic coupling between the control channels. The second controller has a multi-input/multi-output structure that is specifically intended to account for the gyroscopic coupling effects. A performance comparison between the two approached is conducted for a range of roll rates. Each controller is tested for the ability to track step commands, and for the amount of coupling impurity. Both controllers are developed via a linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis procedure, which is motivated by the multi-input/multi-output nature of second controller. Time responses and a singular value analysis are used to evaluate controller performance. This paper describes the development and comparison of two controllers that are designed to provide attitude control of a spinning rocket that is equipped with thrust vector control. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

White, J.E.

1990-12-19

48

Supercirculation effects induced by vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet. [for fighter aircraft maneuverability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust-induced supercirculation effects from thrust vectoring have indicated a potential for not only increasing maneuverability of fighter aircraft but also as a means of improving cruise performance. The current study investigated a partial-span rectangular jet-exhaust nozzle located at the wing trailing edge that acts similar to a jet flap by increasing lift due to supercirculation. This paper summarizes experimental studies including the effects of nozzle deflection angle, wing camber, and nozzle shape and exit location on lift, drag and load distributions. The results indicate that significant increases in thrust-induced lift along with substantial decreases in drag are possible.

Capone, F. J.

1974-01-01

49

Space Transportation System solid rocket booster thrust vector control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, failsafe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system completed the required qualification and verification tests and is certified for the intended application. Substantiation data include analytical and test data.

Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

1980-01-01

50

Space transportation system solid rocket booster thrust vector control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, fail-safe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system has completed the major portion of qualification and verification tests and is prepared to be cleared for the first Shuttle flight (STS-1). Substantiation data will include analytical and test data.

Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

1979-01-01

51

PAB3D Simulations of a Nozzle with Fluidic Injection for Yaw Thrust-Vector Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and computational study was conducted on an exhaust nozzle with fluidic injection for yaw thrust-vector control. The nozzle concept was tested experimentally in the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility (JETF) at nozzle pressure ratios up to 4 and secondary fluidic injection flow rates up to 15 percent of the primary flow rate. Although many injection-port geometries and two nozzle planforms (symmetric and asymmetric) were tested experimentally, this paper focuses on the computational results of the more successful asymmetric planform with a slot injection port. This nozzle concept was simulated with the Navier-Stokes flow solver, PAB3D, invoking the Shih, Zhu, and Lumley algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (ASM) at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) of 2,3, and 4 with secondary to primary injection flow rates (w(sub s)/w(sub p)) of 0, 2, 7 and 10 percent.

Deere, Karen A.

1998-01-01

52

Summary of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Research Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in low-observable aircraft and in lowering an aircraft's exhaust system weight sparked decades of research for fixed geometry exhaust nozzles. The desire for such integrated exhaust nozzles was the catalyst for new fluidic control techniques; including throat area control, expansion control, and thrust-vector angle control. This paper summarizes a variety of fluidic thrust vectoring concepts that have been tested both experimentally and computationally at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concepts are divided into three categories according to the method used for fluidic thrust vectoring: the shock vector control method, the throat shifting method, and the counterflow method. This paper explains the thrust vectoring mechanism for each fluidic method, provides examples of configurations tested for each method, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Deere, Karen A.

2003-01-01

53

An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

1990-01-01

54

Optimal dimensionless design and analysis of jet ejectors as compressors and thrust augmenters  

E-print Network

and rockets. They have not been used as thrust boosters for watercraft, like cargo ships, oil tankers, submarines, boats, jet skis or powered surf boards. _____________ This thesis follows the style of ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology..., there is no literature available for the application of jet ejectors as thrust boosters for watercraft. This drives us to make a fresh beginning in this field, which has remained untapped so far. With no background research materials available, we started...

Mohan, Ganesh

2006-08-16

55

Decoupling control of thrust and attractive force of a LIM using a space vector control inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control method for magnetic levitation vehicles using linear induction motors which can generate both thrust and attractive force, is described. By selecting voltage vectors of PWM inverters appropriately, control with decoupling of the thrust and attractive force is achieved. Levitation control is accomplished by detecting the gap length and controlling the attractive force of each linear induction motor. Ultrasonic

Isao Takahashi; Yuji Ide

1993-01-01

56

Implicit time-marching solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzle flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implicit finite volume method is investigated for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for flows within thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzles. Thrust reversing nozzles typically have sharp corners, and the rapid expansion and large turning angles near these corners are shown to cause unacceptable time step restrictions when conventional approximate factorization methods are used. In this investigation these limitations are overcome by using second-order upwind differencing and line Gauss-Siedel relaxation. This method is implemented with a zonal mesh so that flows through complex nozzle geometries may be efficiently calculated. Results are presented for five nozzle configurations including two with time varying geometries. Three cases are compared with available experimental data and the results are generally acceptable.

Imlay, S. T.

1986-01-01

57

Static Investigation of a Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle With Variable Internal Contouring Ability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thrust efficiency and vectoring performance of a convergent-divergent nozzle were investigated at static conditions in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The diamond-shaped nozzle was capable of varying the internal contour of each quadrant individually by using cam mechanisms and retractable drawers to produce pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. Pitch thrust vectoring was achieved by either retracting the lower drawers to incline the throat or varying the internal flow-path contours to incline the throat. Yaw thrust vectoring was achieved by reducing flow area left of the nozzle centerline and increasing flow area right of the nozzle centerline; a skewed throat deflected the flow in the lateral direction.

Wing, David J.; Mills, Charles T. L.; Mason, Mary L.

1997-01-01

58

An Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Thrust Augmentation Using a Speaker-Driven Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation is described in which a simple speaker-driven jet was used as a pulsed thrust source (driver) for an ejector configuration. The objectives of the investigation were twofold: first, to add to the experimental body of evidence showing that an unsteady thrust source, combined with a properly sized ejector generally yields higher thrust augmentation values than a similarly sized, steady driver of equivalent thrust. Second, to identify characteristics of the unsteady driver that may be useful for sizing ejectors, and predicting what thrust augmentation values may be achieved. The speaker-driven jet provided a convenient source for the investigation because it is entirely unsteady (having no mean component) and because relevant parameters such as frequency, time-averaged thrust, and diameter are easily variable. The experimental setup will be described, as will the various measurements made. These include both thrust and Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry of the driver. It will be shown that thrust augmentation values as high as 1.8 were obtained, that the diameter of the best ejector scaled with the dimensions of the emitted vortex, and that the so-called Formation Number serves as a useful dimensionless number by which to characterize the jet and predict performance.

Paxson, Daniel E.; Wernet, Mark P.; John, Wentworth T.

2004-01-01

59

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Thrust Augmentation Using a Speaker-Driven Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation is described in which a simple speaker-driven jet was used as a pulsed thrust source (driver) for an ejector configuration. The objectives of the investigation were twofold. The first was to expand the experimental body of evidence showing that an unsteady thrust source, combined with a properly sized ejector generally yields higher thrust augmentation values than a similarly sized, steady driver of equivalent thrust. The second objective was to identify characteristics of the unsteady driver that may be useful for sizing ejectors, and for predicting the thrust augmentation levels that may be achieved. The speaker-driven jet provided a convenient source for the investigation because it is entirely unsteady (i.e., it has no mean velocity component) and because relevant parameters such as frequency, time-averaged thrust, and diameter are easily variable. The experimental setup will be described, as will the two main measurements techniques employed. These are thrust and digital particle imaging velocimetry of the driver. It will be shown that thrust augmentation values as high as 1.8 were obtained, that the diameter of the best ejector scaled with the dimensions of the emitted vortex, and that the so-called formation time serves as a useful dimensionless parameter by which to characterize the jet and predict performance.

Paxson, Daniel E.; Wernet, Mark P.; John, Wentworth T.

2007-01-01

60

Internal performance of two nozzles utilizing gimbal concepts for thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle and a nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle, both of which utilized a gimbal type mechanism for thrust vectoring was evaluated in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle used the gimbal concept for yaw thrust vectoring only; pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by simultaneous deflection of the upper and lower divergent flaps. The model geometric parameters investigated were pitch vector angle for the axisymmetric nozzle and pitch vector angle, yaw vector angle, nozzle throat aspect ratio, and nozzle expansion ratio for the nonaxisymmetric nozzle. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 12.0.

Berrier, Bobby L.; Taylor, John G.

1990-01-01

61

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem test report (D-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the sequence of tests performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. The operational characteristics of the thrust vector control subsystem components, as determined from the tests, are discussed. Special analyses of fuel consumption, basic steady state characteristics, GN2 spin, and actuator displacement were reviewed which will aid in understanding the performance of the auxiliary power unit. The possibility of components malfunction is also discussed.

Pagan, B.

1978-01-01

62

Design of thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles for real-time applications using neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vectoring continues to be an important issue in military aircraft system designs. A recently developed concept of vectoring aircraft thrust makes use of flexible exhaust nozzles. Subtle modifications in the nozzle wall contours produce a non-uniform flow field containing a complex pattern of shock and expansion waves. The end result, due to the asymmetric velocity and pressure distributions, is vectored thrust. Specification of the nozzle contours required for a desired thrust vector angle (an inverse design problem) has been achieved with genetic algorithms. This approach is computationally intensive and prevents the nozzles from being designed in real-time, which is necessary for an operational aircraft system. An investigation was conducted into using genetic algorithms to train a neural network in an attempt to obtain, in real-time, two-dimensional nozzle contours. Results show that genetic algorithm trained neural networks provide a viable, real-time alternative for designing thrust vectoring nozzles contours. Thrust vector angles up to 20 deg were obtained within an average error of 0.0914 deg. The error surfaces encountered were highly degenerate and thus the robustness of genetic algorithms was well suited for minimizing global errors.

Prasanth, Ravi K.; Markin, Robert E.; Whitaker, Kevin W.

1991-01-01

63

Static calibration of a two-dimensional wedge nozzle with thrust vectoring and spanwise blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a static calibration of the two dimensional wedge nozzles on a STOL configuration of a large-scale fighter model are reported. These nozzles internally turn the efflux produced by two turbojets down 25 degrees and exhaust it over the deflected trailing edge of the wing. This arrangement provides direct thrust lift, enhances wing lift by producting supercirculation, and provides thrust vectoring by varying the deflection of the wing's trailing edge. The thrust is vectored from 10 deg to 38 deg. This system was calibrated with spanwise blowing for augmentation of the leading-edge vortex. When 16% of the turbojet efflux is blown spanwise, the thrust recovered is 92% of the thrust produced when the total efflux is exhausted longitudinally.

Harris, M. J.; Falarski, M. D.

1980-01-01

64

The Complete Two-Loop Integrated Jet Thrust Distribution In Soft-Collinear Effective Theory  

E-print Network

In this work, we complete the calculation of the soft part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in e+e- annihilation. This jet mass observable is based on the thrust cone jet algorithm, which involves a veto scale for out-of-jet radiation. The previously uncomputed part of our result depends in a complicated way on the jet cone size, r, and at intermediate stages of the calculation we actually encounter a new class of multiple polylogarithms. We employ an extension of the coproduct calculus to systematically exploit functional relations and represent our results concisely. In contrast to the individual contributions, the sum of all global terms can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms. Our explicit two-loop calculation enables us to clarify the small r picture discussed in earlier work. In particular, we show that the resummation of the logarithms of r that appear in the previously uncomputed part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution is inextricably linked to the resummation of the non-global logarithms. Furthermore, we find that the logarithms of r which cannot be absorbed into the non-global logarithms in the way advocated in earlier work have coefficients fixed by the two-loop cusp anomalous dimension. We also show that, given appropriate L-loop contributions to the integrated hemisphere soft function, one can straightforwardly predict a number of potentially large logarithmic contributions at L loops not controlled by the factorization theorem for jet thrust.

Andreas von Manteuffel; Robert M. Schabinger; Hua Xing Zhu

2015-01-09

65

The complete two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in soft-collinear effective theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we complete the calculation of the soft part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in e + e - annihilation. This jet mass observable is based on the thrust cone jet algorithm, which involves a veto scale for out-of-jet radiation. The previously uncomputed part of our result depends in a complicated way on the jet cone size, r, and at intermediate stages of the calculation we actually encounter a new class of multiple polylogarithms. We employ an extension of the coproduct calculus to systematically exploit functional relations and represent our results concisely. In contrast to the individual contributions, the sum of all global terms can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms. Our explicit two-loop calculation enables us to clarify the small r picture discussed in earlier work. In particular, we show that the resummation of the logarithms of r that appear in the previously uncomputed part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution is inextricably linked to the resummation of the non-global logarithms. Furthermore, we find that the logarithms of r which cannot be absorbed into the non-global logarithms in the way advocated in earlier work have coefficients fixed by the two-loop cusp anomalous dimension. We also show that in many cases one can straightforwardly predict potentially large logarithmic contributions to the integrated jet thrust distribution at L loops by making use of analogous contributions to the simpler integrated hemisphere soft function.

von Manteuffel, Andreas; Schabinger, Robert M.; Zhu, Hua Xing

2014-03-01

66

Investigation of the Longitudinal Characteristics of a Large-Scale Jet Transport Model Equipped with Controllable Thrust Reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of thrust control by means of controllable thrust reversers on the longitudinal characteristics of a large-scale airplane model with a 35' sweptback wing of aspect ratio of 7 and four pylon-mounted jet engines equipped with target-type thrust reversers designed to provide thrust control ranging from full forward thrust to full reverse thrust. The thrust control in landing-approach configurations formed the major portion of the study. Results were obtained with both leading- and trailing-edge high-lift devices.

Hickey, David H.; Tolhurst, William H., Jr.; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

1961-01-01

67

Experimental and theoretical comparison of the Probe Thrust Vector Control concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept that offers an alternate method for thrust vector control of liquid or solid propellant rockets is the use of a solid body or probe that is inserted on demand through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternative to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector control system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment is time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment is time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the concept are PTVC vectoring performance and active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. The objective of the work reported here is presentation of experimental subscale cold flow tests and comparison of these tests with CFD predictions and the response time of the PTVC system.

Cavalleri, Robert; Tiarn, Weihnurng; Lewis, Lynn

1991-01-01

68

Spray characteristics of jet–swirl nozzles for thrust chamber injector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrust chamber injector is very critical component since that small differences in its design can result in dramatically different performance. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of a mono-propellant jet–swirl nozzle for thrust chamber using the existing commercial nozzle made of brass with little modification. The performance of two types of spray pattern, i.e. hollow cone and solid cone were

Ahmad Hussein Abdul Hamid; Rahim Atan

2009-01-01

69

Thrust vector control for V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To deflect exhaust of V/STOL aircraft fan deploy set of rectangular flaps so exhaust stream can be turned as required and then directed through exit nozzles which generate thrust in appropriate direction; lateral deflection of exhaust is provided by yaw vanes.

Toney, E. W.

1974-01-01

70

Thrust Jet Analysis of Deep-Inelastic Large-Rapidity-Gap Events  

E-print Network

A thrust analysis of Large-Rapidity-Gap events in deep-inelastic ep collisions is presented, using data taken with the H1 detector at HERA in 1994. The average thrust of the final states X, which emerge from the dissociation of virtual photons in the range 10 < Q2 < 100 GeV2, grows with hadronic mass M_X and implies a dominant 2-jet topology. Thrust is found to decrease with growing Pt, the thrust jet momentum transverse to the photon-proton collision axis. Distributions of Pt2 are consistent with being independent of MX. They show a strong alignment of the thrust axis with the photon-proton collision axis, and have a large high-Pt tail. The correlation of thrust with MX is similar to that in e+e- annihilation at sqrt(see)=MX, but with lower values of thrust in the ep data. The data cannot be described by interpreting the dissociated system X as a qqbar state but inclusion of a substantial fraction of qqbarg parton configurations leads naturally to the observed properties. The soft colour exchange interaction model does not describe the data.

C. Adloff

1997-11-13

71

On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

2011-01-01

72

Comparison of straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles using a six component thrust stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project compared the forces and moments produced by straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles. Using the six component thrust stand in the engines laboratory at California Polytechnic State University, several trials were performed. This data was then reduced using first a computer program and then later an electronic spreadsheet. This reduced data was graphed and compared. As a result of these comparisons some unexpected forces were discovered. Several more tests were run including a zero thrust test and a statistical comparison were done to discover the source of these discrepancies. As a direct result several nozzle changes were made and significant revisions to the thrust stand are being made.

Carpenter, Thomas W.; Flake, Scott

1991-01-01

73

Static investigation of two STOL nozzle concepts with pitch thrust-vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static investigation of the internal performance of two short take-off and landing (STOL) nozzle concepts with pitch thrust-vectoring capability has been conducted. An axisymmetric nozzle concept and a nonaxisymmetric nozzle concept were tested at dry and afterburning power settings. The axisymmetric concept consisted of a circular approach duct with a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by vectoring the approach duct without changing the nozzle geometry. The nonaxisymmetric concept consisted of a two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Pitch thrust vectoring was implemented by blocking the nozzle exit and deflecting a door in the lower nozzle flap. The test nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10.0, depending on model geometry. Results indicate that both pitch vectoring concepts produced resultant pitch vector angles which were nearly equal to the geometric pitch deflection angles. The axisymmetric nozzle concept had only small thrust losses at the largest pitch deflection angle of 70 deg., but the two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle concept had large performance losses at both of the two pitch deflection angles tested, 60 deg. and 70 deg.

Mason, M. L.; Burley, J. R., II

1986-01-01

74

Spreading characteristics and thrust of jets from asymmetric nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spreading characteristics of jets from several asymmetric nozzles are studied in comparison to those of an axisymmetric jet, over the Mach number (M(sub J)) range of 0.3 to 1.96. The effect of tabs in two cases, the axisymmetric nozzle fitted with four tabs and a rectangular nozzle fitted with two large tabs, is also included in the comparison. Compared to the axisymmetric jet, the asymmetric jets spread only slightly faster at subsonic conditions, while at supersonic conditions, when screech occurs, they spread much faster. Screech profoundly increases the spreading of all jets. The effect varies in the different stages of screech, and the corresponding unsteady flowfield characteristics are documented via phase-averaged measurement of the fluctuating total pressure. An organization and intensification of the azimuthal vortical structures under the screeching condition is believed to be responsible for the increased spreading. Curiously, the jet from a 'lobed mixer' nozzle spreads much less at supersonic conditions compared to all other cases. This is due to the absence of screech with this nozzle. Jet spreading for the two tab configurations, on the other hand, is significantly more than any of the no-tab cases. This is true in the subsonic regime, as well as in the supersonic regime in spite of the fact that screech is essentially eliminated by the tabs. The dynamics of the streamwise vortex pairs produced by the tabs cause the most efficient jet spreading thus far observed in the study.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

1995-01-01

75

NLO Vector Boson Production With Light Jets  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production. The production of a vector boson in association with several jets at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an important background for other Standard Model processes as well as new physics signals. In particular, the production of a W boson in association with many jets is an important background for processes involving one or more top quarks. Precise predictions for the backgrounds are crucial to measurement of top-quark processes. Vector boson production in association with multiple jets is also a very important background for many SUSY searches, as it mimics the signatures of many typical decay chains. Here we will discuss how polarization information can be used as an additional handle to differentiate top pair production from 'prompt' W-boson production. More generally, ratios of observables, for example for events containing a W boson versus those containing a Z boson, are expected to be better-behaved as many uncertainties cancel in such ratios. Precise calculation of ratios, along with measurement of one of the two processes in the ratio, can be used in data-driven techniques for estimating backgrounds.

Bern, Z.; Diana, G.; Dixon, L.J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Hoeche, S.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; Ozeren, K.

2012-02-15

76

Thrust Ramp Geometry and Spurious Rotations of Paleomagnetic Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of deformation axes during pure translation of a hanging-wall over a footwall composed by frontal and oblique ramps is carefully evaluated together with the evolution of associated paleomagnetic vectors. Four different cases are distinguished on the basis of the deflection on the paleomagnetic vectors when the bedding correction is applied during the restoration process. Two cases (frontal and oblique

E. L. Pueyo; A. Pocoví; J. M. Parés; H. Millán; J. C. Larrasoaña

2003-01-01

77

Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

2012-01-01

78

Anomalous reduction in thrust\\/reaction of water jets issuing from microapertures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrusts and reactions of water jets issuing through small orifices and thin slots were measured and compared with the predictions from numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Reasonable agreements were obtained between the experimental and numerical results for orifices and slots with openings of the order of 1 mm size, but not with those of 10 mum or less. The

Tomiichi Hasegawa; Hiroshi Watanabe; Takashi Sato; Tohru Watanabe; Masanao Takahashi; Takatsune Narumi; Carlos Tiu

2007-01-01

79

A computational study of thrust vectoring control using dual throat nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual throat nozzle (DTN) is fast becoming a popular technique for thrust vectoring. The DTN is designed with two throats, an upstream minimum and a downstream minimum at the nozzle exit, with a cavity in between the upstream throat and exit. In the present study, a computational work has been carried out to analyze the performance of a dual throat nozzle at various mass flow rates of secondary flow and nozzle pressure ratios (NPR). Two-dimensional, steady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. The present computational results were validated with available experimental data. Based on the present results, the control effectiveness of thrust-vectoring is discussed in terms of the thrust coefficient and the coefficient of discharge.

Shin, Choon Sik; Kim, Heuy Dong; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Matsuo, Shigeru

2010-12-01

80

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem verification test (V-2) report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the verification testing sequence V-2 performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. A detailed history of the hot firings plus additional discussion of the auxiliary power unit and the hydraulic component performance is presented. The test objectives, data, and conclusions are included.

Pagan, B.

1979-01-01

81

Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

Brenner, Martin J.

1996-01-01

82

Increasing jet-engine thrust by water-augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using water-augmented air jets for the propulsion of high-speed vessels is analyzed. A solution is obtained with allowance for losses in the inlet main and atomizer, for the resistance of the water intake mechanism, and for the mixing losses in the nozzle. The gain resulting from water-augmentation is computed.

I. M. Chernyi; A. I. Kravtseva

1977-01-01

83

Modeling and Thrust Optimization of a Bio-Inspired Pulsatile Jet Thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of thruster technology offers promising low speed maneuvering capabilities for underwater vehicles. Similar to the natural locomotion of squid and jellyfish the thruster successively forces fluid jets in and out of a small internal cavity. We investigate several properties of squid and jellyfish locomotion to drive the thruster design including actuation of nozzle geometry and vortex ring thrust augmentation. The thrusters are compact with no extruding components to negatively impact the vehicle's drag. These devices have thrust rise-times orders of magnitude faster than those reported for typical propeller thrusters, making them an attractive option for high accuracy underwater vehicle maneuvering. The dynamics of starting jet circulation, impulse, and kinetic energy are derived in terms of kinematics at the entrance boundary of a semi-infinite domain, specifically identifying the effect of a non-parallel incoming flow. A model for pressure at the nozzle is derived without the typical reliance on a predetermined potential function, making it a powerful tool for modeling any jet flow. Jets are created from multiple nozzle configurations to validate these models, and velocity and vorticity fields are determined using DPIV techniques. A converging starting jet resulted in circulation 90--100%, impulse 70--75%, and energy 105--135% larger than a parallel starting jet with identical volume flux and piston velocity, depending on the stroke ratio. The new model is a much better predictor of the jet properties than the standard 1D slug model. A simplified thrust model, was derived to describe the high frequency thruster characteristics. This model accurately predicts the average thrust, measured directly, for stroke ratios up to a critical value where the leading vortex ring separates from the remainder of the shear flow. A new model predicting the vortex ring pinch-off process is developed based on characteristic centerline velocities. The vortex ring pinch-off is coincides with this velocity criterion, for all cases tested. Piston velocity program and nozzle radius are optimized with respect to average thrust, and a quantity similar to propulsive efficiency. The average thrust is maximized by a critical nozzle radius. An approximate linear time-invariant (LTI) model of the thruster vehicle system was derived which categorizes maneuvers into different characteristic regimes. Initial thruster testing showed that open and closed loop frequency response were sufficiently approximated by the LTI model, and that the thruster is ideally suited for small scale high accuracy maneuvers.

Krieg, Michael W.

84

Fluidic scale model multi-plane thrust vector control test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has been conducted at the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Static Test Facility to determine the concept feasibility of using fluidics to achieve multiplane thrust vector control in a 2D convergent-divergent (2D-CD) fixed aperture nozzle. Pitch thrust vector control is achieved by injection of flow through a slot in the divergent flap into the primary nozzle flow stream. Yaw vector control results from secondary air delivered tangentially to vertical Coanda flaps. These flaps are offset laterally and aligned parallel to the primary nozzle side walls. All tests were conducted at static (no external flow) conditions. Flow visualization was conducted using a paint flow technique and Focus Schlieren. Significant levels of pitch deflection angles (19 deg) were achieved at low pressure ratios and practical levels (14 deg) resulted at typical intermediate power settings. The ability of the Coanda surface blowing concept to produce yaw deflection was limited to NPR not greater than 4.

Chiarelli, Charles; Johnsen, Raymond K.; Shieh, Chih F.; Wing, David J.

1993-01-01

85

Static internal performance of a single expansion ramp nozzle with multiaxis thrust vectoring capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted at static conditions in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle. Yaw vectoring was achieved by deflecting yaw flaps in the nozzle sidewall into the nozzle exhaust flow. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the variable angle yaw flap deflected into the exhaust flow and the nozzle upper ramp and lower flap which were deflected for pitch vectoring, the downstream corners of both the nozzle ramp and lower flap were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw vectoring. The effects of nozzle upper ramp and lower flap cutout, yaw flap hinge line location and hinge inclination angle, sidewall containment, geometric pitch vector angle, and geometric yaw vector angle were studied. This investigation was conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

Capone, Francis J.; Schirmer, Alberto W.

1993-01-01

86

Static Investigation of Paddle Vane Oscillating in Jet of 1,300-Pound-Thrust Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a static investigation conducted to measure the normal forces on the entire jet-vane assembly and the hinge moments on the jet vane produced by a paddle vane oscillating in the jet of a 1,500-pound-thrust rocket motor are presented for vane-deflection angles from -5 deg to 25 deg. A maximum average normal force of 71 pounds with a corresponding value for maximum average hinge moment of 228 inch-pounds was obtained with the maximum area of jet vane immersed at a jet-vane angle of 25 deg decrease in thrust caused by immersion of the jet vane varied from a maximum loss of about 58 pounds, or approximately 5 percent at maximum jet-vane angle of 25 deg, to zero loss at jet-vane angles less than approximately 10 deg.

Lanford, Wade E.

1958-01-01

87

Optimal Pitch Thrust-Vector Angle and Benefits for all Flight Regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is exploring the optimum thrust-vector angle on aircraft. Simple aerodynamic performance models for various phases of aircraft flight are developed and optimization equations and algorithms are presented in this report. Results of optimal angles of thrust vectors and associated benefits for various flight regimes of aircraft (takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, final approach, and landing) are given. Results for a typical wide-body transport aircraft are also given. The benefits accruable for this class of aircraft are small, but the technique can be applied to other conventionally configured aircraft. The lower L/D aerodynamic characteristics of fighters generally would produce larger benefits than those produced for transport aircraft.

Gilyard, Glenn B.; Bolonkin, Alexander

2000-01-01

88

Design and test of a high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Marshall is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for thrust-vector control (TVC) system testing and implementation in spacecraft control/gimballing systems, with a view to the replacement of hydraulic hardware. TVC system control is furnished by solid state controllers and power supplies; a pair of resolvers supply position feedback to the controller for precise positioning. Performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulic TVC systems are performed.

Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

1992-01-01

89

MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A THRUST-VECTORED FLIGHT CONTROL EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model predictive control (MPC) is applied to the Caltech ducted fan, a thrust-vectored ?ight experiment. A real-time trajectory generation software based on spline theory and sequential quadratic programming is used to implement the MPC controllers. Timing issues related to the computation and implementation of repeatedly updated optimal trajectories are discussed. Results show computational speeds greater than 10 Hz, 2.5 times

William B. Dunbar; Mark B. Milam; Ryan Franz; Richard M. Murray

2002-01-01

90

Vista/F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) control law design and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) program, a new control law was developed using multi-axis thrust vectoring to augment the aircraft's aerodynamic control power to provide maneuverability above the normal F-16 angle of attack limit. The control law architecture was developed using Lockheed Fort Worth's offline and piloted simulation capabilities. The final flight control laws were used in flight test to demonstrate tactical benefits gained by using thrust vectoring in air-to-air combat. Differences between the simulator aerodynamics data base and the actual aircraft aerodynamics led to significantly different lateral-directional flying qualities during the flight test program than those identified during piloted simulation. A 'dial-a-gain' flight test control law update was performed in the middle of the flight test program. This approach allowed for inflight optimization of the aircraft's flying qualities. While this approach is not preferred over updating the simulator aerodynamic data base and then updating the control laws, the final selected gain set did provide adequate lateral-directional flying qualities over the MATV flight envelope. The resulting handling qualities and the departure resistance of the aircraft allowed the 422nd_squadron pilots to focus entirely on evaluating the aircraft's tactical utility.

Zwerneman, W. D.; Eller, B. G.

1994-01-01

91

Study on development of ejector of Bubble Jet Engine (BJE) - measurement of thrust -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AUV (Autonomous Under-water Vehicle), which is used for the present seabed investigations, has obtained the thrust with the screw driven by the battery. However, it has a disadvantage because of its size and cost. Therefore, this research is carried out to propose the Bubble Jet Engine (BJE) as an alternative propulsion device. It can directly transform combustion energy into kinetic energy, so it is expected that BJE can also rise the level of propulsion efficiency. This research aims at measuring exhaled mass flow rate and thrust to design ejectors, which become the core of BJE, and exploring practical possibility of BJE. Vertical type gas-water ejector experimental apparatus for measuring water entrainment was employed in order to understand the characteristics of operation conditions, such as inlet distance, air pressure of nozzle, diameter of nozzle, and so on. In addition, experiments for measuring the thrust in the condition of ejector were executed with horizontal type apparatus in water. However, the influence of the ejector to improve thrust can't have been recognized with high-pressure air at room temperature yet.

Ono, B.; Nakashima, K.; Shigematsu, T.; Morishita, K.

2009-02-01

92

Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

1974-01-01

93

Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

Millard, Jon

2014-01-01

94

Solid rocket booster thrust vector control V-2 off-nominal testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the V-2 off nominal test sequence performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control (SRB TVC) system are reported. The TVC subsystem was subjected to 19 off nominal test conditions. The test sequence consisted of: 8 burp starts, 30 hot firings, 14 GN2 spin tests, and 3 servicing passive system tests. It is concluded that the TVC subsystem operated nominally in response to the given commands and test conditions. Test objectives, detail results, and data are included.

Pagan, B.

1981-01-01

95

The digital autopilot for thrust vector control of the Shuttle Orbital maneuvering system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the requirements for and the design, development and performance of the digital autopilots (DAPs) for thrust vector control, utilizing the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The hardware and software requirements which caused the design to assume its current form are described. Also, the design synthesis, which considered rigid body stability margins, bending and slosh stabilization, guidance loop compensation, off-nominal performance and hardware and software limitations is presented. The performance of the OMS control system is summarized utilizing flight data from the first three Space Transportation System (STS) flights.

Penchuk, A.; Croopnick, S.

1982-01-01

96

Design development of the Apollo command and service module thrust vector attitude control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.

Peters, W. H.

1978-01-01

97

Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric investigation of the static internal performance of multifunction two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles has been made in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. All nozzles had a constant throat area and aspect ratio. The effects of upper and lower flap angles, divergent flap length, throat approach angle, sidewall containment, and throat geometry were determined. All nozzles were tested at a thrust vector angle that varied from 5.60 tp 23.00 deg. The nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for all configurations.

Bare, E. Ann; Reubush, David E.

1987-01-01

98

Noise, Turbulence, and Thrust of Subsonic Free Jets from Lobed Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of noise benefit, vis-a-vis thrust penalty, and its correlation to turbulence intensities was conducted for free jets issuing from lobed nozzles. Four convergent nozzles with constant exit area were used in the experiments. Three of these were of rectangular lobed configuration having six, ten and fourteen lobes; the fourth was a circular nozzle. Increasing the number of lobes resulted in a progressive reduction in the turbulence intensities as well as in the overall radiated noise. The noise reduction was pronounced at the low frequency end of the spectrum. However, there was an increase in the high frequency noise that rendered the overall benefit less attractive when compared on a scaled-up A-weighted basis. A reduction in noise was accompanied by a commensurate reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. As expected, increasing the number of lobes involved progressive reduction in the thrust coefficient. Among the cases studied, the six-lobed nozzle had the optimum reduction in turbulence and noise with the least thrust penalty.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Wang, F. Y.

2002-01-01

99

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC) Actuator hardware are documented. The function of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuators (ATVC) is to gimbal the main engines to provide for attitude and flight path control during ascent. During first stage flight, the SRB nozzles provide nearly all the steering. After SRB separation, the Orbiter is steered by gimbaling of its main engines. There are six electrohydraulic servoactuators, one pitch and one yaw for each of the three main engines. Each servoactuator is composed of four electrohydraulic servovalve assemblies, one second stage power spool valve assembly, one primary piston assembly and a switching valve. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Critical failures resulting in loss of ATVC were mainly due to loss of hydraulic fluid, fluid contamination and mechanical failures.

Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

1986-01-01

100

A conceptual design of vectored water-jet propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel vectored water-jet propulsion system which is supposed to be used on a spherical underwater vehicle. This system uses water-jet as its propulsion method and by using servo motors, the direction of output force can be regulated for different propulsion tasks. This paper mainly focuses on the conceptual design of the system. To testify the availability

Shuxiang Guo; Xichuan Lin; S. Hata

2009-01-01

101

Performance of twin two-dimensional wedge nozzles including thrust vectoring and reversing effects at speeds up to Mach 2.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transonic tunnel and supersonic pressure tunnel tests were reformed to determine the performance characteristics of twin nonaxisymmetric or two-dimensional nozzles with fixed shrouds and variable-geometry wedges. The effects of thrust vectoring, reversing, and installation of various tails were also studied. The investigation was conducted statically and at flight speeds up to a Mach number of 2.20. The total pressure ratio of the simulated jet exhaust was varied up to approximately 26 depending on Mach number. The Reynolds number per meter varied up to 13.20 x 1 million. An analytical study was made to determine the effect on calculated wave drag by varying the mathematical model used to simulate nozzle jet-exhaust plume.

Capone, F. J.; Maiden, D. L.

1977-01-01

102

Support Vector Novelty Detection Applied to Jet Engine Vibration Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed to extract diagnostic information from jet engine carcass vibration data. Support Vector Machines applied to nov- elty detection provide a measure of how unusual the shape of a vibra- tion signature is, by learning a representation of normality. We descri be a novel method for Support Vector Machines of including information from a second class

Paul Hayton; Bernhard Schölkopf; Lionel Tarassenko; Paul Anuzis

2000-01-01

103

The effects on propulsion-induced aerodynamic forces of vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.

Capone, F. J.

1975-01-01

104

Periodic Excitation for Jet Vectoring and Enhanced Spreading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of periodic excitation on the evolution of a turbulent jet were studied experimentally. A short, wide-angle diffuser was attached to the jet exit and excitation was introduced at the junction between the jet exit and the diffuser inlet. The introduction of high amplitude periodic excitation at the jet exit enhances the mixing and promotes attachment of the jet shear-layer to the diffuser wall. Vectoring is achieved by applying the excitation over a fraction of the circumference of the circular jet, enhancing its spreading rate on the excited side and its tendency to reattach to that side. Static deflection studies demonstrate that the presence of the wide-angle diffuser increases the effectiveness of the added periodic momentum due to a favorable interaction between the excitation, the jet shear-layer and the diffuser wall. This point was further demonstrated by the evolution of a wave packet that was excited in the jet shear-layer. Strong amplification of the wave packet was measured with a diffuser attached to the jet exit. The turbulent jet responds quickly (10-20 msec) to step changes in the level of the excitation input. The response scales with the jet exit velocity and is independent of the Reynolds number. Jet deflection angles were found to be highly sensitive to the relative direction between the excitation and the jet flow and less sensitive to the excitation frequency. The higher jet deflection angles were obtained for a diffuser length of about two diameters and for diffusers with half-angles greater than 15 degrees.

Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

1999-01-01

105

Design and development of the quad redundant servoactuator for the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and theory of operation of the servoactuator used for thrust vector control of the space shuttle solid rocket booster is described accompanied by highlights from the development and qualification test programs. Specific details are presented concerning major anomalies that occurred during the test programs and the corrective courses of action pursued.

Lominick, J. M.

1980-01-01

106

A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

Johnson, Steven A.

1990-01-01

107

Vectoring of a Gas Turbine Engine Exhaust Using Counter Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of counter flow to obtain thrust vectoring has been demonstrated for various nozzle shapes and to both subsonic and supersonic jets. For a rectangular nozzle, the Counter Flow Thrust Vectoring (CFTV) technique works by applying suction to one side of the jet in the presence of a collar. The counter current shear layer, due to its different instability

Maria Madruga; Luiz Lourenco; Anjaneyulu Krothapalli

2002-01-01

108

Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

2010-01-01

109

Results of solar electric thrust vector control system design, development and tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector control system TVCS for a solar-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of solar electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a solar electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved solar electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by control computer software, a significant advantage in control capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.

Fleischer, G. E.

1973-01-01

110

Robust vibration suppression of an adaptive circular composite plate for satellite thrust vector control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel application of adaptive composite structures, a University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) smart composite platform, is developed for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of satellites. The device top plate of the UHM platform is an adaptive circular composite plate (ACCP) that utilizes integrated sensors/actuators and controllers to suppress low frequency vibrations during the thruster firing as well as to potentially isolate dynamic responses from the satellite structure bus. Since the disturbance due to the satellite thruster firing can be estimated, a combined strategy of an adaptive disturbance observer (DOB) and feed-forward control is proposed for vibration suppression of the ACCP with multi-sensors and multi-actuators. Meanwhile, the effects of the DOB cut-off frequency and the relative degree of the low-pass filter on the DOB performance are investigated. Simulations and experimental results show that higher relative degree of the low-pass filter with the required cut-off frequency will enhance the DOB performance for a high-order system control. Further, although the increase of the filter cut-off frequency can guarantee a sufficient stability margin, it may cause an undesirable increase of the control bandwidth. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive DOB with feed-forward control strategy is verified through simulations and experiments using the ACCP system.

Yan, Su; Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

2008-03-01

111

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem FMEA/CIL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuator (ATVD) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATVC hardware. The IOA product for the ATVC actuator analysis consisted of 25 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 16 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 21 FMEAs and 13 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

Wilson, R. E.

1988-01-01

112

Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

Miller, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

113

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

114

Multi-objective Optimal Design of a Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle  

E-print Network

) system discussed here. Two secondary jet nozzles (usually with a high aspect ratio rectangular cross section) are placed above and below the main jet nozzle (also of a slender rectangular cross section) systems based on Coanda jets are amongst the most promising technologies being considered for future

Sóbester, András

115

Thrust jet analysis of deep-inelastic large-rapidity-gap events  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thrust analysis of Large-Rapidity-Gap events in deep-inelastic $ep$ collisions is presented, using data taken with the H1 detector at HERA in 1994. The average thrust of the final states $X$ , which emerge from the dissociation of virtual photons in the range $10 < Q^2 < 100 {\\\\rm GeV}^2$ , grows with hadronic mass $M_X$ and implies a dominant

B. Clerbaux; C. Cormack; G. Cozzika; S. Dagoret; K. Daum; M. David; B. Delcourt; M. Dirkmann; P. Dixon; W. Dlugosz; A. Droutskoi; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; A. Fedotov; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Flamm; M. Fleischer; M. Flieser; A. Fomenko; J. Formanek; G. Franke; E. Gabathuler; K. Gabathuler; F. Gaede; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; M. Gebauer; R. Gerhards; A. Glazov; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; M. Goldberg; B. Gonzalez-Pineiro; I. Gorelov; C. Grab; T. Greenshaw; G. Grindhammer; A. Gruber; C. Gruber; T. Hadig; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; T. Haller; M. Hampel; B. Heinemann; G. Heinzelmann; S. Hengstmann; H. Henschel; I. Herynek; K. Hewitt; J. Hladky; D. Homann; T. Holtom; R. Horisberger; M. Ibbotson; H. Itterbeck; M. Jacquet

1998-01-01

116

?-JETS OF DIFEOMORPHISMS PRESERVING ORBITS OF VECTOR FIELDS  

E-print Network

Abstract. Let F be a C ? vector field at the origin O ? Rn, F(O) = 0, and Ft be its local flow. Denote by Ê(F) the set of germs of orbit preserving diffeomorphisms h: R n ? R n at O, and let Êid(F) r, (r ? 0), be the identity component of Ê(F) with respect to Cr topology. Then Êid(F) ? contains a subset ˆ Sh(F) consisting of maps of the form F?(x)(x), where ?: Rn ? R runs over the space of all smooth germs at O. It was proved earlier by the author that if F is a linear vector field, then ˆ Sh(F) = Êid(F) 0. In this paper we present a class of vector fields with degenetare singularities at O for which ˆ Sh(F) coincides with Êid(F) 1 on the level of ?-jets. We also establish a parameter rigidity of linear vector fields and “reduced ” Hamiltonian vector fields of real homogeneous polynomials in two variables. Keywords: orbit preserving diffeomorphism, parameter rigidity, Borel’s theorem. AMSClass: 37C10 1.

Sergiy Maksymenko

117

jets of diffeomorphisms preserving orbits of vector fields  

E-print Network

Abstract. Let F be a C ? vector field defined near the origin O ? Rn, F(O) = 0, and (Ft) be its local flow. Denote by Ê(F) the set of germs of orbit preserving diffeomorphisms h: R n ? R n at O, and let Êid(F) r, (r ? 0), be the identity component of Ê(F) with respect to Cr topology. Then Êid(F) ? contains a subset ˆ Sh(F) consisting of maps of the form F?(x)(x), where ?: Rn ? R runs over the space of all smooth germs at O. It was proved earlier by the author that if F is a linear vector field, then ˆ Sh(F) = Êid(F) 0. In this paper we present a class of examples of vector fields with degenerate singularities at O for which ˆ Sh(F) formally coincides with Êid(F) 1, i.e. on the level of ?-jets at O. We also establish parameter rigidity of linear vector fields and “reduced ” Hamiltonian vector fields of real homogeneous polynomials in two variables. Keywords: orbit preserving diffeomorphism, parameter rigidity, Borel’s theorem. AMSClass: 37C10 1.

Sergiy Maksymenko

118

Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of Exhaust Ingestion Due to Thrust Reversal on a Four-Engine Jet Transport during Ground Roll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted on a large-scale model of a swept-wing jet transport type airplane to study the factors affecting exhaust gas ingestion into the engine inlets when thrust reversal is used during ground roll. The model was equipped with four small jet engines mounted in nacelles beneath the wing. The tests included studies of both cascade and target type reversers. The data obtained included the free-stream velocity at the occurrence of exhaust gas ingestion in the outboard engine and the increment of drag due to thrust reversal for various modifications of thrust reverser configuration. Motion picture films of smoke flow studies were also obtained to supplement the data. The results show that the free-stream velocity at which ingestion occurred in the outboard engines could be reduced considerably, by simple modifications to the reversers, without reducing the effective drag due to reversed thrust.

Tolhurst, William H., Jr.; Hickey, David H.; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

1961-01-01

119

Development and control of a vectored water-jet-based spherical underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a spherical underwater vehicle which uses three vectored water-jet propulsion systems. In this paper, firstly, we proposed the concept of a vectored water-jet based spherical underwater vehicle. Then we give the basic design of this underwater vehicle. The working principles of the vectored water-jet propellers is illustrated including the transformation of reference frames, the distribution of propellers

Shuxiang Guo; Xichuan Lin; Koujirou Tanaka; Seji Hata

2010-01-01

120

Static internal performance of a thrust vectoring and reversing two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with an aft flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static internal performance of a multifunction nozzle having some of the geometric characteristics of both two-dimensional convergent-divergent and single expansion ramp nozzles has been investigated in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The internal expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of two symmetrical flat surfaces of equal length, and the external expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of a single aft flap. The aft flap could be varied in angle independently of the upper internal expansion surface to which it was attached. The effects of internal expansion ratio, nozzle thrust-vector angle (-30 deg. to 30 deg., aft flap shape, aft flap angle, and sidewall containment were determined for dry and afterburning power settings. In addition, a partial afterburning power setting nozzle, a fully deployed thrust reverser, and four vertical takeoff or landing nozzle, configurations were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for the dry power nozzles and 7 for the afterburning power nozzles.

Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

1986-01-01

121

Engine inlet distortion in a 9.2 percent scale vectored thrust STOVL model in ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft which can operate from remote locations, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results are presented which show the engine inlet distortions (both temperature and pressure) in a 9.2 percent scale vectored thrust STOVL model in ground effects. Results are shown for the forward nozzle splay angles of 0 degrees, -6 degrees, and 18 degrees. The model support system had 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The headwind (freestream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Flood, J. D.; Amuedo, K. C.; Strock, T. W.

1989-01-01

122

Flow visualization studies of the internal flow characteristics in a simulated mixed flow vectored thrust ASTOVL engine configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of internal flowfields in a Mixed Flow Vectored Thrust (MFVT) propulsion system for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft were investigated using flow visualization techniques. A highly parametric 14 percent scale transparent model was used to simulate the MFVT propulsion system. The working medium was water. The mixing between the fan and core flow was studied using flow visualization for a variety of geometrical and flow parameters including three bypass ratio variations. The flow visualization technique involves the use of laser light sheet for illumination and fluorescent dye or air bubbles as tracers. Results indicate the existence of a strong vortex flowfield in the hover mode of operation that is responsible for good mixing between the fan and core flows.

Saripalli, K. R.; Ferraro, P. J.; Flood, J. D.; Grey, R. E.; Wazyniak, J. A.

1991-01-01

123

Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

1997-01-01

124

Advanced solid rocket motor nozzle thrust vector control flexseal development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced solid rocket motor (ASRM) flexseal development status is reviewed focusing on design goals and requirements, design configuration, analysis activities, and verification tests. It is concluded that the ASRM flexseal incorporates flight-proven materials in an innovative design configuration. Variable thickness shims and efficient packaging of the flexseal make it possible to achieve a significant weight reduction. A flexseal insulator design derived from strategic solid rocket motor experience will provide the necessary bearing thermal protection while minimizing vectoring torque variability.

Prins, William S.; Meyer, Scott A.; Cox, Paul D.

1992-07-01

125

A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages associated to Vertical Short-Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) have been demonstrated since the early days of aviation, with the initial technolology being based on airships and later on helicopters and planes. Its operational advantages are enormous, being it in the field of military, humanitarian and rescue operations, or even in general aviation. Helicopters have limits in their maximum horizontal speed and classic V/STOL airplanes have problems associated with their large weight, due to the implementation of moving elements, when based on tilting rotors or turbojet vector mechanical oriented nozzles. A new alternative is proposed within the European Union Project ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle). The project introduces a novel scheme to orient the jet that is free of moving elements. This is based on a Coanda effect nozzle supported in two fluid streams, also incorporating boundary layer plasma actuators to achieve larger deflection angles. Herein we introduce a state-of-the-art review of the concepts that have been proposed in the framework of jet orienting propulsion systems. This review allows to demonstrate the advantages of the new concept in comparison to competing technologies in use at present day, or of competing technologies under development worldwide.

Páscoa, José C.; Dumas, Antonio; Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Paul; Vucinic, Dean

2013-09-01

126

A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

1998-01-01

127

Solving Optimization Problems for the Flight Trajectories of a Spacecraft with a High-Thrust Jet Engine in Pulse Formulation for an Arbitrary Gravitational Field in a Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematically well-posed technique is suggested to obtain first-order necessary conditions of local optimality for the problems of optimization to be solved in a pulse formulation for flight trajectories of a spacecraft with a high-thrust jet engine (HTJE) in an arbitrary gravitational field in vacuum. The technique is based on the Lagrange principle of derestriction for conditional extremum problems in

I. S. Grigoriev; K. G. Grigoriev

2002-01-01

128

Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

2010-01-01

129

Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Foster, John V.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Connelly, Patrick J.; Kelly, John W.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thomas, Michael; Wichman, Keith D.; Wilson, R. Joseph

1996-01-01

130

Vector Boson Jets with BlackHat and Sherpa  

SciTech Connect

We review recent NLO QCD results for W, Z + 3-jet production at hadron colliders, computing using BlackHat and SHERPA, and including also some new results for Z + 3-jet production for the LHC at 7 TeV. We report new progress towards the NLO cross section for W + 4-jet production. In particular, we show that the virtual matrix elements produced by BlackHat are numerically stable. We also show that with an improved integrator and tree-level matrix elements from BlackHat, SHERPA produces well-behaved real-emission contributions. As an illustration, we present the real-emission contributions - including dipole-subtraction terms - to the p{sub T} distribution of the fourth jet, for a single subprocess with the maximum number of gluons.

Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Cordero, F.Febres; /Simon Bolivar U.; Forde, D.; /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Gleisberg, T.; /SLAC; Ita, H.; /UCLA; Kosower, D.A.; /Saclay, SPhT; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

2010-08-25

131

Jets and Vector Bosons in Heavy Ion Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews experimental results on jets and electroweak boson (photon,Wand Z) production in heavy-ion collisions, from the CMS and ATLAS detectors, using data collected during 2011 PbPb run and pp data collected at an equivalent energy. By comparing the two collision systems, the energy loss of the partons propagating through the medium produced in PbPb collisions can be studied. Its characterization is done using dijet events and isolated photon-jet pairs. Since the electroweak gauge bosons do not participate in the strong interaction, and are thus unmodified by the nuclear medium, they serve as clean probes of the initial state in the collision.

de la Cruz, Begoña

2013-11-01

132

Search for vector-like quark production in the lepton+jets and dilepton+jets final states using 5.4 fb-1 of Run II data  

SciTech Connect

The Standard Model of particle physics provides an excellent description of particle interactions at energies up to {approx}1 TeV, but it is expected to fail above that scale. Multiple models developed to describe phenomena above the TeV scale predict the existence of very massive, vector-like quarks. A search for single electroweak production of such particles in p{anti p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is performed in the W+jets and Z+jets channels. The data were collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}. Events consistent with a heavy object decaying to a vector boson and a jet are selected. We observe no significant excess in comparison to the background prediction and set 95% confidence level upper limits on production cross sections for vector-like quarks decaying to W+jet and Z+jet. Assuming a vector-like quark -- standard model quark coupling parameter {tilde {kappa}}{sub qQ} of unity, we exclude vector-like quarks with mass below 693 GeV for decays to W+jet and mass below 449 GeV for decays to Z+jet. These represent the most sensitive limits to date.

Caughron, Seth; /Columbia U.

2010-10-01

133

Vectoring: Steering a Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two part activity, learners work in pairs or individually to discover how vectoring the thrust from a jet engine affects movement of an airplane. In part one, learners construct an F-15 ACTIVE model with a balloon engine. In part two, learners conduct a series of experiments by changing the angle of the straw to control the direction of the thrust. This activity emphasizes the scientific method including prediction, observation, data collection, and analysis. This lesson plan includes background information, an extension and a sample worksheet.

2011-08-20

134

Thrust rollers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust roller bearing system comprising an inner rotating member, an outer rotating member and multiple rollers coupling the inner rotating member with outer rotating member. The inner and outer rotating members include thrust lips to enable the rollers to act as thrust rollers. The rollers contact inner and outer rotating members at bearing contact points along a contact line. Consequently, the radial/tilt and thrust forces move synchronously and simultaneously to create a bearing action with no slipping.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

135

Parton-shower effects on Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion in association with three jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an implementation of Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion in association with three jets at hadron colliders in the POWHEG BOX, a framework for the matching of NLO-QCD calculations with parton-shower programs. Our work provides the means to precisely describe the properties of extra jet activity in vector-boson fusion reactions that are used for the suppression of QCD backgrounds by central jet veto techniques. For a representative setup at the CERN LHC we verify that uncertainties related to parton-shower effects are mild for distributions related to the third jet, in contrast to what has been observed in calculations based on vector-boson fusion induced Higgs production in association with two jets.

Jäger, Barbara; Schissler, Franziska; Zeppenfeld, Dieter

2014-07-01

136

Performance characteristics of a variable-area vane nozzle for vectoring an ASTOVL exhaust jet up to 45 deg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many conceptual designs for advanced short-takeoff, vertical landing (ASTOVL) aircraft need exhaust nozzles that can vector the jet to provide forces and moments for controlling the aircraft's movement or attitude in flight near the ground. A type of nozzle that can both vector the jet and vary the jet flow area is called a vane nozzle. Basically, the nozzle consists of parallel, spaced-apart flow passages formed by pairs of vanes (vanesets) that can be rotated on axes perpendicular to the flow. Two important features of this type of nozzle are the abilities to vector the jet rearward up to 45 degrees and to produce less harsh pressure and velocity footprints during vertical landing than does an equivalent single jet. A one-third-scale model of a generic vane nozzle was tested with unheated air at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility. The model had three parallel flow passages. Each passage was formed by a vaneset consisting of a long and a short vane. The longer vanes controlled the jet vector angle, and the shorter controlled the flow area. Nozzle performance for three nominal flow areas (basic and plus or minus 21 percent of basic area), each at nominal jet vector angles from -20 deg (forward of vertical) to +45 deg (rearward of vertical) are presented. The tests were made with the nozzle mounted on a model tailpipe with a blind flange on the end to simulate a closed cruise nozzle, at tailpipe-to-ambient pressure ratios from 1.8 to 4.0. Also included are jet wake data, single-vaneset vector performance for long/short and equal-length vane designs, and pumping capability. The pumping capability arises from the subambient pressure developed in the cavities between the vanesets, which could be used to aspirate flow from a source such as the engine compartment. Some of the performance characteristics are compared with characteristics of a single-jet nozzle previously reported.

Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

1993-01-01

137

Thrust Characterization for Vortex Ring Thrusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic jets are zero net mass pulsatile jets that are commonly used in flow control applications in air. In these cases the natural resonant frequency of the actuators plays an important role. In this work we will present thrust characterization of vortex ring thrusters (VRTs) in liquid (equivalent of synthetic jets in liquid medium). VRTs design are motivated by pulsatile jet propulsion in squid and jellyfish. A prototype jet thruster was designed and build for this investigation. The effect of the actuation frequency and stroke ratio on the thrust level was experimentally studied. A simplified slug model was defined which predicted the thrust according to the momentum transfer. According to the model the thrust values for various frequencies converges to a single non-dimensionalized thrust, which is only a function of the stroke ratio. The accuracy of the model was defined in terms of a coefficient ? which related predicted thrust values to those measured experimentally. This coefficient was observed to be nearly unity for stroke ratios below the formation number of the jet, and for frequencies below critical cavitation frequencies. ? was seen to decrease (measured thrust drops below predicted thrust) with increasing frequency for all jets with stroke ratios above the formation number. The feasibility of using such a device in typical marine vehicles was tested by implementing the thruster in an unmanned underwater vehicle. The vehicle test-bed was operated in various dynamic maneuvers, including a simulated parallel park.

Krieg, Mike; Mohseni, Kamran

2007-11-01

138

Support vector machine-based feature extractor for L/H transitions in JET  

SciTech Connect

Support vector machines (SVM) are machine learning tools originally developed in the field of artificial intelligence to perform both classification and regression. In this paper, we show how SVM can be used to determine the most relevant quantities to characterize the confinement transition from low to high confinement regimes in tokamak plasmas. A set of 27 signals is used as starting point. The signals are discarded one by one until an optimal number of relevant waveforms is reached, which is the best tradeoff between keeping a limited number of quantities and not loosing essential information. The method has been applied to a database of 749 JET discharges and an additional database of 150 JET discharges has been used to test the results obtained.

Gonzalez, S.; Vega, J.; Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Padova 4-35127 (Italy); Ramirez, J. M.; Dormido-Canto, S. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

2010-10-15

139

The scaling of model test results to predict intake hot gas reingestion for STOVL aircraft with augmented vectored thrust engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difficulties of modeling the complex recirculating flow fields produced by multiple jet STOVL aircraft close to the ground have led to extensive use of experimental model tests to predict intake Hot Gas Reingestion (HGR). Model test results reliability is dependent on a satisfactory set of scaling rules which must be validated by fully comparable full scale tests. Scaling rules devised in the U.K. in the mid 60's gave good model/full scale agreement for the BAe P1127 aircraft. Until recently no opportunity has occurred to check the applicability of the rules to the high energy exhaust of current ASTOVL aircraft projects. Such an opportunity has arisen following tests on a Tethered Harrier. Comparison of this full scale data and results from tests on a model configuration approximating to the full scale aircraft geometry has shown discrepancies between HGR levels. These discrepancies although probably due to geometry and other model/scale differences indicate some reexamination of the scaling rules is needed. Therefore the scaling rules are reviewed, further scaling studies planned are described and potential areas for further work are suggested.

Penrose, C. J.

1987-01-01

140

May the Force Be With You: Thrust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will study how propellers and jet turbines generate thrust. This lesson focuses on Isaac Newton's 3rd Law of Motion, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

2014-09-18

141

Injection module thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis controlled Injection Module propelled by a Star 48 solid rocket motor has been considered for use as a final 'kick' stage to supplement the Inertial Upper Stage in a proposed launch option for the Galileo and International Solar Polar missions. A flight control law for the Injection Module is developed. A position plus rate control law is considered, with integral, path guidance, and derived rate terms added for improved pointing accuracy and fuel efficiency. Selection of control gains is accomplished with the help of analytical limit cycle expressions and verified by computer simulation of the closed loop system. A computer simulation of the flight control system is built around a rigid spacecraft model with gyro dynamics and thruster delays included. Models for pitch/yaw/roll disturbance torques are included. Through simple gain changes the proposed flight control law is shown to accommodate the widely different mass properties of the Galileo and International Solar Polar spacecraft. Pointing accuracies of better than the desired 0.2 degrees are achieved.

Bell, C. E.

1984-01-01

142

Experimental investigation of a thrust augmenting ejector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ejector is basically a jet pump in which the kinetic energy of the jet is made to impart motion to the fluid surrounding it. During this process,in a well designed system,the ejector as a whole experiences a thrust much higher than that of the jet alone. In principle, an ejector is nothing but a jet surrounded by a shroud. This investigation concerns the performance of a two-dimensional ejector with its primary jet excited by a novel method. A constant area duct was used in this experiment. The velocity of the jet at the exit was subsonic. Maximum thrust was obtained when the ejector to jet exit area ratio was about 35. Under this condition a thrust augmentation ratio of 1.65 was achieved, with the jet excited at 20 Hz, whereas without excitation it was only 1.40. The mixing characteristics of the jet under excitation was examined using flow visualization techniques. Smoke filaments illuminated by a sheet of powerful light and schlieren optics with the jet heated were used. Excitation of the jet was found to generate large vortex-like flow structures which might be responsible for enhanced mixing. These vortices extended to considerable distances on both sides of the jet.

Hidayat, W.

1985-12-01

143

Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency from an Instructive Viewpoint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a typical engineering or physics curriculum, the momentum equation is used for the determination of jet engine thrust. Even a simple thrust analysis requires a heavy emphasis on mathematics that can cause students and engineers to lose a physical perspective on thrust. This article provides for this physical understanding using only static…

Kaufman, Richard D.

2010-01-01

144

Thrust generation by an airfoil in hover modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small airfoil is operated in combined harmonic plunging and pitching motions to generate thrust in a still air environment. By full utilization of dynamic stall vortices large thrust coefficients were attained. The vortical signature of thrust is a simple vortex street with the character of a jet stream.

P. Freymuth; F. J. Seiler

1990-01-01

145

Model-reference attitude control and reaction control jet engine placement for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies on the theoretical aspects of thrust vector control of large space vehicles were conducted. A system for attitude control of the space shuttle vehicle was developed. Major accomplishments of the project are: (1) investigation of a model-reference adaptive control scheme for controlling the space shuttle attitude and (2) determination of optimum placement of reaction control jet engines on space shuttles.

Boland, J. S., III

1973-01-01

146

Post-burnout thrust measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research was conducted into the problems of avoiding collision between separated payloads and spent rocket motors due to post burnout thrust, and the problem of contamination of scientific instrumentation due to outgassing of the smoldering insulation. The post burnout thrust was measured using a payload instrument module separated from an instrumented Black Brant VC Rocket in the exoatmosphere. In addition to measuring acceleration and velocities the spent motor was observed by a TV camera on board the command attitude controlled payload module. Analysis shows that the payload separated cleanly from the vehicle at a relative separation velocity of 0.69 m/sec, however the residual thrust of the spent motor overcame this differential, catching up to the payload 37 sec after separation and continuing on a parallel velocity vector at about 1.03 m/sec.

McKenna, E. F.; Smith, H. T.

1980-06-01

147

Support Vector Machine Classification on a Biased Training Set: Multi-Jet Background Rejection at Hadron Colliders  

E-print Network

This paper describes an innovative way to optimize a multivariate classifier, in particular a Support Vector Machine algorithm, on a problem characterized by a biased training sample. This is possible thanks to the feedback of a signal-background template fit performed on a validation sample and included both in the optimization process and in the input variable selection. The procedure is applied to a real case of interest at hadron collider experiments: the reduction and the estimate of the multi-jet background in the $W\\to e \

Federico Sforza; Vittorio Lippi

2014-07-01

148

Production of jets in association with W vector bosons in the D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 detector has accumulating data at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV for several months. In this paper we present the results of an analysis based on 1.1 pb{sup {minus}1} of data. We compare the observed W transverse momentum distributions of W+0jet and W+1jet events with a full D0 detector simulated leading order Monte Carlo. The jet multiplicity distributions associated with W are presented as well as new method of testing NLO QCD predictions and measuring the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}.

Yu, J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); D0 Collaboration

1993-03-01

149

Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, introduces vectors as an extension of numbers having both magnitude and direction. The initial motivation is to describe velocity but the material includes a general discussion of vector algebra and an application to forces for the inclined plane. The page contains links to a related lesson plan and further opportunities to explore vectors. This is part of the extensive web site "From Stargazers to Starships", that uses space exploration and space science to introduce topics in physics and astronomy. Translations in Spanish and French are available.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

150

Design of high temperature high speed electromagnetic axial thrust bearing  

E-print Network

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is researching the magnetic bearings to use it as a better alternative to conventional bearings. This research was to develop an axial thrust electromagnetic bearing for high performance jet...

Mohiuddin, Mohammad Waqar

2002-01-01

151

Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

1999-01-01

152

A search for new intermediate vector bosons and excited quarks decaying to two-jets at the CERN p¯p collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-jet invariant mass spectrum as measured in the UA2 experiment is used to search for additional heavy vector bosons decaying to two-jets. The mass of an additional W boson that couples to fermions with a V+ A form is constrained to be greater than 261 GeV to the 90% confidence level. A limit on the production cross section of additional W and Z bosons is given as a function of the boson mass. A limit on the production of excited quarks is also given as a function of the excited quark mass.

Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I. A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J. C.; Conta, C.; Costa, G.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R. S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G. F.; Einsweiler, K. F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J. M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Gössling, C.; Goggi, V. G.; Grünendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; H?ivná?, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E. E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Malgeri, L.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Müller, L.; Munday, D. J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M. A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J. M.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J. P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Schmidt, B.; Šimák, V.; Singh, S. L.; Sondermann, V.; Spiwoks, R.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A. R.; Wells, P. S.; White, T. O.; Wood, D. R.; Wotton, S. A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstejn, A.; UA2 Collaboration

1993-07-01

153

Measured pressure distributions inside nonaxisymmetric nozzles with partially deployed thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at static conditions to measure the pressure distributions inside a nonaxisymmetric nozzle with simultaneous partial thrust reversing (50-percent deployment) and thrust vectoring of the primary (forward-thrust) nozzle flow. Geometric forward-thrust-vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. were tested. Test data were obtained at static conditions while nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to 4.0. Results indicate that, unlike the 0 deg. vector angle nozzle, a complicated, asymmetric exhaust flow pattern exists in the primary-flow exhaust duct of the 15 deg. vectored nozzle.

Green, Robert S.; Carson, George T., Jr.

1987-01-01

154

Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems.

Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

155

Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems. All data gathered in this investigation are contained in the CD-ROM.

Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

156

Strawkets and Thrust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that thrust has on rocket flight. Students will make two paper rockets that they can launch themselves by blowing through a straw. These "strawkets" will differ in diameter, such that students will understand that a rocket with a smaller exit nozzle will provide a larger thrust. Students have the opportunity to compare the distances traveled by their two strawkets after predicting where they will land. Since each student will have a slightly different rocket and launching technique, they will observe which factors contribute to a strawket's thrust and performance.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

157

Robust nonlinear control of vectored thrust aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interdisciplinary program in robust control for nonlinear systems with applications to a variety of engineering problems is outlined. Major emphasis will be placed on flight control, with both experimental and analytical studies. This program builds on recent new results in control theory for stability, stabilization, robust stability, robust performance, synthesis, and model reduction in a unified framework using Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's), Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI's), and the structured singular value micron. Most of these new advances have been accomplished by the Caltech controls group independently or in collaboration with researchers in other institutions. These recent results offer a new and remarkably unified framework for all aspects of robust control, but what is particularly important for this program is that they also have important implications for system identification and control of nonlinear systems. This combines well with Caltech's expertise in nonlinear control theory, both in geometric methods and methods for systems with constraints and saturations.

Doyle, John C.; Murray, Richard; Morris, John

1993-01-01

158

Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz.

Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

2010-09-01

159

SYNTHETIC JET THRUST OPTIMIZATION FOR APPLICATION  

E-print Network

sensing techniques as well as highly controllable remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). Most ROV's need research community. Furthermore, the required cable connection has limiting effects on ROV's operation underwater vessel or ROV could penetrate (e.g., below the ice regions and to the bottom of trenches

Mohseni, Kamran

160

Classification of jet fuel properties by near-infrared spectroscopy using fuzzy rule-building expert systems and support vector machines.  

PubMed

Monitoring the changes of jet fuel physical properties is important because fuel used in high-performance aircraft must meet rigorous specifications. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a fast method to characterize fuels. Because of the complexity of NIR spectral data, chemometric techniques are used to extract relevant information from spectral data to accurately classify physical properties of complex fuel samples. In this work, discrimination of fuel types and classification of flash point, freezing point, boiling point (10%, v/v), boiling point (50%, v/v), and boiling point (90%, v/v) of jet fuels (JP-5, JP-8, Jet A, and Jet A1) were investigated. Each physical property was divided into three classes, low, medium, and high ranges, using two evaluations with different class boundary definitions. The class boundaries function as the threshold to alarm when the fuel properties change. Optimal partial least squares discriminant analysis (oPLS-DA), fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), and support vector machines (SVM) were used to build the calibration models between the NIR spectra and classes of physical property of jet fuels. OPLS-DA, FuRES, and SVM were compared with respect to prediction accuracy. The validation of the calibration model was conducted by applying bootstrap Latin partition (BLP), which gives a measure of precision. Prediction accuracy of 97 ± 2% of the flash point, 94 ± 2% of freezing point, 99 ± 1% of the boiling point (10%, v/v), 98 ± 2% of the boiling point (50%, v/v), and 96 ± 1% of the boiling point (90%, v/v) were obtained by FuRES in one boundaries definition. Both FuRES and SVM obtained statistically better prediction accuracy over those obtained by oPLS-DA. The results indicate that combined with chemometric classifiers NIR spectroscopy could be a fast method to monitor the changes of jet fuel physical properties. PMID:21073794

Xu, Zhanfeng; Bunker, Christopher E; Harrington, Peter de B

2010-11-01

161

Aerodynamic characteristics induced on a supercritical wing due to vectoring twin nozzles at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induced lift characteristics are studied for a vectored-thrust concept in which jet-exhaust nozzles were located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The wing had a supercritical airfoil section. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 0.95, angles of attack up to 14 deg, and thrust coefficients up to 0.35, and nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg and 30 deg. Separate force balances were used to determine both total aerodynamic and thrust forces alone which allowed for a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. The Reynolds number per meter varied from 8.20 x 1 million to 12.80 x 1 million. The results show that the configuration with the supercritical wing generally had a better performance with respect to both lift augmentation and drag reduction than the same configuration with a 64 series airfoil.

Capone, F. J.

1978-01-01

162

Evolutionary Computing for Low-thrust Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of new mission concepts requires efficient methodologies to analyze, design and simulate the concepts before implementation. New mission concepts are increasingly considering the use of ion thrusters for fuel-efficient navigation in deep space. This paper presents parallel, evolutionary computing methods to design trajectories of spacecraft propelled by ion thrusters and to assess the trade-off between delivered payload mass and required flight time. The developed methods utilize a distributed computing environment in order to speed up computation, and use evolutionary algorithms to find globally Pareto-optimal solutions. The methods are coupled with two main traditional trajectory design approaches, which are called direct and indirect. In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. In the indirect approach, a thrust control problem is transformed into a costate control problem, and the initial values of the costate vector are optimized. The developed methods are applied to two problems: 1) an orbit transfer around the Earth and 2) a transfer between two distance retrograde orbits around Europa, the closest to Jupiter of the icy Galilean moons. The optimal solutions found with the present methods are comparable to other state-of-the-art trajectory optimizers and to analytical approximations for optimal transfers, while the required computational time is several orders of magnitude shorter than other optimizers thanks to an intelligent design of control vector discretization, advanced algorithmic parameterization, and parallel computing.

Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; vonAllmed, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Russell, Ryan P.; Terrile, Richard J.

2005-01-01

163

Multibody system applications and simulations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [emphasizing attitude and science platform articulation control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical development of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of generic computer programs for solving the H-M-H equations of motion of point-connected sets of rigid bodies in a topological tree is traced, as well as the application of these programs and the multibody modelling approach to the design of spacecraft control systems. These include thrust vector control and science instrument articulation on such vehicles as Mariner 9, Mariner 10, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager.

Fleischer, G. E.

1978-01-01

164

Measurement of the b-jet cross-section with associated vector boson production with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC  

E-print Network

A measurement of the cross-section for vector boson production in association with jets containing b-hadrons is presented using 35 pb-1 of data from the LHC collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2010. Such processes are not only important tests of pQCD but also large, irreducible backgrounds to searches such as a low mass Higgs boson decaying to pairs of b-quarks when the Higgs is produced in association with a vector boson. Theoretical predictions of the V+b production rate have large uncertainties and previous measurements have reported discrepancies. Cross-sections measured using in the electron and muon channels will be shown. Comparisons will be made to recent theoretical predictions at the next-to-leading order in alpha_s.

Heather M. Gray on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration

2012-01-24

165

Field of Flow About a Jet and Effect of Jets on Stability of Jet-Propelled Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical investigation was conducted on jet-induced flow deviation. Analysis is given of flow inclination induced outside cold and hot jets and jet deflection caused by angle of attack. Applications to computation of effects of jet on longitudinal stability and trim are explained. Effect of jet temperature on flow inclination was found small when thrust coefficient is used as criterion for similitude. The average jet-induced downwash over tail plane was obtained geometrically.

Ribner, Herbert S.

1946-01-01

166

Environmental Thrust Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook was prepared as a tool to assist U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) employees coordinate their resources and efforts to help people improve their environment. Twenty-two projects are outlined as potential environmental thrusts at the community level. It is the role of USDA employees to encourage and assist, in every way possible,…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

167

Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

1987-01-01

168

Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

1998-01-01

169

Thrust-augmented vortex attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the vortex attenuating effect of engine thrust. Tests were made using a 0.03-scale model of the Boeing 747 transport aircraft as a vortex generating model. A Learjet-class probe model was used to measure the vortex induced rolling moment at a scale separation distance of 1.63 km. These tests were conducted at a lift coefficient of 1.4 at a model velocity of 30.48 m/s. The data presented indicate that engine thrust is effective as a vortex attenuating device when the engines are operated at high thrust levels and are positioned to direct the high energy engine wake into the core of the vortex. The greatest thrust vortex attenuation was obtained by operating the inboard engine thrust reversers at one-quarter thrust and the outboard engines at maximum forward thrust.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

170

Investigation of a Full-scale, Cascade-type Thrust Reverser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A double set of turning vanes was carried inside the jet tailpipe. To produce reverse thrust, the tailpipe opens into two side sections and the turning vanes move outward to form a V-shaped cascade, which deflects the exhaust-gas flow. Forward and reverse net thrust were measured over a range of engine speeds with the airplane stationary. Taxi tests were made to determine the comparative stopping distances using wheel braking and reverse thrust separately, and a combination of both. The effect of turning-vane spacing on thrust-reverser performance was determined by scale-model tests using unheated air.

Kohl, Robert C; Algranti, Joseph S

1957-01-01

171

12.2 Vectors in 2D and 3D 1. Vector and Magnitude  

E-print Network

12.2 Vectors in 2D and 3D 1. Vector and Magnitude: 2. Examples: 3. Equivalent Vectors: 4. Vector a vector with magnitude 6 in the direction of 2, 2, -1 . 19. The thrust of an airplane's engine produces, in other words in the direction of -i? 21. Two forces F1 and F2 with magnitudes 10 lbs and 12 lbs

Anderson, Douglas R.

172

Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

2010-01-01

173

Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors [axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts] of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of +/-2.3 degrees was measured with the error of +/-0.2 degrees under the typical operating conditions for the thruster. PMID:18052505

Nagao, N; Yokota, S; Komurasaki, K; Arakawa, Y

2007-11-01

174

Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors (axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts) of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of {+-}2.3 deg. was measured with the error of {+-}0.2 deg. under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2007-11-15

175

Editorial on Future Jet Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The jet engine is the prime flight controller in post-stall flight domains where conventional flight control fails, or when the engine prevents catastrophes in training, combat, loss of all airframe hydraulics (the engine retains its own hydraulics), loss of one engine, pilot errors, icing on the wings, landing gear and runway issues in takeoff and landing and in bad-whether recoveries. The scientific term for this revolutionary technology is "jet-steering", and in engineering practice - "thrust vectoring", or "TV". Jet-Steering in advanced fighter aircraft designs is integrated with stealth technology. The resulting classified Thrust-Vectoring-Stealth ("TVS") technology has generated a second jet-revolution by which all Air-&-Sea-Propulsion Science and R&D are now being reassessed. Classified F-22, X-47B/C and RQ-180 TVS-vehicles stand at the front of this revolution. But recent transfers of such sensitive technologies to South Korea and Japan [1-5], have raised various fundamental issues that are evaluated by this editorial-review. One, and perhaps a key conclusion presented here, means that both South Korea and Japan may have missed one of their air-&-sea defenses: To develop and field low-cost unmanned fleets of jet-drones, some for use with expensive, TVS-fighter aircraft in highly congested areas. In turn, the U.S., EU, Russia and China, are currently developing such fleets at various TVS levels and sizes. China, for instance, operates at least 15,000 drones ("UAVs") by 2014 in the civilian sector alone. All Chinese drones have been developed by at least 230 developers/manufacturers [1-16]. Mobile telecommunication of safe links between flyers and combat drones ("UCAVs") at increasingly deep penetrations into remote, congested areas, can gradually be purchased-developed-deployed and then operated by extant cader of tens of thousands "National Champion Flyers" who have already mastered the operation of mini-drones in free-to-all sport clubs under national competions and Awards. [Rule-13]. We also provide 26 references [17-43] to a different, unclassified technology that enhances TV-induced flight safety for passenger jets, turboprops and helicopters. It is based on patented stowed-away/emergency-deployed TV-kits added to fixed-configuration, subsonic exhaust nozzles of low thrust-to-weight ratio vehicles. Expected benefits include anti-terror recoveries from emergencies, like forced landing on unprepared runways or highways, or recoveries from all airframe-hydraulics-outs, asymmetric ice on wings, landing gear catastrophes, and recoveries from pilot errors and bad-whether incidents [Rule 9(7)]. Other TV technologies involve preventing catastrophes in speed and patrol boats, racing and regular cars/SUVs, buses and trucks. [Rule 9(8)] and faster helicopters [Rule 9(10)].

Gal-Or, Benjamin

2014-12-01

176

The motion of thrust sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional average basal shear stress tau of a thrust sheet of thickness H is equal to the down-surface slope stress pgHalpha. Thrusts always move in the direction of surface slope alpha, even if they are moving up the dip beta of the base. The sole thrust beneath the Canadian Rockies had tau of the order of 5×106 Pa (50

David Elliott

1976-01-01

177

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

178

Finite thrust orbital transfers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite thrust optimal transfer in the presence of the Earth's shadow and oblate planet perturbations is a problem of strong interest in modern telecommunication satellite design with plasmic propulsion. The Maximum Principle cannot be used in its standard form to deal with the Earth's shadow. In this paper, using a regularization of the Hamiltonian which expands the Maximum Principle application domain, we provide for the first time, the necessary conditions in a very general context for the finite thrust optimal transfer with limited power around an oblate planet. The costate in such problems is generally discontinuous. To obtain fast numerical solutions, the averaging of the Hamiltonian is introduced. Two classes of boundary conditions are analyzed and numerically solved: the minimum time and the minimum fuel at a fixed time. These two problems are the basic tools for designing the orbit raising of a satellite after the launcher injection into its separation orbit. Numerical solutions have been calculated for the more important applications of LEO to GEO/MEO missions and the results have been reported and discussed.

Mazzini, Leonardo

2014-07-01

179

Rectangular jets in a crossflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectangular jets injected from a flat plate into a crossflow at large angles have been studied. Results were obtained as surface pressure distributions, mean velocity vector plots, turbulence intensities, and Reynolds stresses in the jet plume. The length-to-width ratio of the jets was 4, and the jets were aligned streamwise as single and side-by-side dual jets. The jet injection angles

M. S. Kavsaoglu; J. A. Schetz; A. K. Jakubowski

1989-01-01

180

Study of Vector Boson Scattering and Search for New Physics in Events with Two Same-Sign Leptons and Two Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of vector boson scattering in p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector. Candidate events are selected with exactly two leptons of the same charge, two jets with large rapidity separation and high dijet mass, and moderate missing transverse energy. The signal region is expected to be dominated by electroweak same-sign W -boson pair production. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. The observed significance is 2.0 standard deviations, where a significance of 3.1 standard deviations is expected based on the standard model. Cross section measurements for W±W± and W Z processes in the fiducial region are reported. Bounds on the structure of quartic vector-boson interactions are given in the framework of dimension-eight effective field theory operators, as well as limits on the production of doubly charged Higgs bosons.

Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.

2015-02-01

181

Rapidity correlations between high p{sub T} intermediate vector bosons and jets in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV  

SciTech Connect

D{O} has used W {yields} e{nu} and Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} events produced in association with a high p{sub T}, jet to examine the effects of strong radiative corrections. We have compared the primary jet pseudorapidity distribution, as a function of reconstructed W or Z boson rapidity to leading order (LO) and Next-to-Leading order (NLO) QCD Monte Carlo generators, as well as a model based on extended color dipoles. We find that the primary jet is more central than either LO or NLO expectations. None of the Monte Carlo programs does a good job of predicting the shape of the jet distributions as a function of intermediate vector bosons rapidity.

Abachi, S.

1995-07-01

182

Effects of internal yaw-vectoring devices on the static performance of a pitch-vectoring nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.

Asbury, Scott C.

1993-01-01

183

Micro thrust and heat generator  

DOEpatents

A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

Garcia, E.J.

1998-11-17

184

Low-thrust rocket trajectories  

SciTech Connect

The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report.

Keaton, P.W.

1987-03-01

185

Low-thrust rocket trajectories  

SciTech Connect

The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report. 57 refs., 10 figs.

Keaton, P.W.

1986-01-01

186

Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a computationally efficient method of optimizing trajectories of spacecraft driven by propulsion systems that generate low thrusts and, hence, must be operated for long times. A common goal in trajectory-optimization problems is to find minimum-time, minimum-fuel, or Pareto-optimal trajectories (here, Pareto-optimality signifies that no other solutions are superior with respect to both flight time and fuel consumption). The present method utilizes genetic and simulated-annealing algorithms to search for globally Pareto-optimal solutions. These algorithms are implemented in parallel form to reduce computation time. These algorithms are coupled with either of two traditional trajectory- design approaches called "direct" and "indirect." In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. The indirect approach involves the primer-vector theory (introduced in 1963), in which the thrust control problem is transformed into a co-state control problem and the initial values of the co-state vector are optimized. In application to two example orbit-transfer problems, this method was found to generate solutions comparable to those of other state-of-the-art trajectory-optimization methods while requiring much less computation time.

Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; Russell, Ryan; Terrile, Richard; Petropoulos, Anastassios; vonAllmen, Paul

2007-01-01

187

Entrainment and thrust augmentation in pulsatile ejector flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study comprised direct thrust measurements, flow visualization by use of a spark shadowgraph technique, and mean and fluctuating velocity measurements with a pitot tube and linearized constant temperature hot-wire anemometry respectively. A gain in thrust of as much as 10 to 15% was observed for the pulsatile ejector flow as compared to the steady flow configuration. From the velocity profile measurements, it is concluded that this enhanced augmentation for pulsatile flow as compared to a nonpulsatile one was accomplished by a corresponding increased entrainment by the primary jet flow. It is also concluded that the augmentation and total entrainment by a constant area ejector critically depends upon the inlet geometry of the ejector. Experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of primary jet to ejector area ratio, ejector length, and presence of a diffuser on pulsatile ejector performance.

Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Bui, T.

1981-01-01

188

A Simple Model of Pulsed Ejector Thrust Augmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple model of thrust augmentation from a pulsed source is described. In the model it is assumed that the flow into the ejector is quasi-steady, and can be calculated using potential flow techniques. The velocity of the flow is related to the speed of the starting vortex ring formed by the jet. The vortex ring properties are obtained from the slug model, knowing the jet diameter, speed and slug length. The model, when combined with experimental results, predicts an optimum ejector radius for thrust augmentation. Data on pulsed ejector performance for comparison with the model was obtained using a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube as the pulsed jet source. A statistical experiment, in which ejector length, diameter, and nose radius were independent parameters, was performed at four different frequencies. These frequencies corresponded to four different slug length to diameter ratios, two below cut-off, and two above. Comparison of the model with the experimental data showed reasonable agreement. Maximum pulsed thrust augmentation is shown to occur for a pulsed source with slug length to diameter ratio equal to the cut-off value.

Wilson, Jack; Deloof, Richard L. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

189

Rectangular jets in a crossflow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular jets injected from a flat plate into a crossflow at large angles have been studied. Results were obtained as surface pressure distributions, mean velocity vector plots, turbulence intensities, and Reynolds stresses in the jet plume. The length-to-width ratio of the jets was 4, and the jets were aligned streamwise as single and side-by-side dual jets. The jet injection angles were 90 and 60 deg. Surface pressure distribution results were obtained for jet-to-freestream velocity ratios of 2.2, 4, and 8. Mean flow and turbulence flowfield data were obtained for the side-by-side dual jets, mainly for the jet-to-freestream velocity ratio of 4. The jets featured strong negative pressure peaks near the front nozzle corners. The 60-deg jets produced lower magnitude negative pressures, which are distributed over a lesser area when compared to the 90-deg jets.

Kavsaoglu, M. S.; Schetz, J. A.; Jakubowski, A. K.

1989-01-01

190

Search for vector-like $B$ quarks in events with one isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum and jets at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8TeV with the ATLAS detector  

E-print Network

A search has been performed for pair production of heavy vector-like down-type ($B$) quarks. The analysis explores the lepton-plus-jets final state, characterized by events with one isolated charged lepton (electron or muon), significant missing transverse momentum and multiple jets. One or more jets are required to be tagged as arising from $b$-quarks, and at least one pair of jets must be tagged as arising from the hadronic decay of an electroweak boson. The analysis uses the full data sample of $pp$ collisions recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, operating at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. No significant excess of events is observed above the expected background. Limits are set on vector-like $B$ production, as a function of the $B$ branching ratios, assuming the allowable decay modes are $B \\rightarrow Wt/Zb/Hb$. In the chiral limit with a branching ratio of 100% for the decay $B \\rightarrow Wt$, the observed (expected) 95% CL...

ATLAS Collaboration

2015-01-01

191

Army (MANTECH) Thrust Area Concept: Optics Thrust Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

Kopacz, Stanley P.

1992-01-01

192

Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low-thrust NEP subsystem with Brayton cycle power conversion system is preferable in comparison with NEP subsystem with thermoemission power conversion system.

Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

2011-08-01

193

Thrust Optimization in Pulsatile Vortex Generators in Liquid Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex rings are coherent structures effective at transporting momentum, circulation and energy across long distances through a fluid medium. An array of periodic vortex rings can be created by a series of pulsatile jets. Similar jet propulsion is the primary method of movement for Cephalopod such as squid. Inspired by the propulsion of squid and jellyfish we have designed and built vortex generators for propulsion and low speed maneuvering of small underwater vehicles. The vortex generator consists of a cavity with a moving diaphragm on one side and an exit orifice on the other side. The diaphragm or a plunger is activated by an electric motor. As a result, the amplitude, frequency, and profile of the actuated diaphragm are easily controlled. This investigation is focused on identifying the parameters that control the thrust generation in this mechanism and its optimization. A sensitive load cell is employed to directly measure thrust generation while these parameters are varied. It is found that the formation number, actuation frequency, and plunger profile are among the most relevant parameters that control thrust generation.

Krieg, Mike; Clark, Torin; Mohseni, Kamran

2006-11-01

194

Low thrust propulsion literature survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

Monroe, Darrel

1989-01-01

195

Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.

Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

2011-01-01

196

Thermal effects of thrust faulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations based on simple models of overthrust sheets in crystalline basement rocks show that significant thermal effects may result from their movements. If rates are sufficiently high (e.g. plate tectonic rates), the thrust sheets sufficiently thick (5, 10 and 15 km are modelled here), the distances moved sufficiently large, and for reasonable values of the coefficient of friction along the

Jon Brewer

1981-01-01

197

Thrust reverser with variable nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust reverser is provided for both modulating and reversing bypass flow discharged from a fan through a bypass duct of a turbofan gas turbine engine. The reverser includes an aft cowl joined to a forward cowl and having an aft end surrounding a core engine to define a discharge fan nozzle of minimum flow throat area. The aft cowl is axially translatable relative to the forward cowl from a first position fully retracted against the forward cowl, to a second position partially extended from the forward cowl, and to a third position fully extended from the forward cowl. A plurality of cascade turning vanes are disposed between the forward and aft cowls, and a plurality of thrust reversing deflector doors are pivotally mounted to the aft cowl and bound the bypass duct. The deflector doors are selectively deployed from a stowed position corresponding with the first and second positions of the aft cowl for allowing unrestricted flow of the bypass flow through the fan nozzle. The doors also have a deployed position corresponding with the third position of the aft cowl for substantially deflecting the bypass flow from discharging through the fan nozzle to discharging through the cascade vanes for effecting thrust reverse. Axial translation of the aft cowl between the first and second positions varies flow area of the fan nozzle to vary thrust effected by the discharged bypass flow.

Butler, Lawrence (Inventor)

1997-01-01

198

Another Look at Rocket Thrust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

2012-01-01

199

Externally Pressurized Porous Thrust Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of porous material in the bearing surface of externally pressurized thrust bearings leads to a compact design by eliminating the need for an external restrictor and has other potential advantages.An experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of such bearings, using liquid lubricants is described: the investigation is limited to static conditions but considers the effect of bearing

R. B. Howarth

1976-01-01

200

Formation of a synthetic jet based on a dielectric barrier discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific thrust of a synthetic jet based on a dielectric barrier discharge generated by a symmetric actuator has been measured. The dependence of the specific thrust on the distance between exposed electrodes at various applied voltages has been studied. The role of convection at various distances between exposed electrodes has been qualitatively assessed by schlieren imaging of synthetic jets.

Bocharnikov, V. M.; Semin, N. V.; Savel'ev, A. S.; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Golub, V. V.

2014-07-01

201

Experimental performance of cascade thrust reversers at forward velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of static and wind tunnel tests were performed on four cowl cascade thrust reverser configurations which had various reversed jet emission patterns applicable to an externally blown flap STOL aircraft. The work was performed using a model fan which was 14.0 cm in diameter and passed a fan mass flow of 2.49 kg/sec at an approximate fan pressure ratio of 1.22 and fan corrected rotational speed of 35,800 rpm. The tests demonstrated that the reingestion of fan flow significantly reduced the reverser efficiency and that the thrust reverser efficiency was improved by reducing the reversed jet azimuthal emmission angle. The reverser efficiency at STOL landing speeds was as high as 0.95; however, configurations with lateral emission were adversely affected by yawing the nacelle at forward velocity. Measurements of the internal static pressure at the stator exit showed significant increases in the local static pressure for configurations with reduced jet emission angles.

Dietrich, D. A.; Luidens, R. W.

1973-01-01

202

Port geometry effects on thrust reverser static performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to provide some insight into the effect of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of thrust reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles using a single port test apparatus. This test apparatus simulates thrust reversal (conceptually) which would occur in the convergent section of the forward flight nozzle or in the constant area duct just upstream. The port opening had an aspect ratio of 6.1 (throat width/throat height) and had constant passage area from the geometric throat to the exit. The geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and flow blocker angle. The apparatus had a single port so that thrust (vector) angle could be obtained from force balance measurements. The tests were conducted in the Static Test Stand of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.5 to 8.0 using high pressure air for propulsion simulation. Port angles (measured forward from a horizontal reference line) investigated were 75, 90, 120 and 135 deg. Sharp and rounded port corners were investigated for each port angle. Discharge coefficient, thrust ratio, and passage static pressures were measured.

Re, R. J.; Mason, M. L.

1985-01-01

203

Parameters Governing Separation Control with Sweeping Jet Actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters governing separation control with sweeping jet actuators over a deflected flap are investigated experimentally on a generic "Multiple Flap Airfoil" (MFA). The model enables an extensive variation of geometric and aerodynamic parameters to aid the scaling of this novel flow control method to full-size applications. Sweeping jets exit from discrete, millimeter-scale nozzles distributed along the span and oscillate from side-to-side. The sweeping frequency is almost linearly dependent on the supplied flowrate per actuator. The measured thrust exerted by a row of actuators agrees well with vectored momentum calculations. Frequency and thrust measurements suggest that the jet velocity is limited to subsonic speeds and that any additional increase in flowrate causes internal choking of the flow. Neither the flowrate nor the momentum input is found to be a sole parameter governing the lift for varying distance between adjacent actuators. However, the product of the mass flow coefficient and the square root of the momentum coefficient collapses the lift onto a single curve regardless of the actuator spacing. Contrary to other actuation methods, separation control with sweeping jets does not exhibit any hysteresis with either momentum input or flap deflection. A comparison between sweeping and non-sweeping jets illustrates the superior control authority provided by sweeping jets. Surface flow visualization on the flap suggests the formation of counter-rotating pairs of streamwise vortices caused by the interaction of neighboring jets. The actuation intensity required to attach the flow increases with increasing downstream distance from the main element's trailing edge and increasing flap deflection. No obvious dependence of the ideal actuation location on actuator spacing, flap deflection, angle of attack, or actuation intensity is found within the tested range. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results reveal that the inviscid flow solution appears to be a suitable predictor for the effectively and efficiently obtainable lift of a given airfoil configuration. The flap size affects the achievable lift, the accompanying drag, and the required flap deflection and actuation intensity. By controlling separation, the range of achievable lift coefficients is doubled without significant penalty in drag even when considering a safety margin for the maximum applicable incidence.

Woszidlo, Rene

204

Conditions for thrust faulting in a glacier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipping, arcuate bands of debris-rich ice outcropping near the margins of glaciers are often interpreted as thrust faults, assumed to originate in zones of longitudinal compression. Identification of thrusts is typically based either on the geometry and sedimentology of the debris bands or on the crystal fabric of surrounding ice, but the physical processes necessary to generate thrusts are rarely

Peter L. Moore; Neal R. Iverson; Denis Cohen

2010-01-01

205

Pulsed thrust measurements using laser interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final design of an optical Interferometric Prox- imeter System (IPS) for measuring the thrust of pulsed thrusters, in particular pulsed plasma thrusters, has been completed. This paper reports the recent improvements of the IPS and reviews the basic principles. Unlike existing thrust stands, the IPS-based thrust stand oers the advantage of a sin- gle system that can yield EMI-free,

E. A. Cubbin; J. K. Ziemer; E. Y. Choueiri; R. G. Jahn

2001-01-01

206

Transverse jet injection into a supersonic turbulent cross-flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet injection into a supersonic cross-flow is a challenging fluid dynamics problem in the field of aerospace engineering which has applications as part of a rocket thrust vector control system for noise control in cavities and fuel injection in scramjet combustion chambers. Several experimental and theoretical/numerical works have been conducted to explore this flow; however, there is a dearth of literature detailing the instantaneous flow which is vital to improve the efficiency of the mixing of fluids. In this paper, a sonic jet in a Mach 1.6 free-stream is studied using a finite volume Godunov type implicit large eddy simulations technique, which employs fifth-order accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme with modified variable extrapolation and a three-stage second-order strong-stability-preserving Runge-Kutta scheme for temporal advancement. A digital filter based turbulent inflow data generation method is implemented in order to capture the physics of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. This paper details the averaged and instantaneous flow features including vortex structures downstream of the jet injection, along with the jet penetration, jet mixing, pressure distributions, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses in the downstream flow. It demonstrates that Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities in the upper jet shear layer are primarily responsible for mixing of the two fluids. The results are compared to experimental data and recently performed classical large eddy simulations (LES) with the same initial conditions in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical methods and utility of the inflow generation method. Results here show equivalent accuracy for 1/45th of the computational resources used in the classical LES study.

Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B.; Drikakis, D.

2011-04-01

207

Studies on Thrust Characteristic of High-Thrust Spiral Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear actuators are used in various industrial applications. Connentional linear actuators are a combination of a rotational motor and a ball screw, a hydraulic actuator, or a linear motor. However, these actuators have some demerits. This paper proposes a spiral motor (SPRM) that comprises a spiral stator and a spiral mover. Owing to its spiral structure, the SPRM can be expected to show better performance as compared to the conventional linear actuator. However, it is not easy to manufacture spiral stators and spiral movers. In this paper, thrust and torque equations derived from a magnetic circuit are introduced. A prototype is developed and its specifications are provided. Sixty fan-shaped stator blocks are mounted on the frame and forty-eight fan-shaped mover blocks with flat surfaces are mounted on the axis. These blocks form an approximately spiral structure. The blocks are not difficult to manufacture. The feasibility of the developed SPRM is confirmed by performing basic experiments. First, the SPRM is driven by using synchronous control. Subsequently, the thrust is measured by a load cell and the thrust constant is determined.

Kominami, Tsutomu; Fujimoto, Yasutaka

208

The deflection of a jet by confining surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust vectoring can be provided by the turning of a jet exhaust by the presence of confining surfaces. This approach is analogous to the upper surface blowing (USB) concept. Mean velocities, velocity autocorrelations, and pressure-velocity correlations are measured. From the autocorrelation curves, the Taylor microscales and the integral length scales are calculated. Convection velocities are calculated from the velocity space-time correlations. Two different confining surfaces (one flat, one with large curvature) are placed adjacent to the lip of a circular nozzle, and the resultant effects on the flow field are determined. In addition, two velocity ratios (exit plane velocity to ambient stream velocity) are examined. The velocity measurements were made with a laser Doppler velocimeter in conjunction with a phase locked-loop processor. Pressure measurements were made using a 1/8th inch condensor type microphone.

Catalano, G. D.; Morton, J. B.; Humphris, R. R.

1981-01-01

209

Low thrust orbit determination program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Logical flow and guidelines are provided for the construction of a low thrust orbit determination computer program. The program, tentatively called FRACAS (filter response analysis for continuously accelerating spacecraft), is capable of generating a reference low thrust trajectory, performing a linear covariance analysis of guidance and navigation processes, and analyzing trajectory nonlinearities in Monte Carlo fashion. The choice of trajectory, guidance and navigation models has been made after extensive literature surveys and investigation of previous software. A key part of program design relied upon experience gained in developing and using Martin Marietta Aerospace programs: TOPSEP (Targeting/Optimization for Solar Electric Propulsion), GODSEP (Guidance and Orbit Determination for SEP) and SIMSEP (Simulation of SEP).

Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Huling, K. R.; Ratliff, C. W.

1972-01-01

210

Space Shuttle booster thrust imbalance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the Shuttle SRM thrust imbalance during the steady-state and tailoff portions of the boost phase of flight are presented. Results from flights STS-1 through STS-13 are included. A statistical analysis of the observed thrust imbalance data is presented. A 3 sigma thrust imbalance history versus time was generated from the observed data and is compared to the vehicle design requirements. The effect on Shuttle thrust imbalance from the use of replacement SRM segments is predicted. Comparisons of observed thrust imbalances with respect to predicted imbalances are presented for the two space shuttle flights which used replacement aft segments (STS-9 and STS-13).

Bailey, W. R.; Blackwell, D. L.

1985-01-01

211

Measurement of the cross-section of high transverse momentum vector bosons reconstructed as single jets and studies of jet substructure in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a measurement of the cross-section for high transverse momentum W and Z bosons produced in pp collisions and decaying to all-hadronic final states. The data used in the analysis were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s}=7 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 f{{b}-1}. The measurement is performed by reconstructing the boosted W or Z bosons in single jets. The reconstructed jet mass is used to identify the W and Z bosons, and a jet substructure method based on energy cluster information in the jet centre-of-mass frame is used to suppress the large multi-jet background. The cross-section for events with a hadronically decaying W or Z boson, with transverse momentum {{p}T}\\gt 320 GeV and pseudorapidity |? |\\lt 1.9, is measured to be {{? }W+Z}=8.5+/- 1.7 pb and is compared to next-to-leading-order calculations. The selected events are further used to study jet grooming techniques.

Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.

2014-11-01

212

Analytical guidance for spacecraft relative motion under constant thrust using relative orbit elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proximity control of modern nano-spacecraft often relies on low and discrete thrust engines that are characterized by low consumption, and generate on-off force profiles. New guidance solutions must take into account the nature of this type of orbital engines. This paper introduces novel analytical guidance solutions for spacecraft relative motion considering continuous, on-off thrust, and using relative orbit elements as a geometrical representation of the dynamics. The solutions provide the relative state vector at any given time, accommodating any thrust magnitude along the three directions of the relative frame, as well as generic activation times and durations. Relative orbit elements geometrically interpret key aspects of the relative motion, including for example, the relative ellipse size, and the evolution of its center in time. The new solutions provide the guidance designer with a direct visualization of the thrust effects on the relative motion geometry, offering new possibilities for analytical guidance in the presence of continuous thrust engines, such as low thrust engines on nano-spacecraft. The paper presents the analytical solutions, and tests their effectiveness using a sample thrust profile based on input-shaping, previously developed by one of the authors using classical Cartesian coordinates. The use of relative orbit elements shows substantial benefits and added simplicity with respect to Cartesian-based approaches, holding the promise for straightforward onboard spacecraft implementation. The software developed for this research will be available open source1

Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Lovell, Thomas Alan

2014-09-01

213

Transient aerodynamic forces on a fighter model during simulated approach and landing with thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

1988-01-01

214

Modular multi-engine thrust control assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a modular thrust control lever assembly for controling forward/reverse thrust generated by an aircraft engine. It includes an electric/electronic engine thrust control system, an inhibit mechanism for preventing inadverent or premature establishment of at least one of forward and reverse engine thrust. It consists of a (a) housing; (b) a control lever assembly pivotally mounted within the housing for fore and aft pivotal movement in a single vertical plane; (c) movable inhibit mechanism normally mounted in the path of movement of the laterally projecting roller on the control lever assembly between at least one of the maximum thrust limit positions of the assembly and the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (d) a electric/electronic engine thrust control system including an mechanism for reconfiguring the thrust controls of the engine upon movement of the thrust control lever assembly to the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (e) a mechanism responsive to the output signal for shifting the inhibit mechanism out of the path of movement of the control lever assembly.

Sakurai, S.

1986-02-04

215

Development and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A road map of milestones toward the goal of a full scale Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor/Flight Support Motor (RSRM/FSM) hot fire test is discussed. These milestones include: component feasibility, full power system demonstration, SSME hot fire tests, and RSRM hot fire tests. The participation of the Marshall Space Flight Center is emphasized.

Weir, Rae A.; Cowan, John R.

1993-01-01

216

Omni-axis secondary injection thrust vector control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept, development, design study and preliminary analysis and layout of the required digital logic scheme to be used for injection valve control are presented. An application and optimization study of an Omni-Axis Secondary Injection Control System applicable to the proposed Space Shuttle Pressure Fed Engine is reported. Technical definition and analysis control procedures and test routines, as well as a supporting set of drawing sketches and reference manual, are enclosed.

Kirkley, D. J.

1973-01-01

217

Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

Haag, Thomas

2002-01-01

218

Low-thrust perturbation guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two perturbation guidance schemes, time-to-go guidance and minimum-distance guidance, are reexamined, in the context of a low-thrust orbit transfer problem. The two schemes, which use different techniques for indexing feedback gains, are shown to be comparable in performance. Both schemes are found to produce terminal state errors which are orders of magnitude smaller than those obtained in several previous studies. Various small modifications or enhancements of the algorithms are thought to account for a portion of the dramatic improvement in results. The problem investigated is a hypothetical earth to Mars orbit transfer, with six state variables, two control variables, and six terminal state constraints.

Bauer, T. P.; Caughey, T. K.; Wood, L. J.

1982-01-01

219

Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Cell Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the progress in the development of lightweight chambers for thrust cell applications. The objective of the program is to reduce thrust assembly weights to create lighter engines which will allow for an increase in the payload. Using new composite materials and fabrication technologies the team has constructed 7 different thrust cell demonstration units. The materials used in the demonstration units are reviewed.

Elam, Sandy; Effinger, Mike; Holmes, Dick; Lee, Jonathan; Jaskowiak, Martha; Turner, Jim E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

220

Thrust chamber material technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

1989-01-01

221

Thrust control system design of ducted rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of the thrust control system is aroused by the need for propulsion system of ducted rockets. Firstly the dynamic mathematical models of gas flow regulating system, pneumatic servo system and ducted rocket engine were established and analyzed. Then, to conquer the discussed problems of thrust control, the idea of information fusion was proposed to construct a new feedback variable. With this fused feedback variable, the thrust control system was designed. According to the simulation results, the introduction of the new fused feedback variable is valid in eliminating the contradiction between rapid response and stability for the thrust control system of ducted rockets.

Chang, Juntao; Li, Bin; Bao, Wen; Niu, Wenyu; Yu, Daren

2011-07-01

222

The Aeroacoustics of Supersonic Coaxial Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instability waves have been established as the dominant source of mixing noise radiating into the downstream arc of a supersonic jet when the waves have phase velocities that are supersonic relative to ambient conditions. Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used the concepts of growing and decaying linear instability waves for predicting radiated noise. This analysis is extended to the prediction of noise radiation from supersonic coaxial jets. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytic functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The Reynolds averaged, compressible, boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number. Both normal and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. Comparisons with measurements for both single and coaxial jets show good agreement. The results from mean flow and stability calculations are used to predict the noise radiation from coaxial jets with different operating conditions. Comparisons are made between different coaxial jets and a single equivalent jet with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. Results indicate that normal velocity profile jets can have noise reductions compared to the single equivalent jet. No noise reductions are found for inverted velocity profile jets operated at the minimum noise condition compared to the single equivalent jet. However, it is inferred that changes in area ratio may provide noise reduction benefits for inverted velocity profile jets.

Dahl, Milo D.

1994-01-01

223

Jet Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the general characteristics of upper-level jet streams (Polar Jet, Subtropical Jet, and Tropical Easterly Jet) and two major tropical low-level wind maxima (Somali Jet, African Easterly Jet). Included are discussions of their formation, maintenance, influence on synoptic weather, and role in the general circulation.

COMET

2012-11-13

224

Spectral-tomographic methods and means of studying propellant flows of ion and plasma low-thrust engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of spectral-tomographic diagnostics of ion and plasma jets in ion-plasma low-thrust engines are described. Methods that I have developed of 2D and 3D reconstruction of local values of temperature, concentration and absolute intensity in the ion-plasma jet are analyzed. Experimental setups of laboratory type for studying parameters of propellants of ion and plasma propulsion engines are described.

Filonin, O. V.

2015-01-01

225

Low thrust rocket test facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

1990-01-01

226

Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

227

Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

2010-01-01

228

Wingtip Vortex-Augmented Turbopusher Propeller Thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust of propeller enhanced by tip vortex. Wingtip-Mounted Nacelle provides turboprop vortex velocity recovery. Thrust of turbopusher propeller increased by flow of lift-induced vortex. As result of weaker vortex, reduction in induced drag of wing afforded by propeller-wake mass injection into core of vortex, causing it to break down.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.

1985-01-01

229

Static internal performance evaluation of several thrust reversing concepts for 2D-CD nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent performance testing of the two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2D-CD) nozzle has established the concept as a viable alternative to the axisymmetric nozzle for advanced technology aircraft. This type of exhaust system also offers potential integration and performance advantages in the areas of thrust reversing and vectoring over axi-symmetric nozzles. These advantages include the practical integration of thrust reversers which operate not only to reduce landing roll but also operate in-flight for enhanced maneuvering and thrust spoiling. To date there is a very limited data base available from which criteria can be developed for the design and evaluation of this type of thrust reverser system. For this reason, a static scale model test was conducted in which five different thrust reverser designs were evaluated. Each of the five models had varying performance/integration requirements which dictated the five different designs. Some of the parameters investigated in this test included; variable angle external cascade vanes, fixed angle internal cascade vanes, variable position inner doors, external slider doors and internal slider valves. In addition, normal force and yawing moment generation was investigated using the thrust reverser system. Selected results from this test will be presented and discussed in this paper.

Rowe, R. K.; Duss, D. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

1984-01-01

230

Ultra-High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The jet noise from a 1/15 scale model of a Pratt and Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was measured in the United Technology Research Center anechoic research tunnel (ART) under a range of operating conditions. Conditions were chosen to match engine operating conditions. Data were obtained at static conditions and at wind tunnel Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.27, and 0.35 to simulate inflight effects on jet noise. Due to a temperature dependence of the secondary nozzle area, the model nozzle secondary to primary area ratio varied from 7.12 at 100 percent thrust to 7.39 at 30 percent thrust. The bypass ratio varied from 10.2 to 11.8 respectively. Comparison of the data with predictions using the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Jet Noise Prediction Method showed that the current prediction method overpredicted the ADP jet noise by 6 decibels. The data suggest that a simple method of subtracting 6 decibels from the SAE Coaxial Jet Noise Prediction for the merged and secondary flow source components would result in good agreement between predicted and measured levels. The simulated jet noise flight effects with wind tunnel Mach numbers up to 0.35 produced jet noise inflight noise reductions up to 12 decibels. The reductions in jet noise levels were across the entire jet noise spectra, suggesting that the inflight effects affected all source noise components.

Low, John K. C.

1994-01-01

231

Comparison of three thrust calculation methods using in-flight thrust data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gross thrust of an experimental airplane was determined by each method using the same flight maneuvers and generally the same data parameters. Coefficients determined from thrust stand calibrations for each of the three methods were then extrapolated to cruise flight conditions. The values of total aircraft gross thrust calculated by the three methods for cruise flight conditions agreed within + or - 3 percent. The disagreement in the values of thrust calculated by the different techniques manifested itself as a bias in the data. There was little scatter (0.5 percent) for the thrust levels examined in flight.

Hughes, D. L.

1981-01-01

232

Search for production of vector-like quark pairs and of four top quarks in the lepton plus jets final state in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector  

E-print Network

A search is presented for pair production of vector-like quarks, both up-type ($T$) and down-type ($B$), as well as for four-top-quark production. The search is based on $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. Data are analysed in the lepton plus jets final state, characterised by a high-transverse-momentum isolated electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum and multiple jets. Dedicated analyses are performed targeting three cases: a $T$ quark with significant branching to a $W$ boson and a $b$ quark ($T\\bar{T} \\to Wb$+X), and both a $T$ quark and a $B$ quark with significant branching ratio to a Higgs boson and a third generation quark ($T\\bar{T} \\to Ht$+X and $B\\bar{B} \\to Hb$+X respectively). The analyses exploit characteristic features of the signals to discriminate against the dominant background from top quark pair production, such as the high total transverse ...

The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

233

Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

1999-01-01

234

Friction losses in a lubricated thrust-loaded cageless angular-contract bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA spinning torque apparatus was modified to measure the spinning torque on a cageless ball thrust bearing. Friction torque was measured for thrust loads varying from 44.5 to 403 newtons (10 to 90 lb) at speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm. Tests were conducted with di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil. These tests were run with either oil jet lubrication or with a thin surface film of lubricant only. An analytical model which included rolling resistance was developed and extended from previous models for spinning torque and lubricant rheology. The model was extended by the inclusion of rolling resistance. The computed values were in fair agreement with the experimental results and confirmed previous hypotheses that a thin lubricant film gives minimum bearing torque and an oil jet flow of a viscous lubricant will result in considerable rolling torque in addition to the torque due to ball spin.

Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

235

An experimental study of a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow field measurements were obtained in a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. The primary nozzle, segmented into twelve slots of aspect ratio 3.0, was tested at a pressure ratio of 1.15. Results are presented on the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress progressions in the mixing chamber of the constant area ejector. The segmented nozzle was found to produce streamwise vortices that may increase the mixing efficiency of the ejector flow field. Compared to free jet results, the jet development is reduced by the presence of the ejector walls. The resulting thrust augmentation ratio of this ejector was also calculated to be 1.34.

Storms, Bruce Lowell

1989-01-01

236

Low thrust chemical rocket technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher performance propellants were evaluated: Space storable propellants, including liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer with nitrogen hydrides or hydrocarbon as fuels. Specifically, a LOX/hydrazine engine was designed, fabricated, and shown to have a 95 pct theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1. Further performance improvment can be obtained by the use of LOX/hydrogen propellants, especially for manned spacecraft applications, and specific designs must be developed and advanced through flight qualification.

Schneider, Steven J.

1992-01-01

237

Improvement of propeller static thrust estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of improving the performance estimation of propellers operating in the heavily loaded static thrust condition was studied. The Goldstein theory was assessed as it applies to propellers operating in the static thrust. A review of theoretical considerations is presented along with a summary of the attempts made to obtain a numerical solution. The chordwise pressure distribution was determined during operation at a tip speed of 500 ft/sec. Chordwise integration of the pressures leads to the spanwise load distribution and further integration would give the axial thrust.

Brusse, J.; Kettleborough, C. F.

1975-01-01

238

Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

239

Mixing, Noise and Thrust Benefits Using Corrugated Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project was conducted as a support for effective research, training and teaching of Hampton University students in Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics. Basically, this work is organized and implemented by the new Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM & AL) which was established at Hampton University in the School of Engineering and Technology (E & T) in 1996. In addition, FM & AL in cooperation with NASA LaRC jointly conducts research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TSAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a 2 year Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). This project is also conducted under control of NASA HQ. For fulfillment of the current project, several researchers were involved as was shown in the proposal to NASA in 1996. This work is the development and support for projects solve problems with the goal of reducing jet noise and increasing nozzle thrust.

White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

1998-01-01

240

Jet shielding of jet noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

1986-01-01

241

Dynamics, Structure, and Emission of Electron-Positron Jets  

E-print Network

The theory of gamma-ray emission from e$^{\\pm}$ jets and the implications for jet formation, dynamics and structure are reviewed. In particular, possible carriers of the jet's thrust on small scales, the transition from electromagnetic to particle dominance in Poynting flux jets, formation of pair cascades, synchrotron emission by cascading pairs, and formation of shocks due to unsteadiness in the jet parameters are considered, with emphasis on the observational consequences. Some recent progress in modeling transient emission from blazars is also briefly discussed.

A. Levinson

1997-08-10

242

Effect of varying internal geometry on the static performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effects of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Internal geometry was varied with a test apparatus which simulated a forward-flight nozzle with a single, fully deployed reverser port. The test apparatus was designed to simulate thrust reversal (conceptually) either in the convergent section of the nozzle or in the constant-area duct just upstream of the nozzle. The main geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and internal flow blocker angle. For all reverser port geometries, the port opening had an aspect ratio (throat width to throat height) of 6.1 and had a constant passage area from the geometric port throat to the exit. Reverser-port internal performance and thrust-vector angles computed from force-balance measurements are presented.

Re, Richard J.; Mason, Mary L.

1987-01-01

243

Effects of an in-flight thrust reverser on the stability and control characteristics of a single-engine fighter airplane model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The changes in thrust minus drag performance as well as longitudinal and directional stability and control characteristics of a single-engine jet aircraft attributable to an in-flight thrust reverser of the blocker-deflector door type were investigated in a 16-foot transonic wind tunnel. The longitudinal and directional stability data are presented. Test conditions simulated landing approach conditions as well as high speed maneuvering such as may be required for combat or steep descent from high altitude.

Mercer, C. E.; Maiden, D. L.

1972-01-01

244

Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

Shoji, J. M.

1981-01-01

245

Thrust measurement of dimethyl ether arcjet thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes thrust measurement results for an arcjet thruster using Dimethyl ether (DME) as the propellant. DME is an ether compound and can be stored as a liquid due to its relatively low freezing point and preferable vapor pressure. The thruster successfully produced high-voltage mode at DME mass flow rates above 30 mg/s, whereas it yielded low-voltage mode below 30 mg/s. Thrust measurements yielded a thrust of 0.15 N and a specific impulse of 270 s at a mass flow rate of 60 mg/s with a discharge power of 1300 W. The DME arcjet thruster was comparable to a conventional one for thrust and discharge power.

Kakami, Akira; Beppu, Shinji; Maiguma, Muneyuki; Tachibana, Takeshi

2011-04-01

246

The NASA low thrust propulsion program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power, and Energy Division supports a low thrust propulsion program aimed at providing high performance options for a broad range of near-term and far-term mission and vehicles. Low thrust propulsion has a major impact on the mission performance of essentially all spacecraft and vehicles. On-orbit lifetimes, payloads, and trip times are significantly impacted by low thrust propulsion performance and integration features for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles, Earth-orbit and planetary spacecraft, and large platforms in Earth orbit. Major emphases are on low thrust chemical propulsion, both storables and hydrogen/oxygen; low-power (auxiliary) electric arcjects and resistojets; and high-power (primary) electric propulsion, including ion, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), and electrodeless concepts. The major recent accomplishments of the program are presented and their impacts discussed.

Stone, James R.; Bennett, Gary L.

1989-01-01

247

Dynamic Imbalance Would Counter Offcenter Thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic imbalance generated by offcenter thrust on rotating body eliminated by shifting some of mass of body to generate opposing dynamic imbalance. Technique proposed originally for spacecraft including massive crew module connected via long, lightweight intermediate structure to massive engine module, such that artificial gravitation in crew module generated by rotating spacecraft around axis parallel to thrust generated by engine. Also applicable to dynamic balancing of rotating terrestrial equipment to which offcenter forces applied.

Mccanna, Jason

1994-01-01

248

GSFC Technology Thrusts and Partnership Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the technology thrusts and the opportunities to partner in developing software in support of the technological advances at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). There are thrusts in development of end-to-end software systems for mission data systems in areas of flight software, ground data systems, flight dynamic systems and science data systems. The required technical expertise is reviewed, and the supported missions are shown for the various areas given.

Le Moigne, Jacqueline

2010-01-01

249

Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments. An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031010. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1966-01-01

250

Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

Wang, Ten-See

2005-01-01

251

Experimental investigation of jet-induced loads on a flat plate in hover out-of-ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of varying jet decay rate on jet-induced loads on a flat plate located in the plane of the jet exit perpendicular to the jet axis were investigated using a small-scale laboratory facility. Jet decay rate has been varied through use of two cylindrical centerbodies having either a flat or hemispherical tip, which were submerged various distances below the flat plate jet exit plane. Increased jet decay rate, caused by the presence of a center-body or plug in the jet nozzle, led to an increased jet-induced lift loss on the flat plate. Jet-induced lift losses reached 1 percent of the jet thrust for the quickest jet decay rates for plate areas equal to 100 times the effective jet exit area. The observed lift loss versus jet decay rate trend agreed well with results of previous investigations.

Kuhlman, J. M.; Warcup, R. W.

1979-01-01

252

Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

1997-01-01

253

Jet observables without jet algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their "local" computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse

2014-04-01

254

One-equation modeling and validation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator thrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators with an asymmetric electrode configuration can generate a wall-bounded jet without mechanical moving parts, which require considerable modifications of existing aeronautical objects and which incur high maintenance costs. Despite this potential, one factor preventing the wider application of such actuators is the lack of a reliable actuator model. It is difficult to develop such a model because calculating the ion-electric field and fluid interaction consume a high amount calculation effort during the numerical analysis. Thus, the authors proposed a semi-empirical model which predicted the thrust of plasma actuators with a simple equation. It gave a numeric thrust value, and we implemented the value on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver to describe the two-dimensional flow field induced by the actuator. However, the model had a narrow validation range, depending on the empirical formula, and it did not fully consider environment variables. This study presents an improved model by replacing the empirical formulae in the previous model with physical equations that take into account physical phenomena and environmental variables. During this process, additional operation parameters, such as pressure, temperature and ac waveforms, are newly taken to predict the thrust performance of the actuators with a wider range of existing parameters, the thickness of the dielectric barrier, the exposed electrode, the dielectric constant, the ac frequency and the voltage amplitude. Thrust prediction curves from the model are compared to those of earlier experimental results, showing that the average error is less than 5% for more than one hundred instances of data. As in the earlier work, the predicted thrust value is implemented on a CFD solver, and two-dimensional wall-jet velocity profiles induced by the actuator are compared to the previous experimental results.

Yoon, Jae-San; Han, Jae-Hung

2014-10-01

255

Middle Proterozoic thrusting in central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ductile thrust faults truncate contact-metamorphic aureoles surrounding two 1.4 Ga plutons in central New Mexico. The Priest quartz monzonite (1440 Ma) and Sandia granite (1420 Ma) are 50 km apart in the continuous Sandia/Manzano mountain chain. Thermobarometry and phase relations demonstrate that country-rock temperatures rose from 700 C toward the pluton, at pressure near 4 kb. The northern edge of this aureole is cut by the southeast-dipping ductile Monte Largo thrust fault. Prograde, greenschist-facies metamorphism of footwall rocks accompanied local retrogression of hangingwall rocks during thrusting. This second metamorphism took place at P-T conditions of 2-3 kb and 450-475 C. Another contact aureole surrounds the Sandia granite. Mafic rocks near the granite reflect amphibolite-facies conditions, whereas pelites display low-pressure contact assemblages. Quantitative temperatures increase from 500--750 C toward the granite, at pressures of 2.5--3.5 kb. The shallowly southeast-dipping Vincent Moore fault truncates the Sandia granite and the southern portion of its contact aureole. This ductile shear zone emplaced greenschist-facies rocks northwestward above the Sandia contact aureole. Footwall rocks were retrograded to the greenschist facies within 100 m of this fault; the retrograde phases are aligned parallel to the trace of the thrust. Metamorphic temperatures in hangingwall rocks (during thrusting ) were 400-475 C at pressures above 2.75 kb. Additional northwest-vergent ductile thrusts are found elsewhere in the mountain chain. This may represent the age of thrusting and of the related greenschist and the related greenschist-facies metamorphic overprint.

Grambling, J.A.; Thompson, A.G. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Dallmeyer, R.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

256

Spatially heterogeneous strength in thrust fault zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation in the hanging wall of the Lewis thrust fault at Marias Pass, northwest Montana, is heterogeneous in space, with regions dominated by either large-scale contraction or extension faults. The distribution of mesoscopic structures within the two regions also differs. The density of fractures is highest in the extensional region, whereas the density of solution seams is highest in the contractional regime. This spatial heterogeneity of structures at the base of the Lewis thrust sheet may result from spatially heterogeneous fault zone strength. In analytical models of an elastic thrust sheet overlying a fault represented by spatial heterogeneity in shear traction or displacement, stress magnitudes and principal directions vary with position within the model thrust sheet. With the application of a Mohr-Coulomb criterion, contraction and extension faults initiate within localized regions at the base of the model thrust sheet. Spatial variations in mean stress at the base of the thrust sheet predicted by the models may explain both the greater density of solution seams in the contractional region than in the extensional region and the greater density of mesoscopic faults and veins in the extensional region than in the contractional region of the Marias Pass exposure. The spatial heterogeneity of pressure solution and cataclasis in response to variable mean stress within a fault zone of heterogeneous strength may facilitate thrust sheet movement relative to movement over a fault zone of uniform strength, because a decrease in mean stress enhances cataclasis and an increase in mean stress maintains a constant shear stress during pressure solution.

Erickson, S. Gregg; Wiltschko, David V.

1991-05-01

257

Spatially heterogeneous strength in thrust faults zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation in the hanging wall of the Lewis thrust at Marias Pass, northwest Montana, is heterogeneous in space, with regions dominanted by either large-scale contraction or extension faults. The distribution of mesoscopic structures within the two regions also differs. The density of fracture is highest in the extensional region, whereas the density of solution seams is highest in the contractional regime. This spatial heterogeneity of strutures at the base the Lewis thrust sheet may result from spatially heterogeneous fault zone strength. In analytical models of an elastic thrust sheet overlying a fault represented by spatial heterogeneity in shear traction or displacement, stress magnitude and principal directions vary with position within the model thrust sheet. With the application of a Mohr-Coulomb criterion, contraction and extension faults initiate within localized regions at the base of the model thrust sheet. Spatial variations in mean stress at the base of the thrust sheet predicted by the models may explain both the greater density of solution seams in the contractional region than in the extensional region and the greater density of mesoscopic faults and veins in the extensional region than in the contractional region of the mesoscopic faults and veins in the extensional region than int he contractional region of the Marias Pass exposure. The spatial heterogeneity of pressure solution and cataclasis in response to variable mean stress within a fault zone of heterogeneous strength may facilitate thrust sheet movement relative to movement over a fault zone of uniform strength, because a decrease in mean stress enhances cataclasis and an increase in mean stress maintains a constant shear stress during pressure solution.

Gregg Erickson, S.; Wiltschko, David V.

1991-05-01

258

Aerodynamics in ground effect and predicted landing ground roll of a fighter configuration with a secondary-nozzle thrust reverser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the in-ground effect aerodynamic characteristics and predicted landing-ground-roll performance of wing-canard fighter configuration with a secondary nozzle thrust reverser was completed. These tests were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel using a model equipped with a pneumatic jet for thrust simulation of nozzle pressure ratios up to 4.0. The model was tested in the landing rollout configuration at approx. wheel touchdown height for a range of decreasing dynamic pressure from 50 psf down to 10 psf. Landing-ground-roll predictions of the configuration were calculated using the wind tunnel results.

Banks, Daniel W.

1988-01-01

259

Static internal performance of a single-engine onaxisymmetric-nozzle vaned-thrust-reverser design with thrust modulation capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted at wind-off conditions in the stati-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The tests were conducted on a single-engine reverser configuration with partial and full reverse-thrust modulation capabilities. The reverser design had four ports with equal areas. These ports were angled outboard 30 deg from the vertical impart of a splay angle to the reverse exhaust flow. This splaying of reverser flow was intended to prevent impingement of exhaust flow on empennage surfaces and to help avoid inlet reingestion of exhaust gas when the reverser is integrated into an actual airplane configuration. External vane boxes were located directly over each of the four ports to provide variation of reverser efflux angle from 140 deg to 26 deg (measured forward from the horizontal reference axis). The reverser model was tested with both a butterfly-type inner door and an internal slider door to provide area control for each individual port. In addition, main nozzle throat area and vector angle were varied to examine various methods of modulating thrust levels. Other model variables included vane box configuration (four or six vanes per box), orientation of external vane boxes with respect to internal port walls (splay angle shims), and vane box sideplates. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 approximately 7.0.

Leavitt, L. D.; Burley, J. R., II

1985-01-01

260

Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived.

Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

1984-01-01

261

Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting thrusters with total mass of up to 125 kg and 1 mN to 1 N thrust levels has been developed and tested. The mechanical design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that transforms horizontal motion into amplified vertical motion, with accommodation for variable displacement sensitivity. Unlike conventional hanging pendulum thrust stands, the deflection is independent of the length of the pendulum arm, and no reference structure is required at the end of the pendulum. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer. Mechanical oscillations are attenuated using a passive, eddy current damper. An on-board microprocessor-based level control system, which includes a two axis accelerometer and two linear-displacement stepper motors, continuously maintains the level of the balance mechanism - counteracting mechanical %era drift during thruster testing. A thermal control system, which includes heat exchange panels, thermocouples, and a programmable recirculating water chiller, continuously adjusts to varying thermal loads to maintain the balance mechanism temperature, to counteract thermal drifts. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady state calibration both prior to and during thruster testing. Thrust measurements were carried out on a well-characterized 1 kW Hall thruster; the thrust stand was shown to produce repeatable results consistent with previously published performance data.

Markusic, T. E.; Jones, J. E.; Cox, M. D.

2004-01-01

262

Advanced thrust chambers for miniaturized engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general approach in previous Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) thruster design consisted of separate lightweight and low-cost thrust chambers, injectors and valves. A series of programs including hot-fire testing and hover flight tests has led to the design of a new generation liquid bipropellant thruster with an integrated chamber/injector/valve thruster design. System analyses indicate the composite approach provides thermal management for thrust chambers and that an integral injector/valve contributes to a high thrust to weight ratio thruster. Past experience and development test results of an Advanced Composite material are described. Advanced Composite material selection, chamber fabrication and testing program are discussed. The thrust chambers were evaluated on the basis of oxidation resistance, durability, permeability through the chambers walls, strength and performance with excellent results in all areas. Excellent thrust chamber durability was demonstrated with no measurable erosion after extensive accumulated hot-fire time at high chamber pressure. Results to date indicate that the existing technology provides producible, highly durable chambers for KKV applications.

Pavlinsky, Joseph

1992-07-01

263

Search for 3rd Generation Vector Leptoquarks in the Di-tau Di-jet Channel in Proton Antiproton Collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV  

SciTech Connect

We search for third generation vector leptoquarks (V LQ3) produced in colliding p{bar p} beams operating at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We use 322 pb{sup -1} of data to search for the V LQ3 signal in the di-tau plus di-jet channel. For the first time, the full matrix element is used in the Monte Carlo simulation of this signal. With no events observed in the signal region, we set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the V LQ3 pair production cross section of {sigma} < 344fb, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(V LQ3 {yields} b{tau}) = 1, and a lower limit on the V LQ3 mass of m{sub V LQ3} > 317 GeV=c{sup 2}. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are applied in the least favorable manner the results are {sigma} < 360fb and m{sub V LQ3} > 294 GeV=c{sup 2}. The Minimal coupling V LQ3 result is an upper limit on the cross section of {sigma} < 493fb ({sigma} < 610fb) and the lower limit on the mass is m{sub V LQ3} > 251 GeV=c{sup 2} (m{sub V LQ3} > 223 GeV=c{sup 2}) for the nominal (1{sigma} varied) theoretical expectation.

Forrester, Stanley Scott; /UC, Davis

2006-12-01

264

Annihilation of angular momentum bias during thrusting and spinning-up maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During spinning-up and thrusting maneuvers of rockets and spacecraft, undesired transverse torques (from error sources such as thruster misalignment, center-of-mass offset and thruster mismatch) perturb the angular momentum vector from its original orientation. In this paper a maneuver scheme is presented which virtually annihilates the angular momentum vector bias, even though the magnitude and direction of the perturbing body-fixed torques are unknown. In the analysis it is assumed that the torques are small and constant and that the spacecraft or rocket can be approximated by a rigid body, which may be asymmetric. Typical maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft are simulated to demonstrate the technique.

Longuski, J. M.; Kia, T.; Breckenridge, W. G.

1989-01-01

265

Annihilation of angular momentum bias during thrusting and spinning-up maneuvers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spinning-up and thrusting maneuvers of rockets and spacecraft, undesired transverse torques (from error sources such as thruster misalignment, center-of-mass offset and thruster mismatch) perturb the angular momentum vector from its original orientation. In this paper a maneuver scheme is presented which virtually annihilates the angular momentum vector bias, even though the magnitude and direction of the perturbing body-fixed torques are unknown. In the analysis it is assumed that the torques are small and constant and that the spacecraft or rocket can be approximated by a rigid body, which may be asymmetric. Typical maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft are simulated to demonstrate the technique.

Longuski, J. M.; Kia, T.; Breckenridge, W. G.

1989-12-01

266

Status of Low Thrust Work at JSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High performance low thrust (solar electric, nuclear electric, variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket) propulsion offers a significant benefit to NASA missions beyond low Earth orbit. As NASA (e.g., Prometheus Project) endeavors to develop these propulsion systems and associated power supplies, it becomes necessary to develop a refined trajectory design capability that will allow engineers to develop future robotic and human mission designs that take advantage of this new technology. This ongoing work addresses development of a trajectory design and optimization tool for assessing low thrust (and other types) trajectories. This work targets to advance the state of the art, enable future NASA missions, enable science drivers, and enhance education. This presentation provides a summary of the low thrust-related JSC activities under the ISP program and specifically, provides a look at a new release of a multi-gravity, multispacecraft trajectory optimization tool (Copernicus) along with analysis performed using this tool over the past year.

Condon, Gerald L.

2004-01-01

267

Oil-Free Turbomachinery Research Enhanced by Thrust Bearing Test Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center s Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team is developing aircraft turbine engines that will not require an oil lubrication system. Oil systems are required today to lubricate rolling-element bearings used by the turbine and fan shafts. For the Oil-Free Turbomachinery concept, researchers combined the most advanced foil (air) bearings from industry with NASA-developed high-temperature solid lubricant technology. In 1999, the world s first Oil-Free turbocharger was demonstrated using these technologies. Now we are working with industry to demonstrate Oil-Free turbomachinery technology in a small business jet engine, the EJ-22 produced by Williams International and developed during Glenn s recently concluded General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program. Eliminating the oil system in this engine will make it simpler, lighter (approximately 15 percent), more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain. Propulsion gas turbines will place high demands on foil air bearings, especially the thrust bearings. Up until now, the Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team only had the capability to test radial, journal bearings. This research has resulted in major improvements in the bearings performance, but journal bearings are cylindrical, and can only support radial shaft loads. To counteract axial thrust loads, thrust foil bearings, which are disk shaped, are required. Since relatively little research has been conducted on thrust foil air bearings, their performance lags behind that of journal bearings.

Bauman, Steven W.

2003-01-01

268

Rectangular subsonic jet flowfield study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flowfield of a rectangular jet with 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at an axial Reynolds number of 127,000, using a three-dimensional laser anemometer. The flowfield surveys resulted in mean velocity vector field plots and contour plots of the Reynolds stress tensor components for the major and minor axes. These data contribute substantially to currently available data of jet flowfields.

Morrison, Gerald L.; Tatterson, Gary B.; Swan, David H.

1987-01-01

269

Test plan pressure fed thrust chamber technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerojet is developing the technology for the design of a reliable, low cost, efficient, and lightweight LOX/RP-1 pressure fed engine. This technology program is a direct result of Aerojet's liquid rocket booster (LRB) study and previous NASA studies that identified liquid engines using high bulk density hydrocarbon fuels as very attractive for a space transportation system (STS). Previous large thrust LOX/RP-1 engine development programs were characterized by costly development problems due to combustion instability damage. The combustion stability solution was typically obtained through trial and error methods of minimizing instability damage by degrading engine performance. The approach to this program was to utilize existing and newly developed combustion analysis models and design methodology to create a thrust chamber design with features having the potential of producing reliable and efficient operation. This process resulted in an engine design with a unique high thrust-per-element OFO triplet injector utilizing a low cost modular approach. Cost efficient ablative materials are baselined for the injector face and chamber. Technology demonstration will be accomplished through a hot fire test program using appropriately sized subscale hardware. This subscale testing will provide a data base to supplement the current industry data bank and to anchor and validate the applied analysis models and design methodology. Once anchored and validated, these analysis models and design methodology can be applied with greatly increased confidence to design and characterize a large scale pressure fed LOX/RP-1 thrust chamber. The objective of this test program is to generate a data base that can be used to anchor and validate existing analysis models and design methodologies and to provide early concept demonstration of a low cost, efficient LOX/RP-1 thrust chamber. Test conditions and hardware instrumentation were defined to provide data sufficient to characterize combustion stability, performance, and thermal operation over a wide thrust chamber throttling range.

Dunn, Glenn

1990-01-01

270

A ?Newton thrust-stand for LISA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the LISA project depends on the ability of the disturbance reduction system to shield the proof masses from all external forces and to maintain tight pointing requirements relative to the other two spacecrafts. ?N-thrusters are required to compensate for the solar radiation pressure acting on the spacecraft. The force noise from these thrusters must be low enough not to disturb the freely floating proof masses. To date, these noise requirements have not been demonstrated, mostly because no thrust-stand exists with sufficient sensitivity. We present the status of our ?Newton thrust-stand that will verify that the thrusters proposed for LISA will meet the noise requirements.

Merkowitz, S. M.; Maghami, P. G.; Sharma, A.; Willis, W. D.; Zakrzwski, C. M.

2002-04-01

271

A microNewton thrust stand for average thrust measurement of pulsed microthruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A torsional thrust stand has been developed for the study of the average thrust for microNewton pulsed thrusters. The main body of the thrust stand mainly consists of a torsional balance, a pair of flexural pivots, a capacitive displacement sensor, a calibration assembly, and an eddy current damper. The behavior of the stand was thoroughly studied. The principle of thrust measurement was analyzed. The average thrust is determined as a function of the average equilibrium angle displacement of the balance and the spring stiffness. The thrust stand has a load capacity up to 10 kg, and it can theoretically measure the force up to 609.6 ?N with a resolution of 24.4 nN. The static calibrations were performed based on the calibration assembly composed of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet. The calibration results demonstrated good repeatability (less than 0.68% FSO) and good linearity (less than 0.88% FSO). The assembly of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet was also used as an exciter to simulate the microthruster to further research the performance of the thrust stand. Three sets of force pulses at 17, 33.5, and 55 Hz with the same amplitude and pulse width were tested. The repeatability error at each frequency was 7.04%, 1.78%, and 5.08%, respectively.

Zhou, Wei-Jing; Hong, Yan-Ji; Chang, Hao

2013-12-01

272

Comparison of gaseous exhaust indices of the F109 turbofan using three different blends of petroleum-based Jet-A and camelina-based Jet-A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research project focused on the collection and comparison of gaseous exhaust emissions of the F109 turbofan engine using petroleum-based Jet-A and two different blends of camelina-based Jet-A. Simulated landing and takeoff cycles were used to collect gaseous exhaust emissions. Unburned hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and carbon moNOxide (CO) exhaust indices (EIm) were calculated using ICAO Annex 16 Volume II formulae. Statistical analyses were performed on the Elm data. There was no significant difference in HC EIm and CO EI m among the three fuels at takeoff thrust. There were significant differences among the fuels for NOx EIm. 50% Jet-A 50% camelina produced the highest NOx EIm, then 75% Jet-A 25% camelina and finally Jet-A. At climb thrust, both blends of camelina fuel produced higher NOx EIm but no difference in CO EIm and HC EIm as Jet-A. At approach thrust, both blends of camelina fuel produced higher NOx EIm, lower CO EIm, and no difference in HC EIm as Jet-A. At idle thrust, there was no significant difference among the fuels for NOx EIm. There were significant differences among the fuels for HC EIm. Jet-A and 50% Jet-A 50% both produced higher HC EIm as 75% Jet-A 25% camelina. There were significant differences among the fuels for CO EI m. Jet-A produced the highest CO EIm, then 75% Jet-A 25% camelina and finally 50% Jet-A 50% camelina.

Kozak, Brian John

273

Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

1980-01-01

274

Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

1982-01-01

275

Aeropropulsive characteristics of nonaxisymmetric-nozzle thrust reversers at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the performance of nonaxisymmetric-nozzle thrust reversers installed on a generic twin-engine fighter aircraft model. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.15 to 1.20 with jet exhaust simulated by high pressure air. Results showed that reverse-thrust levels of greater than 50 percent at static conditions and greater than 30 percent at in-flight conditions could be achieved. Internal reverser-port passage length was found to be very important in improving reverser performance. Increasing the reverser-port passage length improved reverse-thrust performance by as much as 28 percent at static conditions and by as much as 17 percent at Mach 1.20.

Carson, G. T., Jr.; Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.

1984-01-01

276

Early Cenozoic thrust in Qiangtang block, Northern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huge thrust systems, North Qiangtang Thrust (NQT) and South Qiangtang Thrust (SQT), were discovered in Qiangtang block, northern Tibetan Plateau. North Qiangtang thrust (NQT), including Dogai Coren thrust (DCT) and Longwei Co Thrust (LCT) formed in northern Qiangtang block. Triassic shale, sandstone and slate were thrusted southward over Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic conglomerate and sandstone (simplified as red-beds) along thrust faults of DCT, and Jurassic limestone and sandstone were thrusted over Late Cretaceous-Paleogene red-beds and Paleozoic metamorphic rocks along thrust faults of LCT in north of Central Qiangtang Uplift (CQU). South Qiangtang Thrust (SQT), including Xiaocaka-Shuanghu thrust (XST), Doma-Qixiang Co thrust (DQT) and Saibu Co-Zagya thrust (SZT), formed in southern Qiangtang block, accompanied by Nima-Silin thrust (NST) in northern Lhasa block. Permian marbleized limestone and dolomite, Triassic sandstone and shale, Jurassic limestone and ophiolite were thrusted southward over Paleogene red-beds along thrust faults of XST, DQT and SZT. Early Cenozoic thrust along NQT and SQT formed variety of tectonic slices, outliers and nappes of Permian-Jurassic rocks overlying Late Cretaceous-Paleogene red-beds in northern, central and southern Qiangtang block. Minimal estimation on southward offsets of DCT and LCT is 25km and 50km respectively, corresponding to 43% shortening in northern Qiangtang block, and minimal estimation on southward thrust offsets of XST, DQT and SZT yields ~90km southward thrust displacement of SQT, corresponding to ~47% shortening in southern Qiangtang block. Major thrust faults of NQT and SQT formed in upper crust according to seismic reflection profile, and such thrust and shortening were geodynamically related to northward subduction of India continental plate. Intensive thrust of NQT and SQT stopped before Early Miocene, followed by regional peneplanation, widespread lacustrine deposits in Early Miocene and crust extension as Shuanghu graben in Mid Miocene. Tectonic transition from Early Cenozoic contraction to Mid-Late Miocene extension of crust indicates Late Oligocene-Early Miocene uplift of Qiangtang block, northern Tibetan Plateau.

Wu, Z.; Ye, P.; Hu, D.; Lu, L.; Zhang, Y.

2011-12-01

277

Low thrust alteration of asteroidal orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scenarios for low-thrust missions to retrieve asteroidal materials for mining purposes have been discussed in detail elsewhere and it is not necessary to rehash the mission plans here. The type of asteroid has also been discussed, but the selection of suitable targets by their orbital elements has so far only been looked at in a general way. The purpose

D. J. Ross

1979-01-01

278

Take-off and propeller thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of previous reports, it was endeavored to obtain, along with the truest possible comprehension of the course of thrust, a complete, simple and clear formula for the whole take-off distance up to a certain altitude, which shall give the correct relative weight to all the factors.

Schrenk, Martin

1933-01-01

279

Conditions for thrust faulting in a glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipping, arcuate bands of debris-rich ice outcropping near the margins of glaciers are often interpreted as thrust faults, assumed to originate in zones of longitudinal compression. Identification of thrusts is typically based either on the geometry and sedimentology of the debris bands or on the crystal fabric of surrounding ice, but the physical processes necessary to generate thrusts are rarely evaluated. Herein, we combine a numerical model of compressive ice flow near a glacier margin with theoretical stress and strain rate criteria for ice fracture and stress criteria for frictional slip to determine the conditions necessary for thrust faulting in glaciers. This model is applied to two different glaciological settings where longitudinal compression has been documented: (1) the transition between warm-based and cold-based ice near the terminus of Storglaciären, Sweden, and (2) the downglacier extent of the 1983 surge front of Variegated Glacier where surging ice encountered stagnant ice. Simulations representing the margin of Storglaciären indicate that peak compressive strain rates are six orders of magnitude too small to induce fracture, whereas at Variegated Glacier, strain rates were an order of magnitude too small for compressive fracture. In both groups of simulations, preexisting fractures governed by Coulomb friction are susceptible to slip if they span the ice thickness, are oriented close to the optimal fracture angle, and, in the case of Storglaciären, are subject to water pressures that are a large fraction of ice overburden pressure. Variations about the optimal fracture orientation, low or zero water pressure, high sliding friction coefficient, and limited vertical or lateral fracture extent each tend to suppress thrusting.

Moore, Peter L.; Iverson, Neal R.; Cohen, Denis

2010-06-01

280

A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for a labscale hybrid rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor was designed, constructed, calibrated, and tested using the labscale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The system consisted of six independent legs: one parallel to the axis of symmetry of the rocket for main thrust measurement, two vertical legs near the nozzle end of the rocket, one vertical leg near the oxygen input end of the rocket, and two separated horizontal legs near the nozzle end. Each leg was composed of a rotational bearing, a load cell, and a universal joint above and below the load cell. The leg was designed to create point contact along only one direction and minimize the non-axial forces applied to the load cell. With this system, force in each direction and moments for roll, pitch, and yaw can be measured. The system was calibrated and tested using a labscale hybrid rocket using gaseous oxygen and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene solid fuel. The thrust stand proved to be stable during calibration tests. Thrust force vector components and roll, pitch, and yaw moments were calculated for test firings with an oxygen mass flow rate range of 0.0174-0.0348 kg s-1.

Wright, Ann M.; Wright, Andrew B.; Born, Traig; Strickland, Ryan

2013-12-01

281

Fuel-optimal, low-thrust transfers between libration point orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mission design requires the efficient management of spacecraft fuel to reduce mission cost, increase payload mass, and extend mission life. High efficiency, low-thrust propulsion devices potentially offer significant propellant reductions. Periodic orbits that exist in a multi-body regime and low-thrust transfers between these orbits can be applied in many potential mission scenarios, including scientific observation and communications missions as well as cargo transport. In light of the recent discovery of water ice in lunar craters, libration point orbits that support human missions within the Earth-Moon region are of particular interest. This investigation considers orbit transfer trajectories generated by a variable specific impulse, low-thrust engine with a primer-vector-based, fuel-optimizing transfer strategy. A multiple shooting procedure with analytical gradients yields rapid solutions and serves as the basis for an investigation into the trade space between flight time and consumption of fuel mass. Path and performance constraints can be included at node points along any thrust arc. Integration of invariant manifolds into the design strategy may also yield improved performance and greater fuel savings. The resultant transfers offer insight into the performance of the variable specific impulse engine and suggest novel implementations of conventional impulsive thrusters. Transfers incorporating invariant manifolds demonstrate the fuel savings and expand the mission design capabilities that are gained by exploiting system symmetry. A number of design applications are generated.

Stuart, Jeffrey R.

282

The computational design of a water jet propulsion spherical underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater vehicles have become an important tool to develop oceans. The design of the shape, hardware circuit and software of a water jet propulsion spherical underwater vehicle was introduced, and the characteristics of water jet pump were presented. The design of the thruster and computation of the thrust was proposed, too. A desired movement result was achieved by the designed

Shuxiang Guo; Juan Du; Xiufen Ye; Rui Yan; Hongtao Gao

2011-01-01

283

Supersonic wings with significant leading-edge thrust at cruise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental/theoretical correlations are presented which show that significant levels of leading-edge thrust are possible at supersonic speeds for certain planforms having the geometry to support the theoretical thrust-distribution potential. The new analytical process employed provides not only the level of leading-edge thrust attainable but also the spanwise distribution of both it and that component of full theoretical thrust which acts as vortex lift. Significantly improved aerodynamic performance in the moderate supersonic speed regime is indicated.

Robins, A. W.; Carlson, H. W.; Mack, R. J.

1980-01-01

284

The Energy Balance and Deformation Mechanisms of Thrust Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total energy involved in emplacing a thrust sheet is expended in initiation and growth of the thrust surface, slip along this surface, and deformation within the main mass of the sheet. This total energy can be determined from potential energy considerations knowing the initial and final geometry from balanced cross sections after defining the thrust's thermodynamic system boundaries. Emplacement

D. Elliott

1976-01-01

285

Nature of thrusting along western flank of Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The northern portion of the Bighorn Mountains is characterized by opposed mountain-front thrusts, of which the southwest direction is dominant. Blind basement thrusts along the northeastern flank do not pierce the folded Paleozoic cover; whereas on the western flank, southwest-directed thrust segments expose Precambrian rocks along a 24-km (14-mi) extent. Field studies on the western flank show evidence of four major southwest-directed thrust segments delineated by tear-fault boundaries, which include from northwest to southeast: (1) the Five Springs thrust, a low-angle, out-of-the-syncline fault mainly involving the sedimentary sequence; (2) the Bear Creek thrust, a continuation of the Five Springs out-of-the-syncline fault; (3) the South Beaver Creek thrust, which juxtaposes Precambrian rocks against a tectonically thinned, overturned anticlinal limb of Mississippian through Jurassic rocks and which is inward from an out-of-the-syncline thrust involving little displacement of Jurassic formations; and (4) a mountain-front reentrant that coincides with the zone where the South Beaver Creek thrust continues beneath Paleozoic cover, causing the upper flexure of a double monocline. The central portion of the Bighorn Mountains is thrust eastward, whereas the northern portion is thrust southwestward with much less displacement. The segmented association of southwest-directed basement thrusts along the western flank of the northern Bighorns is indicative of the major transport direction for that portion of the Bighorn uplift.

Noggle, K.S.

1986-08-01

286

Summary of Scale-Model Thrust-Reverser Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to determine the characteristics of several basic types of thrust-reverser. Models of three types, target, tailpipe cascade, and ring cascade, were tested with unheated air. The effects of design variables on reverse-thrust performance, reversed-flow boundaries, and thrust modulation characteristics were determined.

Povolny, John H; Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

1957-01-01

287

Low thrust minimum-fuel orbital transfer: a homotopic approach  

E-print Network

is actually critical for non-trivial problems. An important aspect of this choice is that we make corresponds to a one-year transfer involving several hundreds of revolutions and thrust arcs. The numerical number of revolutions and therefore, of thrust arcs, at low thrusts, so these kinds of assumptions were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Future Jet Technologies. Part B. F-35 Future Risks v. JS-Education of Pilots & Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design of “Next-Generation” airframes based on supermarket-jet-engine-components is nowadays passé. A novel integration methodology [Gal-Or, “Editorial-Review, Part A”, 2011, Gal-Or, “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft”, Springer Verlag, Gal-Or, Int'l. J. of Thermal and Fluid Sciences 7: 1-6, 1998, “Introduction”, 2011] is nowadays in. For advanced fighter aircraft it begins with JS-based powerplant, which takes up to three times longer to mature vis-à-vis the airframe, unless “committee's design” enforces a dormant catastrophe. Jet Steering (JS) or Thrust Vectoring Flight Control, is a classified, integrated engine-airframe technology aimed at maximizing post-stall-maneuverability, flight safety, efficiency and flight envelopes of manned and unmanned air vehicles, especially in the “impossible-to-fly”, post-stall flight domains where the 100+ years old, stall-spin-limited, Conventional Flight Control fails. Worldwide success in adopting the post-stall, JS-revolution, opens a new era in aviation, with unprecedented design variables identified here for a critical review of F-35 future risks v. future fleets of jet-steered, pilotless vehicles, like the X-47B/C. From the educational point of view, it is also instructive to comprehend the causes of long, intensive opposition to adopt post-stall, JS ideas. A review of such debates may also curb a future opposition to adopt more advanced, JS-based technologies, tests, strategies, tactics and missions within the evolving air, marine and land applications of JS. Most important, re-education of pilots and engineers requires adding post-stall, JS-based studies to curriculum & R&D.

Gal-Or, Benjamin

2011-09-01

289

Vector Voyage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use vector analysis to understand the concept of dead reckoning. Students will use vectors to plot their course based on a time and speed. They will then correct the positions with vectors representing winds and currents.

Jeff White

2004-01-01

290

Structure of the eastern Red Rocks and Wind Ridge thrust faults, Wyoming: how a thrust fault gains displacement along strike  

E-print Network

STRUCTURE OF THE EASTERN RED ROCKS AND WIND RIDGE THRUST FAULTS, WYOMING: HOW A THRUST FAULT GAINS DISPLACEMENT ALONG STRIKE A Thesis by BRENT STANLEY HUNTSMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Geology STRUCTURE OF THE EASTERN RED ROCKS AND WIND RIDGE THRUST FAULTS, WYOMING: HOW A THRUST FAULT GAINS DISPLACEMENT ALONG STRIKE A Thesis by BRENT STANLEY HUNTSMAN...

Huntsman, Brent Stanley

1983-01-01

291

Microcantilever Measurements in Microscale Liquid Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust and heat flux in are measured in micron-scale [O(10 microns)] evaporating liquid jets by direct impingement on microfabricated atomic force microscope (AFM) microcantilever sensors. The sensors are mounted on a three-axis micropositioner and can be traversed within the near field of the jet which is simultaneously visualized using a high-magnification shadowgraph technique. The single-crystal silicon cantilevers are of two types: the first type having integrated heater/thermometer elements and the second type having integrated strain-sensing piezoresistve elements. The heater/thermometer cantilevers are calibrated in a cryostat, and can measure temperatures as low as 200K. The strain-sensing cantilevers have a measured spring constant near 1.5 N/m, and deflect up to 60 microns during jet impingement. In addition to characterization of the liquid and gaseous regimes of the jets, forced evaporation is induced by raising the heating power of the sensing element.

King, W.; Lee, J.; Berg, J.; Glezer, A.

2004-11-01

292

A flight investigation of the stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane are presented. The airplane is an extensively modified de Havilland Buffalo military transport. The modified airplane has two fan-jet engines which provide vectorable thrust and compressed air for the augmentor jet flap and Boundary-Layer Control (BLC). The augmentor and BLC air is cross ducted to minimize asymmetric moments produced when one engine is inoperative. The modifications incorporated in the airplane include a Stability Augmentation System (SAS), a powered elevator, and a powered lateral control system. The test gross weight of the airplane was between 165,000 and 209,000 N (37,000 and 47,000 lb). Stability, control, and handling qualities are presented for the airspeed range of 40 to 180 knots. The lateral-directional handling qualities are considered satisfactory for the normal operating range of 65 to 160 knots airspeed when the SAS is functioning. With the SAS inoperative, poor turn coordination and spiral instability are primary deficiencies contributing to marginal handling qualities in the landing approach. The powered elevator control system enhanced the controllability in pitch, particularly in the landing flare and stall recovery.

Vomaske, R. F.; Innis, R. C.; Swan, B. E.; Grossmith, S. W.

1978-01-01

293

A computational investigation of impulsive and pulsed starting annular jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational study is carried out on low Reynolds number impulsive and pulsating annular jets. This work is inspired by the biological flow of marine life that uses jet propulsion for self maneuver. Marine life such as squids and jellyfish propel themselves by discharging a water jet followed by a refilling phase. The discharging portion is a starting jet, i.e. the releasing of a moving fluid into a quiescent fluid, while the refilling phase can be viewed as an inflow jet. The combined jets will be called fully oscillating jets. Although fully oscillating jets have been indirectly examined experimentally, they have never been studied computationally. This dissertation is divided into three investigations that examine the starting jet, inflow jet, and fully oscillating jet based on the resultant force (i.e. either thrust or suction force) at the annulus exit plane, jet efficiency, and vortex dynamics. Furthermore, each of the following three performance criterion is examined under various velocity imposed boundaries (i.e. impulsive, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed jets), ambient pressure, and blocking ratios. An axisymmetric, incompressible and unsteady Navier Stokes numerical model was used to implement the analysis. The model was validated against theoretical and experimental results, where both result types bounded the computational results of this endeavor. In addition, numerical verification was carried out on each of the three investigations ensuring grid and time independent results. Several substantial outcomes were drawn from the results of the three investigations. The numerical results confirmed previously published experimental data regarding the universal dimensionless time scale (i.e. vortex formation number) of optimal vortex ring development triggered by starting jets. Moreover, the computational results showed evidence that the vortex formation number was not affected by ambient pressure nor blocking ratio. The computational results also confirmed earlier experimental findings that pulsed jet inflows trigger a standing vortex ring. Furthermore, the current study showed that impulsive jet inflows do not trigger vortex ring formation. In addition, unlike the expected net thrust of zero due to mass flux, fully oscillating jets showed evidence of thrust augmentation due to the enhanced entrainment caused by the vortex formation.

Abdel-Raouf, Emad Mohamed Refaat

2011-12-01

294

NLO Jet Physics with BlackHat  

SciTech Connect

We present several results obtained using the BLACKHAT next-to-leading order QCD program library, in conjunction with SHERPA. In particular, we present distributions for vector boson plus 1,2,3-jet production at the Tevatron and at the asymptotic running energy of the Large Hadron Collider, including new Z + 3-jet distributions. The Z + 2-jet predictions for the second-jet P{sub T} distribution are compared to CDF data. We present the jet-emission probability at NLO in W + 2-jet events at the LHC, where the tagging jets are taken to be the ones furthest apart in pseudorapidity. We analyze further the large left-handed W{sup {+-}} polarization, identified in our previous study, for W bosons produced at high P{sub T} at the LHC.

Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Cordero, F.Febres; /Simon Bolivar U.; Forde, D.; /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Gleisberg, T.; /SLAC; Ita, H.; /UCLA; Kosower, D.A.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

2010-02-15

295

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault,  

E-print Network

[McWilliams, Possible Wind River Basin Thrust Fault]1 Evidence of a Possible 32-Mile-Wide Thrust Fault, Wind River Basin, Fremont County Wyoming Robert G. McWilliams, Professor Emeritus, Department Indian Meadows and lower Wind River Formations. Love (1987) described in detail this fold-thrust fault

Lee Jr., Richard E.

296

High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

297

Advanced tube-bundle rocket thrust chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced rocket thrust chamber for future space application is described along with an improved method of fabrication. Potential benefits of the concept are improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. Performance improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced heat transfer into the coolant which will enable higher chamber pressure in expander cycle engines. Cyclic life, reusability and reliability improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber with a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes, and the bonding of these tubes by an electroforming operation. Further, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, jackets, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.

Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

1990-01-01

298

Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

1937-01-01

299

MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain site was recommended by the President to be a geological repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The multi-barrier approach was adopted for assessing and predicting system behavior, including both natural barriers and engineered barriers. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in waste packages for long times and then to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. The goal of the Materials Performance Targeted Thrust program is to further enhance the understanding of the role of engineered barriers in waste isolation. In addition, the Thrust will explore technical enhancements and seek to offer improvements in materials costs and reliability.

DOE

2005-09-13

300

Low-thrust mission risk analysis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized multi-stage failure process simulation procedure is used to evaluate the risk in a solar electric space mission. The procedure uses currently available thrust-subsystem reliability data and performs approximate simulations of the thrust subsystem burn operation, the system failure processes, and the retargetting operations. The application of the method is used to assess the risks in carrying out a 1980 rendezvous mission to Comet Encke. Analysis of the results and evaluation of the effects of various risk factors on the mission show that system component failure rates is the limiting factor in attaining a high mission reliability. But it is also shown that a well-designed trajectory and system operation mode can be used effectively to partially compensate for unreliable thruster performance.

Yen, C. L.; Smith, D. B.

1973-01-01

301

NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OST&I) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OST&I's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program.

NA

2005-07-27

302

Low-thrust Isp sensitivity study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the cooling requirements and attainable specific impulse performance of engines in the 445 to 4448N thrust class utilizing LOX/RP-1, LOX/Hydrogen and LOX/Methane propellants is presented. The unique design requirements for the regenerative cooling of low-thrust engines operating at high pressures (up to 6894 kPa) were explored analytically by comparing single cooling with the fuel and the oxidizer, and dual cooling with both the fuel and the oxidizer. The effects of coolant channel geometry, chamber length, and contraction ratio on the ability to provide proper cooling were evaluated, as was the resulting specific impulse. The results show that larger contraction ratios and smaller channels are highly desirable for certain propellant combinations.

Schoenman, L.

1982-01-01

303

Control of Jet Noise Through Mixing Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of using mixing enhancement to reduce jet noise is not new. Lobed mixers have been around since shortly after jet noise became a problem. However, these designs were often a post-design fix that rarely was worth its weight and thrust loss from a system perspective. Recent advances in CFD and some inspired concepts involving chevrons have shown how mixing enhancement can be successfully employed in noise reduction by subtle manipulation of the nozzle geometry. At NASA Glenn Research Center, this recent success has provided an opportunity to explore our paradigms of jet noise understanding, prediction, and reduction. Recent advances in turbulence measurement technology for hot jets have also greatly aided our ability to explore the cause and effect relationships of nozzle geometry, plume turbulence, and acoustic far field. By studying the flow and sound fields of jets with various degrees of mixing enhancement and subsequent noise manipulation, we are able to explore our intuition regarding how jets make noise, test our prediction codes, and pursue advanced noise reduction concepts. The paper will cover some of the existing paradigms of jet noise as they relate to mixing enhancement for jet noise reduction, and present experimental and analytical observations that support these paradigms.

Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark; Brown, Cliff

2003-01-01

304

Performance Characteristics of Cylindrical Target-type Thrust Reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From tests on cylindrical target-type thrust reversers, it was found that the reverser frontal area, lip angle, end-plate angle, and end-plate depth had important effects on reverse-thrust performance. Frontal area, reverser depth, lip angle, and end-plate angele had important effects on the spacing required for unrestricted nozzle flow. For reverse-thrust ratios greater than 64 percent, the reversed flow attached to the 7 degree cowl in quiescent air. Swept-type cylindrical reversers were generally unstable. The thrust-modulation characteristics of a cylindrical target-type thrust reverser were found to be satisfactory.

Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

1956-01-01

305

Twin jet shielding. [for aircraft noise reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For an over-the-wing/under-the-wing engine configuration on an airplane, the noise produced by the upper jet flow is partially reflected by the lower jet. An analysis has been performed which can be used to predict the distribution of perceived noise levels along the ground plane at take-off for an airplane which is designed to take advantage of the over/under shielding concept. Typical contours of PNL, the shielding benefit in the shadow zone, and the EPNL values at 3.5 nautical miles from brake release as well as EPNL values at sideline at 0.35 nautical miles have been calculated. This has been done for a range of flow parameters characteristic of engines producing inverted velocity profile jets suitable for use in a supersonic cruise vehicle. Reductions up to 6.0 EPNdB in community noise levels can be realized when the over engines are operated at higher thrust and the lower engines simultaneously operated with reduced thrust keeping the total thrust constant.

Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cuffel, R. F.; Massier, P. F.

1979-01-01

306

Low Carbon Propulsion Strategic Thrust Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is taking a leadership role with regard to developing new options for low-carbon propulsion. Work related to the characterization of alternative fuels is coordinated with our partners in government and industry, and NASA is close to concluding a TC in this area. Research on alternate propulsion concepts continues to grow and is an important aspect of the ARMD portfolio. Strong partnerships have been a key enabling factor for research on this strategic thrust.

Dryer, Jay

2014-01-01

307

Pulsed Thrust Method for Hover Formation Flying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-continuous thrust method for hover type formation flying has been developed. This method differs from a true hover which requires constant range and bearing from a reference vehicle. The new method uses a pulsed loop, or pogo, maneuver sequence that keeps the follower spacecraft within a defined box in a near hover situation. Equations are developed for the hover maintenance maneuvers. The constraints on the hover location, pulse interval, and maximum/minimum ranges are discussed.

Hope, Alan; Trask, Aaron

2003-01-01

308

Antispin Thrust Allocation for Marine Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In extreme weather conditions, thrusters on ships and rigs may be subject to severe thrust losses caused by ventilation and in-and-out-of-water events. When a thruster ventilates, air is sucked down from the surface and into the propeller. In more severe cases, parts of or even the whole propeller can be out of the water. These losses vary rapidly with time

Eivind Ruth; O. N. Smogeli; Tristan Perez; Asgeir J. Sorensen

2009-01-01

309

Thermal effects in an accelerating thrust bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is mainly concerned with the development of transient temperatures in a thrust bearing. The effect of Prandtl number on temperatures was also investigated. All lubricant properties were assumed to be constant. It was found that the location of highest temperatures depended on the bearing ratio. The effect of Prandtl number on temperatures was small. However, its effect on the heat transfer at the surfaces was significant.

Doo, R.; Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.

1985-01-01

310

CFD Code Survey for Thrust Chamber Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the quest fo find analytical reference codes, responses from a questionnaire are presented which portray the current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program status and capability at various organizations, characterizing liquid rocket thrust chamber flow fields. Sample cases are identified to examine the ability, operational condition, and accuracy of the codes. To select the best suited programs for accelerated improvements, evaluation criteria are being proposed.

Gross, Klaus W.

1990-01-01

311

Low thrust viscous nozzle flow fields prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Navier-Stokes code was developed for low thrust viscous nozzle flow field prediction. An implicit finite volume in an arbitrary curvilinear coordinate system lower-upper (LU) scheme is used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes equations and species transportation equations. Sample calculations of carbon dioxide nozzle flow are presented to verify the validity and efficiency of this code. The computer results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

Liaw, G. S.; Mo, J. D.

1991-01-01

312

A guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles is described. A set of orbit elements, known as the equinoctial elements, are selected as the state variables. The uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time nominal trajectory is defined and the equation of motion and the measurement equation are linearized about this nominal trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback guidance law is derived to control the thrusting direction of the engine. Using this guidance law, the vehicle will fly in a trajectory neighboring the nominal trajectory. The extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. Finally a short mission using this system is simulated. The results indicate that this system is very efficient for short missions.

Tse, C. J. C.

1973-01-01

313

Thrust-induced effects on low-speed aerodynamics of fighter aircraft. [Langley 4- by 7-meter tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of NASA Langley has conducted wind-tunnel investigations of several fighter configurations conducted to determine the effects of both thrust vectoring and spanwise blowing are reviewed. A recent joint NASA/Grumman Aerospace Corporation/U.S. Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to examine the effects of spanwise blowing on the trailing-edge flap system. This application contrasts with the more familiar method of spanwise blowing near the wing leading edge. Another joint program among NASA/McDonnell Aircraft Company/U.S. Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory investigated the effects of reverse thrust on the low-speed aerodynamics of an F-15 configuration. The F-15 model was fitted with a rotating van thrust reverser concept which could simulate both in-flight reversing for approach and landing or full reversing for ground roll reduction. The significant results of these two joint programs are reported.

Banks, D. W.; Quinto, P. F.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

314

Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques and materials were developed and evaluated for the fabrication and coating of advanced, long life, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. Materials were analyzed as fillers for sputter application of OFHC copper as a closeout layer to channeled inner structures; of the materials evaluated, aluminum was found to provide the highest bond strength and to be the most desirable for chamber fabrication. The structures and properties were investigated of thick sputtered OFHC copper, 0.15 Zr-Cu, Al2O3,-Cu, and SiC-Cu. Layered structures of OFHC copper and 0.15 Zr-Cu were investigated as means of improving chamber inner wall fatigue life. The evaluation of sputtered Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, NASA IIb-11, aluminum and Al2O3-Al alloys as high strength chamber outer jackets was performed. Techniques for refurbishing degraded thrust chambers with OFHC copper and coating thrust chambers with protective ZrO2 and graded ZrO2-copper thermal barrier coatings were developed.

Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Schmid, T. E.; Torrey, C. T.

1975-01-01

315

Jet Spreading Increase by Passive Control and Associated Performance Penalty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the effects of 'screech', 'asymmetric nozzle shaping', 'tabs' and 'overexpansion' on the spreading of free jets. Corresponding thrust penalty for the tabs and overexpanded condition are also evaluated. The asymmetric shapes include rectangular ones with varying aspect ratio. Tabs investigated are triangular shaped 'delta-tabs' placed at the exit of a convergent circular nozzle. The effect of overexpansion is examined with circular convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles. Tabs and overexpansion are found to yield the largest increase in jet spreading. Each, however, involves a performance penalty, i.e., a loss in thrust coefficient. Variation of the size of four delta-tabs show that there exists an optimum size for which the gain in jet spreading is the maximum per unit loss in thrust coefficient. With the C-D nozzles, the minimum in thrust coefficient is expected near the beginning of the overexpanded regime based on idealized flow calculations. The maximum increase in jet spreading, however, is found to occur at higher pressure ratios well into the overexpanded regime. The optimum benefit with the overexpanded flow, in terms of gain in spreading for unit penalty, is found to be comparable to the optimum tab case.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

1999-01-01

316

Impact of tectonic stresses on compaction in the toe thrust region of a Tertiary Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased mean and shear stresses during toe-thrusting can accelerate compaction within thrust sheets, even away from bounding faults. Tectonic compaction in the toe-thrust regime is inferred when thrusted sediments appear to be anomalously consolidated compared to the same materials sampled from undeformed sections. Elevated mean stresses within thrust sheets can be estimated from the degree of overconsolidation of thrusted sediments

T. G. Fitts; J. Welton; J. M. Degraff

2003-01-01

317

Small-scale noise tests of a slot nozzle with V-gutter target thrust reverser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise generated by a 2.26- by 11.43-cm slot nozzle with a V-gutter reverser, as well as some aerodynamic data on flow, thrust-reversal efficiency, and nozzle jet velocity decay were studied. The experimental data are scaled up to sizes suitable for reversing the wing flow of a 45/400-kg augmentor-wing-type STOL airplane, yielding perceived noise levels well above the 95-PNdb design goal on the 152-m sideline. The reverser, in addition to being noisier than the nozzle alone, also had a more uniform directional distribution and more high frequency noise. The maximum overall sound pressure level and the effective sound power level both varied with the sixth power of nozzle jet velocity. Preliminary experiments indicated possible sideline noise reduction by shielding.

Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

1973-01-01

318

The Zagros hinterland fold-and-thrust belt in-sequence thrusting, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision of the Iranian microcontinent with the Afro-Arabian continent resulted in the deformation of the Zagros orogenic belt. The foreland of this belt in the Persian Gulf and Arabian platform has been investigated for its petroleum and gas resource potentials, but the Zagros hinterland is poorly investigated and our knowledge about its deformation is much less than other parts of this orogen. Therefore, this work presents a new geological map, stratigraphic column and two detailed geological cross sections. This study indicates the presence of a hinterland fold-and-thrust belt on northeastern side of the Zagros orogenic core that consists of in-sequence thrusting and basement involvement in this important part of the Zagros hinterland. The in-sequence thrusting resulted in first- and second-order duplex systems, Mode I fault-bend folding, fault-propagation folding and asymmetric detachment folding which indicate close relationships between folding and thrusting. Study of fault-bend folds shows that layer-parallel simple shear has the same role in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the study area (?e = 23.4 ± 9.1°). A major lateral ramp in the basement beneath the Talaee plain with about one kilometer of vertical offset formed parallel to the SW movement direction and perpendicular to the major folding and thrusting.

Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Ghanbarian, Mohammad Ali

2014-05-01

319

Ouachita Mountain thrust front: An integrated approach to prospect analysis in thrust belts  

SciTech Connect

The thrust front of the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas is defined by the prominent asymmetric Washburn anticline. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburn anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations suggested the presence of the imbrication in the core of the structure, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the backthrust and duplex geometry difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the backthrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Ouachita thrust front as a delta structure has aided in subsurface data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

Dodge, R.L. (Hunt Oil Co., Dallas, TX (USA)); Keeling, M.A. (Exxon Co., U.S.A., Houston, TX (USA)); Cassiani, D. (Exxon Yemen Inc., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

320

Experimental investigations into twin impinging jets in cross-flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric experimental investigation is conducted to determine the effects of flow characteristics about twin jets impinging on a crossflow. Measurements of ground-plane static pressure distributions are taken and supplemented by smoke-flow visualizations of the crossflow\\/jet interactions. Among the parameters considered are: nozzle height, nozzle vector angle, nozzle pressure ratio, skew angle, ground-plane conditions, and\\/or the jet-to-cross-flow ratio. The twin-jet

D. Bray; K. Knowles

1992-01-01

321

Water Jetting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

1985-01-01

322

Paleostress analysis of the Osning Thrust, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Osning Thrust is a 100 km-scale NW-SE fault separating the Lower Saxony Basin to the NE from the Münsterland Basin to the SE. The fault has accommodated a polyphase deformation that started at least when it acted as one of the normal border faults of the Jurassic Lower Saxony Basin. Tectonic inversion of the basin in Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene times led to the development of the SE-vergent Osning Thrust and to folding of rocks. A paleostress analysis was carried out in order to decipher the polyphase kinematics of the Osning Thrust. The fault slip data were collected in the folded Albian to Turonian stratigraphic units of the Münsterland basin, in the SE vicinity of a 20 km-long steep segment of the Osning Thrust. Fault slip data in sufficient amount to perform paleostress inversion were collected in 10 sites among 23 visited outcrops. Abundant minor faults trend sub-parallel to the NW-SE steep segment of the Osning Thrust but, surprisingly, they are dextral (and not reverse) in type. Another major set of E-W striking minor faults is remarkable. It corresponds to conjugate systems of either reverse or normal faults and to oblique- to strike-slip faults in a less extent. The paleostress tensors reveal a ca. N-S compression recorded in 5 locations under which the NW-SE steep faults were dextral and the E-W striking S- and N- dipping faults were reverse. Six stress tensors fit with a ca. N-S extension. They are calculated from E-W striking S- and N- dipping normal to oblique normal faults. The same N-S trend of minimum stress axis is also recorded with NNE-SSW dextral and E-W sinistral faults. We propose that along the studied segment of the Osning Thrust a N-S compressional stress field led to the inversion of the Lower Saxony Basin and that slip along the Osning Thrust was oblique reverse. At two locations, the N-S compressive stress states affected the rock prior to tilting of the beds (herein, due to folding) and at one site, the normal faults of the N-S extension clearly cut across reverse faults of the N-S compression. These two observations allow to propose a chronology between the reconstructed stress fields. While the N-S compression is presumably linked to the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene inversion of the Lower Saxony Basin, the successive E-W extension is not constrained in age. However, it is known that tensional stresses have largely affected the west European platform in Oligocene times and this N-S extension revealed by the present study might be related to this tectonic event.

Saintot, Aline; Kozakovski, Anna; Pascal, Christophe

2013-04-01

323

Determination of Jet Noise Radiation Patterns and Source Locations using 2-Dimensional Intensity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: (1) Outline Jet Noise extrapolation to far field. (2) Two dimensional sound intensity. (3) Anechoic chamber cold jet test. (4) Results: Intensity levels. Vector maps. Source location centroids. Directivity. and (5) Conclusions.

Jaeger, S. M.; Allen, C. S.

1999-01-01

324

Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 2: Baseline thrust system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30- cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high-power missions (60 to 100 kW) such as a Halley's comet rendezvous. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. The baseline thrust system design features modular construction, conventional power processing, and a concentractor solar array concept and is designed to interface with the space shuttle.

Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

1977-01-01

325

Volcanic jet noise: infrasonic source processes and atmospheric propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruption columns are complex flows consisting of (possibly supersonic) injections of ash-gas mixtures into the atmosphere. A volcanic eruption column can be modeled as a lower momentum-driven jet (the gas-thrust region), which transitions with altitude into a thermally buoyant plume. Matoza et al. [2009] proposed that broadband infrasonic signals recorded during this type of volcanic activity represent a low-frequency form of jet noise. Jet noise is produced at higher acoustic frequencies by smaller-scale man-made jet flows (e.g., turbulent jet flow from jet engines and rockets). Jet noise generation processes could operate at larger spatial scales and produce infrasonic frequencies in the lower gas-thrust portion of the eruption column. Jet-noise-like infrasonic signals have been observed at ranges of tens to thousands of kilometers from sustained volcanic explosions at Mount St. Helens, WA; Tungurahua, Ecuador; Redoubt, AK; and Sarychev Peak, Kuril Islands. Over such distances, the atmosphere cannot be considered homogeneous. Long-range infrasound propagation takes place primarily in waveguides formed by vertical gradients in temperature and horizontal winds, and exhibits strong spatiotemporal variability. The timing and location of volcanic explosions can be estimated from remote infrasonic data and could be used with ash cloud dispersion forecasts for hazard mitigation. Source studies of infrasonic volcanic jet noise, coupled with infrasound propagation modeling, hold promise for being able to constrain more detailed eruption jet parameters with remote, ground-based geophysical data. Here we present recent work on the generation and propagation of volcanic jet noise. Matoza, R. S., D. Fee, M. A. Garcés, J. M. Seiner, P. A. Ramón, and M. A. H. Hedlin (2009), Infrasonic jet noise from volcanic eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08303, doi:10.1029/2008GL036486.

Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; Ogden, D. E.

2011-12-01

326

High-power, null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand.  

PubMed

This article presents the theory and operation of a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand. The thrust stand design supports thrusters having a total mass up to 250 kg and measures thrust over a range of 1 mN to 5 N. The design uses a conventional inverted pendulum to increase sensitivity, coupled with a null-type feature to eliminate thrust alignment error due to deflection of thrust. The thrust stand position serves as the input to the null-circuit feedback control system and the output is the current to an electromagnetic actuator. Mechanical oscillations are actively damped with an electromagnetic damper. A closed-loop inclination system levels the stand while an active cooling system minimizes thermal effects. The thrust stand incorporates an in situ calibration rig. The thrust of a 3.4 kW Hall thruster is measured for thrust levels up to 230 mN. The uncertainty of the thrust measurements in this experiment is +/-0.6%, determined by examination of the hysteresis, drift of the zero offset and calibration slope variation. PMID:19485530

Xu, Kunning G; Walker, Mitchell L R

2009-05-01

327

Thrust Augmentation of a Turbojet Engine at Simulated Flight Conditions by Introduction of a Water-Alcohol Mixture into the Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted at simulated high-altitude flight conditions to evaluate the use of compressor evaporative cooling as a means of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation. Comparison of the performance of the engine with water-alcohol injection at the compressor inlet, at the sixth stage of the compressor, and at the sixth and ninth stages was made. From consideration of the thrust increases achieved, the interstage injection of the coolant was considered more desirable preferred over the combined sixth- and ninth-stage injection because of its relative simplicity. A maximum augmented net-thrust ratio of 1.106 and a maximum augmented jet-thrust ratio of 1.062 were obtained at an augmented liquid ratio of 2.98 and an engine-inlet temperature of 80 F. At lower inlet temperatures (-40 to 40 F), the maximum augmented net-thrust ratios ranged from 1.040 to 1.076 and the maximum augmented jet-thrust ratios ranged from 1.027 to 1.048, depending upon the inlet temperature. The relatively small increase in performance at the lower inlet-air temperatures can be partially attributed to the inadequate evaporation of the water-alcohol mixture, but the more significant limitation was believed to be caused by the negative influence of the liquid coolant on engine- component performance. In general, it is concluded that the effectiveness of the injection of a coolant into the compressor as a means of thrust augmentation is considerably influenced by the design characteristics of the components of the engine being used.

Useller, James W.; Auble, Carmon M.; Harvey, Ray W., Sr.

1952-01-01

328

Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

Mellish, J. A.

1981-01-01

329

Annihilation of angular momentum drift during spinning-up and thrusting maneuvers of rigid bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very simple, yet accurate, heuristic solution for the spiral path of the angular momentum vector during spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of rigid body spacecraft is presented. A two-burn scheme is proposed consisting of a burn, a coast, and a second burn of the spin thruster. The appropriate burn times are found by a transcendental equation similar to Kepler's equation. Numerical results verify the accuracy of the burn, coast, and burn times given by closed form expressions. The scheme can also be applied to the problem of axial thrusting during constant spin.

Longuski, J. M.; Kia, T.; Breckenridge, W. G.

1984-01-01

330

Vector quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vector quantizer is a system for mapping a sequence of continuous or discrete vectors into a digital sequence suitable for communication over or storage in a digital channel. The goal of such a system is data compression: to reduce the bit rate so as to minimize communication channel capacity or digital storage memory requirements while maintaining the necessary fidelity

Robert M. Gray

1984-01-01

331

Design and analysis of thrust active magnetic bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the design and analysis of thrust active magnetic bearing (AMB). Using the analytical solutions for thrust, resistance, and inductance obtained from equivalent magnetic circuits method, we determine initial design parameters such as the size of magnetic circuit, coil diameter, and the number of turns by investigating the variation of thrust according to design parameters. Then, using nonlinear finite element analysis, a detailed design considering saturation is performed in order to meet required thrust under restricted conditions. Finally, by confirming that the design result is shown in good agreement with experimental results, the validity of design procedures for thrust AMB used in this paper is proved. In particular, the dynamic test results of the thrust AMB are also given to confirm the validity of the design.

Jang, Seok-Myeong; Lee, Un-Ho; Choi, Jang-Young; Hong, Jung-Pyo

2008-04-01

332

Aseismic slip on a shallow thrust imaged by SAR interferometry: the Shahdad thrust, SE Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the convergence between the Arabian plate and the Eurasian plate is accomodated by shear in eastern Iran. The strain manifests itself primarily in a series of large strike-slip faults combined with narrow thrust belts, separated by less deformed blocks. One of the strike-slip fault systems, the Gowk Fault, runs between the Central Iranian Plateau and the Lut block.

E. Fielding; B. Parsons; T. Wright; R. Walker

2002-01-01

333

Composite Octet Searches with Jet Substructure  

SciTech Connect

Many new physics models with strongly interacting sectors predict a mass hierarchy between the lightest vector meson and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons. We examine the power of jet substructure tools to extend the 7 TeV LHC sensitivity to these new states for the case of QCD octet mesons, considering both two gluon and two b-jet decay modes for the pseudoscalar mesons. We develop both a simple dijet search using only the jet mass and a more sophisticated jet substructure analysis, both of which can discover the composite octets in a dijet-like signature. The reach depends on the mass hierarchy between the vector and pseudoscalar mesons. We find that for the pseudoscalar-to-vector meson mass ratio below approximately 0.2 the simple jet mass analysis provides the best discovery limit; for a ratio between 0.2 and the QCD-like value of 0.3, the sophisticated jet substructure analysis has the best discovery potential; for a ratio above approximately 0.3, the standard four-jet analysis is more suitable.

Bai, Yang; /SLAC; Shelton, Jessie; /Yale U.

2012-02-14

334

Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

1993-01-01

335

Experimental Results of Schlicher's Thrusting Antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to test the claims by Rex L. Schlicher, et al., (Patent 5,142,86 1) that a certain antenna geometry produces thrust greatly exceeding radiation reaction, when driven by repetitive, fast rise, and relatively slower decay current pulses. In order to test this hypothesis, the antenna was suspended by strings as a 3 in pendulum. Current pulses were fed to the antenna along the suspension path by a very flexible coaxial line constructed from loudspeaker cable and copper braid sheath. When driving the antenna via this cabling, our pulser was capable of sustaining 1200 A pulses at a rate of 30 per second up to a minute. In this way, bursts of pulses could be delivered in synch with the pendulum period in order to build up any motion. However, when using a laser beam passing through a lens attached to the antenna to amplify linear displacement by a factor of at least 25, no correlated motion of the beam spot could be detected on a distant wall. We conclude, in agreement with the momentum theorem of classical electromagnetic theory, that any thrust produced is far below practically useful levels. Hence, within classical electrodynamics, there is little hope of detecting any low level motion that cannot be explained by interactions with surrounding structural steel and the Earth's magnetic field.

Fralick, Gustave C.; Niedra, Janis M.

2001-01-01

336

OMV/VTE variable thrust engine analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the present work is to develop a predictive CFD based analytical tool for the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) in the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). This objective is being accomplished within the framework of the Los Alamos KIVA computer code for chemically reactive flows with sprays. For the OMV application, the main structure of KIVA is to be retained while reformulating many of the phenomenological submodels, enhancing some of the numerics, and adding more features. The analytical model consists of the general conservation equations for two-phase reactive flows and of submodels for turbulence, chemical reactions, and bipropellant sprays. Tailoring this model to the OMV engine brings about the added complexities of combustion and flow processes that occur in a liquid hypergolic propellant rocket chamber. This report exposes the foundation upon which the analytical tool is being constructed and developed. Results from a cursory computational exercise involving the simulation of the flow and combustion processes in a hypothetical N2H4/N204 rocket engine thrust chamber is presented and discussed.

Larosillere, L.; Litchford, R.; Jeng, S. M.

1995-01-01

337

Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program was conducted to generate data and develop analytical techniques to predict the performance and reliability of ceramic thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments. A finite element model was used to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of coating systems in rocket thrust chambers. Candidate coating systems (using a copper substrate, NiCrAlY bond coat and ZrO2.8Y2O3 ceramic overcoat) were selected for detailed study based on photomicrographic evaluations of experimental test specimens. The effects of plasma spray application parameters on the material properties of these coatings were measured and the effects on coating performance evaluated using the finite element model. Coating design curves which define acceptable operating envelopes for seleted coating systems were constructed based on temperature and strain limitations. Spray gun power levels was found to have the most significant effect on coating structure. Three coating systems were selected for study using different power levels. Thermal conductivity, strain tolerance, density, and residual stress were measured for these coatings. Analyses indicated that extremely thin coatings ( 0.02 mm) are required to accommodate the high heat flux of a rocket thrust chamber and ensure structural integrity.

Batakis, A. P.; Vogan, J. W.

1985-01-01

338

Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

339

Optimization of a Fully-Pulsed Jet in a Fluid of Similar Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous work, Gharib et al.(Morteza Gharib, Edmond Rambod, Karim Shariff, "A Universal Time Scale for Vortex Ring Formation," JFM, vol. 360, pp. 121-140, 1998) have studied vortex rings generated through impulsively started jets using a piston/cylinder arrangement. This work showed that the vortex ring that formed at the leading edge of the jet reached a maximum strength for a piston stroke to diameter ratio (L/D) of approximately 4 for a wide range of piston motions and jet exit boundaries. This result suggests interesting consequences for a fully-pulsed jet, which is simply a series of impulsively started jets strung together. Specifically, the thrust of the present investigation is to study how the physical behavior of a fully-pulsed jet varies as both L/D and the pulsing frequency of the jet (rate at which pulses are ejected) are varied. To this end, a piston/cylinder arrangement with a stepper motor is used to generate a fully-pulsed jet with different L/D and pulsing frequency (f) combinations. The thrust produced by these various jets is measured directly and used as a gauge of the effectiveness of the pulsed jet. Combinations of L/D and f leading to optimization of the pulsed jet will be presented.

Krueger, Paul S.; Gharib, Morteza

1998-11-01

340

Acoustics and aerodynamics of over-the-wing thrust reversers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine Program, model tests were conducted to determine the effects of thrust reverser geometric parameters on noise and reverse thrust. The acoustic tests used a 1/6 scale model thrust reverser while the aerodynamic performance tests used a 1/12 scale model reverser. Parameters which were varied in both tests include blocker spacing, blocker height, lip angle, and lip length. The impact of these parameters on peak sideline noise and reverse thrust performance is discussed.

Stimpert, D. L.; Ammer, R. C.

1976-01-01

341

Active Dual Thrust Modulation of a Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a combustion characteristic that some propellants cannot burn in an intermediate pressure range while they can burn at lower and higher pressure, an active thrust modulation system was developed. The motor changed its thrust in dual combustion mode. It chose alternately high and low thrusts during combustion. The transitions from the low mode to the high mode were attained by a secondary ignition system, and those from the high mode to the low mode were done by a brief gas release system. Up to three times mode transitions were successfully demonstrated. Required time for the mode transitions and the effects of the thrust modulations on the thrust performance were evaluated. On the present motor scale, the transition time from the low mode to the high mode ranged from 0.12 s to 0.23 s, and that from the high mode to the low mode was from 0.19 s to 0.38 s. The thrust variable range was adjustable by the throat area. The ratio of the low-mode thrust to the high mode thrust was variable from 3 to 5. Specific impulse was decreased from 195 s to 175 s, when the number of thrust modulations was increased.

Tanaka, Masafumi; Yokomine, Yasushi

342

In-line motion causes high thrust and efficiency in flapping foils that use power downstroke.  

PubMed

We show experimentally that flapping foil kinematics consisting of a power downstroke and a feathering upstroke together with a properly timed in-line motion, similar to those employed in forelimb propulsion of sea turtles, can produce high thrust and be hydrodynamically as efficient as symmetrically flapping foils. The crucial parameter for such asymmetrically flapping foils is a properly sized and timed in-line motion, whose effect is quantified by a new parameter, the advance angle, defined as the angle of the foil trajectory with respect to the horizontal, evaluated at the middle of the power downstroke. We show, in particular, that optimal efficiency in high aspect ratio rigid foils, accompanied by significant thrust production, is obtained for Strouhal numbers in the range 0.2-0.6 for Reynolds number equal to 13,000, and for values of the advance angle around 0.55pi (100 deg.). The optimized kinematics consist of the foil moving back axially during the downstroke, in the direction of the oncoming flow, and rotating with a large pitch angle. This causes the force vector to rotate and become nearly parallel to the steady flow, thus providing a large thrust and a smaller transverse force. During the upstroke, the foil is feathering while it moves axially forward, i.e. away from the vorticity shed during the power stroke; as a result, the transverse force remains relatively small and no large drag force is produced. Observations from turtles confirm qualitatively the findings from the foil experiments. PMID:20008363

Licht, S C; Wibawa, M S; Hover, F S; Triantafyllou, M S

2010-01-01

343

Global Simulations of the Interaction of Microquasar Jets with a Stellar wind in High-Mass X-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jets powered by high-mass X-ray binaries must traverse the powerful wind of the companion star. We present the first global 3-D simulations of jet-wind interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries. We show that the jet can be re-collimated where the internal jet pressure is equal to the wind ram pressure, and beyond the re-collimation, the jet thickness, h, follows from pressure equilibrium between the jet and bow-shock. Based on this analytic jet model, we analyze the effects of jet-wind interaction, bending the jet to an asymptotic angle ??. Through both numerical study and analytic approach, we formularize the ?? as a function of jet power and wind thrust, which can be used to constrain the jet power with known wind parameters. For example, we apply the formula to the case of Cygnus X-1, and show that given wind parameters for the O9.7 Iab companion, the jet power should be larger than 1.47 × 1036 ergs s-1 to keep the jet straight against the wind momentum flux as it is observed by VLBA. We further discuss the case where the initial jet is inclined relative to the binary orbital axis, which shows asymmetric behavior between approaching jet and receding jet from the companion star. We also analyze the case of Cygnus X-3 and show that jet bending is likely negligible unless the jet is significantly less powerful or much wider than currently thought.

Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

2015-01-01

344

Thrust Removal Scheme for the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model Tested in the National Transonic Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.

2014-01-01

345

Vector Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vector fields are vectors which change from point to point. A standard example is the velocity of moving air, in other words, wind. For instance, the current wind pattern in the San Francisco area can be found at . This site has a 2-dimensional representation; careful reading of the webpage will tell you at what elevation the wind is shown. How would you represent a vector field in 3 dimensions? What features are important? Some simple examples are shown. Each can be rotated by clicking and dragging with the mouse. Explore!

Dray, Tevian

2006-01-01

346

Cloning vector  

DOEpatents

A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

347

Cloning vector  

DOEpatents

A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

1994-12-27

348

Fault interaction along the Central Andean thrust front: The Las Peñas thrust, Cerro Salinas thrust and the Montecito Anticline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region in west-central Argentina between the thin-skinned Precordillera and the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas structural domain is among the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We quantify the rates of deformation on the east-vergent Las Peñas thrust (LPT), and the west-vergent Cerro Salinas thrust (CST). The Montecito anticline (MA) is located at their intersection. We mapped three key locations, collected stratigraphic logs from the MA, dated three ashes using U-Pb in zircon and dated 10 terraces using cosmogenic Be-10 depth profiles. Five terrace levels are present where the Rio Las Peñas crosses the LPT, up to 45 m above the modern river. Cosmogenic dating of the uppermost terrace (T1) yields and age of 123.8 +26.5/-12.3 ka. A reconstruction of this surface using a blind thrust rupture scenario indicates 73 +/- 7 m horizontal shortening and 34 +/- 3 m vertical displacement. Shortening across the structure is therefore 0.59 +0.10/-0.13 mm/yr with a vertical uplift rate of 0.27 +0.05/-0.06 mm/a. Previous work indicates higher rates to the south on the order of 2 mm/yr (Schmidt et al., 2011). Lower terraces give ages of 38.0 +11/-6.2 ka (T2) and 1.5 +5.0/-0.6 ka (T4). Three terrace levels are preserved near the center of the CST. The middle surface (T2) is folded across the axis of the structure and yields an age of 112.5 +33/-14.4 ka. Given 22.9 m surface uplift, this indicates a vertical uplift rate of 0.20 +0.05/-0.06 mm/yr, similar to the rate on the LPT. The upper terrace (T1) yields a younger age (97.1 +29.8/-12.4 ka); the T1 and T2 ages overlap within uncertainty, indicating rapid river incision at the time of their formation. An intercalated ash within the Neogene strata gives an age of 16.2 +/- 0.2. Previous work indicates long-term shortening rates of 0.8 mm/yr (Verges et al., 2007) and that the CST initiated after 8.5 Ma. The lowermost unit exposed in the MA is the Los Pozos Fm., with no indication of syn-depositional deformation. An intercalated ash from the top of this formation yields an age of 5.76 +/- 0.09 Ma. Internal unconformities are present within the overlying transitional unit and the Mogotes Fm., indicating deformation post-dates 5.8 Ma in the MA. An ash within the Mogotes Fm. is 1.52 +/- 0.06 Ma. Slip is modeled as 3.5 km reverse slip across an east-dipping dislocation with a 45 degree dip. This suggests horizontal shortening and vertical uplift of 0.42 mm/yr since the onset of deformation. Uplifted terraces near the center of the MA are 4.7 +0.8/-0.3 ka (T2) and 1.9 +3.4/-1.9 ka (T3), 6 and 4.6 m above the modern river, respectively. This suggests recent vertical uplift or incision rates of 1.3-2.4 mm/yr. These data suggest that deformation in the MA is comparable to that at the LPT and CST. Deformation in the MA could be accelerating, but alternatively, river incision could be accelerating due to climate change.

Schoenbohm, L. M.; Costa, C. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Bohon, W.; Gardini, C.; Cisneros, H.

2013-12-01

349

Thrust Enhancement in Hypervelocity Nozzles by Chemical Catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the hypersonic flight regime, the air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) has been shown to be a viable propulsion system. The current designs of scramjet engines provide performance benefits only up to a Mach number of 14. Performance losses increase rapidly as the Mach number increases. To extend the applicability of scram'jets beyond Mach 14, research is being conducted in the area of inlet and wave drag reduction, skin-friction and heat-transfer reduction, nozzle loss minimization, low-loss mixing, and combustion enhancement. For high Mach number applications, hydrogen is the obvious fuel choice because of its high energy content per unit mass in comparison with conventional fuels. These flight conditions require engines to operate at supersonic internal velocities, high combustor temperatures, and low static pressures. The high static temperature condition enhances the production of radicals such as H and OH, and the low-pressure condition slows the reaction rates, particularly the recombination reactions. High-temperature and low-pressure constraints, in combination with a small residence time, result in a radical-rich exhaust gas mixture exiting the combustor. At high Mach number conditions (due to low residence time), H and OH do not have enough time to recombine ; thus, a significant amount of energy is lost as these high-energy free radical are exhausted. The objective of the present study is to conduct a flowfield analysis for a typical nozzle geometry for NASP-type vehicle to assess for thrust enhancement in hypervelocity nozzles by substituting small amount of phosphine for hydrogen.

Singh, D. J.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Drummond, J. P.

1997-01-01

350

[Jet leg].  

PubMed

The aim of the paper is to give a review of jet-lag (Time Zone Change Syndrome) with regard to aetiology, symptomatology and pathophysiology. Furthermore we give recommendations on treatment of jet-lag. The literature has focused intensely on the potential benefit of phototherapy and/or use of melatonin as treatment modalities for jet-lag. Both phototherapy and melatonin have the capability to accelerate reentrainment of the circadian rhythm after flights across multiple time zones, thereby reducing jet-lag. We stress the importance of correct timing of phototherapy and use of melatonin and suggest that the traveller adapts to the "social" rhythm at the flight destination as well. PMID:11379239

Christiansen, A L; Madsbad, S

2001-01-01

351

Beam Thrust Cross Section for Drell-Yan Production at Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Logarithmic Order  

SciTech Connect

At the LHC and Tevatron strong initial-state radiation (ISR) plays an important role. It can significantly affect the partonic luminosity available to the hard interaction or contaminate a signal with additional jets and soft radiation. An ideal process to study ISR is isolated Drell-Yan production, pp{yields}Xl{sup +}l{sup -} without central jets, where the jet veto is provided by the hadronic event shape beam thrust {tau}{sub B}. Most hadron collider event shapes are designed to study central jets. In contrast, requiring {tau}{sub B}<<1 provides an inclusive veto of central jets and measures the spectrum of ISR. For {tau}{sub B}<<1 we carry out a resummation of {alpha}{sub s}{sup n}ln{sup m{tau}}{sub B} corrections at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic order. This is the first resummation at this order for a hadron-hadron collider event shape. Measurements of {tau}{sub B} at the Tevatron and LHC can provide crucial tests of our understanding of ISR and of {tau}{sub B}'s utility as a central jet veto.

Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-01-21

352

Jet measurements at D0 using a KT algorithm  

SciTech Connect

D0 has implemented and calibrated a k{perpendicular} jet algorithm for the first time in a p{bar p} collider. We present two results based on 1992-1996 data which were recently published: the subjet multiplicity in quark and gluon jets and the central inclusive jet cross section. The measured ratio between subjet multiplicities in gluon and quark jets is consistent with theoretical predictions and previous experimental values. NLO pQCD predictions of the k{perpendicular} inclusive jet cross section agree with the D0 measurement, although marginally in the low p{sub T} range. We also present a preliminary measurement of thrust cross sections, which indicates the need to include higher than {alpha}{sub s}{sup 3} terms and resumation in the theoretical calculations.

V.Daniel Elvira

2002-10-03

353

Emerging Jets  

E-print Network

In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

Pedro Schwaller; Daniel Stolarski; Andreas Weiler

2015-02-24

354

Emerging Jets  

E-print Network

In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

2015-01-01

355

Equivalent Vectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

Levine, Robert

2004-01-01

356

Radiation transfer thrusters for low thrust applications  

SciTech Connect

A thruster assembly for low thrust applications and use with a propellant which may be heated in order to obtain a higher specific impulse which increases the life of a propulsion system, the thruster assembly is described comprising: (a) a heating filament and power source controllably connected thereto; (b) a heater cavity having heater walls having an inner surface; (c) a supporting structure for the heating filament; (d) a propellant guiding structure surrounding the heater cavity and having at least one propellant passageway therein; (e) the propellant guiding structure being further constructed to permit sufficient heat to be transferred to the fluid in order to enable the fluid to be used as a propellant and in the manner obtain a higher specific impulse at times when the filaments is switched off.

Cann, G.L.

1988-03-15

357

Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

1972-01-01

358

Saturn: A Giant Thrust into Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saturn: A Giant Thrust into Space. The film provides an introduction and overview of the Saturn launch vehicle. It is designed with stages to drop off as fuel is spent. There may be two, three, or four stages, depending on the payload. The Saturn rocket will be used to send Apollo missions to the Moon and back. Guidance systems and booster engine rockets are based on proven mechanisms. Scale models are used to test the engines. Hardware, airframes, guidance systems, instrumentation, and the rockets are produced at sites throughout the country. The engines go to Marshall Space Flight Center for further tests. After partial assembly, the vehicle is shipped to Cape Canaveral in large pieces where it is assembled using specially built equipment and structures. Further trials are performed to assure successful launches. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030961. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1962-01-01

359

Basement involved thrusts from Northwestern Maracaibo Basin  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of seismic reflection profiles from northwestern Maracaibo Basin, north of the Palmar River, suggests a late Neogene age for all the structures located within the north-northeast trends of anticlinal belts. These folded structures appear to be ramp anticlines generated from basement involved thrusts. Such detachments are intercepted by conjugate systems of low-angle decollements decoupled from the thick shaly intervals of Cretaceous and Eocene age. The resulting configuration of these fault systems are related to a mechanic of deformation referred as [open quotes]fish tail[close quotes]. This structural style favors the superposition of structural traps at different levels. The superposed reservoirs from La Paz, Mara, Sibucara, Mara Oeste, and Ensenada among others constitute superb examples of this style of deformation. Similar anticlinal structures are also observed to the southeast of the Basin in the Ceuta-Tomoporo area.

Audemard, F. (Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

360

FEEP micro-thrust balance characterization and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micro-thrust stand developed by the National Physical Laboratory under ESA funding was calibrated and characterized. The balance is based on the nulled-pendulum principle. The thruster is positioned in a constrained pendulum that is free to move only along the line of thrust. A capacitive displacement sensor measures the movement of the pendulum and is connected via a servo closed

S. Rocca; C. Menon; D. Nicolini

2006-01-01

361

Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Area report FY'84  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work of the Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Areas for FY'84: diagnostics and microelectronic engineering; signal and control engineering; microwave and pulsed power engineering; computer-aided engineering; engineering modeling and simulation; and systems engineering. For each Thrust Area, an overview and a description of the goals and achievements of each project is provided.

Minichino, C.; Phelps, P.L. (eds.)

1984-01-01

362

Dynamic Visual Acuity during Passive Head Thrusts in Canal Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA

Michael C. Schubert; Americo A. Migliaccio; Charles C. Della Santina

2006-01-01

363

Heat pipe technology for advanced rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of heat pipe technology to the design of rocket engine thrust chambers is discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) evaporator wick development, (2) specific heat pipe designs and test results, (3) injector design, fabrication, and cold flow testing, and (4) preliminary thrust chamber design.

Rousar, D. C.

1971-01-01

364

Impact of plasma noise on a direct thrust measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a pendulum-type thrust measurement system, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and a laser optical displacement sensor have been used simultaneously to determine the displacement resulting from an applied thrust. The LVDT sensor uses an analog interface, whereas the laser sensor uses a digital interface to communicate the displacement readings to the data acquisition equipment. The data collected by both sensors show good agreement for static mass calibrations and validation with a cold gas thruster. However, the data obtained using the LVDT deviate significantly from that of the laser sensor when operating two varieties of plasma thrusters: a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma thruster, and a DC powered plasma thruster. Results establish that even with appropriate shielding and signal filtering the LVDT sensor is subject to plasma noise and radio frequency interactions which result in anomalous thrust readings. Experimental data show that the thrust determined using the LVDT system in a direct current plasma environment and a RF discharge is approximately a factor of three higher than the thrust values obtained using a laser sensor system for the operating conditions investigated. These findings are of significance to the electric propulsion community as LVDT sensors are often utilized in thrust measurement systems and accurate thrust measurement and the reproducibility of thrust data is key to analyzing thruster performance. Methods are proposed to evaluate system susceptibility to plasma noise and an effective filtering scheme presented for DC discharges.

Pottinger, S. J.; Lamprou, D.; Knoll, A. K.; Lappas, V. J.

2012-03-01

365

The 30-centimeter ion thrust subsystem design manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal characteristics of the 30-centimeter ion propulsion thrust subsystem technology that was developed to satisfy the propulsion needs of future planetary and early orbital missions are described. Functional requirements and descriptions, interface and performance requirements, and physical characteristics of the hardware are described at the thrust subsystem, BIMOD engine system, and component level.

1979-01-01

366

Energy Rate Prediction Using an Equivalent Thrust Setting Profile  

E-print Network

weight and an equivalent thrust profile. These parameters are not meant to be true, however is built. This thrust profile is designed in such a way that the estimated equivalent weight provides parameters and BADA standard parameters. Keywords: trajectory prediction, energy rate, equivalent weight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

2006-07-01

368

Impact of plasma noise on a direct thrust measurement system.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a pendulum-type thrust measurement system, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and a laser optical displacement sensor have been used simultaneously to determine the displacement resulting from an applied thrust. The LVDT sensor uses an analog interface, whereas the laser sensor uses a digital interface to communicate the displacement readings to the data acquisition equipment. The data collected by both sensors show good agreement for static mass calibrations and validation with a cold gas thruster. However, the data obtained using the LVDT deviate significantly from that of the laser sensor when operating two varieties of plasma thrusters: a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma thruster, and a DC powered plasma thruster. Results establish that even with appropriate shielding and signal filtering the LVDT sensor is subject to plasma noise and radio frequency interactions which result in anomalous thrust readings. Experimental data show that the thrust determined using the LVDT system in a direct current plasma environment and a RF discharge is approximately a factor of three higher than the thrust values obtained using a laser sensor system for the operating conditions investigated. These findings are of significance to the electric propulsion community as LVDT sensors are often utilized in thrust measurement systems and accurate thrust measurement and the reproducibility of thrust data is key to analyzing thruster performance. Methods are proposed to evaluate system susceptibility to plasma noise and an effective filtering scheme presented for DC discharges. PMID:22462919

Pottinger, S J; Lamprou, D; Knoll, A K; Lappas, V J

2012-03-01

369

Thrust Measurements Using Laser Interferometry Edward A. Cubbin  

E-print Network

and Applied Sciences Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Submitted in partial fulfillment µN. The IPS-based thrust stand relies on measuring the dynamic response of a swinging arm using Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.2 Mechanical Isolation of Thrust Stand

Choueiri, Edgar

370

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends upon knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined which accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2005-01-01

371

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least-squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

372

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine's performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

373

Thrust faults and back thrust in Madison range of southwestern Montana foreland  

SciTech Connect

In the Rocky Mountain foreland of southwestern Montana, a zone of Late Cretaceous thrust faults, named the Hilgard fault system, extends along the west side of the Madison Range from Hebgen Lake northward for about 50 mi (80 km). The thrust faults are steep at their leading edges but flatten westward beneath the associated plates, where they commonly dip 25/sup 0/-30/sup 0/. Structural lows and highs are apparent beneath the Beaver Creek plate, the major thrust sheet of the system, and correlate with salients and reentrants of the plate. The Beaver Creek plate consists primarily of Archean metamorphic rocks, but Phanerozoic strata are preserved along the northern part of the plate's leading edge. Only the forward part of the plate is preserved in the Madison Range because Cenozoic normal faults of the Madison Range fault system dropped much of the plate beneath the Madison Valley on the west. The Kirkwood plate lies east of and beneath the Beaver Creek plate, and contains structures of the eastern part of the Hilgard system. The central segment of the leading edge of the Kirkwood plate is not completely detached from underlying strata. The leading edge of the northern part of the plate, defined by the Cache Creek fault, is flanked on the west by an associated anticline. The southern end of the Cache Creek fault is an eastward-dipping back thrust, which abruptly steepens on the west adjacent to the anticline. Both the fault and the anticline are believed to have formed above a concealed detachment fault. The southern part of the Kirkwood plate displays structures interpreted to represent displacement transfer from the Beaver Creek plate. 9 figures.

Tysdal, R.G.

1986-04-01

374

Six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for hybrid rocket.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust is the reactive force experienced by a rocket due to the ejection of high velocity matter. The Hybrid Rocket Facility at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) uses strain gauges mounted to an s-beam to measure axial direction thrust of the rocket. A new six degree of freedom thrust sensor has been built for the UALR Hybrid Rocket Facility. The six degrees of freedom are the thrust force components in the three spacial directions (Fx, Fy, Fz) plus the three moments (roll, pitch, yaw). Even though the majority of the rocket's thrust is in the axial direction, the components in the other directions are non-zero, and must be measured to account for the total work done by the rocket motor. The sensor design and fabrication are now complete. Calibration of the load cells on each of the six uni-axial legs of the sensor and any preliminary data available will be presented.

Wilson, Joshua

2008-04-01

375

Thrust Direction Optimization: Satisfying Dawn's Attitude Agility Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science objective of NASA's Dawn Discovery mission is to explore the two largest members of the main asteroid belt, the giant asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn successfully completed its orbital mission at Vesta. The Dawn spacecraft has complex, difficult to quantify, and in some cases severe limitations on its attitude agility. The low-thrust transfers between science orbits at Vesta required very complex time varying thrust directions due to the strong and complex gravity and various science objectives. Traditional thrust design objectives (like minimum (Delta)V or minimum transfer time) often result in thrust direction time evolutions that can not be accommodated with the attitude control system available on Dawn. This paper presents several new optimal control objectives, collectively called thrust direction optimization that were developed and necessary to successfully navigate Dawn through all orbital transfers at Vesta.

Whiffen, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

376

Reciprocal Vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reciprocal vectors and barycentric coordinates are well-established concepts in various scientific fields, where lattices and grids are essential, e.g., in solid state physics, crystallography, in the numerical analysis of partial differential equations using finite elements, and also in computer graphics and visualisation. In preparation of the Cluster mission, Chanteur [1998] in Chapter 14 of ISSI SR-001 adopted reciprocal vectors to construct estimators for spatial derivatives from four-point measurements, to perform error analysis, and to write down the spatial aliasing condition for four-point wave analysis techniques in a very transparent form. Reciprocal vectors also entered the study on the ac- curacy of plasma moment derivatives, described in Chapter 17 of ISSI SR-001 [Vogt and Paschmann, 1998]. As will be shown below, by using the least squares approach presented in Chapter 12 of ISSI SR-001 [Harvey, 1998], reciprocal vectors are a convenient means in discontinuity analysis to express boundary parameters in terms of crossing times. This chapter is intended to provide a conceptual introduction to reciprocal vectors, and to emphasise their importance for the analysis of data from the Cluster spacecraft mission. It is organised as follows: The crossing times approach to boundary analysis is presented in Section 4.2 as a way to motivate the use of reciprocal vectors; some of their most important properties are briefly addressed in Section 4.3; then Section 4.4 deals with various aspects of the spatial gradient reconstruction problem; magnetic curvature estimation is reviewed in Section 4.5, while Section 4.6 contains a discussion on the errors of boundary analysis and curvature estimation. Finally, in Section 4.7 we suggest a way to generalise the reciprocal vector concept to cases where the number of spacecraft, N, is not four.

Vogt, Joachim; Paschmann, Gotz; Chanteur, Gérard

377

Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the test campaigns designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasmadynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QVPT), but instead will describe the recent test campaign. In addition, it contains a brief description of the supporting radio frequency (RF) field analysis, lessons learned, and potential applications of the technology to space exploration missions. During the first (Cannae) portion of the campaign, approximately 40 micronewtons of thrust were observed in an RF resonant cavity test article excited at approximately 935 megahertz and 28 watts. During the subsequent (tapered cavity) portion of the campaign, approximately 91 micronewtons of thrust were observed in an RF resonant cavity test article excited at approximately 1933 megahertz and 17 watts. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level. Test campaign results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma.

Brady, David A.; White, Harold G.; March, Paul; Lawrence, James T.; Davies, Frank J.

2014-01-01

378

Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accomodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part I-Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2-Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25.800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3-Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine, two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC material in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

Halliwell, Ian

2001-01-01

379

Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accommodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part 1: Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2: Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3: Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine. two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5.000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC materials in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

Halliwell, Ian

2001-01-01

380

Tests and analysis of a vented D thrust deflecting nozzle on a turbofan engine. [conducted at the outdoor aerodynamic research facility of the Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives were to: obtain nozzle performance characteristics in and out of ground effects; demonstrate the compatibility of the nozzle with a turbofan engine; obtain pressure and temperature distributions on the surface of the D vented nozzle; and establish a correlation of the nozzle performance between small scale and large scale models. The test nozzle was a boilerplate model of the MCAIR D vented nozzle configured for operation with a General Electric YTF-34-F5 turbofan engine. The nozzle was configured to provide: a thrust vectoring range of 0 to 115 deg; a yaw vectoring range of 0 to 10 deg; variable nozzle area control; and variable spacing between the core exit and nozzle entrance station. Compatibility between the YTF-34-T5 turbofan engine and the D vented nozzle was demonstrated. Velocity coefficients of 0.96 and greater were obtained for 90 deg of thrust vectoring. The nozzle walls remained cool during all test conditions.

Roseberg, E. W.

1982-01-01

381

Characteristics of thrust fault imbrication near the frontal edge of the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, Buffalo Mountain, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Buffalo Mountain thrust sheet, located along the western margin of the Blue Ridge in northeastern Tennessee, provides an excellent opportunity to examine transitional structural styles and deformation mechanisms between the Valley and Ridge and Blue Ridge. Previous interpretation suggests that, because of pre-fault tilting, thrust faults within the Buffalo Mountain complex cut down stratigraphic section. Geometric data from the

M. M. Duddy; N. B. Woodward

1985-01-01

382

K (transverse) jet algorithms in hadron colliders: The D0 experience  

SciTech Connect

D0 has implemented and studied a k{sub {perpendicular}} jet algorithm for the first time in a hadron collider. The authors have submitted two physics results for publication: the subjet multiplicity in quark and gluon jets and the central inclusive jet cross section measurements. A third result, a measurement of thrust distributions in jet events, is underway. A combination of measurements using several types of algorithms and samples taken at different center-of-mass energies is desirable to understand and distinguish with higher accuracy between instrumentation and physics effects.

V. Daniel Elvira

2002-12-05

383

14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. 23.934 Section 23...23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan...

2010-01-01

384

14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25... General § 25.934 Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

2010-01-01

385

14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. 25...25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight...

2013-01-01

386

14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. 25...25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight...

2012-01-01

387

14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. 25...25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight...

2011-01-01

388

14 CFR 25.1155 - Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. 25...25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. Each control for reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings below the flight...

2014-01-01

389

Navigational Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a high school instructional unit that features nine lessons relating to vectors. Students build understanding of vector properties as they learn airplane navigation. Problem-based learning activities include reading real-time weather maps, tracking airplanes flying in U.S. skies, calculating vector components, analyzing effects of wind velocity, and completing training segments similar to a private pilot certification program. Participants have access to help from experts at the Polaris Career Center. Comprehensive teacher guides, student guides, reference materials, and assessments are included. This resource was developed by the Center for Innovation in Science and Engineering Education (CIESE). Participation is cost-free; additional options are available for registered users.

2008-12-10

390

$W/Z$ + jets results from CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Collaboration has a comprehensive program of studying the production of vector bosons, W and Z, in association with energetic jets. Excellent understanding of the standard model W/Z+jets and W/Z+c,b-jets processes is of paramount importance for the top quark physics and for the Higgs boson and many new physics searches. We review the latest CDF results on Z-boson production in association with inclusive and b-quark jets, study of the p{sub T} balance in Z+jet events, and a measurement of the W+charm production cross section. The results are based on 4-5 fb{sup -1} of data and compared to various Monte Carlo and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions.

Camarda, Stefano; /Barcelona, IFAE

2010-01-01

391

Fault-related folding in sandbox analogue models of thrust wedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleation and growth of thrust fault-related folds has been simulated using high-resolution sandbox Coulomb wedge-type analogue models. Thrust-related anticlines grew progressively from initial layerparallel shortening, to décollement folding, thrust-tip folding and eventually thrust-ramp folding. Thrust ramps nucleated in the central sector of the overturned forelimb of décollement folds, as a consequence of limb thinning. Thrust-tip folding occurred during outward

K. McClay; F. Salvini

1997-01-01

392

Vector carpets  

SciTech Connect

Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

Dovey, D.

1995-03-22

393

Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 2; Normal Velocity Profile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instability waves have been established as noise generators in supersonic jets. Recent analysis of these slowly diverging jets has shown that these instability waves radiate noise to the far field when the waves have components with phase velocities that are supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. This instability wave noise generation model has been applied to supersonic jets with a single shear layer and is now applied to supersonic coaxial jets with two initial shear layers. In this paper the case of coaxial jets with normal velocity profiles is considered, where the inner jet stream velocity is higher than the outer jet stream velocity. To provide mean flow profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is used to calculate the mean flow properties. Calculations are made for the stability characteristics in the coaxial jet shear layers and the noise radiated from the instability waves for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow and exit area as a single reference jet. The effects of changes in the velocity ratio, the density ratio and the area ratio are each considered independently.

Dahl, M. D.; Morris, P. J.

1997-01-01

394

Thrust Measurements of an Underexpanded Orifice in the Transitional Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popularity of micropropulsion system development has led to renewed interest in the determination of propulsive properties of orifice flows since micronozzle expansions may suffer high viscous losses at low pressure operation. The mass flow and relative thrust for an under expanded orifice is measured as a function of orifice stagnation pressure from 0.1 to 3.5 Torr. Nitrogen, argon, and helium propellant gases are passed through a 1.0 mm diameter orifice with a wall thickness of 0.015 mm . Near-free molecule, transitional and continuum flow regimes are studied. The relative thrust is determined by a novel thrust stand designed primarily for low operating pressure, micropropulsion systems. It is shown that the thrust indications obtained from the stand are a function of the facility background pressure, and corrections are made to determine the indicated thrust for a zero background pressure with nitrogen as propellant. Highly repeatable (within 1 %) indicated thrust measurements are obtained in the thrust range from 5 to 500 ?N.

Ketsdever, Andrew D.

2003-05-01

395

Thrust Stand Characterization of the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct thrust measurements have been made on the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion engine using a standard pendulum style thrust stand constructed specifically for this application. Values have been obtained for the full 40-level throttle table, as well as for a few off-nominal operating conditions. Measurements differ from the nominal NASA throttle table 10 (TT10) values by 3.1 percent at most, while at 30 throttle levels (TLs) the difference is less than 2.0 percent. When measurements are compared to TT10 values that have been corrected using ion beam current density and charge state data obtained at The Aerospace Corporation, they differ by 1.2 percent at most, and by 1.0 percent or less at 37 TLs. Thrust correction factors calculated from direct thrust measurements and from The Aerospace Corporation s plume data agree to within measurement error for all but one TL. Thrust due to cold flow and "discharge only" operation has been measured, and analytical expressions are presented which accurately predict thrust based on thermal thrust generation mechanisms.

Diamant, Kevin D.; Pollard, James E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

2010-01-01

396

Propeller thrust analysis using Prandtl's lifting line theory, a comparison between the experimental thrust and the thrust predicted by Prandtl's lifting line theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lifting line theory was first developed by Prandtl and was used primarily on analysis of airplane wings. Though the theory is about one hundred years old, it is still used in the initial calculations to find the lift of a wing. The question that guided this thesis was, "How close does Prandtl's lifting line theory predict the thrust of a propeller?" In order to answer this question, an experiment was designed that measured the thrust of a propeller for different speeds. The measured thrust was compared to what the theory predicted. In order to do this experiment and analysis, a propeller needed to be used. A walnut wood ultralight propeller was chosen that had a 1.30 meter (51 inches) length from tip to tip. In this thesis, Prandtl's lifting line theory was modified to account for the different incoming velocity depending on the radial position of the airfoil. A modified equation was used to reflect these differences. A working code was developed based on this modified equation. A testing rig was built that allowed the propeller to be rotated at high speeds while measuring the thrust. During testing, the rotational speed of the propeller ranged from 13-43 rotations per second. The thrust from the propeller was measured at different speeds and ranged from 16-33 Newton's. The test data were then compared to the theoretical results obtained from the lifting line code. A plot in Chapter 5 (the results section) shows the theoretical vs. actual thrust for different rotational speeds. The theory over predicted the actual thrust of the propeller. Depending on the rotational speed, the error was: at low speeds 36%, at low to moderate speeds 84%, and at high speeds the error increased to 195%. Different reasons for these errors are discussed.

Kesler, Steven R.

397

Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

2013-01-01

398

Pipeline vectorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents pipeline vectorization, amethod for synthesizing hardware pipelines based on softwarevectorizing compilers. The method improves eciencyand ease of development of hardware designs, particularlyfor users with little electronics design experience. We proposeseveral loop transformations to customize pipelinesto meet hardware resource constraints, while maximizingavailable parallelism. For run-time recongurable systems,we apply hardware specialization to increase...

Markus Weinhardt; Wayne Luk

2001-01-01

399

Dual-action gas thrust bearing for improving load capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principle of utilizing hydrodynamic effects in diverging films to improve the load carrying capacity in gas thrust bearings is discussed. A new concept of a dual action bearing based on that principle is described and analyzed. The potential of the new bearing is demonstrated both analytically for an infinitely long slider and by numerical solution for a flat sector shaped thrust bearing. It is shown that the dual action bearing can extend substantially the range of load carrying capacity in gas lubricated thrust bearings and can improve their efficiency.

Etsion, I.

1976-01-01

400

Multiphysics Thrust Chamber Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. A two-pronged approach is employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of heat transfer on thrust performance. Preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

Wang, Ten-See; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

2006-01-01

401

A Regeneratively-Cooled Thrust Chamber for the Fastrac Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document consists of presentation slides about the development of the regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The Fastrac engine was originally developed to demonstrate low cost design and fabrication methods. It was intended to be used in an expendable booster. The regen thrust chamber enables a more cost efficient test program. Using the low cost design and fabrication methodology designed for the 12K regeneratively cooled chamber, the contractor designed, developed and fabricated a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine.

Brown, Kendall; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon; Jim Turner (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

402

Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

Haag, T. W.

1991-01-01

403

Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion (EP) thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power. The Plasma propulsion with Electronegative GASES (PEGASES) concept simplifies ion thruster operation, eliminates a neutralizer requirement and should yield longer life capabilities and lower cost implementation over conventional gridded ion engines. The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. The end product of this Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project will be a validation of the proof-of-concept, maturation to TRL 3 and technology assessment report to summarize the potential for the PEGASES concept to supplant the incumbent technology. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results. Those test results will first go through a standard public release ITAR/export control review, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum.

Dankanich, John (Principal Investigator); Aanesland, Ane; Polzin, Kurt; Walker, Mitchell

2015-01-01

404

An experimental investigation of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow-field within a two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector has been documented experimentally. Results are presented on the mean velocity field and the turbulent correlations by Laser Doppler Velocimeter, surface pressure distribution, surface temperature distribution, and thrust performance for two shroud geometries. The maximum primary nozzle pressure ratio tested was 3.0. The tests were conducted at primary nozzle temperature ratios of 1.0, 1.8 and 2.7. Two ejector characteristic lengths have been identified based on the dynamics of the ejector flow field, i.e., a minimum length L sub m below which no significant mixing occurs, and a critical length L sub c associated with the development of U'V' correlation in the ejector. These characteristic lengths divide the ejector flow field into three distinctive regions: the entrance region where there is no direct interaction between the primary flow and the ejector shroud; the interaction region where there is an increased momentum of induced flow near the shroud surface; and a pipe flow region characterized by an increased skin friction where x is the distance downstream from the ejector inlet. The effect of the coflowing induced flow has been shown to produce inside the ejector a centerline velocity that has increased over the free-jet data.

Bernal, L.; Sarohia, V.

1984-01-01

405

Gas Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief summary of the contents of this paper is presented here. In part I the differential equations of the problem of a gas flow in two dimensions is derived and the particular integrals by which the problem on jets is solved are given. Use is made of the same independent variables as Molenbroek used, but it is found to be more suitable to consider other functions. The stream function and velocity potential corresponding to the problem are given in the form of series. The investigation on the convergence of these series in connection with certain properties of the functions entering them forms the subject of part II. In part III the problem of the outflow of a gas from an infinite vessel with plane walls is solved. In part IV the impact of a gas jet on a plate is considered and the limiting case where the jet expands to infinity changing into a gas flow is taken up in more detail. This also solved the equivalent problem of the resistance of a gaseous medium to the motion of a plate. Finally, in part V, an approximate method is presented that permits a simpler solution of the problem of jet flows in the case where the velocities of the gas (velocities of the particles in the gas) are not very large.

Chaplygin, S.

1944-01-01

406

Supersonic Coaxial Jets: Noise Predictions and Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise from perfectly expanded coaxial jets was measured in an anechoic chamber for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The shape of the measured noise spectrum at different angles to the jet axis was found to agree with spectral shapes for single, axisymmetric jets. Based on these spectra, the sound was characterized as being generated by large turbulent structures or fine-scale turbulence. Modeling the large scale structures as instability waves, a stability analysis was conducted for the coaxial jets to identify the growing and decaying instability waves in each shear layer and predict their noise radiation pattern outside the jet. When compared to measured directivity, the analysis identified the region downstream of the outer potential core, where the two shear layers were merging, as the source of the peak radiated noise where instability waves, with their origin in the inner shear layer, reach their maximum amplitude. Numerical computations were also performed using a linearized Euler equation solver. Those results were compared to both the results from the instability wave analysis and to measured data.

Dahl, Milo D.; Papamoschou, Dimitri; Hixon, Ray

1998-01-01

407

Controlling pulsatile jet formation number with variable diameter exit nozzle for maximum impulse generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both jellyfish and Squid propel themselves by ejecting high momentum vortex rings. A set of vortex ring generating thrusters were developed and tested for application in underwater vehicle propulsion. Vortex rings generated from a steady piston cylinder mechanism have a universal formation time, known as the formation number (Gharib et al. 1998), associated with reaching maximum circulation, where the vortex ring separates from its trailing shear flow. The non-dimensional jet formation time (also called the stroke ratio) plays a key role in the thrust output of the device; since thrusters operating above the formation number re-ingest the trailing jet. A variable diameter exit nozzle was used to increase the formation number of the jet to maximize thrust (which is a technique observed in squid and jellyfish locomotion). Visualization studies confirmed the ability to delay the onset of ring ``pinch-off'', using a variable nozzle, and the thrust was empirically shown to achieve a higher maximum. Additionally, a fluid slug model which was developed to predict the thrust output was adapted to incorporate a changing nozzle diameter. This model was verified with the empirical thrust data and was again shown to be accurate for stroke ratios below the formation number.

Krieg, Mike; Thomas, Tyler; Mohseni, Kamran

2009-11-01

408

Thrust Network Analysis : exploring three-dimensional equilibrium  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents Thrust Network Analysis, a new methodology for generating compression-only vaulted surfaces and networks. The method finds possible funicular solutions under gravitational loading within a defined ...

Block, Philippe (Philippe Camille Vincent)

2009-01-01

409

The Development of NASA's Low Thrust Trajectory Tool Set  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly efficient electric propulsion systems can enable interesting classes of missions; unfortunately, they provide only a limited amount of thrust. Low-thrust (LT) trajectories are much more difficult to design than impulsive-type (chemical propulsion) trajectories. Previous low-thrust (LT) trajectory optimization software was often difficult to use, often had difficulties converging, and was somewhat limited in the types of missions it could support. A new state-of-the-art suite (toolbox) of low-thrust (LT) tools along with improved algorithms and methods was developed by NASA's MSFC, JPL, JSC, and GRC to address the needs of our customers to help foster technology development in the areas of advanced LT propulsion systems, and to facilitate generation of similar results by different analysts.

Sims, Jon; Artis, Gwen; Kos, Larry

2006-01-01

410

53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

411

Thrust imbalance of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Monte Carlo statistical analysis of thrust imbalance is applied to both the Titan IIIC and the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors (SRMs) firing in parallel, and results are compared with those obtained from the Space Shuttle program. The test results are examined in three phases: (1) pairs of SRMs selected from static tests of the four developmental motors (DMs 1 through 4); (2) pairs of SRMs selected from static tests of the three quality assurance motors (QMs 1 through 3); (3) SRMs on the first flight test vehicle (STS-1A and STS-1B). The simplified internal ballistic model utilized for computing thrust from head-end pressure measurements on flight tests is shown to agree closely with measured thrust data. Inaccuracies in thrust imbalance evaluation are explained by possible flight test instrumentation errors.

Foster, W. A., Jr.; Sforzini, R. H.; Shackelford, B. W., Jr.

1981-01-01

412

Thrust Characteristics of Water/Liquid Nitrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When liquid nitrogen and heated water are mixed in a chamber, pressure increase due to evaporation expansion inside the chamber becomes high enough to generate thrust force for rocket propulsion. This thrust system is safer and environment-friendly compared to conventional rocket engines utilizing combustion process. This new type of rocket engine system is called "Water-Liquid Nitrogen rocket engine system" and it can be used for small payload mission with expected altitude of several kilometers. In this paper, experimentally obtained thrust characteristics are shown and analyzed. As a result, relations between the thrust force and the mixing chamber pressure are clarified. Also, it is found that the present injector can attain only half of the theoretically expected specific impulse due to insufficient mixing efficiency.

Watanabe, Rikio; Hayashi, Kohei; Iwao, Masaki; Ikawa, Keita; Tomita, Nobuyuki

413

Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

1994-01-01

414

Computational analysis of spiral groove thrust bearings and face seals  

E-print Network

Analyses for incompressible and compressible spiral groove thrust bearings (SGTBS) and face seals (SGFSS) are presented. A successive approximation linearizes the partial differential equation of pressure that arises in the compressible fluid...

Zirkelback, Nicole Lisa

1997-01-01

415

Thrust bearing loading arrangement for gas turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

In a gas turbine engine including a stationary wall and a rotor comprising a compressor and a turbine, a thrust bearing loading arrangement is described comprising: means for mounting the rotor for rotating movement. The means including a thrust ball bearing. The engine including at least one sealed cavity between a portion of the rotor and the stationary wall. The cavity including an aft wall and a forward wall, one of the walls having a greater surface area than the other of the walls. The stationary wall having an opening aft of the compressor for providing a path for flow of compressor discharge air into the cavity to increase the load on the thrust bearing. Means are responsive to compressor discharge pressure for controlling flow of compressor discharge air into the cavity to insure unidirectional loading on the thrust bearing throughout the normal operating range of the engine.

Haaser, F.G.

1988-03-15

416

Operating limitations of high speed jet lubricated ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 degrees. The bearings had either an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage, and lubrication was by recirculating oil jets which had either a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN, and bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets, but under-race lubrication produced lower bearing temperatures under all conditions of operation with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

1975-01-01

417

The effects of profiles on supersonic jet noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of velocity profiles on supersonic jet noise are studied by using stability calculations made for a shock-free coannular jet, with both the inner and outer flows supersonic. The Mach wave emission process is modeled as the noise generated by the large scale turbulent structures or the instability waves in the mixing region. Both the vortex-sheet and the realistic finite thickness shear layer models are considered. The stability calculations were performed for both inverted and normal velocity profiles. Comparisons are made with the results for an equivalent single jet, based on equal thrust, mass flow rate and exit area to that of the coannular jet. The advantages and disadvantages of these velocity profiles as far as noise radiation is concerned are discussed. It is shown that the Rayleigh's model prediction of the merits and demerits of different velocity profiles are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Tiwari, S. N.; Bhat, T. R. S.

1994-01-01

418

Thrust enhancement of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system  

SciTech Connect

The gasdynamic mirror propulsion system is a device that utilizes a magnetic mirror configuration to confine a hot plasma to allow fusion reactions to take place while ejecting a fraction of the energetic charged particles through one end to generate thrust. Because the fusion fuel is generally an isotope of hydrogen, e.g., deuterium or tritium, this propulsion device is capable of producing very large specific impulses (e.g., 200,000 seconds) but at modest thrusts. Since large thrusts are desirable, not only for reducing travel time but also for lifting sizable payloads, we have examined methods by which GDM's thrust could be enhanced. The first consists of utilizing the radiation generated by the plasma, namely bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, to heat a hydrogen propellant which upon exhausting through a nozzle produces the additional thrust. We asses the performance in this case by using an ideal model that ignores heat transfer considerations of the chamber wall, and one that takes into account heat flow and wall temperature limitations. We find in the case of a DT burning plasma that although thrust enhancement is significant, it was more than offset by the large drop in the specific impulse and a concomitant increase in travel time. The second method consisted of not altering the original GDM operation, but simply increasing the density of the injected plasma to achieve higher thrust. It is shown that the latter approach is more effective since it is compatible with improved performance in that it reduces trip time but at the expense of larger vehicle mass. For a D-He{sup 3} burning device the use of hydrogen to enhance thrust appears to be more desirable since the radiated power that goes into heating the hydrogen propellant is quite large.

Kammash, Terry; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Poston, David I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory MS K-551 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1997-01-10

419

Recent advances in low-thrust propulsion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA low-thrust propulsion technology program is aimed at providing high performance options to a broad class of near-term and future missions. Major emphases of the program are on storable and hydrogen\\/oxygen low-thrust chemical, low-power (auxiliary) electrothermal, and high-power electric propulsion. This paper represents the major accomplishments of the program and discusses their impact.

James R. Stone

1988-01-01

420

Exploring fold and thrust belts in Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Google Earth enhances traditional geologic maps by allowing the viewer to explore three-dimensional map patterns and the interaction between structure and topography in dictating those map patterns. This activity overlays 4, 7.5' USGS quadrangles on Google Earth terrain and imagery data and encourages students to investigate common features of fold-and-thrust belts. Keywords: Google Earth, fold-and-thrust belt, visualization

Jack Loveless

421

Microstructures and Rheology of a Limestone-Shale Thrust Fault  

E-print Network

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Julie Newman Committee Members, Will Lamb Adam Klaus Head of Department, Andreas Kronenberg December 2010 Major Subject: Geology... iii ABSTRACT Microstructures and Rheology of a Limestone-Shale Thrust Fault. (December 2010) Rachel Kristen Wells, B.S., The University of Texas at Austin Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Julie Newman The Copper Creek thrust fault...

Wells, Rachel Kristen

2011-02-22

422

The Selection of Propellers for High Thrust at Low Airspeed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem of improving thrust at low speeds is primarily one of reducing angle of attack of operation of sections to improve L/D or reducing blade helix angle. An analysis, based on recent propeller data, is presented for determining improvements in thrust or efficiency which could be obtained by increased number of blades, increased blade width, increased diameter, dual rotation, and two-speed gearing. All methods were found very effective, particularly two-speed gearing.

Conway, Robert N.; Biermann, David

1941-01-01

423

Thrust Performance and Plasma Characteristics of Low Power Hall Thrusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-power Hall thruster performance was investigated using THT-series Hall thrusters. The THT-IIIA thruster could be stably operated in a wide range of magnetic field strength. A high thrust efficiency was achieved with a low discharge current and a high thrust for an optimum magnetic field strength regardless of discharge voltage at a constant mass flow rate. As a result, both

Hirokazu Tahara; Daisuke Goto; Toshiaki Yasui; Takao Yoshikawa

2001-01-01

424

Improved thrust calculations of active magnetic bearings considering fringing flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for deriving fringing permeance in axisymmetric devices such as active thrust magnetic bearings (ATMBs) is presented. The methodology is used to develop an improved equivalent magnetic circuit (EMC) for ATMBs, which considers the fringing effect. This EMC was used to characterize the force between the housing and mover and the dependence of thrust and inductance on the air gap and input current, respectively. These characteristics were validated by comparison with those obtained by the finite element method and in experiments.

Jang, Seok-Myeong; Kim, Kwan-Ho; Ko, Kyoung-Jin; Choi, Ji-Hwan; Sung, So-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

2012-04-01

425

Recent advances in low-thrust propulsion technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA low-thrust propulsion technology program is aimed at providing high performance options to a broad class of near-term and future missions. Major emphases of the program are on storable and hydrogen/oxygen low-thrust chemical, low-power (auxiliary) electrothermal, and high-power electric propulsion. This paper represents the major accomplishments of the program and discusses their impact.

Stone, James R.

1988-07-01

426

Recent advances in low-thrust propulsion technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA low-thrust propulsion technology program is aimed at providing high performance options to a broad class of near-term and future missions. Major emphases of the program are on storable and hydrogen/oxygen low-thrust chemical, low-power (auxiliary) electrothermal, and high-power electric propulsion. This paper represents the major accomplishments of the program and discusses their impact.

Stone, James R.

1988-01-01

427

Multiple Mode Actuation of a Turbulent Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of multiple mode periodic excitation on the evolution of a circular turbulent jet were studied experimentally. A short, wide-angle diffuser was attached to the jet exit. Streamwise and cross-stream excitations were introduced at the junction between the jet exit and the diffuser inlet on opposing sides of the jet. The introduction of high amplitude, periodic excitation in the streamwise direction enhances the mixing and promotes attachment of the jet shear-layer to the diffuser wall. Cross-stream excitation applied over a fraction of the jet circumference can deflect the jet away from the excitation slot. The two modes of excitation were combined using identical frequencies and varying the relative phase between the two actuators in search of an optimal response. It is shown that, for low and moderate periodic momentum input levels, the jet deflection angles depend strongly on the relative phase between the two actuators. Optimum performance is achieved when the phase difference is pi +/- pi/6. The lower effectiveness of the equal phase excitation is attributed to the generation of an azimuthally symmetric mode that does not produce the required non-axisymmetric vectoring. For high excitation levels, identical phase becomes more effective, while phase sensitivity decreases. An important finding was that with proper phase tuning, two unsteady actuators can be combined to obtain a non-linear response greater than the superposition of the individual effects.

Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

2001-01-01

428

A double pendulum plasma thrust balance and thrust measurement at a tandem mirror exhaust  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of measuring the plasma momentum flux in a plasma system, a highly sensitive and precision balance has been developed. It can measure a force, an impulse, or thrust as low as 0.1 mN free of mechanical noise, electrical and magnetic pickups. The double pendulum system consists of two parallel conducting plates. One or both of the plates can be suspended by needles. The needle suspended plate (or plates) can swing freely with negligible friction because of the sharp points of the needles. When one of the plates is impacted by an impulse it will swing relatively to the fixed plate or other movable plate. The capacitance between the plates changes as a result of such a motion. The change of capacitance as a function of time is recorded as an oscillating voltage signal. The amplitude of such a voltage signal is proportional to the impacting force or impulse. The proportional factor can be calibrated. The forces can thus be read out from the recorded value of the voltage. The equation of motion for the pendulum system has been solved analytically. The circuit equation for the electronic measurement system has been formulated and solved numerically. Using this balance the thrust at the exhaust of a Tandem Mirror plasma thruster has been measured. The analytical solution of the overall characteristics agrees greatly with the measurement. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Yang, T.F.; Liu, P.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Lander, H.; Childs, R.A.; Becker, H.D.; Fairfax, S.A. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

1995-09-01

429

Measurement of Z \\/ ? ? + jet + X angular distributions in p p ¯ collisions at s = 1.96 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first measurements at a hadron collider of differential cross sections for Z\\/??+jet+X production in ??(Z,jet), |?y(Z,jet)| and |yboost(Z+jet)|. Vector boson production in association with jets is an excellent probe of QCD and constitutes the main background to many small cross section processes, such as associated Higgs production. These measurements are crucial tests of the predictions of perturbative

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; M. Adams; T. Adams; E. Aguilo; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; L. S. Ancu; M. S. Anzelc; M. Aoki; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; M. Arthaud; A. Askew; B. Åsman; O. Atramentov; C. Avila; J. BackusMayes; F. Badaud; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; D. V. Bandurin; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; A.-F. Barfuss; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; D. Bauer; S. Beale; A. Bean; M. Begalli; M. Begel; C. Belanger-Champagne; L. Bellantoni; A. Bellavance; J. A. Benitez; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; R. Beuselinck; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; G. Blazey; S. Blessing; K. Bloom; A. Boehnlein; D. Boline; T. A. Bolton; E. E. Boos; G. Borissov; T. Bose; A. Brandt; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; D. Brown; X. B. Bu; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; V. Bunichev; S. Burdin; T. H. Burnett; C. P. Buszello; P. Calfayan; B. Calpas; S. Calvet; J. Cammin; M. A. Carrasco-Lizarraga; E. Carrera; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; E. Cheu; D. K. Cho; S. W. Cho; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; T. Christoudias; S. Cihangir; D. Claes; J. Clutter; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; M. Corcoran; F. Couderc; M.-C. Cousinou; D. Cutts; M. ?wiok; A. Das; G. Davies; K. De; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; K. DeVaughan; F. Déliot; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; A. Dominguez; T. Dorland; A. Dubey; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; D. Duggan; A. Duperrin; S. Dutt; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; J. Ellison; V. D. Elvira; Y. Enari; S. Eno; M. Escalier; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; G. Facini; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; M. Fortner; H. Fox; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; A. Garcia-Bellido; V. Gavrilov; P. Gay; W. Geist; W. Geng; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Ginther; B. Gómez; A. Goussiou; P. D. Grannis; S. Greder; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; G. Grenier; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; A. Grohsjean; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; F. Guo; J. Guo; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; P. Haefner; S. Hagopian; J. Haley; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; L. Han; K. Harder; A. Harel; J. M. Hauptman; J. Hays; T. Hebbeker; D. Hedin; J. G. Hegeman; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; I. Heredia-De La Cruz; K. Herner; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; T. Hoang; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. Hossain; P. Houben; Y. Hu; Z. Hubacek; N. Huske; V. Hynek; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; K. Jakobs; D. Jamin; R. Jesik; K. Johns; C. Johnson; M. Johnson; D. Johnston; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; A. Juste; E. Kajfasz; D. Karmanov; P. A. Kasper; I. Katsanos; V. Kaushik; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; N. Khalatyan; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. N. Kharzheev; D. Khatidze; M. H. Kirby; M. Kirsch; B. Klima; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kraus; T. Kuhl; A. Kumar; A. Kupco; T. Kur?a; V. A. Kuzmin; J. Kvita; F. Lacroix; D. Lam; S. Lammers; G. Landsberg; P. Lebrun; H. S. Lee; W. M. Lee; A. Leflat; J. Lellouch; L. Li; Q. Z. Li; S. M. Lietti; J. K. Lim; D. Lincoln; J. Linnemann; V. V. Lipaev; R. Lipton; Y. Liu; Z. Liu; A. Lobodenko; M. Lokajicek; P. Love; H. J. Lubatti; R. Luna-Garcia; A. L. Lyon; A. K. A. Maciel; D. Mackin; P. Mättig; R. Magaña-Villalba; P. K. Mal; S. Malik; V. L. Malyshev; Y. Maravin; B. Martin; R. McCarthy; C. L. McGivern; M. M. Meijer; A. Melnitchouk; L. Mendoza; D. Menezes; P. G. Mercadante; M. Merkin; K. W. Merritt; A. Meyer; J. Meyer; N. K. Mondal; R. W. Moore; T. Moulik; G. S. Muanza; M. Mulhearn; O. Mundal; L. Mundim; E. Nagy; M. Naimuddin; M. Narain; H. A. Neal; J. P. Negret; P. Neustroev; H. Nilsen; H. Nogima; S. F. Novaes; T. Nunnemann; G. Obrant; C. Ochando; D. Onoprienko; J. Orduna; N. Oshima; N. Osman; J. Osta; R. Otec; G. J. Otero y Garzón; M. Owen; M. Padilla; P. Padley; M. Pangilinan; N. Parashar; S.-J. Park; J. Parsons; R. Partridge; N. Parua; A. Patwa; B. Penning; M. Perfilov; K. Peters; Y. Peters; P. Pétroff; R. Piegaia; J. Piper; M.-A. Pleier; P. L. M. Podesta-Lerma; V. M. Podstavkov; Y. Pogorelov; M.-E. Pol; P. Polozov; A. V. Popov; M. Prewitt; S. Protopopescu; J. Qian; A. Quadt; B. Quinn; A. Rakitine; M. S. Rangel; K. Ranjan; P. N. Ratoff; P. Renkel; P. Rich; M. Rijssenbeek; I. Ripp-Baudot; F. Rizatdinova; S. Robinson; M. Rominsky; C. Royon; P. Rubinov; R. Ruchti; G. Safronov; G. Sajot; A. Sánchez-Hernández; M. P. Sanders; B. Sanghi; G. Savage; L. Sawyer; T. Scanlon; D. Schaile; R. D. Schamberger; Y. Scheglov; H. Schellman; T. Schliephake; S. Schlobohm; C. Schwanenberger; R. Schwienhorst; J. Sekaric; H. Severini; E. Shabalina; M. Shamim; V. Shary; A. A. Shchukin; R. K. Shivpuri; V. Siccardi; V. Simak

2010-01-01

430

Fuel optimum low-thrust elliptic transfer using numerical averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-thrust electric propulsion is increasingly being used for spacecraft missions primarily due to its high propellant efficiency. As a result, a simple and fast method for low-thrust trajectory optimization is of great value for preliminary mission planning. However, few low-thrust trajectory tools are appropriate for preliminary mission design studies. The method presented in this paper provides quick and accurate solutions for a wide range of transfers by using numerical orbital averaging to improve solution convergence and include orbital perturbations. Thus, preliminary trajectories can be obtained for transfers which involve many revolutions about the primary body. This method considers minimum fuel transfers using first-order averaging to obtain the fuel optimum rates of change of the equinoctial orbital elements in terms of each other and the Lagrange multipliers. Constraints on thrust and power, as well as minimum periapsis, are implemented and the equations are averaged numerically using a Gausian quadrature. The use of numerical averaging allows for more complex orbital perturbations to be added in the future without great difficulty. The effects of zonal gravity harmonics, solar radiation pressure, and thrust limitations due to shadowing are included in this study. The solution to a transfer which minimizes the square of the thrust magnitude is used as a preliminary guess for the minimum fuel problem, thus allowing for faster convergence to a wider range of problems. Results from this model are shown to provide a reduction in propellant mass required over previous minimum fuel solutions.

Tarzi, Zahi; Speyer, Jason; Wirz, Richard

2013-05-01

431

Momentum Flux Measurements Using an Impact Thrust Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed to measure the force caused by a beam of charged and neutral particles impacting a target plate. This device, an impact thrust stand, was developed to allow thrusters, during early stages of development, to be quickly and easily exhausted and compared to other thrusters. Since some thruster concepts are tested using laboratory equipment that is heavy and cumbersome, measuring the momentum flux of the particles in the plume can be much simpler than placing the entire thruster on a thrust stand. Conservation of momentum requires the momentum flux measured in the plume to be related to the thrust produced by the thruster. The impact thrust stand was designed to be placed in the plume of an electric thruster and has been tested and compared to the thrust measured from a Hall thruster placed on a pendulum thrust stand. Force measurements taken at several axial locations in the magnetic nozzle region of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket will be presented.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Breizman, Boris; Bengtson, Roger

2004-01-01

432

Advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are reported of the advanced hydrogen/oxygen thrust chamber design analysis program. The primary objectives of this program were to: (1) provide an in-depth analytical investigation to develop thrust chamber cooling and fatigue life limitations of an advanced, high pressure, high performance H2/O2 engine design of 20,000-pounds (88960.0 N) thrust; and (2) integrate the existing heat transfer analysis, thermal fatigue and stress aspects for advanced chambers into a comprehensive computer program. Thrust chamber designs and analyses were performed to evaluate various combustor materials, coolant passage configurations (tubes and channels), and cooling circuits to define the nominal 1900 psia (1.31 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq m) chamber pressure, 300-cycle life thrust chamber. The cycle life capability of the selected configuration was then determined for three duty cycles. Also the influence of cycle life and chamber pressure on thrust chamber design was investigated by varying in cycle life requirements at the nominal chamber pressure and by varying the chamber pressure at the nominal cycle life requirement.

Shoji, J. M.

1973-01-01

433

Analytic partial derivatives for estimating low-thrust parameters.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic partial derivatives for estimating orbital low-thrust parameters via differential correction are developed and compared with two different numerical methods. The formulation is independent of the particular thrust model used and is applicable to all physically possible elliptic orbits. The starting point for the development is the set of variational equations of the elliptic orbital elements in the form due to Lagrange. The first time derivatives of the elements are transformed to derivatives with respect to the space variable, true anomaly, and integrated to first order in closed form in a straightforward general perturbations approach, with one exception: particular attention is given to the mean anomaly as influenced by thrust perturbations in the semimajor axis so that the complete first-order effect is included. The partials of the elements are then taken with respect to any given thrust parameter. Two comparisons are made with numerical methods for computing these thrust partials: numerical quotients and numerical integration of the variational equations for thrust.

Cunningham, G. W.

1972-01-01

434

Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

2010-01-01

435

Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

Moeller, Trevor [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States); Polzin, Kurt A. [NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

2010-11-15

436

Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the eight-day August 2013 test campaign designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasmadynamics