Science.gov

Sample records for jet thrust vector

  1. An Experimental/Modeling Study of Jet Attachment during Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strykowski, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the applicability of vectoring rectangular jets using asymmetrically applied counterflow in the presence of a short collar. This novel concept has applications in the aerospace industry where counterflow can be used to vector the thrust of a jet's exhaust, shortening take-off and landing distances and enhancing in-flight maneuverability of the aircraft. Counterflow thrust vectoring, 'CFTV' is desirable due to its fast time response, low thrust loss, and absence of moving parts. However, implementation of a CFTV system is only possible if bistable jet attachment can be prevented. This can be achieved by properly designing the geometry of the collar. An analytical model is developed herein to predict the conditions under which a two-dimensional jet will attach to an offset curved wall. Results from this model are then compared with experiment; for various jet exit Mach numbers, collar offset distances, and radii of curvature. Their excellent correlation permits use of the model as a tool for designing a CFTV system.

  2. Test stand for precise measurement of impulse and thrust vector of small attitude control jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, J. R.; Chisel, D. M.

    1973-01-01

    A test stand which accurately measures the impulse bit and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters used in the attitude control system of space vehicles has been developed. It can be used to measure, in a vacuum or ambient environment, both impulse and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters using hydrazine or inert gas propellants. The ballistic pendulum configuration was selected because of its accuracy, simplicity, and versatility. The pendulum is mounted on flexure pivots rotating about a vertical axis at the center of its mass. The test stand has the following measurement capabilities: impulse of 0.00004 to 4.4 N-sec (0.00001 to 1.0 lb-sec) with a pulse duration of 0.5 msec to 1 sec; static thrust of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) with a 5 percent resolution; and thrust angle alinement of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) thrusters with 0.01 deg accuracy.

  3. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  4. Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

  5. STOL landing thrust: Reverser jet flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotansky, D. R.; Glaze, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis tools and modeling concepts for jet flow fields encountered upon use of thrust reversers for high performance military aircraft are described. A semi-empirical model of the reverser ground wall jet interaction with the uniform cross flow due to aircraft forward velocity is described. This ground interaction model is used to demonstrate exhaust gas ingestion conditions. The effects of control of exhaust jet vector angle, lateral splay, and moving versus fixed ground simulation are discussed. The Adler/Baron jet-in-cross flow model is used in conjunction with three dimensional panel methods to investigate the upper surface jet induced flow field.

  6. Solid rocket thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Thrust vector control systems that superimpose a side force on the motor thrust, steering being achieved by the side force causing a moment about the vehicle center of gravity are described. A brief review of thrust vector control systems is presented, and two systems, flexible joint and liquid injection, are treated in detail. Treatment of the flexible-joint thrust vector control system is limited to the design of the flexible joint and its insulation against hot motor gases. Treatment of the liquid injection thrust vector control system is limited to discussion of the injectant, valves, piping, storage tanks, and pressurization system; no evaluation is presented of the nozzle except for (1) the effect of the injectant and erosion at the injection port and (2) the effect of injection on pressure distribution within the nozzle.

  7. Analysis of stratified and closely spaced jets exhausting into a crossflow. [aerodynamic characteristics of lift-jet, vectored thrust, and lift fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, H.; Woller, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for determining the flow field about jets with velocity stratification exhausting into a crossflow. Jets with three different types of exit velocity stratification have been considered: (1) jets with a relatively high velocity core; (2) jets with a relatively low velocity core; and (3) jets originating from a vaned nozzle. The procedure developed for a jet originating from a high velocity core nozzle is to construct an equivalent nozzle having the same mass flow and thrust but having a uniform exit velocity profile. Calculations of the jet centerline and induced surface static pressures have been shown to be in good agreement with test data for a high velocity core nozzle. The equivalent ideal nozzle has also been shown to be a good representation for jets with a relatively low velocity core and for jets originating from a vaned nozzle in evaluating jet-induced flow fields. For the singular case of a low velocity core nozzle, namely a nozzle with a dead air core, and for the vaned nozzle, an alternative procedure has been developed. The internal mixing which takes place in the jet core has been properly accounted for in the equations of motion governing the jet development. Calculations of jet centerlines and induced surface static pressures show good agreement with test data these nozzles.

  8. Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

    1990-01-01

    Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

  9. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  10. A flight evaluation of a vectored thrust jet V/STOL airplane during simulated instrument approaches using the Kestrel (XV-6A) airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Culpepper, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    An in-flight investigation was made to determine the terminal-area operating problems of a vectored-thrust-jet vertical and short take-off landing (V/STOL) airplane under simulated instrument conditions. Handling-qualities data pertinent to the terminal-area approach and landing task are presented in the text, and additional documentation is included in the appendixes. Problems dealing with the cruise letdown to localizer capture, conversion to powered-lift flight, precise control of the glide slope, approach velocity or deceleration schedule, hover, and landing are discussed.

  11. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring by Navier-Stokes solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Jing-Biau; Lan, C. Edward

    1991-01-01

    Induced aerodynamics from thrust vectoring are investigated by a computational fluid dynamic method. A thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code with multiblock capability is used. Jet properties are specified on the nozzle exit plane to simulate the jet momentum. Results for a rectangular jet in a cross flow are compared with data to verify the code. Further verification of the calculation is made by comparing the numerical results with transonic data for a wing-body combination. Additional calculations were performed to elucidate the following thrust vectoring effects: the thrust vectoring effect on shock and expansion waves, induced effects on nearby surfaces, and the thrust vectoring effect on the leading edge vortex.

  12. High power thrust vector actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittock, M. J.

    1993-06-01

    Modern missile programs are frequently favoring electro-mechanical (EM) thrust vector actuation (TVA) over hydraulic for a variety of reasons. However, actuation system performance requirements are not relaxed for EM systems. Thus the development of EM systems with greater power output is required. The configuration of EM actuator studied consists of a DC brushless motor driving a spur gear train, which drives a ballscrew that converts rotary motion to rectilinear motion. This design produces an actuator with high levels of performance in a compact mechanical package. Design for manufacturability and assembly (DFMA) was part of the design process, resulting in an actuator that can be assembled easily and will operate reliably. This paper will discuss the mechanical details of the resultant actuator and report test results on a prototype derivative.

  13. Tests on Thrust Augmenters for Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Shoemaker, James M

    1932-01-01

    This series of tests was undertaken to determine how much the reaction thrust of a jet could be increased by the use of thrust augmenters and thus to give some indication as to the feasibility of jet propulsion for airplanes. The tests were made during the first part of 1927 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. A compressed air jet was used in connection with a series of annular guides surrounding the jet to act as thrust augmenters. The results show that, although it is possible to increase the thrust of a jet, the increase is not large enough to affect greatly the status of the problem of the application of jet propulsion to airplanes.

  14. Ascent thrust vector control system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Testing of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control System in support of the Ares 1-X program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available

  15. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  16. Electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkow, Zygmunt

    Attention is given to the development and testing of electromechanical actuator (EMA) systems for use in first- and second-stage thrust vector control of rocket engines. An overview of the test program is also presented. Designs for both first- and second-stage actuators employ redundant dc brushless, three-phase rare-earth permanent magnet motors. The first-stage actuator is about 28 hp per motor and uses a roller screw. Second-stage thrust vector control is implemented with a much smaller actuator of about 1 hp per motor. This actuator uses a gear drive with a recycling ball screw mechanism. An operational EMA is presented. This 6.5-in. actuator is capable of a stall force of 1350 pounds per motor and a frequency response of about 5 HZ.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring with Oblique Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, K.; Yamada, K.; Hirota, M.; Hatanaka, Kazuaki; Saito, Tsutomu; Li, L.

    Mechanical thrust vectoring (MTV) has already been put to practical use. It controls the thrust direction of jet propulsion system by mechanically moving structural components such as exhaust nozzles and paddles. MTV has several advantages such as high mobility during supersonic flight in the high-altitude where effective turning is difficult to perform due to low atmospheric density.

  18. Computational Study of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring using Separation Control in a Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2003-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two- dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D was used to guide the design and analyze over 60 configurations. Nozzle design variables included cavity convergence angle, cavity length, fluidic injection angle, upstream minimum height, aft deck angle, and aft deck shape. All simulations were computed with a static freestream Mach number of 0.05. a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.858, and a fluidic injection flow rate equal to 6 percent of the primary flow rate. Results indicate that the recessed cavity enhances the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring and allows for greater thrust-vector angles without compromising thrust efficiency.

  19. Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

  20. Thrust vector control using electric actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, R.T.; Hall, D.K.

    1995-01-25

    Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  1. Experimental investigations of thrust vectoring systems for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolls, L. S.; Aoyagi, K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of two technology programs sponsored by NASA to investigate the characteristics of two thrust vectoring schemes for V/STOL aircraft. The operational capability of the VTOL aircraft is dependent on maximum utilization of the installed thrust in both the cruise and powered lift modes of flight. An effective thrust vectoring system on the cruise propulsion unit is therefore essential to provide maximum payload in hover and STOL plus minimum specific fuel consumption in loiter and cruise. Introducing a high by-pass ratio fan system, augmenting the gas generator thrust, as the propulsion system for VTOL aircraft places increased significance on the performance of the relatively short coupled thrust vectoring systems. The two programs discussed herein include both large-scale and small-scale tests of a vectoring hood system with a vented, internal-lip and swivel nozzle systems. These tests indicated that a satisfactory thrust vectoring system can be developed.

  2. Hot gas thrust vector control motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdoyes, Michel; Ellis, Russell A.

    1992-07-01

    A hot gas thrust vector control (HGTVC) motor developed in the framework of a Foreign Weapon Evaluation program is discussed. Two HGTVC versions were evaluated on the two nozzles of the program, normal injection with a blunt pintle and 10 deg upstream injection with a tapered pintle. The HGTVC system was tested on a modified ORBUS-1 motor which is based on two technologies, namely, a composite chamber polar boss (CPB) and a two-piece C-C nozzle which threads to the CPB and receives two HGVs embedded into its exit cone, 180 deg apart. It is concluded that the composite polar bosses and C-C nozzles performed successfully in both firings.

  3. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

  4. A Computational Study of a New Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two-dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. Several design cycles with the structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D and with experiments in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility have been completed to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. This paper presents computational results on potential design improvements for best experimental configuration tested to date. Nozzle design variables included cavity divergence angle, cavity convergence angle and upstream throat height. Pulsed fluidic injection was also investigated for its ability to decrease mass flow requirements. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 7, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to 3 percent of the primary flow rate. Computational results indicate that increasing cavity divergence angle beyond 10 is detrimental to thrust vectoring efficiency, while increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 improves thrust vectoring efficiency at nozzle pressure ratios greater than 2, albeit at the expense of discharge coefficient. Pulsed injection was no more efficient than steady injection for the Dual Throat Nozzle concept.

  5. New Highly Dynamic Approach for Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, M.; Ettl, J.; Grothe, D.; Hrbud, I.

    2015-09-01

    For a new launcher system a thrust vector control system is needed. This launch vehicle system consists of two rockets which are namely the VS-50 (two-stage suborbital vehicle) and the VLM-1 (three-stage microsatellite launch vehicle). VLM-1 and VS-50 are developed in a cooperation between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Brazilian Aeronautics and Space Institute (IAE). To keep these two rockets on its trajectory during flight a highly dynamic thrust vector control system is required. For the purpose of developing such a highly dynamic thrust vector control system a master thesis was written by the author. The development includes all mechanical constructions as well as control algorithms and electronics design. Moreover an optimization of control algorithms was made to increase the dynamic capabilities of the thrust vector control system. The composition of the right components plus the sophisticated control algorithm make the thrust vector control system highly dynamic.

  6. Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

  7. Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated and the location of the sonic plane may be further stabilized.

  8. Jet Propulsion with Special Reference to Thrust Augmenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of the possibility of using thrust augmented jets as prime movers was carried out. The augmentation was to be effected by allowing the jet to mix with the surrounding air in the presence of bodies which deflect the air set in motion by the jet.

  9. Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry design compromised thrust vector angle achieved, but some thrust vector control would be available, potentially for aircraft trim. The fixed area, expansion ratio of 1.0, Dual Throat Nozzle provided the best overall compromise for thrust vectoring and nozzle internal performance over the range of NPR tested compared to the variable geometry Dual Throat Nozzle.

  10. Thrust vector control of satellites using smart parallel manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the concept, control strategy, and simulations of thrust vector control of satellites. First, an innovative thrust vector control concept is introduced, which utilizes the UHM multifunctional smart parallel manipulator to provide precision position control of the thruster vector and vibration suppression capability while the thruster fires. The configuration of the thrust vector control system is then illustrated, and the satellite attitude dynamic model is built. Third, the UHM smart parallel manipulator is introduced and its kinematics and controller design are discussed. The fuzzy logic controller is employed to precisely position the smart parallel manipulator and to compensate the non-linearities due to the friction and backlash of the actuators and the tolerance of the joints. Finally, the satellite attitude controller and the fuzzy logic controller are designed, and simulations are carried out to realize the thrust vector control of a satellite. The results indicate that the smart parallel manipulator can precisely achieve the thrust vector control, the misalignment of the trust vector of the satellite can be corrected effectively, and the position accuracy of the thrust vector is 0.68 arc minutes.

  11. Performance characteristics of two multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzles at Mach numbers up to 1.28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Capone, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The thrust-vectoring axisymmetric (VA) nozzle and a spherical convergent flap (SCF) thrust-vectoring nozzle were tested along with a baseline nonvectoring axisymmetric (NVA) nozzle in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.28 and nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 8. Test parameters included geometric yaw vector angle and unvectored divergent flap length. No pitch vectoring was studied. Nozzle drag, thrust minus drag, yaw thrust vector angle, discharge coefficient, and static thrust performance were measured and analyzed, as well as external static pressure distributions. The NVA nozzle and the VA nozzle displayed higher static thrust performance than the SCF nozzle throughout the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) range tested. The NVA nozzle had higher overall thrust minus drag than the other nozzles throughout the NPR and Mach number ranges tested. The SCF nozzle had the lowest jet-on nozzle drag of the three nozzles throughout the test conditions. The SCF nozzle provided yaw thrust angles that were equal to the geometric angle and constant with NPR. The VA nozzle achieved yaw thrust vector angles that were significantly higher than the geometric angle but not constant with NPR. Nozzle drag generally increased with increases in thrust vectoring for all the nozzles tested.

  12. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  13. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

  14. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type control algorithms. Integrated testing of the controller and actuator will be conducted at a facility yet to be named. The EMA system described above is discussed in detail.

  15. Experimental Study of a Nozzle Using Fluidic Counterflow for Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    1998-01-01

    A static experimental investigation of a counterflow thrust vectoring nozzle concept was performed. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal performance characteristics were defined over a nozzle pressure ratio (jet total to ambient) range of 3.5 to 10.0. The effects of suction collar geometry and suction slot height on nozzle performance were examined. In the counterflow concept, thrust vectoring is achieved by applying a vacuum to a slot adjacent to a primary jet that is shrouded by a suction collar. Two flow phenomena work to vector the primary jet depending upon the test conditions and configuration. In one case, the vacuum source creates a secondary reverse flowing stream near the primary jet. The shear layers between the two counterflowing streams mix and entrain mass from the surrounding fluid. The presence of the collar inhibits mass entrainment and the flow near the collar accelerates, causing a drop in pressure on the collar. The second case works similarly except that the vacuum is not powerful enough to create a counterflowing stream and instead a coflowing stream is present. The primary jet is vectored if suction is applied asymmetrically on the top or bottom of the jet.

  16. Aircraft ground test and subscale model results of axial thrust loss caused by thrust vectoring using turning vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA-Dryden F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle was modified to incorporate three independently controlled turning vanes located aft of the primary nozzle of each engine to vector thrust for pitch and yaw control. Ground measured axial thrust losses were compared with the results from a 14.25 pct. cold jet model for single and dual vanes inserted up to 25 degs into the engine exhaust. Data are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 and nozzle exit areas of 253 and 348 sq in. The results indicate that subscale nozzle test results properly predict trends but underpredict the full scale results by approx. 1 to 4.5 pct. in thrust loss.

  17. Feedback control for counterflow thrust vectoring with a turbine engine: Experiment design and robust control design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dores, Delfim Zambujo Das

    2005-11-01

    Engineering research over the last few years has successfully demonstrated the potential of thrust vector control using counterflow at conditions up to Mach 2. Flow configurations that include the pitch vectoring of rectangular jets and multi-axis vector control in diamond and axisymmetric nozzle geometries have been studied. Although bistable (on-off) fluid-based control has been around for some time, the present counterflow thrust vector control is unique because proportional and continuous jet response can be achieved in the absence of moving parts, while avoiding jet attachment, which renders most fluidic approaches unacceptable for aircraft and missile control applications. However, before this study, research had been limited to open-loop studies of counterflow thrust vectoring. For practical implementation it was vital that the counterflow scheme be used in conjunction with feedback control. Hence, the focus of this research was to develop and experimentally demonstrate a feedback control design methodology for counterflow thrust vectoring. This research focused on 2-D (pitch) thrust vectoring and addresses four key modeling issues. The first issue is to determine the measured variable to be commanded since the thrust vector angle is not measurable in real time. The second related issue is to determine the static mapping from the thrust vector angle to this measured variable. The third issue is to determine the dynamic relationship between the measured variable and the thrust vector angle. The fourth issue is to develop dynamic models with uncertainty characterizations. The final and main goal was the design and implementation of robust controllers that yield closed-loop systems with fast response times, and avoid overshoot in order to aid in the avoidance of attachment. These controllers should be simple and easy to implement in real applications. Hence, PID design has been chosen. Robust control design is accomplished by using ℓ1 control theory in conjunction with the Popov-Tsypkin multiplier. The resulting optimization problem was solved using a real coded genetic-algorithm.

  18. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  19. Experiments on the Thrust of a Synthetic Jet in Crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Bradley; Henoch, Charles; Johari, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    A set of water tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of crossflow on the thrust of a synthetic jet. This research was motivated by the desire to generate significant turning moments on a fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle without using control fins or canards. The water tunnel model was a sting-mounted, 3-inch diameter cylindrical body interfaced to a 6-axis waterproof load cell. The synthetic jet actuator was contained within the model and the jet orifice located near the aft end of the model was oriented perpendicular to the mean flow. The actuator consisted of an externally controlled solenoid driving a piston into the cavity. The jet thrust was measured over a broad range of synthetic jet operating parameters, including the actuation frequency and duty cycle, as well as the jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios. Previous work which is based on the slug flow model of an individual vortex ring predicts the time-averaged thrust scales with the square of actuation frequency and the stroke length. The measurements will be compared with the theoretical predictions, and the results will be used to assess the effect of crossflow on the thrust of synthetic jet. Sponsored by the ONR-ULI program.

  20. Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1995-01-01

    A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

  1. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  2. Computational Investigation of the Aerodynamic Effects on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    A computational investigation of the aerodynamic effects on fluidic thrust vectoring has been conducted. Three-dimensional simulations of a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent (2DCD) nozzle with fluidic injection for pitch vector control were run with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB using turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Simulations were computed with static freestream conditions (M=0.05) and at Mach numbers from M=0.3 to 1.2, with scheduled nozzle pressure ratios (from 3.6 to 7.2) and secondary to primary total pressure ratios of p(sub t,s)/p(sub t,p)=0.6 and 1.0. Results indicate that the freestream flow decreases vectoring performance and thrust efficiency compared with static (wind-off) conditions. The aerodynamic penalty to thrust vector angle ranged from 1.5 degrees at a nozzle pressure ratio of 6 with M=0.9 freestream conditions to 2.9 degrees at a nozzle pressure ratio of 5.2 with M=0.7 freestream conditions, compared to the same nozzle pressure ratios with static freestream conditions. The aerodynamic penalty to thrust ratio decreased from 4 percent to 0.8 percent as nozzle pressure ratio increased from 3.6 to 7.2. As expected, the freestream flow had little influence on discharge coefficient.

  3. Design of an ion thruster movable grid thrust vectoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kural, Aleksander; Leveque, Nicolas; Welch, Chris; Wolanski, Piotr

    2004-08-01

    Several reasons justify the development of an ion propulsion system thrust vectoring system. Spacecraft launched to date have used ion thrusters mounted on gimbals to control the thrust vector within a range of about ±5°. Such devices have large mass and dimensions, hence the need exists for a more compact system, preferably mounted within the thruster itself. Since the 1970s several thrust vectoring systems have been developed, with the translatable accelerator grid electrode being considered the most promising. Laboratory models of this system have already been built and successfully tested, but there is still room for improvement in their mechanical design. This work aims to investigate possibilities of refining the design of such movable grid thrust vectoring systems. Two grid suspension designs and three types of actuators were evaluated. The actuators examined were a micro electromechanical system, a NanoMuscle shape memory alloy actuator and a piezoelectric driver. Criteria used for choosing the best system included mechanical simplicity (use of the fewest mechanical parts), accuracy, power consumption and behaviour in space conditions. Designs of systems using these actuators are proposed. In addition, a mission to Mercury using the system with piezoelectric drivers has been modelled and its performance presented.

  4. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, J., Jr. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Major Solid Rocket Booster-Thrust Vector Control (SRB-TVC) subsystem components and subcomponents used in the Space Transportation System (STS) are identified. Simplified schematics, detailed schematics, figures, photographs, and data are included to acquaint the reader with the operation, performance, and physical layout as well as the materials and instrumentation used.

  5. Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

  6. Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at wind-off conditions in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with a thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg. Vectoring was accomplished by a downward rotation of a hinged upper convergent flap and a corresponding rotation of a center-pivoted lower convergent flap. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle and upper-rotating-flap geometry on internal nozzle performance characteristics were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 5.0.

  7. Thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, D. N.; Brinton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Thrust vector control (TVC) for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is obtained by omniaxis vectoring of the nozzle. The development and integration of the system are under the cognizance of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The nozzle and flexible bearing have been designed and will be built by Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Division. The vector requirements of the system, the impact of multiple reuse on the components, and the unique problems associated with a large flexible bearing are discussed. The design details of each of the major TVC subcomponents are delineated. The subscale bearing development program and the overall development schedule also are presented.

  8. Static investigation of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap rotation of thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and deflection of flat yaw flaps hinged at the end of the sidewalls for yaw thrust vectoring. The hinge location of the yaw flaps was varied at four positions from the nozzle exit plane to the throat plane. The yaw flaps were designed to contain the flow laterally independent of power setting. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the yaw flap deflected into the exhaust stream and the divergent flaps, the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw flap deflection. The impact of varying the nozzle pitch vector angle, throat area, yaw flap hinge location, yaw flap length, and yaw flap deflection angle on nozzle internal performance characteristics, was studied. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.0. Static results indicate that configurations with the yaw flap hinge located upstream of the exit plane provide relatively high levels of thrust vectoring efficiency without causing large losses in resultant thrust ratio. Therefore, these configurations represent a viable concept for providing simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring.

  9. Design and Analysis of a Thrust Vector Mechanism Applied in a Flying Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanhe; Gao, Liang; Wang, Hongwei; Zhao, Jie

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a thrust vector mechanism applied in a flying wing. A thrust vector mechanism driven by two servos is developed. An analysis of the dynamic differences in minimum hovering radius between conventional flying wing and one with thrust vector mechanism is given and validated with simulation. It is shown that thrust vector has obvious advantages over the usual flying wing including decreasing the hovering radius and decreasing roll angle. The benefits should improve maneuverability and agility.

  10. Static internal performance of single-expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at static conditions (wind off) in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle, sidewall containment, ramp curvature, lower-flap lip angle, and ramp length on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single-expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated. Geometric thrust-vector angle was varied from -20 deg. to 60 deg., and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 10.0.

  11. Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enright, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.

  12. Design of high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Marshall has undertaken the development of electromechanical actuators (EMAs) for thrust vector control (TVC) augmentation system implementation. The TVC EMA presented has as its major components two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two-pass gear-reduction system, and a roller screw for rotary-to-linear motion conversion. System control is furnished by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply; a pair of resolvers deliver position feedback to the controller, such that precise positioning is achieved. Peformance comparisons have been conducted between the EMA and comparable-performance hydraulic systems applicable to TVCs.

  13. Attitude Control for an Aero-Vehicle Using Vector Thrusting and Variable Speed Control Moment Gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    Stabilization of passively unstable thrust-levitated vehicles can require significant control inputs. Although thrust vectoring is a straightforward choice for realizing these inputs, this may lead to difficulties discussed in the paper. This paper examines supplementing thrust vectoring with Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscopes (VSCMGs). The paper describes how to allocate VSCMGs and the vectored thrust mechanism for attitude stabilization in frequency domain and also shows trade-off between vectored thrust and VSCMGs. Using an H2 control synthesis methodology in LMI optimization, a feedback control law is designed for a thrust-levitated research vehicle and is simulated with the full nonlinear model. It is demonstrated that VSCMGs can reduce the use of vectored thrust variation for stabilizing the hovering platform in the presence of strong wind gusts.

  14. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-05-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  15. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-01-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  16. Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Characteristics of a Model Representative of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 70 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.

  17. Space Transportation System solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, failsafe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system completed the required qualification and verification tests and is certified for the intended application. Substantiation data include analytical and test data.

  18. Space transportation system solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, fail-safe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system has completed the major portion of qualification and verification tests and is prepared to be cleared for the first Shuttle flight (STS-1). Substantiation data will include analytical and test data.

  19. Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

  20. Variation of pitching moment with engine thrust for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanks, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests were made to determine the effect of engine net thrust on airplane pitching moment for a twin-engine commercial jet transport in the approach, climbout and descent, and cruise configurations. The results indicate that for all the conditions analyzed, the pitching moment due to thrust is somewhat higher than that estimated from the product of net thrust and its moment arm (perpendicular distance from thrust axis to the airplane center of gravity). The differences are attributed to additional moments produced by nacelle normal force, jet-induced downwash, and interaction between wing flow and engine nacelle flow.

  1. PAB3D Simulations of a Nozzle with Fluidic Injection for Yaw Thrust-Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted on an exhaust nozzle with fluidic injection for yaw thrust-vector control. The nozzle concept was tested experimentally in the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility (JETF) at nozzle pressure ratios up to 4 and secondary fluidic injection flow rates up to 15 percent of the primary flow rate. Although many injection-port geometries and two nozzle planforms (symmetric and asymmetric) were tested experimentally, this paper focuses on the computational results of the more successful asymmetric planform with a slot injection port. This nozzle concept was simulated with the Navier-Stokes flow solver, PAB3D, invoking the Shih, Zhu, and Lumley algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (ASM) at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) of 2,3, and 4 with secondary to primary injection flow rates (w(sub s)/w(sub p)) of 0, 2, 7 and 10 percent.

  2. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 Active Axisymmetric Thrust-vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  3. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  4. Summary of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Research Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in low-observable aircraft and in lowering an aircraft's exhaust system weight sparked decades of research for fixed geometry exhaust nozzles. The desire for such integrated exhaust nozzles was the catalyst for new fluidic control techniques; including throat area control, expansion control, and thrust-vector angle control. This paper summarizes a variety of fluidic thrust vectoring concepts that have been tested both experimentally and computationally at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concepts are divided into three categories according to the method used for fluidic thrust vectoring: the shock vector control method, the throat shifting method, and the counterflow method. This paper explains the thrust vectoring mechanism for each fluidic method, provides examples of configurations tested for each method, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  5. An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

  6. Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

  7. NLO Vector Boson Production With Light Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Diana, G.; Dixon, L.J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Hoeche, S.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; Ozeren, K.

    2012-02-15

    In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production. The production of a vector boson in association with several jets at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an important background for other Standard Model processes as well as new physics signals. In particular, the production of a W boson in association with many jets is an important background for processes involving one or more top quarks. Precise predictions for the backgrounds are crucial to measurement of top-quark processes. Vector boson production in association with multiple jets is also a very important background for many SUSY searches, as it mimics the signatures of many typical decay chains. Here we will discuss how polarization information can be used as an additional handle to differentiate top pair production from 'prompt' W-boson production. More generally, ratios of observables, for example for events containing a W boson versus those containing a Z boson, are expected to be better-behaved as many uncertainties cancel in such ratios. Precise calculation of ratios, along with measurement of one of the two processes in the ratio, can be used in data-driven techniques for estimating backgrounds.

  8. Static internal performance of single expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust vectoring and reversing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Berrier, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of geometric design parameters on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to approximately 10. Forward-flight (cruise), vectored-thrust, and reversed-thrust nozzle operating modes were investigated.

  9. Internal performance of two nozzles utilizing gimbal concepts for thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Taylor, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle and a nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle, both of which utilized a gimbal type mechanism for thrust vectoring was evaluated in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle used the gimbal concept for yaw thrust vectoring only; pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by simultaneous deflection of the upper and lower divergent flaps. The model geometric parameters investigated were pitch vector angle for the axisymmetric nozzle and pitch vector angle, yaw vector angle, nozzle throat aspect ratio, and nozzle expansion ratio for the nonaxisymmetric nozzle. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 12.0.

  10. Design of thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles for real-time applications using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasanth, Ravi K.; Markin, Robert E.; Whitaker, Kevin W.

    1991-01-01

    Thrust vectoring continues to be an important issue in military aircraft system designs. A recently developed concept of vectoring aircraft thrust makes use of flexible exhaust nozzles. Subtle modifications in the nozzle wall contours produce a non-uniform flow field containing a complex pattern of shock and expansion waves. The end result, due to the asymmetric velocity and pressure distributions, is vectored thrust. Specification of the nozzle contours required for a desired thrust vector angle (an inverse design problem) has been achieved with genetic algorithms. This approach is computationally intensive and prevents the nozzles from being designed in real-time, which is necessary for an operational aircraft system. An investigation was conducted into using genetic algorithms to train a neural network in an attempt to obtain, in real-time, two-dimensional nozzle contours. Results show that genetic algorithm trained neural networks provide a viable, real-time alternative for designing thrust vectoring nozzles contours. Thrust vector angles up to 20 deg were obtained within an average error of 0.0914 deg. The error surfaces encountered were highly degenerate and thus the robustness of genetic algorithms was well suited for minimizing global errors.

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Thrust Augmentation Using a Speaker-Driven Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wernet, Mark P.; John, Wentworth T.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described in which a simple speaker-driven jet was used as a pulsed thrust source (driver) for an ejector configuration. The objectives of the investigation were twofold: first, to add to the experimental body of evidence showing that an unsteady thrust source, combined with a properly sized ejector generally yields higher thrust augmentation values than a similarly sized, steady driver of equivalent thrust. Second, to identify characteristics of the unsteady driver that may be useful for sizing ejectors, and predicting what thrust augmentation values may be achieved. The speaker-driven jet provided a convenient source for the investigation because it is entirely unsteady (having no mean component) and because relevant parameters such as frequency, time-averaged thrust, and diameter are easily variable. The experimental setup will be described, as will the various measurements made. These include both thrust and Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry of the driver. It will be shown that thrust augmentation values as high as 1.8 were obtained, that the diameter of the best ejector scaled with the dimensions of the emitted vortex, and that the so-called Formation Number serves as a useful dimensionless number by which to characterize the jet and predict performance.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Thrust Augmentation Using a Speaker-Driven Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wernet, Mark P.; John, Wentworth T.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described in which a simple speaker-driven jet was used as a pulsed thrust source (driver) for an ejector configuration. The objectives of the investigation were twofold. The first was to expand the experimental body of evidence showing that an unsteady thrust source, combined with a properly sized ejector generally yields higher thrust augmentation values than a similarly sized, steady driver of equivalent thrust. The second objective was to identify characteristics of the unsteady driver that may be useful for sizing ejectors, and for predicting the thrust augmentation levels that may be achieved. The speaker-driven jet provided a convenient source for the investigation because it is entirely unsteady (i.e., it has no mean velocity component) and because relevant parameters such as frequency, time-averaged thrust, and diameter are easily variable. The experimental setup will be described, as will the two main measurements techniques employed. These are thrust and digital particle imaging velocimetry of the driver. It will be shown that thrust augmentation values as high as 1.8 were obtained, that the diameter of the best ejector scaled with the dimensions of the emitted vortex, and that the so-called formation time serves as a useful dimensionless parameter by which to characterize the jet and predict performance.

  13. Static Thrust and Vectoring Performance of a Spherical Convergent Flap Nozzle with a Nonrectangular Divergent Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The static internal performance of a multiaxis-thrust-vectoring, spherical convergent flap (SCF) nozzle with a non-rectangular divergent duct was obtained in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Duct cross sections of hexagonal and bowtie shapes were tested. Additional geometric parameters included throat area (power setting), pitch flap deflection angle, and yaw gimbal angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to 12 for dry power configurations and from 2 to 6 for afterburning power configurations. Approximately a 1-percent loss in thrust efficiency from SCF nozzles with a rectangular divergent duct was incurred as a result of internal oblique shocks in the flow field. The internal oblique shocks were the result of cross flow generated by the vee-shaped geometric throat. The hexagonal and bowtie nozzles had mirror-imaged flow fields and therefore similar thrust performance. Thrust vectoring was not hampered by the three-dimensional internal geometry of the nozzles. Flow visualization indicates pitch thrust-vector angles larger than 10' may be achievable with minimal adverse effect on or a possible gain in resultant thrust efficiency as compared with the performance at a pitch thrust-vector angle of 10 deg.

  14. Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

    1987-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

  15. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Multiple Injection Ports in a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle for Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.; Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    A computational and experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple injection ports in a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle, for fluidic thrust vectoring. The concept of multiple injection ports was conceived to enhance the thrust vectoring capability of a convergent-divergent nozzle over that of a single injection port without increasing the secondary mass flow rate requirements. The experimental study was conducted at static conditions in the Jet Exit Test Facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex at NASA Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary nozzle pressure ratios up to 1 for five configurations. The computational study was conducted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Internal nozzle performance was predicted for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with a secondary nozzle pressure ratio of 0.7 for two configurations. Results from the experimental study indicate a benefit to multiple injection ports in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In general, increasing the number of injection ports from one to two increased the pitch thrust vectoring capability without any thrust performance penalties at nozzle pressure ratios less than 4 with high secondary pressure ratios. Results from the computational study are in excellent agreement with experimental results and validates PAB3D as a tool for predicting internal nozzle performance of a two dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle with multiple injection ports.

  16. Spreading characteristics and thrust of jets from asymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1995-01-01

    The spreading characteristics of jets from several asymmetric nozzles are studied in comparison to those of an axisymmetric jet, over the Mach number (M(sub J)) range of 0.3 to 1.96. The effect of tabs in two cases, the axisymmetric nozzle fitted with four tabs and a rectangular nozzle fitted with two large tabs, is also included in the comparison. Compared to the axisymmetric jet, the asymmetric jets spread only slightly faster at subsonic conditions, while at supersonic conditions, when screech occurs, they spread much faster. Screech profoundly increases the spreading of all jets. The effect varies in the different stages of screech, and the corresponding unsteady flowfield characteristics are documented via phase-averaged measurement of the fluctuating total pressure. An organization and intensification of the azimuthal vortical structures under the screeching condition is believed to be responsible for the increased spreading. Curiously, the jet from a 'lobed mixer' nozzle spreads much less at supersonic conditions compared to all other cases. This is due to the absence of screech with this nozzle. Jet spreading for the two tab configurations, on the other hand, is significantly more than any of the no-tab cases. This is true in the subsonic regime, as well as in the supersonic regime in spite of the fact that screech is essentially eliminated by the tabs. The dynamics of the streamwise vortex pairs produced by the tabs cause the most efficient jet spreading thus far observed in the study.

  17. Comparison of straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles using a six component thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Flake, Scott

    1991-01-01

    This project compared the forces and moments produced by straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles. Using the six component thrust stand in the engines laboratory at California Polytechnic State University, several trials were performed. This data was then reduced using first a computer program and then later an electronic spreadsheet. This reduced data was graphed and compared. As a result of these comparisons some unexpected forces were discovered. Several more tests were run including a zero thrust test and a statistical comparison were done to discover the source of these discrepancies. As a direct result several nozzle changes were made and significant revisions to the thrust stand are being made.

  18. On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

  19. Control of Ducted Fan Flying Object Using Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Shigematsu, Yuki; Yamashita, Takashi

    Recently, R/C helicopter is used in fields of aerial photography and aerial investigation. But helicopter rotor blades are not covered, and the thrust is generated by high rotational speed. Thus R/C helicopter has a high risk of damage. In this study, we developed a new flying object using ducted fans instead of rotor blades. At first, PD control was employed for pitch and roll attitude control, but it caused steady state error. Moreover, PI-D control was used instead of PD control, and it reduced the steady state error. We succeeded to achieve stable hovering by 3-axes (roll, pitch and yaw axis) attitude control.

  20. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  1. A Method of Measuring Jet Thrust of Turbojet Engines in Flight Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, Joseph N; Fenn, David B

    1954-01-01

    Measurement of the jet thrust of a turbojet engine in flight becomes more difficult as the number and complexity of the engine components increase. It is desirable, therefore, that a general correlation of jet thrust be developed which is applicable to a simple direct reading thrustmeter. In view of this need a correlation is presented which is independent of flight conditions and applicable to both non-afterburning and afterburning engines equipped with nonejector type fixed- and variable-area convergent exhaust nozzles. The general equation used in this correlation was derived from the theoretical jet-thrust equation for a choked convergent nozzle. The data used to verify the correlation were obtained over a range of altitudes from 10,000 to 54,000 feet and a range of flight Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1. A thrustometer based on this equation was installed on an afterburning turbojet engine equipped with a fixed area convergent exhaust nozzle. The results indicated that a meter based on this correlation would be applicable to a flight installation and that the probable error in thrust measurement would be approximately + or -1.5 percent provided the exhaust-nozzle thrust coefficient is known.

  2. Mixing and Noise Benefit Versus Thrust Penalty in Supersonic Jets Using Impingement Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on the effect of impingement tones generated by obstacles of various geometries on the spreading of a supersonic jet flow. A rectangular supersonic jet was produced using a convergent-divergent nozzle that was operated near its design point (with shocks minimized). The immersion of obstacles in the flow produced an intense impingement tone which then propagated upstream (as feedback) to the jet lip and excited the antisymmetric hydrodynamic mode in the jet, thus setting up a resonant self-sustaining loop. The violent flapping motion of the jet due to excitation of the antisymmetric mode, combined with the unsteady wakes of the obstacles, produced large changes in jet mixing. It was possible to control the frequency and amplitude of the impingement tone excitation by varying the nozzle-to-obstacle distance and the obstacle immersion. By proper shaping of the obstacles it was possible to reduce the thrust penalty significantly.

  3. Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

  4. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem verification test (V-2) report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the verification testing sequence V-2 performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem are presented. A detailed history of the hot firings plus additional discussion of the auxiliary power unit and the hydraulic component performance is presented. The test objectives, data, and conclusions are included.

  5. Modeling and Thrust Optimization of a Bio-Inspired Pulsatile Jet Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Michael W.

    A new type of thruster technology offers promising low speed maneuvering capabilities for underwater vehicles. Similar to the natural locomotion of squid and jellyfish the thruster successively forces fluid jets in and out of a small internal cavity. We investigate several properties of squid and jellyfish locomotion to drive the thruster design including actuation of nozzle geometry and vortex ring thrust augmentation. The thrusters are compact with no extruding components to negatively impact the vehicle's drag. These devices have thrust rise-times orders of magnitude faster than those reported for typical propeller thrusters, making them an attractive option for high accuracy underwater vehicle maneuvering. The dynamics of starting jet circulation, impulse, and kinetic energy are derived in terms of kinematics at the entrance boundary of a semi-infinite domain, specifically identifying the effect of a non-parallel incoming flow. A model for pressure at the nozzle is derived without the typical reliance on a predetermined potential function, making it a powerful tool for modeling any jet flow. Jets are created from multiple nozzle configurations to validate these models, and velocity and vorticity fields are determined using DPIV techniques. A converging starting jet resulted in circulation 90--100%, impulse 70--75%, and energy 105--135% larger than a parallel starting jet with identical volume flux and piston velocity, depending on the stroke ratio. The new model is a much better predictor of the jet properties than the standard 1D slug model. A simplified thrust model, was derived to describe the high frequency thruster characteristics. This model accurately predicts the average thrust, measured directly, for stroke ratios up to a critical value where the leading vortex ring separates from the remainder of the shear flow. A new model predicting the vortex ring pinch-off process is developed based on characteristic centerline velocities. The vortex ring pinch-off is coincides with this velocity criterion, for all cases tested. Piston velocity program and nozzle radius are optimized with respect to average thrust, and a quantity similar to propulsive efficiency. The average thrust is maximized by a critical nozzle radius. An approximate linear time-invariant (LTI) model of the thruster vehicle system was derived which categorizes maneuvers into different characteristic regimes. Initial thruster testing showed that open and closed loop frequency response were sufficiently approximated by the LTI model, and that the thruster is ideally suited for small scale high accuracy maneuvers.

  6. Static internal performance of a single expansion ramp nozzle with multiaxis thrust vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Schirmer, Alberto W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at static conditions in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle. Yaw vectoring was achieved by deflecting yaw flaps in the nozzle sidewall into the nozzle exhaust flow. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the variable angle yaw flap deflected into the exhaust flow and the nozzle upper ramp and lower flap which were deflected for pitch vectoring, the downstream corners of both the nozzle ramp and lower flap were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw vectoring. The effects of nozzle upper ramp and lower flap cutout, yaw flap hinge line location and hinge inclination angle, sidewall containment, geometric pitch vector angle, and geometric yaw vector angle were studied. This investigation was conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

  7. Performance and human factors results from thrust vectoring investigations in simulated air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.; Meintel, A. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In support of research related to advanced fighter technology, the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) has been used to investigate the effects of advanced aerodynamic concepts, parametric changes in performance parameters, and advanced flight control systems on the combat capability of fighter airplanes. At least five studies were related to thrust vectoring and/or inflight thrust reversing. The aircraft simulated ranged from F-4 class to F-15 class, and included the AV-8 Harrier. This paper presents an overview of these studies including the assumptions involved, trends of results, and human factors considerations that were found.

  8. Geometric factors affecting noise suppresion and thrust loss of divergent-lobe supersonic jet noise suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The thrust loss and noise suppression of a divergent-lobe supersonic jet noise suppressor were experimentally determined over a range of nozzle pressure ratios of 1.5 to 4.0. These small-scale cold flow tests were made to determine the effect on thrust and noise of: suppressor length, rearward facing step height, suppressor divergence angle, and ejector shroud length and location. Noise suppression was achieved at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.5 and greater. Maximum lobe jet noise attenuation of 15 db with thrust loss differences of 1.5 percent compared to the convergent nozzle were obtained at a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.5 with an ejector shroud two nozzle diameters long. Without the ejector the attenuation was 13 db with thrust loss differences of 11 percent. Short suppressors approximately one primary nozzle throat diameter long performed as well as longer suppressors. Rearward facing step height had a significant effect on noise suppression. Ejector shrouds two nozzle diameters in length are feasible.

  9. Thrust vectoring for single-stage-to-orbit, horizontal takeoff, horizontal landing, space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, M. J.; Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Wilhite, A. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design of a horizontal takeoff, horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered space vehicle was performed. The purpose was to examine technology requirements for future small payload launch vehicles. The distinguishing aspect of the design was the utilization of thrust vectoring to provide half of the lift at takeoff. The inclusion of a canard was necessary to provide additional lift at takeoff and to balance the moments produced with thrust vectoring. A weights estimation, an aerodynamic assessment, a trajectory analysis, and a gear weight analysis were performed. The takeoff weight of the resulting vehicle was approximately 1.26 million pounds, based on advanced technology structures and subsystems. The vehicle was designed to deliver a 5000-pound payload to a polar orbit.

  10. Optimal Pitch Thrust-Vector Angle and Benefits for all Flight Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Bolonkin, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is exploring the optimum thrust-vector angle on aircraft. Simple aerodynamic performance models for various phases of aircraft flight are developed and optimization equations and algorithms are presented in this report. Results of optimal angles of thrust vectors and associated benefits for various flight regimes of aircraft (takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, final approach, and landing) are given. Results for a typical wide-body transport aircraft are also given. The benefits accruable for this class of aircraft are small, but the technique can be applied to other conventionally configured aircraft. The lower L/D aerodynamic characteristics of fighters generally would produce larger benefits than those produced for transport aircraft.

  11. Design and test of a high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for thrust-vector control (TVC) system testing and implementation in spacecraft control/gimballing systems, with a view to the replacement of hydraulic hardware. TVC system control is furnished by solid state controllers and power supplies; a pair of resolvers supply position feedback to the controller for precise positioning. Performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulic TVC systems are performed.

  12. Vista/F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) control law design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwerneman, W. D.; Eller, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    For the Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) program, a new control law was developed using multi-axis thrust vectoring to augment the aircraft's aerodynamic control power to provide maneuverability above the normal F-16 angle of attack limit. The control law architecture was developed using Lockheed Fort Worth's offline and piloted simulation capabilities. The final flight control laws were used in flight test to demonstrate tactical benefits gained by using thrust vectoring in air-to-air combat. Differences between the simulator aerodynamics data base and the actual aircraft aerodynamics led to significantly different lateral-directional flying qualities during the flight test program than those identified during piloted simulation. A 'dial-a-gain' flight test control law update was performed in the middle of the flight test program. This approach allowed for inflight optimization of the aircraft's flying qualities. While this approach is not preferred over updating the simulator aerodynamic data base and then updating the control laws, the final selected gain set did provide adequate lateral-directional flying qualities over the MATV flight envelope. The resulting handling qualities and the departure resistance of the aircraft allowed the 422nd_squadron pilots to focus entirely on evaluating the aircraft's tactical utility.

  13. Dryden/Edwards 1994 Thrust-Vectoring Aircraft Fleet - F-18 HARV, X-31, F-16 MATV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The three thrust-vectoring aircraft at Edwards, California, each capable of flying at extreme angles of attack, cruise over the California desert in formation during flight in March 1994. They are, from left, NASA's F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; the X-31, flown by the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) at Dryden; and the Air Force F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) aircraft. All three aircraft were flown in different programs and were developed independently. The NASA F-18 HARV was a testbed to produce aerodynamic data at high angles of attack to validate computer codes and wind tunnel research. The X-31 was used to study thrust vectoring to enhance close-in air combat maneuvering, while the F-16 MATV was a demonstration of how thrust vectoring could be applied to operational aircraft.

  14. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  15. Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

  16. A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1992-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

  17. Periodic Excitation for Jet Vectoring and Enhanced Spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    1999-01-01

    The effects of periodic excitation on the evolution of a turbulent jet were studied experimentally. A short, wide-angle diffuser was attached to the jet exit and excitation was introduced at the junction between the jet exit and the diffuser inlet. The introduction of high amplitude periodic excitation at the jet exit enhances the mixing and promotes attachment of the jet shear-layer to the diffuser wall. Vectoring is achieved by applying the excitation over a fraction of the circumference of the circular jet, enhancing its spreading rate on the excited side and its tendency to reattach to that side. Static deflection studies demonstrate that the presence of the wide-angle diffuser increases the effectiveness of the added periodic momentum due to a favorable interaction between the excitation, the jet shear-layer and the diffuser wall. This point was further demonstrated by the evolution of a wave packet that was excited in the jet shear-layer. Strong amplification of the wave packet was measured with a diffuser attached to the jet exit. The turbulent jet responds quickly (10-20 msec) to step changes in the level of the excitation input. The response scales with the jet exit velocity and is independent of the Reynolds number. Jet deflection angles were found to be highly sensitive to the relative direction between the excitation and the jet flow and less sensitive to the excitation frequency. The higher jet deflection angles were obtained for a diffuser length of about two diameters and for diffusers with half-angles greater than 15 degrees.

  18. Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. Ann; Reubush, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric investigation of the static internal performance of multifunction two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles has been made in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. All nozzles had a constant throat area and aspect ratio. The effects of upper and lower flap angles, divergent flap length, throat approach angle, sidewall containment, and throat geometry were determined. All nozzles were tested at a thrust vector angle that varied from 5.60 tp 23.00 deg. The nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for all configurations.

  19. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control V-2 off-nominal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the V-2 off nominal test sequence performed on the space shuttle solid rocket booster thrust vector control (SRB TVC) system are reported. The TVC subsystem was subjected to 19 off nominal test conditions. The test sequence consisted of: 8 burp starts, 30 hot firings, 14 GN2 spin tests, and 3 servicing passive system tests. It is concluded that the TVC subsystem operated nominally in response to the given commands and test conditions. Test objectives, detail results, and data are included.

  20. Noise, Turbulence, and Thrust of Subsonic Free Jets from Lobed Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Wang, F. Y.

    2002-01-01

    A study of noise benefit, vis-a-vis thrust penalty, and its correlation to turbulence intensities was conducted for free jets issuing from lobed nozzles. Four convergent nozzles with constant exit area were used in the experiments. Three of these were of rectangular lobed configuration having six, ten and fourteen lobes; the fourth was a circular nozzle. Increasing the number of lobes resulted in a progressive reduction in the turbulence intensities as well as in the overall radiated noise. The noise reduction was pronounced at the low frequency end of the spectrum. However, there was an increase in the high frequency noise that rendered the overall benefit less attractive when compared on a scaled-up A-weighted basis. A reduction in noise was accompanied by a commensurate reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. As expected, increasing the number of lobes involved progressive reduction in the thrust coefficient. Among the cases studied, the six-lobed nozzle had the optimum reduction in turbulence and noise with the least thrust penalty.

  1. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC) Actuator hardware are documented. The function of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuators (ATVC) is to gimbal the main engines to provide for attitude and flight path control during ascent. During first stage flight, the SRB nozzles provide nearly all the steering. After SRB separation, the Orbiter is steered by gimbaling of its main engines. There are six electrohydraulic servoactuators, one pitch and one yaw for each of the three main engines. Each servoactuator is composed of four electrohydraulic servovalve assemblies, one second stage power spool valve assembly, one primary piston assembly and a switching valve. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Critical failures resulting in loss of ATVC were mainly due to loss of hydraulic fluid, fluid contamination and mechanical failures.

  2. Performance of twin two-dimensional wedge nozzles including thrust vectoring and reversing effects at speeds up to Mach 2.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Maiden, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Transonic tunnel and supersonic pressure tunnel tests were reformed to determine the performance characteristics of twin nonaxisymmetric or two-dimensional nozzles with fixed shrouds and variable-geometry wedges. The effects of thrust vectoring, reversing, and installation of various tails were also studied. The investigation was conducted statically and at flight speeds up to a Mach number of 2.20. The total pressure ratio of the simulated jet exhaust was varied up to approximately 26 depending on Mach number. The Reynolds number per meter varied up to 13.20 x 1 million. An analytical study was made to determine the effect on calculated wave drag by varying the mathematical model used to simulate nozzle jet-exhaust plume.

  3. Thrust vectoring effect on time-optimal 90 degrees angle of attack pitch up maneuvers of a high alpha fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalford, Harold; Hoffman, Eric

    1989-01-01

    Using thrust vectoring, the problem of pitching up a high alpha fighter aircraft to 90 degrees angle of attack in minimum time is considered. Pontryagin's maximum principle is used together with a two-point boundary value numerical algorithm to derive open-loop controls for various parameterized limits on thrust vectoring angles. Without thrust vectoring, a high alpha fighter with initial conditions 0.6 Mach number and 15,000 feet requires 7.0 seconds to pitch-up to 90 degrees. However, with 20-degree angle thrust vectoring, the pitch-up takes only 1.5 seconds with a final Mach number of 0.47. Also, the gain in altitude is less than 100 feet. More important, additional thrust vectoring yields litle benefit beyond the 20-degree angles. This paper describes control solutions in detail for thrust vectoring angles between 0 and 90 degrees.

  4. The effects on propulsion-induced aerodynamic forces of vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.

  5. Design of a mixer for the thrust-vectoring system on the high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One of the advanced control concepts being investigated on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) is multi-axis thrust vectoring using an experimental thrust-vectoring (TV) system consisting of three hydraulically actuated vanes per engine. A mixer is used to translate the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands into the appropriate TV-vane commands for distribution to the vane actuators. A computer-aided optimization process was developed to perform the inversion of the thrust-vectoring effectiveness data for use by the mixer in performing this command translation. Using this process a new mixer was designed for the HARV and evaluated in simulation and flight. An important element of the Mixer is the priority logic, which determines priority among the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands.

  6. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored thrust V/STOL transport with two lift/cruise fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renselaer, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain power on low speed characteristics of a twin fan vectored thrust V/STOL transport aircraft. Longitudinal, as well as some lateral directional data, were analyzed. Hover, STOL, and conventional flight modes were investigated. Determination of STOL characteristics, hover characteristics, roll control effectiveness and aircraft attitude were evaluated. The study also included various means to improve the lifting capability of the aircraft such as by application of fuselage strakes, exhaust vanes capable of shifting the thrust vector aft, and external flap blowing for STOL performance.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of a thrust vector controlled transport at the conceptual design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Vincent Patrick

    The impetus to innovate, to push the bounds and break the molds of evolutionary design trends, often comes from competition but sometimes requires catalytic political legislature. For this research endeavor, the 'catalyzing legislation' comes in response to the rise in cost of fossil fuels and the request put forth by NASA on aircraft manufacturers to show reduced aircraft fuel consumption of +60% within 30 years. This necessitates that novel technologies be considered to achieve these values of improved performance. One such technology is thrust vector control (TVC). The beneficial characteristic of thrust vector control technology applied to the traditional tail-aft configuration (TAC) commercial transport is its ability to retain the operational advantage of this highly evolved aircraft type like cabin evacuation, ground operation, safety, and certification. This study explores if the TVC transport concept offers improved flight performance due to synergistically reducing the traditional empennage size, overall resulting in reduced weight and drag, and therefore reduced aircraft fuel consumption. In particular, this study explores if the TVC technology in combination with the reduced empennage methodology enables the TAC aircraft to synergistically evolve while complying with current safety and certification regulation. This research utilizes the multi-disciplinary parametric sizing software, AVD Sizing, developed by the Aerospace Vehicle Design (AVD) Laboratory. The sizing software is responsible for visualizing the total system solution space via parametric trades and is capable of determining if the TVC technology can enable the TAC aircraft to synergistically evolve, showing marked improvements in performance and cost. This study indicates that the TVC plus reduced empennage methodology shows marked improvements in performance and cost.

  8. Classifier based on support vector machine for JET plasma configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H.

    2008-10-15

    The last flux surface can be used to identify the plasma configuration of discharges. For automated recognition of JET configurations, a learning system based on support vector machines has been developed. Each configuration is described by 12 geometrical parameters. A multiclass system has been developed by means of the one-versus-the-rest approach. Results with eight simultaneous classes (plasma configurations) show a success rate close to 100%.

  9. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  10. Computational Issues Associated with Temporally Deforming Geometries Such as Thrust Vectoring Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyalakuntla, Kishore; Soni, Bharat K.; Thornburg, Hugh J.; Yu, Robert

    1996-01-01

    During the past decade, computational simulation of fluid flow around complex configurations has progressed significantly and many notable successes have been reported, however, unsteady time-dependent solutions are not easily obtainable. The present effort involves unsteady time dependent simulation of temporally deforming geometries. Grid generation for a complex configuration can be a time consuming process and temporally varying geometries necessitate the regeneration of such grids for every time step. Traditional grid generation techniques have been tried and demonstrated to be inadequate to such simulations. Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) based techniques provide a compact and accurate representation of the geometry. This definition can be coupled with a distribution mesh for a user defined spacing. The present method greatly reduces cpu requirements for time dependent remeshing, facilitating the simulation of more complex unsteady problems. A thrust vectoring nozzle has been chosen to demonstrate the capability as it is of current interest in the aerospace industry for better maneuverability of fighter aircraft in close combat and in post stall regimes. This current effort is the first step towards multidisciplinary design optimization which involves coupling the aerodynamic heat transfer and structural analysis techniques. Applications include simulation of temporally deforming bodies and aeroelastic problems.

  11. Results of solar electric thrust vector control system design, development and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector control system TVCS for a solar-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of solar electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a solar electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved solar electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by control computer software, a significant advantage in control capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.

  12. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  13. Robust vibration suppression of an adaptive circular composite plate for satellite thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Su; Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a novel application of adaptive composite structures, a University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) smart composite platform, is developed for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of satellites. The device top plate of the UHM platform is an adaptive circular composite plate (ACCP) that utilizes integrated sensors/actuators and controllers to suppress low frequency vibrations during the thruster firing as well as to potentially isolate dynamic responses from the satellite structure bus. Since the disturbance due to the satellite thruster firing can be estimated, a combined strategy of an adaptive disturbance observer (DOB) and feed-forward control is proposed for vibration suppression of the ACCP with multi-sensors and multi-actuators. Meanwhile, the effects of the DOB cut-off frequency and the relative degree of the low-pass filter on the DOB performance are investigated. Simulations and experimental results show that higher relative degree of the low-pass filter with the required cut-off frequency will enhance the DOB performance for a high-order system control. Further, although the increase of the filter cut-off frequency can guarantee a sufficient stability margin, it may cause an undesirable increase of the control bandwidth. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive DOB with feed-forward control strategy is verified through simulations and experiments using the ACCP system.

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem FMEA/CIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuator (ATVD) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATVC hardware. The IOA product for the ATVC actuator analysis consisted of 25 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 16 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 21 FMEAs and 13 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

  15. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  16. Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

  17. Application of the scalar and vector potentials to the aerodynamics of jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, H. L.; Skifstad, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The applicability of a method based on the Stokes potentials (vector and scalar potentials) to computations associated with the aerodynamics of jets was examined. The aerodynamic field near the nozzle could be represented and that the influence of a nonuniform velocity profile at the nozzle exit plane could be determined. Also computations were made for an axisymmetric jet exhausting into a quiescient atmosphere. The velocity at the axis of the jet, and the location of the half-velocity points along the jet yield accurate aerodynamic field computations. Inconsistencies among the different theoretical characterizations of jet flowfields are shown.

  18. Static internal performance of a thrust vectoring and reversing two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with an aft flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The static internal performance of a multifunction nozzle having some of the geometric characteristics of both two-dimensional convergent-divergent and single expansion ramp nozzles has been investigated in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The internal expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of two symmetrical flat surfaces of equal length, and the external expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of a single aft flap. The aft flap could be varied in angle independently of the upper internal expansion surface to which it was attached. The effects of internal expansion ratio, nozzle thrust-vector angle (-30 deg. to 30 deg., aft flap shape, aft flap angle, and sidewall containment were determined for dry and afterburning power settings. In addition, a partial afterburning power setting nozzle, a fully deployed thrust reverser, and four vertical takeoff or landing nozzle, configurations were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for the dry power nozzles and 7 for the afterburning power nozzles.

  19. Preliminary Characterization of the Altair Lunar Lander Slosh Dynamics and Some Implications for the Thrust Vector Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Strahan, Alan; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Casillas, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system and preliminary modeling of propellant slosh, for the Altair Lunar Lander. Altair is a vehicle element of the NASA Constellation Program aimed at returning humans to the moon. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is the measurement and control of spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude in support of mission objectives. One key GN&C function is the commanding of effectors that control attitude and impart delta V on the vehicle, utilizing both reaction control system (RCS) thrusters and throttling and TVC gimbaling of the vehicle main engine. Both the Altair descent and ascent modules carry fuel tanks. During thrusting maneuvers, the sloshing of liquid fuels in partially filled tanks can interact with the controlled system in such a way as to cause the overall system to be unstable. These fuel tanks must be properly placed, relative to the spacecraft's c.m., to avoid any unstable interactions. Following this will be a discussion of propellant slosh modeling work performed for the present vehicle configuration, including slosh frequency and participatory fluid mass predictions. Knowing the range of slosh mode frequencies over mission phases, the TVC bandwidth must be carefully selected so as not to excite the slosh modes at those frequencies. The likely need to increase the damping factor of slosh modes via baffles will also be discussed. To conclude, a discussion of operations procedures aimed at minimizing TVC-slosh interactions will be given.

  20. Engine inlet distortion in a 9.2 percent scale vectored thrust STOVL model in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Flood, J. D.; Amuedo, K. C.; Strock, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft which can operate from remote locations, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results are presented which show the engine inlet distortions (both temperature and pressure) in a 9.2 percent scale vectored thrust STOVL model in ground effects. Results are shown for the forward nozzle splay angles of 0 degrees, -6 degrees, and 18 degrees. The model support system had 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The headwind (freestream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  1. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  2. Flow visualization studies of the internal flow characteristics in a simulated mixed flow vectored thrust ASTOVL engine configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, K. R.; Ferraro, P. J.; Flood, J. D.; Grey, R. E.; Wazyniak, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of internal flowfields in a Mixed Flow Vectored Thrust (MFVT) propulsion system for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft were investigated using flow visualization techniques. A highly parametric 14 percent scale transparent model was used to simulate the MFVT propulsion system. The working medium was water. The mixing between the fan and core flow was studied using flow visualization for a variety of geometrical and flow parameters including three bypass ratio variations. The flow visualization technique involves the use of laser light sheet for illumination and fluorescent dye or air bubbles as tracers. Results indicate the existence of a strong vortex flowfield in the hover mode of operation that is responsible for good mixing between the fan and core flows.

  3. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-02-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  4. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand at sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft on a test stand at sunrise. Not shown in this photograph are the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The aircraft was originally built as an F-15B (Serial #71-0290).

  5. Jet production in association with vector bosons or top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenschein, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    The LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS have measured V + jets and tt¯ + jets final states over a large energy range in data collected between 2010 and 2012 at s = 7TeV and s = 8TeV. The results have been compared to pQCD calculations at NLO and have been used to validate novel Monte Carlo techniques.

  6. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  7. A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páscoa, José C.; Dumas, Antonio; Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Paul; Vucinic, Dean

    2013-09-01

    The advantages associated to Vertical Short-Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) have been demonstrated since the early days of aviation, with the initial technolology being based on airships and later on helicopters and planes. Its operational advantages are enormous, being it in the field of military, humanitarian and rescue operations, or even in general aviation. Helicopters have limits in their maximum horizontal speed and classic V/STOL airplanes have problems associated with their large weight, due to the implementation of moving elements, when based on tilting rotors or turbojet vector mechanical oriented nozzles. A new alternative is proposed within the European Union Project ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle). The project introduces a novel scheme to orient the jet that is free of moving elements. This is based on a Coanda effect nozzle supported in two fluid streams, also incorporating boundary layer plasma actuators to achieve larger deflection angles. Herein we introduce a state-of-the-art review of the concepts that have been proposed in the framework of jet orienting propulsion systems. This review allows to demonstrate the advantages of the new concept in comparison to competing technologies in use at present day, or of competing technologies under development worldwide.

  8. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  9. Vector Boson Jets with BlackHat and Sherpa

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, Lance J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

    2010-08-25

    We review recent NLO QCD results for W, Z + 3-jet production at hadron colliders, computing using BlackHat and SHERPA, and including also some new results for Z + 3-jet production for the LHC at 7 TeV. We report new progress towards the NLO cross section for W + 4-jet production. In particular, we show that the virtual matrix elements produced by BlackHat are numerically stable. We also show that with an improved integrator and tree-level matrix elements from BlackHat, SHERPA produces well-behaved real-emission contributions. As an illustration, we present the real-emission contributions - including dipole-subtraction terms - to the p{sub T} distribution of the fourth jet, for a single subprocess with the maximum number of gluons.

  10. A computer model for liquid jet atomization in rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridharan, M. G.; Lee, J. G.; Krishnan, A.; Yang, H. Q.; Ibrahim, E.; Chuech, S.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1991-12-01

    The process of atomization has been used as an efficient means of burning liquid fuels in rocket engines, gas turbine engines, internal combustion engines, and industrial furnaces. Despite its widespread application, this complex hydrodynamic phenomenon has not been well understood, and predictive models for this process are still in their infancy. The difficulty in simulating the atomization process arises from the relatively large number of parameters that influence it, including the details of the injector geometry, liquid and gas turbulence, and the operating conditions. In this study, numerical models are developed from first principles, to quantify factors influencing atomization. For example, the surface wave dynamics theory is used for modeling the primary atomization and the droplet energy conservation principle is applied for modeling the secondary atomization. The use of empirical correlations has been minimized by shifting the analyses to fundamental levels. During applications of these models, parametric studies are performed to understand and correlate the influence of relevant parameters on the atomization process. The predictions of these models are compared with existing experimental data. The main tasks of this study were the following: development of a primary atomization model; development of a secondary atomization model; development of a model for impinging jets; development of a model for swirling jets; and coupling of the primary atomization model with a CFD code.

  11. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  12. Thrust and drag characteristics of a convergent-divergent nozzle with various exhaust jet temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, Donald P; Wilcox, Fred A

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the 8-by-6 foot supersonic wind tunnel on the effect of exhaust-gas temperatures on the external and internal characteristics of a convergent-divergent nozzle having an area expansion ratio of 1.83. Data were obtained over a pressure-ratio range from 1 to 20 at free-stream Mach numbers of 1.6 and 2.0 for exhaust temperatures of 860 degrees, 1650 degrees, and 2000 degrees R. Results of this investigation indicated that generally both the internal and external performance characteristics were only slightly affected by a large change in jet temperature. The small differences in performance which did occur were predicted satisfactorily from theoretical considerations.

  13. Jets and Vector Bosons in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz, Begoña

    2013-11-01

    This paper reviews experimental results on jets and electroweak boson (photon,Wand Z) production in heavy-ion collisions, from the CMS and ATLAS detectors, using data collected during 2011 PbPb run and pp data collected at an equivalent energy. By comparing the two collision systems, the energy loss of the partons propagating through the medium produced in PbPb collisions can be studied. Its characterization is done using dijet events and isolated photon-jet pairs. Since the electroweak gauge bosons do not participate in the strong interaction, and are thus unmodified by the nuclear medium, they serve as clean probes of the initial state in the collision.

  14. Using jet mass to discover vector quarks at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, Witold; Tucker-Smith, David

    2007-06-01

    We illustrate the utility of jet-mass distributions as probes of new physics at the LHC, focusing on a heavy vector-quark doublet that mixes with the top as a concrete example. For 1 TeV vector-quark masses, we find that signals with greater than 5{sigma} significance can be achieved after 100 fb{sup -1}. More generally, jet-mass distributions have the potential to provide signals for heavy states that produce highly boosted weak gauge bosons and/or top quarks.

  15. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  16. Search for intrinsic charm in vector boson production accompanied by heavy-flavor jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Lykasov, G. I.; Stepanenko, Yu. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    Assuming the possible existence of an intrinsic (or valencelike) heavy quark component in the proton distribution functions, we analyze the vector boson Z /W production, accompanied by heavy-flavor jets, in p p collisions at the LHC energies. We present theoretical predictions for differential cross sections of such processes and demonstrate their large sensitivity to parton distribution functions including an intrinsic charm component to the proton in some kinematical regions. Ratio measurements of the Z + heavy-flavor jets differential cross sections over the corresponding spectra in W + heavy jets events are proposed. These ratios are studied as a function of two different observables that maximize their sensitivity to the intrinsic charm component of the proton: the transverse momentum of the leading heavy-flavor jet and the longitudinal momentum fraction xFQ of this jet. Such measurements look very promising for the LHC experiments because they can supply unique information about the intrinsic charm hypothesis.

  17. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Foster, John V.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Connelly, Patrick J.; Kelly, John W.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thomas, Michael; Wichman, Keith D.; Wilson, R. Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  18. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  19. An Experimental Vector Implementation of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in a Turbulent Axisymmetric Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Flint O.; Iqbal, Muhammad O.; Corke, Thomas C.

    2004-11-01

    The coherent structure in the near-field of an axisymmetric turbulent jet at Re = 370,000 and M = 0.3 is experimentally characterized by a full, vector implementation of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). This work is focused on extracting the jet POD eigenfunctions and associated eigenvalues at streamwise locations between 3 and 15 nozzle diameters downstream of the jet exit. The focus on the jet near-field is motivated by its importance in numerous technical applications such as propulsion systems, chemical mixers and jet noise. Results show rapid energy convergence with POD mode number. Examination of the total energy in both the radial and azimuthal-component POD modes show that it is comparable to that contained in the streamwise component. The streamwise evolution of the POD modes is characterized by very significant gradients in the azimuthal mode number energy distribution, eventually leading to the dominance of the m = 1 mode. The phase information required for a local reconstruction of the topology of the jet structure is obtained by projecting the POD eigenmodes onto instantaneous realizations of the flow at fixed streamwise locations. The instantaneous realizations are obtained by utilizing cross-stream arrays of multi-sensor probes in conjunction with linear stochastic estimation (LSE). Results clearly show the local dynamic behavior the jet structure.

  20. Thrust and mass flow characteristics of four 36 inch diameter tip turbine fan thrust vectoring systems in and out of ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esker, D. W.; Roddiger, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The calibration tests carried out on the propulsion system components of a 70 percent scale, powered model of a NASA 3-fan V/STOL aircraft configuration are described. The three X3/6B/T58 turbotip fan units used in the large scale powered model were tested on an isolated basis over a range of ground heights from H/D of 1.02 to infinity. A higher pressure ratio LF336/J85 fan unit was tested over a range of ground heights from 1.55 to infinity. The results of the test program demonstrated that: (1) the thrust and mass flow performance of the X376B/T58 nose lift unit is essentially constant for H/D variations down to 1.55; at H/D 1.02 back pressurization of the fan exit occurs and is accompanied by an increase in thrust of five percent; (2) a change in nose fan exit hub shape from flat plate to hemispherical produces no significant difference in louvered lift nozzle performance for height variations from H/D = 1.02 to infinity; (3) operation of the nose lift nozzle at the higher fan pressure ratio generated by the LF336/J85 fan system causes no significant change in ground proximity performance down to an H/D of 1.55, the lowest height tested with this unit; and (4) the performance of the left and right X376B/T58 lift/cruise units in the vertical lift mode remains unchanged, within plus or minus two percent for the range of ground heights from H/D = 1.02 to infinity.

  1. Search for vector-like quark production in the lepton+jets and dilepton+jets final states using 5.4 fb-1 of Run II data

    SciTech Connect

    Caughron, Seth; /Columbia U.

    2010-10-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics provides an excellent description of particle interactions at energies up to {approx}1 TeV, but it is expected to fail above that scale. Multiple models developed to describe phenomena above the TeV scale predict the existence of very massive, vector-like quarks. A search for single electroweak production of such particles in p{anti p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is performed in the W+jets and Z+jets channels. The data were collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}. Events consistent with a heavy object decaying to a vector boson and a jet are selected. We observe no significant excess in comparison to the background prediction and set 95% confidence level upper limits on production cross sections for vector-like quarks decaying to W+jet and Z+jet. Assuming a vector-like quark -- standard model quark coupling parameter {tilde {kappa}}{sub qQ} of unity, we exclude vector-like quarks with mass below 693 GeV for decays to W+jet and mass below 449 GeV for decays to Z+jet. These represent the most sensitive limits to date.

  2. Vector boson plus one jet production in POWHEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alioli, Simone; Nason, Paolo; Oleari, Carlo; Re, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the next-to-leading order vector boson plus one jet production process in hadronic collision in the framework of POWHEG, which is a method to implement NLO calculations within a Shower Monte Carlo context. All spin correlations in the vector boson decay products have been taken into account. The process has been implemented in the framework of the POWHEG BOX, an automated computer code for building implementations of NLO calculations that can be interfaced to a shower Monte Carlo program. We present phenomenological results for the case of the Z/ γ plus one jet production process, obtained by matching the POWHEG calculation with the shower performed by PYTHIA, for the LHC, and we compare our results with available Tevatron data.

  3. Design of supersonic Coanda jet nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilaqua, Paul M.; Lee, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust vectoring of supersonic Coanda jets was improved by designing a nozzle to skew the initial jet velocity profile. A new nozzle design procedure, based on the method of characteristics, was developed to design a nozzle which produces a specified exit velocity profile. The thrust vectoring of a simple convergent nozzle, a convergent-divergent nozzle, and a nozzle which produces a skewed velocity profile matched to the curvature of the Coanda surface were expermentially compared over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 3.5. Elimination of the expansion shocks with the C-D nozzle is shown to greatly improve the thrust vectoring; elimination of turning shocks with the skewed profile nozzle further improves the vectoring.

  4. Performance characteristics of a variable-area vane nozzle for vectoring an ASTOVL exhaust jet up to 45 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

    1993-01-01

    Many conceptual designs for advanced short-takeoff, vertical landing (ASTOVL) aircraft need exhaust nozzles that can vector the jet to provide forces and moments for controlling the aircraft's movement or attitude in flight near the ground. A type of nozzle that can both vector the jet and vary the jet flow area is called a vane nozzle. Basically, the nozzle consists of parallel, spaced-apart flow passages formed by pairs of vanes (vanesets) that can be rotated on axes perpendicular to the flow. Two important features of this type of nozzle are the abilities to vector the jet rearward up to 45 degrees and to produce less harsh pressure and velocity footprints during vertical landing than does an equivalent single jet. A one-third-scale model of a generic vane nozzle was tested with unheated air at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility. The model had three parallel flow passages. Each passage was formed by a vaneset consisting of a long and a short vane. The longer vanes controlled the jet vector angle, and the shorter controlled the flow area. Nozzle performance for three nominal flow areas (basic and plus or minus 21 percent of basic area), each at nominal jet vector angles from -20 deg (forward of vertical) to +45 deg (rearward of vertical) are presented. The tests were made with the nozzle mounted on a model tailpipe with a blind flange on the end to simulate a closed cruise nozzle, at tailpipe-to-ambient pressure ratios from 1.8 to 4.0. Also included are jet wake data, single-vaneset vector performance for long/short and equal-length vane designs, and pumping capability. The pumping capability arises from the subambient pressure developed in the cavities between the vanesets, which could be used to aspirate flow from a source such as the engine compartment. Some of the performance characteristics are compared with characteristics of a single-jet nozzle previously reported.

  5. Support vector machine-based feature extractor for L/H transitions in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, S.; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Ramirez, J. M.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    Support vector machines (SVM) are machine learning tools originally developed in the field of artificial intelligence to perform both classification and regression. In this paper, we show how SVM can be used to determine the most relevant quantities to characterize the confinement transition from low to high confinement regimes in tokamak plasmas. A set of 27 signals is used as starting point. The signals are discarded one by one until an optimal number of relevant waveforms is reached, which is the best tradeoff between keeping a limited number of quantities and not loosing essential information. The method has been applied to a database of 749 JET discharges and an additional database of 150 JET discharges has been used to test the results obtained.

  6. Evaluation of dual flow thrust vectored nozzles with exhaust stream impingement. MS Thesis Final Technical Report, Oct. 1990 - Jul. 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to predict the expansion wave/oblique shock wave structure in an under-expanded jet expanding from a convergent nozzle. The shock structure was predicted by combining the calculated curvature of the free pressure boundary with principles and governing equations relating to oblique shock wave and expansion wave interaction. The procedure was then continued until the shock pattern repeated itself. A mathematical model was then formulated and written in FORTRAN to calculate the oblique shock/expansion wave structure within the jet. In order to study shock waves in expanding jets, Schlieren photography, a form of flow visualization, was employed. Thirty-six Schlieren photographs of jets from both a straight and 15 degree nozzle were taken. An iterative procedure was developed to calculate the shock structure within the jet and predict the non-dimensional values of Prandtl primary wavelength (w/rn), distance to Mach Disc (Ld) and Mach Disc radius (rd). These values were then compared to measurements taken from Schlieren photographs and experimental results. The results agreed closely to measurements from Schlieren photographs and previously obtained data. This method provides excellent results for pressure ratios below that at which a Mach Disc first forms. Calculated values of non-dimensional distance to the Mach Disc (Ld) agreed closely to values measured from Schlieren photographs and published data. The calculated values of non-dimensional Mach Disc radius (rd), however, deviated from published data by as much as 25 percent at certain pressure ratios.

  7. Coherent structure in a turbulent jet via a vector implementation of the proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. O.; Thomas, F. O.

    The coherent structure in the near-field of an axisymmetric turbulent jet at a Reynolds number of 3.8 {×} 10(5) and Mach number of 0.3 is experimentally characterized by a vector implementation of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD eigenfunctions and associated eigenvalues are extracted at several selected streamwise locations in the initial region. The focus on the near-field is motivated by its importance in numerous technical applications. Results show a rapid energy convergence with POD mode number. Examination of the relative energy contained in the combined azimuthal and radial components of the POD modes reveals that it is comparable to that in the streamwise component. The streamwise evolution of the eigenvalue spectra is characterized by a remarkable variation in the azimuthal mode number energy distribution, leading to the dominance of azimuthal mode m {=} 1 beyond the end of the jet core. In contrast, a scalar implementation using only the streamwise component shows the dominance of mode m {=} 2 which is consistent with previous scalar implementations of the POD. For a given azimuthal mode number, the eigenvalue spectra exhibit a broad peak which occurs at a constant value of Strouhal number based on local shear layer momentum thickness and local jet maximum velocity. The phase information required for a local reconstruction of the jet structure is obtained by projecting the POD eigenmodes onto instantaneous realizations of the flow at fixed streamwise locations. The instantaneous realizations are obtained by utilizing cross-stream arrays of multi-sensor probes in conjunction with linear stochastic estimation (LSE). Results clearly show the local dynamic behaviour of each component of the jet structure.

  8. Coherent structure in a turbulent axisymmetric jet via a vector implementation of the proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Owais

    The coherent structure in the near-field of an axisymmetric turbulent jet at a Reynolds number of 3.8 x 105 and Mach number of 0.3 is experimentally characterized by a vector implementation of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD eigenfunctions and associated eigenvalues are extracted at several selected streamwise locations in the initial region. The focus on the near-field is motivated by its importance in numerous technical applications. Results show a rapid energy convergence with POD mode number. Examination of the relative energy contained in the combined azimuthal and radial components of the POD modes reveals that it is comparable to that in the streamwise component. The streamwise evolution of the eigenvalue spectra is characterized by a remarkable variation in the azimuthal mode number energy distribution leading to the dominance of azimuthal mode m = 1 beyond the end of the jet core. In contrast, a scalar implementation using only the streamwise component shows the dominance of mode m = 2 which is consistent with previous scalar implementations of the POD. For a given azimuthal mode number, the eigenvalue spectra exhibit a broad spectral peak which occurs at a constant value of Strouhal number based on local shear layer momentum thickness and jet velocity. The phase information required for a local reconstruction of the jet structure is obtained by projecting the POD eigenmodes onto instantaneous realizations of the flow at fixed streamwise locations. The instantaneous realizations are obtained by utilizing cross-stream arrays of multi-sensor probes in conjunction with linear stochastic estimation (LSE). Results clearly show the local dynamic behavior of each component of the jet structure.

  9. The scaling of model test results to predict intake hot gas reingestion for STOVL aircraft with augmented vectored thrust engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrose, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    The difficulties of modeling the complex recirculating flow fields produced by multiple jet STOVL aircraft close to the ground have led to extensive use of experimental model tests to predict intake Hot Gas Reingestion (HGR). Model test results reliability is dependent on a satisfactory set of scaling rules which must be validated by fully comparable full scale tests. Scaling rules devised in the U.K. in the mid 60's gave good model/full scale agreement for the BAe P1127 aircraft. Until recently no opportunity has occurred to check the applicability of the rules to the high energy exhaust of current ASTOVL aircraft projects. Such an opportunity has arisen following tests on a Tethered Harrier. Comparison of this full scale data and results from tests on a model configuration approximating to the full scale aircraft geometry has shown discrepancies between HGR levels. These discrepancies although probably due to geometry and other model/scale differences indicate some reexamination of the scaling rules is needed. Therefore the scaling rules are reviewed, further scaling studies planned are described and potential areas for further work are suggested.

  10. Thrust Characterization for Vortex Ring Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Mike; Mohseni, Kamran

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic jets are zero net mass pulsatile jets that are commonly used in flow control applications in air. In these cases the natural resonant frequency of the actuators plays an important role. In this work we will present thrust characterization of vortex ring thrusters (VRTs) in liquid (equivalent of synthetic jets in liquid medium). VRTs design are motivated by pulsatile jet propulsion in squid and jellyfish. A prototype jet thruster was designed and build for this investigation. The effect of the actuation frequency and stroke ratio on the thrust level was experimentally studied. A simplified slug model was defined which predicted the thrust according to the momentum transfer. According to the model the thrust values for various frequencies converges to a single non-dimensionalized thrust, which is only a function of the stroke ratio. The accuracy of the model was defined in terms of a coefficient α which related predicted thrust values to those measured experimentally. This coefficient was observed to be nearly unity for stroke ratios below the formation number of the jet, and for frequencies below critical cavitation frequencies. α was seen to decrease (measured thrust drops below predicted thrust) with increasing frequency for all jets with stroke ratios above the formation number. The feasibility of using such a device in typical marine vehicles was tested by implementing the thruster in an unmanned underwater vehicle. The vehicle test-bed was operated in various dynamic maneuvers, including a simulated parallel park.

  11. Iterative explicit guidance for low thrust spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Powers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    A retargeting procedure is developed for use as a nonlinear low thrust guidance scheme. The selection of a control program composed of a sequence of inertially fixed thrust-acceleration vectors permits all trajectory computations to be made with closed form expressions, and allows the controls to be represented by constant parameters, thrust-acceleration vectors and thrusting times. By requiring each trajectory to be time optimal, the guidance problem is transformed into a parameter optimization problem which is solved by the conjugate gradient method. The scheme is applied to a low thrust capture mission, and the results of computer simulations are presented.

  12. Thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gas lubricated thrust bearing is described which employs relatively rigid inwardly cantilevered spokes carrying a relatively resilient annular member or annulus. This annulus acts as a beam on which are mounted bearing pads. The resilience of the beam mount causes the pads to accept the load and, with proper design, responds to a rotating thrust-transmitting collar by creating a gas film between the pads and the thrust collar. The bearing may be arranged for load equalization thereby avoiding the necessity of gimbal mounts or the like for the bearing. It may also be arranged to respond to rotation in one or both directions.

  13. NLO QCD+EW predictions for V + jets including off-shell vector-boson decays and multijet merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J. M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) predictions including QCD and electroweak (EW) corrections for the production and decay of off-shell electroweak vector bosons in association with up to two jets at the 13 TeV LHC. All possible dilepton final states with zero, one or two charged leptons that can arise from off-shell W and Z bosons or photons are considered. All predictions are obtained using the automated implementation of NLO QCD+EW corrections in the O penLoops matrix-element generator combined with the Munich and Sherpa Monte Carlo frameworks. Electroweak corrections play an especially important role in the context of BSM searches, due to the presence of large EW Sudakov logarithms at the TeV scale. In this kinematic regime, important observables such as the jet transverse momentum or the total transverse energy are strongly sensitive to multijet emissions. As a result, fixed-order NLO QCD+EW predictions are plagued by huge QCD corrections and poor theoretical precision. To remedy this problem we present an approximate method that allows for a simple and reliable implementation of NLO EW corrections in the MePs@Nlo multijet merging framework. Using this general approach we present an inclusive simulation of vector-boson production in association with jets that guarantees NLO QCD+EW accuracy in all phase-space regions involving up to two resolved jets.

  14. Wave processes in scramjet thrust generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Netterfield, M. P.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation explores the steady, supersonic expansion and compression wave processes involved in generating thrust from a combustion jet in a two-dimensional scramjet. Two types of thrust generating wave are produced by the jet. The first is the injection compression waves associated with injection and combustion of the fuel, and the second is the expansion interaction waves associated with interaction between the exhaust nozzle expansion and the jet. Analysis shows that the strength of a wave is not modified by crossing the jet, which implies that, with a given flow configuration, the jets in a multiple jet combustion array produce thrust independently of one another. Shock tunnel experiments with hydrogen fuel and three simple scramjet configurations are used to identify the two types of waves, to confirm the effect on a wave of crossing the jet, and to demonstrate the influence of the basic, fuel-off flow configuration on the effects produced by the waves.

  15. Jet noise suppression by swirling the jet flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of swirling flow on jet noise suppression was experimentally investigated in a relatively small, low-thrust, fan-jet engine. Measurements of acoustic properties of the near and far fields, jet-flow characteristics, and engine thrust were made with and without stationary swirl vanes installed in the primary exhaust nozzle. Preliminary test results indicate that substantial reductions in jet overall sound pressure levels and overall acoustic power were obtained with minimal thrust losses. Based on preliminary analysis, present results, and previous experiments with swirling hot jets, it is predicted that even greater jet noise reductions can be obtained in higher thrust engines, particularly with afterburning, by swirling jet exhaust.

  16. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  17. Jets.

    PubMed

    Rhines, Peter B.

    1994-06-01

    This is a discussion of concentrated large-scale flows in planetary atmospheres and oceans, argued from the viewpoint of basic geophysical fluid dynamics. We give several elementary examples in which these flows form jets on rotating spheres. Jet formation occurs under a variety of circumstances: when flows driven by external stress have a rigid boundary which can balance the Coriolis force, and at which further concentration can be caused by the beta effect; when there are singular lines like the line of vanishing windstress or windstress-curl, or the Equator; when compact sources of momentum, heat or mass radiate jet-like beta plumes along latitude circles; when random external stirring of the fluid becomes organized by the beta effect into jets; when internal instability of the mass field generates zonal flow which then is concentrated into jets; when bottom topographic obstacles radiate jets, and when frontogenesis leads to shallow jet formation. Essential to the process of jet formation in stratified fluids is the baroclinic life cycle described in geostrophic turbulence studies; there, conversion from potential to kinetic energy generates eddy motions, and these convert to quasibarotropic motions which then radiate and induce jet-like large-scale circulation. Ideas of potential vorticity stirring by eddies generalize the notion of Rossby-wave radiation, showing how jets embedded in an ambient potential vorticity gradient (typically due to the spherical geometry of the rotating planet) gain eastward momentum while promoting broader, weaker westward circulation. Homogenization of potential vorticity is an important limit point, which many geophysical circulations achieve. This well-mixed state is found in subdomains of the terrestrial midlatitude oceans, the high-latitude circumpolar ocean, and episodically in the middle atmosphere. Homogenization expels potential vorticity gradients vertically to the top and bottom of the fluid, and sideways to the edges of flow domains or gyres; in both these ways is jet formation enhanced. PMID:12780108

  18. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  19. Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency from an Instructive Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    In a typical engineering or physics curriculum, the momentum equation is used for the determination of jet engine thrust. Even a simple thrust analysis requires a heavy emphasis on mathematics that can cause students and engineers to lose a physical perspective on thrust. This article provides for this physical understanding using only static…

  20. Model-reference attitude control and reaction control jet engine placement for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    Analytical studies on the theoretical aspects of thrust vector control of large space vehicles were conducted. A system for attitude control of the space shuttle vehicle was developed. Major accomplishments of the project are: (1) investigation of a model-reference adaptive control scheme for controlling the space shuttle attitude and (2) determination of optimum placement of reaction control jet engines on space shuttles.

  1. Prediction methods for jet V/STOL propulsion aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platzer, M. F.; Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The current status of prediction methods for propulsive flows and propulsion-induced effects which occur on jet V/STOL aircraft is reviewed. Among the major topics studied are flows in propulsive ducts, propulsion-induced ground and thermal effects, aerodynamic loads induced during V/STOL and transition flight, flow vectoring devices, and thrust augmented ejector and lift-fan studies. The current predictive capability in jet V/STOL propulsion aerodynamics is assessed. Future research needs are identified, with particular reference to activities that can improve the usefulness of prediction methods for jet V/STOL aircraft.

  2. Air admixture to exhaust jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, Eugen

    1953-01-01

    The problem of thrust increase by air admixture to exhaust jets of rockets, turbojet, ram- and pulse-jet engines is investigated theoretically. The optimum ratio of mixing chamber pressure to ambient pressure and speed range for thrust increase due to air admixture is determined for each type of jet engine.

  3. A study of multi-jet production in association with an electroweak vector boson

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-02-19

    We consider the production of a single Z or W boson in association with jets at the LHC. We compute the corresponding cross sections by matching NLO QCD predictions with the Herwig++ and Pythia 8 parton showers, and by merging all of the underlying matrix elements with up to two light partons at the Born level. Lastly, we compare our results with several 7-TeV measurements by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, and overall we find a good agreement between theory and data.

  4. A study of multi-jet production in association with an electroweak vector boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the production of a single Z or W boson in association with jets at the LHC. We compute the corresponding cross sections by matching NLO QCD predictions with the H erwig++ and P ythia8 parton showers, and by merging all of the underlying matrix elements with up to two light partons at the Born level. We compare our results with several 7-TeV measurements by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, and overall we find a good agreement between theory and data.

  5. Study of an under-expanded sonic impinging jet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Ho

    The under-expanded impinging jet is used in various situations, such as the launch of a rocket, the takeoff and landing of a vertical/short take off and landing aircraft, jet engine exhaust impingement, or the thrust vector control system of a solid rocket motor. It is also of considerable interest to study the fluid dynamics of jet impingement on a surface with respect to heat transfer. Past investigations of sonic or supersonic impinging jets were limited to only a single jet and were primarily concentrated on fluid mechanics phenomena. No results exist in the literature for an under-expanded sonic impinging jet array. The present study is focused on the fluid dynamics for an array of under-expanded sonic impinging jets with the ultimate objective being to study the understanding of the interaction between impinging jets and the effect of jet-to-jet spacing (s/d), jet-to-plate spacing (z/d), and the degree of under-expansion (P0/Pa). Schlieren videography was applied to study the variation of structures that dominate the supersonic impinging flow, such as the intercepting shock, reflected shock, normal disk, stand-off-plate shock, and stagnation bubble. A high frequency transducer was used to measure the pressure field of the fluid flow near the impingement surface. Test configurations included non-dimensional jet-to-plate heights from 1 to 10, non-dimensional jet-to-jet spacing of 2 and 4, and pressure ratios from 3.3 to 12.9. Jets with orifice diameter of 12.7 and 25.4 mm were used. The fluid dynamics of an under-expanded sonic jet array differ largely from a single jet at s/d = 2. Midway between jets and near each stagnation bubble region, the jet array shows higher values in surface pressure due to the jet interaction. Both a single jet and a jet array have the linear dependence between z/d for the location of the shock cell and transition from supersonic wall jet to subsonic wall jet. However, the jet array show the location of the shock cell is changing over a slightly wider range of z/d and an earlier transition from a supersonic wall jet to subsonic wall jet. With an increase in s/d, the jet interaction becomes less noticeable and similar to a single jet. For z/d = 7, a remarkably interesting flow phenomenon exists at P 0 = 12.24 atm or greater, representing the repeatedly inward and outward diffusion. Schlieren images look like an intense explosion and the surface pressure distribution midway between jets shows an abrupt decrease.

  6. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a deflected-thrust propulsive-lift transport model. [wind tunnel tests of aircraft models of jet transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effect of deflecting the engine exit of a four-engine double-slotted flap transport to provide STOL performance. Longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained at various engine exit positions and deflections. The data were obtained at three flap deflections representing cruise, take-off, and landing conditions for a range of angles of attack and various thrust coefficients. Downwash angles at the location of the horizontal tail were measured. The data are presented without analysis or discussion. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

  7. Propulsion-induced interference effects on jet-lift VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.; Weston, R. P.; Mineck, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Recent investigations of propulsion-induced aerodynamics are reviewed. Experimental and analytical studies of the fundamental properties of lifting jet wakes and wind-tunnel investigations of VTOL configuration variables are discussed. The jet-wake flow studies will provide the data base for evaluating theoretical performance prediction methods; while the configuration studies will provide guidance for optimizing airframe/propulsion system integration. The influence of results to date on high-performance VTOL designs emphasizing minimum jet-induced losses and improved thrust vectoring in forward flight (VIFF) capability is illustrated.

  8. Gluon jets from heavy paraquarkonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, A.N.; Kodaira, J.; Muta, T.

    1982-02-01

    The GGG and qq-barG jets in the decay of very heavy paraquarkonia are analyzed in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The thrust distributions are calculated and the result is compared with the thrust distributions in the orthoquarkonium decay and in e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..qq-barG jets.

  9. Statistical error model for a solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bantell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem statistical error model was developed as a tool for investigating the effects of thrust subsystem parameter uncertainties on navigation accuracy. The model is currently being used to evaluate the impact of electric engine parameter uncertainties on navigation system performance for a baseline mission to Encke's Comet in the 1980s. The data given represent the next generation in statistical error modeling for low-thrust applications. Principal improvements include the representation of thrust uncertainties and random process modeling in terms of random parametric variations in the thrust vector process for a multi-engine configuration.

  10. Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1999-01-01

    The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

  11. Effects of nozzle exit location and shape propulsion-induced aerodynamic characteristics due to vectoring twin nozzles at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored-thrust concept in which jet-exhaust nozzles were located in the fuselage at or near the wing trailing edge. The effects of moving twin rectangular nozzles rearward from the wing trailing edge and of round nozzles at the trailing edge only were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, angles of attack up to 14 deg, and thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Nozzle deflection angle varied from 0 deg to 45 deg. Separate force balances were used to determine both total aerodynamic and thrust forces and thrust forces alone which allowed for a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. The Reynolds number per meter varied from 8.20 x 1 million to 13.12 x 1 million.

  12. Classification of jet fuel properties by near-infrared spectroscopy using fuzzy rule-building expert systems and support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanfeng; Bunker, Christopher E; Harrington, Peter de B

    2010-11-01

    Monitoring the changes of jet fuel physical properties is important because fuel used in high-performance aircraft must meet rigorous specifications. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a fast method to characterize fuels. Because of the complexity of NIR spectral data, chemometric techniques are used to extract relevant information from spectral data to accurately classify physical properties of complex fuel samples. In this work, discrimination of fuel types and classification of flash point, freezing point, boiling point (10%, v/v), boiling point (50%, v/v), and boiling point (90%, v/v) of jet fuels (JP-5, JP-8, Jet A, and Jet A1) were investigated. Each physical property was divided into three classes, low, medium, and high ranges, using two evaluations with different class boundary definitions. The class boundaries function as the threshold to alarm when the fuel properties change. Optimal partial least squares discriminant analysis (oPLS-DA), fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), and support vector machines (SVM) were used to build the calibration models between the NIR spectra and classes of physical property of jet fuels. OPLS-DA, FuRES, and SVM were compared with respect to prediction accuracy. The validation of the calibration model was conducted by applying bootstrap Latin partition (BLP), which gives a measure of precision. Prediction accuracy of 97 ± 2% of the flash point, 94 ± 2% of freezing point, 99 ± 1% of the boiling point (10%, v/v), 98 ± 2% of the boiling point (50%, v/v), and 96 ± 1% of the boiling point (90%, v/v) were obtained by FuRES in one boundaries definition. Both FuRES and SVM obtained statistically better prediction accuracy over those obtained by oPLS-DA. The results indicate that combined with chemometric classifiers NIR spectroscopy could be a fast method to monitor the changes of jet fuel physical properties. PMID:21073794

  13. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  14. Robust nonlinear control of vectored thrust aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, John C.; Murray, Richard; Morris, John

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary program in robust control for nonlinear systems with applications to a variety of engineering problems is outlined. Major emphasis will be placed on flight control, with both experimental and analytical studies. This program builds on recent new results in control theory for stability, stabilization, robust stability, robust performance, synthesis, and model reduction in a unified framework using Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's), Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI's), and the structured singular value micron. Most of these new advances have been accomplished by the Caltech controls group independently or in collaboration with researchers in other institutions. These recent results offer a new and remarkably unified framework for all aspects of robust control, but what is particularly important for this program is that they also have important implications for system identification and control of nonlinear systems. This combines well with Caltech's expertise in nonlinear control theory, both in geometric methods and methods for systems with constraints and saturations.

  15. Measured pressure distributions inside nonaxisymmetric nozzles with partially deployed thrust reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert S.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at static conditions to measure the pressure distributions inside a nonaxisymmetric nozzle with simultaneous partial thrust reversing (50-percent deployment) and thrust vectoring of the primary (forward-thrust) nozzle flow. Geometric forward-thrust-vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. were tested. Test data were obtained at static conditions while nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to 4.0. Results indicate that, unlike the 0 deg. vector angle nozzle, a complicated, asymmetric exhaust flow pattern exists in the primary-flow exhaust duct of the 15 deg. vectored nozzle.

  16. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  17. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  18. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  19. PPT Thrust Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

  20. Transverse jet shear layer instabilities and their control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagozian, Ann

    2013-11-01

    The jet in crossflow, or transverse jet, is a canonical flowfield that has relevance to engineering systems ranging from dilution jets and film cooling for gas turbine engines to thrust vector control and fuel injection in high speed aerospace vehicles to environmental control of effluent from chimney and smokestack plumes. Over the years, our UCLA Energy and Propulsion Research Lab's studies on this flowfield have focused on the dynamics of the vorticity associated with equidensity and variable density jets in crossflow, including the stability characteristics of the jet's upstream shear layer. A range of different experimental diagnostics have been used to study the jet's upstream shear layer, whereby a transition from convectively unstable behavior at high jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios to absolutely unstable flow at low momentum flux and/or density ratios is identified. These differences in shear layer stability characteristics have a profound effect on how one employs external excitation to control jet penetration, spread, and mixing, depending on the flow regime and specific engineering application. These control strategies, and challenges for future research directions, will be identified in this presentation.

  1. Simulations of directed energy thrust on rotating asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Janelle; Madajian, Jonathan; Johansson, Isabella; Pfau, Krysten; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Gilkes, Aidan; Meinhold, Peter; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng

    2015-09-01

    Asteroids that threaten Earth could be deflected from their orbits using directed energy to vaporize the surface, because the ejected plume creates a reaction thrust that alters the asteroid's trajectory. One concern regarding directed energy deflection is the rotation of the asteroid, as this will reduce the average thrust magnitude and modify the thrust direction. Flux levels required to evaporate surface material depend on surface material composition and albedo, thermal, and bulk mechanical properties of the asteroid, and rotation rate. The observed distribution of asteroid rotation rates is used, along with an estimated range of material and mechanical properties, as input to a 3D thermal-physical model to calculate the resultant thrust vector. The model uses a directed energy beam, striking the surface of a rotating sphere with specified material properties, beam profile, and rotation rate. The model calculates thermal changes in the sphere, including vaporization and mass ejection of the target material. The amount of vaporization is used to determine a thrust magnitude that is normal to the surface at each point on the sphere. As the object rotates beneath the beam, vaporization decreases, as the temperature drops and causes both a phase shift and magnitude decrease in the average thrust vector. A surface integral is calculated to determine the thrust vector, at each point in time, producing a 4D analytical model of the expected thrust profile for rotating objects.

  2. Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems.

  3. Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems. All data gathered in this investigation are contained in the CD-ROM.

  4. Field of Flow About a Jet and Effect of Jets on Stability of Jet-Propelled Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, Herbert S.

    1946-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted on jet-induced flow deviation. Analysis is given of flow inclination induced outside cold and hot jets and jet deflection caused by angle of attack. Applications to computation of effects of jet on longitudinal stability and trim are explained. Effect of jet temperature on flow inclination was found small when thrust coefficient is used as criterion for similitude. The average jet-induced downwash over tail plane was obtained geometrically.

  5. Ion thrusting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An ion thrusting system is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which a gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas molecules passing therethrough to form ions and electrons, and an accelerator element which accelerates the ions to form thrust. In some variations, a potential is applied to the ionization membrane may be reversed to thrust ions in an opposite direction. The ionization membrane may also include an opening with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of the gas being ionized. Methods of manufacture and use are also provided.

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics induced on a supercritical wing due to vectoring twin nozzles at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The induced lift characteristics are studied for a vectored-thrust concept in which jet-exhaust nozzles were located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The wing had a supercritical airfoil section. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 0.95, angles of attack up to 14 deg, and thrust coefficients up to 0.35, and nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg and 30 deg. Separate force balances were used to determine both total aerodynamic and thrust forces alone which allowed for a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. The Reynolds number per meter varied from 8.20 x 1 million to 12.80 x 1 million. The results show that the configuration with the supercritical wing generally had a better performance with respect to both lift augmentation and drag reduction than the same configuration with a 64 series airfoil.

  7. Search for vector-like T quarks decaying to top quarks and Higgs bosons in the all-hadronic channel using jet substructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-06-12

    We performed a search for a vector-like heavy T quark that is produced in pairs and that decays to a top quark and a Higgs boson. The data analysed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV. For T quarks with large mass values the top quarks and Higgs bosons can have significant Lorentz boosts, so that their individual decay products often overlap and merge. Methods are applied to resolve the substructure of such merged jets. We also derived upper limits on the production cross section of a T quarkmore » with mass between 500 and 1000 GeV/c 2. If the T quark decays exclusively to tH, the observed (expected) lower limit on the mass of the T quark is 745 (773) GeV/c 2 at 95% confidence level. For the first time an algorithm is used for tagging boosted Higgs bosons that is based on a combination of jet substructure information and b tagging.« less

  8. Search for vector-like T quarks decaying to top quarks and Higgs bosons in the all-hadronic channel using jet substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-06-12

    We performed a search for a vector-like heavy T quark that is produced in pairs and that decays to a top quark and a Higgs boson. The data analysed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV. For T quarks with large mass values the top quarks and Higgs bosons can have significant Lorentz boosts, so that their individual decay products often overlap and merge. Methods are applied to resolve the substructure of such merged jets. We also derived upper limits on the production cross section of a T quark with mass between 500 and 1000 GeV/c 2. If the T quark decays exclusively to tH, the observed (expected) lower limit on the mass of the T quark is 745 (773) GeV/c 2 at 95% confidence level. For the first time an algorithm is used for tagging boosted Higgs bosons that is based on a combination of jet substructure information and b tagging.

  9. Search for vector-like T quarks decaying to top quarks and Higgs bosons in the all-hadronic channel using jet substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Ryu, M. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Moon, D. H.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Musella, P.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Scarborough, T.; Wu, Z.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-06-01

    A search is performed for a vector-like heavy T quark that is produced in pairs and that decays to a top quark and a Higgs boson. The data analysed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at TeV. For T quarks with large mass values the top quarks and Higgs bosons can have significant Lorentz boosts, so that their individual decay products often overlap and merge. Methods are applied to resolve the substructure of such merged jets. Upper limits on the production cross section of a T quark with mass between 500 and 1000 GeV/ c 2 are derived. If the T quark decays exclusively to tH, the observed (expected) lower limit on the mass of the T quark is 745 (773) GeV/ c 2 at 95% confidence level. For the first time an algorithm is used for tagging boosted Higgs bosons that is based on a combination of jet substructure information and b tagging. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Study of Vector Boson Scattering and Search for New Physics in Events with Two Same-Sign Leptons and Two Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Bisello, D.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Kovalskyi, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    A study of vector boson scattering in p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector. Candidate events are selected with exactly two leptons of the same charge, two jets with large rapidity separation and high dijet mass, and moderate missing transverse energy. The signal region is expected to be dominated by electroweak same-sign W -boson pair production. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. The observed significance is 2.0 standard deviations, where a significance of 3.1 standard deviations is expected based on the standard model. Cross section measurements for W±W± and W Z processes in the fiducial region are reported. Bounds on the structure of quartic vector-boson interactions are given in the framework of dimension-eight effective field theory operators, as well as limits on the production of doubly charged Higgs bosons.

  11. Study of vector boson scattering and search for new physics in events with two same-sign leptons and two jets.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dobur, D; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Grebenyuk, A; Léonard, A; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Zenoni, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Crucy, S; Dildick, S; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Salva Diblen, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Dos Reis Martins, T; Mora Herrera, C; Pol, M E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santaolalla, J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Marinov, A; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Hadjiiska, R; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Tao, J; Wang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Zou, W; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Brochet, S; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Hindrichs, O; Klein, K; Ostapchuk, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Weber, M; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Künsken, A; Lingemann, J; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bell, A J; Bethani, A; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Cakir, A; Calligaris, L; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dolinska, G; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Flucke, G; Garay Garcia, J; Geiser, A; Gunnellini, P; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kieseler, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Krücker, D; Lange, W; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lobanov, A; Lohmann, W; Lutz, B; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Nayak, A; Ntomari, E; Perrey, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Roland, B; Ron, E; Sahin, M Ö; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Saxena, P; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Seitz, C; Spannagel, S; Vargas Trevino, A D R; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Aldaya Martin, M; Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Draeger, A R; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Goebel, K; Görner, M; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Höing, R S; Junkes, A; Kirschenmann, H; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lange, J; Lapsien, T; Lenz, T; Marchesini, I; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Pietsch, N; Poehlsen, J; Poehlsen, T; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Seidel, M; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Vanhoefer, A; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Böser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Feindt, M; Frensch, F; Giffels, M; Gilbert, A; Hartmann, F; Hauth, T; Husemann, U; Katkov, I; Kornmayer, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lobelle Pardo, P; Mozer, M U; Müller, T; Müller, Th; Nürnberg, A; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Röcker, S; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Ulrich, R; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wayand, S; Weiler, T; Wolf, R; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Giakoumopoulou, V A; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Psallidas, A; Topsis-Giotis, I; Agapitos, A; Kesisoglou, S; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Stiliaris, E; Aslanoglou, X; Evangelou, I; Flouris, G; Foudas, C; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Strologas, J; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Zsigmond, A J; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Karancsi, J; Molnar, J; Palinkas, J; Szillasi, Z; Makovec, A; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Swain, S K; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Gupta, R; Bhawandeep, U; Kalsi, A K; Kaur, M; Kumar, R; Mittal, M; Nishu, N; Singh, J B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S; Bhardwaj, A; Choudhary, B C; Kumar, A; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Ranjan, K; Sharma, V; Banerjee, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, K; Dutta, S; Gomber, B; Jain, Sa; Jain, Sh; Khurana, R; Modak, A; Mukherjee, S; Roy, D; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Abdulsalam, A; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kumar, V; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Bhowmik, S; Chatterjee, R M; Dewanjee, R K; Dugad, S; Ganguly, S; Ghosh, S; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Kole, G; Kumar, S; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Mohanty, G B; Parida, B; Sudhakar, K; Wickramage, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Behnamian, H; Etesami, S M; Fahim, A; Goldouzian, R; Khakzad, M; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Naseri, M; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Grunewald, M; Abbrescia, M; Calabria, C; Chhibra, S S; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Fiore, L; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; My, S; Nuzzo, S; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Radogna, R; Selvaggi, G; Sharma, A; Silvestris, L; Venditti, R; Abbiendi, G; Benvenuti, A C; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Brigliadori, L; Campanini, R; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Grandi, C; Guiducci, L; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Perrotta, A; Primavera, F; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G P; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Cappello, G; Chiorboli, M; Costa, S; Giordano, F; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Gallo, E; Gonzi, S; Gori, V; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Piccolo, D; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Lo Vetere, M; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Dinardo, M E; Fiorendi, S; Gennai, S; Gerosa, R; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Lucchini, M T; Malvezzi, S; Manzoni, R A; Martelli, A; Marzocchi, B; Menasce, D; Moroni, L; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Di Guida, S; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Paolucci, P; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Bellato, M; Bisello, D; Carlin, R; Checchia, P; Dall'Osso, M; Dorigo, T; Galanti, M; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gozzelino, A; Kanishchev, K; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Pazzini, J; Pegoraro, M; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Zotto, P; Zucchetta, A; Zumerle, G; Gabusi, M; Ratti, S P; Re, V; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vitulo, P; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Ciangottini, D; Fanò, L; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Menichelli, M; Saha, A; Santocchia, A; Spiezia, A; Androsov, K; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Boccali, T; Broccolo, G; Castaldi, R; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Donato, S; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Grippo, M T; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Martini, L; Messineo, A; Moon, C S; Palla, F; Rizzi, A; Savoy-Navarro, A; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Squillacioti, P; Tenchini, R; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Vernieri, C; Barone, L; Cavallari, F; D'imperio, G; Del Re, D; Diemoz, M; Jorda, C; Longo, E; Margaroli, F; Meridiani, P; Micheli, F; Nourbakhsh, S; Organtini, G; Paramatti, R; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Santanastasio, F; Soffi, L; Traczyk, P; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Bellan, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Casasso, S; Costa, M; Degano, A; Demaria, N; Finco, L; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Obertino, M M; Ortona, G; Pacher, L; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Pinna Angioni, G L; Potenza, A; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Tamponi, U; Belforte, S; Candelise, V; Casarsa, M; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; La Licata, C; Marone, M; Schizzi, A; Umer, T; Zanetti, A; Chang, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Nam, S K; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, M S; Kong, D J; Lee, S; Oh, Y D; Park, H; Sakharov, A; Son, D C; Kim, T J; Kim, J Y; Song, S; Choi, S; Gyun, D; Hong, B; Jo, M; Kim, H; Kim, Y; Lee, B; Lee, K S; Park, S K; Roh, Y; Choi, M; Kim, J H; Park, I C; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Goh, J; Kim, D; Kwon, E; Lee, J; Seo, H; Yu, I; Juodagalvis, A; Komaragiri, J R; Md Ali, M A B; Casimiro Linares, E; Castilla-Valdez, H; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Heredia-de La Cruz, I; Hernandez-Almada, A; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Sanchez-Hernandez, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Vazquez Valencia, F; Pedraza, I; Salazar Ibarguen, H A; Morelos Pineda, A; Krofcheck, D; Butler, P H; Reucroft, S; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, M; Hassan, Q; Hoorani, H R; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Shoaib, M; Bialkowska, H; Bluj, M; Boimska, B; Frueboes, T; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Romanowska-Rybinska, K; Szleper, M; Zalewski, P; Brona, G; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Misiura, M; Olszewski, M; Wolszczak, W; Bargassa, P; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Gallinaro, M; Lloret Iglesias, L; Nguyen, F; Rodrigues Antunes, J; Seixas, J; Varela, J; Vischia, P; Afanasiev, S; Bunin, P; Gavrilenko, M; Golutvin, I; Gorbunov, I; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Lanev, A; Malakhov, A; Matveev, V; Moisenz, P; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Shmatov, S; Skatchkov, N; Smirnov, V; Zarubin, A; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Levchenko, P; Murzin, V; Oreshkin, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, An; Andreev, Yu; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Pashenkov, A; Tlisov, D; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Lychkovskaya, N; Popov, V; Pozdnyakov, I; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Spiridonov, A; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Andreev, V; Azarkin, M; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Leonidov, A; Mesyats, G; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Belyaev, A; Boos, E; Bunichev, V; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Obraztsov, S; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Azhgirey, I; Bayshev, I; Bitioukov, S; Kachanov, V; Kalinin, A; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Sobol, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Ekmedzic, M; Milosevic, J; Rekovic, V; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Battilana, C; Calvo, E; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Colino, N; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Domínguez Vázquez, D; Escalante Del Valle, A; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Navarro De Martino, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Puerta Pelayo, J; Quintario Olmeda, A; Redondo, I; Romero, L; Soares, M S; Albajar, C; de Trocóniz, J F; Missiroli, M; Moran, D; Brun, H; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Folgueras, S; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Brochero Cifuentes, J A; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Graziano, A; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Munoz Sanchez, F J; Piedra Gomez, J; Rodrigo, T; Rodríguez-Marrero, A Y; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Auffray, E; Auzinger, G; Bachtis, M; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Barney, D; Benaglia, A; Bendavid, J; Benhabib, L; Benitez, J F; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bocci, A; Bonato, A; Bondu, O; Botta, C; Breuker, H; Camporesi, T; Cerminara, G; Colafranceschi, S; D'Alfonso, M; d'Enterria, D; Dabrowski, A; David, A; De Guio, F; De Roeck, A; De Visscher, S; Di Marco, E; Dobson, M; Dordevic, M; Dupont-Sagorin, N; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eugster, J; Franzoni, G; Funk, W; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girone, M; Glege, F; Guida, R; Gundacker, S; Guthoff, M; Hammer, J; Hansen, M; Harris, P; Hegeman, J; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Kousouris, K; Krajczar, K; Lecoq, P; Lourenço, C; Magini, N; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Marrouche, J; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Moortgat, F; Morovic, S; Mulders, M; Musella, P; Orsini, L; Pape, L; Perez, E; Perrozzi, L; Petrilli, A; Petrucciani, G; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Piparo, D; Plagge, M; Racz, A; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Sakulin, H; Schäfer, C; Schwick, C; Sharma, A; Siegrist, P; Silva, P; Simon, M; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Steggemann, J; Stieger, B; Stoye, M; Takahashi, Y; Treille, D; Tsirou, A; Veres, G I; Wardle, N; Wöhri, H K; Wollny, H; Zeuner, W D; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bianchini, L; Buchmann, M A; Casal, B; Chanon, N; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Donegà, M; Dünser, M; Eller, P; Grab, C; Hits, D; Hoss, J; Lustermann, W; Mangano, B; Marini, A C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Masciovecchio, M; Meister, D; Mohr, N; Nägeli, C; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pandolfi, F; Pauss, F; Peruzzi, M; Quittnat, M; Rebane, L; Rossini, M; Starodumov, A; Takahashi, M; Theofilatos, K; Wallny, R; Weber, H A; Amsler, C; Canelli, M F; Chiochia, V; De Cosa, A; Hinzmann, A; Hreus, T; Kilminster, B; Lange, C; Millan Mejias, B; Ngadiuba, J; Pinna, D; Robmann, P; Ronga, F J; Taroni, S; Verzetti, M; Yang, Y; Cardaci, M; Chen, K H; Ferro, C; Kuo, C M; Lin, W; Lu, Y J; Volpe, R; Yu, S S; Chang, P; Chang, Y H; Chang, Y W; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Chen, P H; Dietz, C; Grundler, U; Hou, W-S; Kao, K Y; Liu, Y F; Lu, R-S; Majumder, D; Petrakou, E; Tzeng, Y M; Wilken, R; Asavapibhop, B; Singh, G; Srimanobhas, N; Suwonjandee, N; Adiguzel, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Kayis Topaksu, A; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatoz, A; Sunar Cerci, D; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Bilin, B; Bilmis, S; Gamsizkan, H; Isildak, B; Karapinar, G; Ocalan, K; Sekmen, S; Surat, U E; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Albayrak, E A; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Yetkin, T; Cankocak, K; Vardarlı, F I; Levchuk, L; Sorokin, P; Brooke, J J; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Jacob, J; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Meng, Z; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Sakuma, T; Senkin, S; Smith, V J; Williams, T; Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Baber, M; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Burton, D; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; Della Negra, M; Dunne, P; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Jarvis, M; Karapostoli, G; Kenzie, M; Lane, R; Lucas, R; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mathias, B; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Raymond, D M; Rogerson, S; Rose, A; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Tapper, A; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leggat, D; Leslie, D; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Kasmi, A; Liu, H; Scarborough, T; Charaf, O; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Fantasia, C; Lawson, P; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; St John, J; Sulak, L; Alimena, J; Berry, E; Bhattacharya, S; Christopher, G; Cutts, D; Demiragli, Z; Dhingra, N; Ferapontov, A; Garabedian, A; Heintz, U; Kukartsev, G; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Luk, M; Narain, M; Segala, M; Sinthuprasith, T; Speer, T; Swanson, J; Breedon, R; Breto, G; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Miceli, T; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Searle, M; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Cousins, R; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Rakness, G; Takasugi, E; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Ivova Rikova, M; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Olmedo Negrete, M; Shrinivas, A; Sumowidagdo, S; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; D'Agnolo, R T; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Klein, D; Kovalskyi, D; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Palmer, C; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Sudano, E; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Welke, C; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Barge, D; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Danielson, T; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Flowers, K; Franco Sevilla, M; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Mccoll, N; Richman, J; Stuart, D; To, W; West, C; Yoo, J; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Rogan, C; Spiropulu, M; Timciuc, V; Vlimant, J R; Wilkinson, R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carlson, B; Ferguson, T; Iiyama, Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Krohn, M; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Eggert, N; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Ryd, A; Salvati, E; Skinnari, L; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Winstrom, L; Wittich, P; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Kaadze, K; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Kwan, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Martinez Outschoorn, V I; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitbeck, A; Whitmore, J; Yang, F; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; De Gruttola, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Field, R D; Fisher, M; Furic, I K; Hugon, J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kypreos, T; Low, J F; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Rinkevicius, A; Shchutska, L; Snowball, M; Sperka, D; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Veeraraghavan, V; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; Moon, D H; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Duru, F; Haytmyradov, M; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Rahmat, R; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Malek, M; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Sekaric, J; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Shrestha, S; Skhirtladze, N; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Bauer, G; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malik, S; Meier, F; Ratnikov, F; Snow, G R; Zvada, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Velasco, M; Won, S; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Drozdetskiy, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Gutay, L; Hu, Z; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Lopes Pegna, D; Maroussov, V; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Khukhunaishvili, A; Korjenevski, S; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Kaplan, S; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kovitanggoon, K; Kunori, S; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Friis, E; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Levine, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Verwilligen, P; Vuosalo, C; Woods, N

    2015-02-01

    A study of vector boson scattering in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4  fb(-1) collected with the CMS detector. Candidate events are selected with exactly two leptons of the same charge, two jets with large rapidity separation and high dijet mass, and moderate missing transverse energy. The signal region is expected to be dominated by electroweak same-sign W-boson pair production. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. The observed significance is 2.0 standard deviations, where a significance of 3.1 standard deviations is expected based on the standard model. Cross section measurements for W(±)W(±) and WZ processes in the fiducial region are reported. Bounds on the structure of quartic vector-boson interactions are given in the framework of dimension-eight effective field theory operators, as well as limits on the production of doubly charged Higgs bosons. PMID:25699433

  12. Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

    2010-09-01

    A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz.

  13. Evolutionary Computing for Low-thrust Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; vonAllmed, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Russell, Ryan P.; Terrile, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new mission concepts requires efficient methodologies to analyze, design and simulate the concepts before implementation. New mission concepts are increasingly considering the use of ion thrusters for fuel-efficient navigation in deep space. This paper presents parallel, evolutionary computing methods to design trajectories of spacecraft propelled by ion thrusters and to assess the trade-off between delivered payload mass and required flight time. The developed methods utilize a distributed computing environment in order to speed up computation, and use evolutionary algorithms to find globally Pareto-optimal solutions. The methods are coupled with two main traditional trajectory design approaches, which are called direct and indirect. In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. In the indirect approach, a thrust control problem is transformed into a costate control problem, and the initial values of the costate vector are optimized. The developed methods are applied to two problems: 1) an orbit transfer around the Earth and 2) a transfer between two distance retrograde orbits around Europa, the closest to Jupiter of the icy Galilean moons. The optimal solutions found with the present methods are comparable to other state-of-the-art trajectory optimizers and to analytical approximations for optimal transfers, while the required computational time is several orders of magnitude shorter than other optimizers thanks to an intelligent design of control vector discretization, advanced algorithmic parameterization, and parallel computing.

  14. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric exhaust jet induced effects on a V/STOL vehicle design. Part 3: Experimental technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    The jet induced effects of several exhaust nozzle configurations (axisymmetric, and vectoring/modulating varients) on the aeropropulsive performance of a twin engine V/STOL fighter design was determined. A 1/8 scale model was tested in an 11 ft transonic tunnel at static conditions and over a range of Mach Numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. The experimental aspects of the static and wind-on programs are discussed. Jet effects test techniques in general, fow through balance calibrations and tare force corrections, ASME nozzle thrust and mass flow calibrations, test problems and solutions are emphasized.

  15. Editorial on Future Jet Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    The jet engine is the prime flight controller in post-stall flight domains where conventional flight control fails, or when the engine prevents catastrophes in training, combat, loss of all airframe hydraulics (the engine retains its own hydraulics), loss of one engine, pilot errors, icing on the wings, landing gear and runway issues in takeoff and landing and in bad-whether recoveries. The scientific term for this revolutionary technology is "jet-steering", and in engineering practice - "thrust vectoring", or "TV". Jet-Steering in advanced fighter aircraft designs is integrated with stealth technology. The resulting classified Thrust-Vectoring-Stealth ("TVS") technology has generated a second jet-revolution by which all Air-&-Sea-Propulsion Science and R&D are now being reassessed. Classified F-22, X-47B/C and RQ-180 TVS-vehicles stand at the front of this revolution. But recent transfers of such sensitive technologies to South Korea and Japan [1-5], have raised various fundamental issues that are evaluated by this editorial-review. One, and perhaps a key conclusion presented here, means that both South Korea and Japan may have missed one of their air-&-sea defenses: To develop and field low-cost unmanned fleets of jet-drones, some for use with expensive, TVS-fighter aircraft in highly congested areas. In turn, the U.S., EU, Russia and China, are currently developing such fleets at various TVS levels and sizes. China, for instance, operates at least 15,000 drones ("UAVs") by 2014 in the civilian sector alone. All Chinese drones have been developed by at least 230 developers/manufacturers [1-16]. Mobile telecommunication of safe links between flyers and combat drones ("UCAVs") at increasingly deep penetrations into remote, congested areas, can gradually be purchased-developed-deployed and then operated by extant cader of tens of thousands "National Champion Flyers" who have already mastered the operation of mini-drones in free-to-all sport clubs under national competions and Awards. [Rule-13]. We also provide 26 references [17-43] to a different, unclassified technology that enhances TV-induced flight safety for passenger jets, turboprops and helicopters. It is based on patented stowed-away/emergency-deployed TV-kits added to fixed-configuration, subsonic exhaust nozzles of low thrust-to-weight ratio vehicles. Expected benefits include anti-terror recoveries from emergencies, like forced landing on unprepared runways or highways, or recoveries from all airframe-hydraulics-outs, asymmetric ice on wings, landing gear catastrophes, and recoveries from pilot errors and bad-whether incidents [Rule 9(7)]. Other TV technologies involve preventing catastrophes in speed and patrol boats, racing and regular cars/SUVs, buses and trucks. [Rule 9(8)] and faster helicopters [Rule 9(10)].

  16. Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

  17. Environmental Thrust Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This handbook was prepared as a tool to assist U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) employees coordinate their resources and efforts to help people improve their environment. Twenty-two projects are outlined as potential environmental thrusts at the community level. It is the role of USDA employees to encourage and assist, in every way possible,…

  18. Transient flow thrust prediction for an ejector propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for predicting transient thrust augmenting ejector characteristics is introduced. The analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with a mixing region control volume analysis to predict transient effects in a new way. Details of the theoretical foundation, the solution algorithm, and sample calculations are given.

  19. Laboratory study of jet-noise suppressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, R. E. A.; Fuchs, H. V.; Michel, U.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments on four different types of subsonic jet-noise suppressors are reported. The suppressors were compared to a clean circular jet on an equal-thrust per unit-exit-area basis. On this basis the noise production of the different jets varied only slightly, in contrast to some results reported previously.

  20. Monte Mountain thrust, additional confirmation of the central Nevada thrust

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, A.K. ); Chamberlain, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Monte Mountain thrust, a newly identified thrust exposed in the Timpahute Range, east central Nevada places porous Devonian reservoir rocks over rich Mississippian source rocks at the peak oil generating window. The thrust provides insurmountable evidence of a thrust model that may lead to discovery of giant oil and gas fields along the 400-mi long central Nevada thrust belt. The Timpahute Range lies a little over 50 mi on strike to the south of the prolific Grant Canyon field. Scattered remnants of the north-trending thrust belt are obscured by parallel valleys of Tertiary valley fill and volcanics. The fact that the east-west-trending Timpahute Range could contain exposures of the north-south-trending central Nevada thrust belt attracted them to the range, Familiarity with the stratigraphic section led to the discovery of the thrust. As much as 750 ft of Devonian Guilmette sandstones, in the hanging wall just above the thrust contact have been erroneously mapped as Mississippian Scotty Wash sandstones. These Devonian sandstones could be excellent reservoir rocks. Sandstones in the Guilmette increase in thickness westward. East-vergent thrusting has juxtaposed plates of thicker Guilmette sandstones with plates of thinner sandstones, Reconstruction of Devonian paleogeography provides a clue to the amount of displacement along thrust boundaries.

  1. Thrust Measurement of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2013-11-01

    DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet that can be used for active flow control. We used an analytical balance to measure the thrust generated by the actuator, it is a common metric of its performance without external flow. We found that the measured force is afflicted by several problems; it drifts in time, not always repeatable, is unstable, and depends on the manner the voltage is applied. We report results of investigations of these issues. Tests were conducted on an actuator constructed of 1/4 inch thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) dielectric with 100 mm long offset electrodes, with applied voltages up to 48 kV p-p and frequencies from 32 Hz to 2.5 kHz, and pure Sine and Trapezoidal waveforms. The relative humidity was in the range of 51-55%, corresponding to moisture range of 10,500 to13,000 ppm mass. Force readings were up to 500 mg, (approximately 50 mN/m). We found that the measured force is the net of the positive thrust generated by the wall-jet and an ``anti-thrust'' acting in the opposite direction. We propose a correction procedure that yields the plasma-generated thrust. The correction is based on voltage-dependent anti-thrust measured in the low frequency range of 20-40 Hz. We found that adjacent objects in a test setup affect the measured thrust, and verified it by comparing experiments with and without a metal enclosure, grounded and ungrounded. Uncorrected thrust varied by up to approximately +/-100%, and the corrected thrust variations were up to approximately 30%. Supported by NASA's FAP/Aerospace Sciences Project.

  2. Advanced thrust chamber designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, F. J.; Leach, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    A regeneratively cooled thrust chamber has been designed and fabricated, consisting of an inner TD nickel liner which was spin formed, welded, and machined and an outer shell of electroformed nickel. Coolant channels were produced in the outer surface of the inner liner by the electric discharge machining process before electroforming the shell. Accessory manifolds and piping were attached by welding. Manufacturing processes employed are described.

  3. Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

  4. Solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion System developed under this program was designed to demonstrate all the thrust subsystem functions needed on an unmanned planetary vehicle. The demonstration included operation of the basic elements, power matching input and output voltage regulation, three-axis thrust vector control, subsystem automatic control including failure detection and correction capability (using a PDP-11 computer), operation of critical elements in thermal-vacuum-, zero-gravity-type propellant storage, and data outputs from all subsystem elements. The subsystem elements, functions, unique features, and test setup are described. General features and capabilities of the test-support data system are also presented. The test program culminated in a 1500-h computer-controlled, system-functional demonstration. This included simultaneous operation of two thruster/power conditioner sets. The results of this testing phase satisfied all the program goals.

  5. Rectangular jets in a crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavsaoglu, M. S.; Schetz, J. A.; Jakubowski, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Rectangular jets injected from a flat plate into a crossflow at large angles have been studied. Results were obtained as surface pressure distributions, mean velocity vector plots, turbulence intensities, and Reynolds stresses in the jet plume. The length-to-width ratio of the jets was 4, and the jets were aligned streamwise as single and side-by-side dual jets. The jet injection angles were 90 and 60 deg. Surface pressure distribution results were obtained for jet-to-freestream velocity ratios of 2.2, 4, and 8. Mean flow and turbulence flowfield data were obtained for the side-by-side dual jets, mainly for the jet-to-freestream velocity ratio of 4. The jets featured strong negative pressure peaks near the front nozzle corners. The 60-deg jets produced lower magnitude negative pressures, which are distributed over a lesser area when compared to the 90-deg jets.

  6. Rectangular jets in a crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kavsaoglu, M.S.; Schetz, J.A.; Jakubowski, A.K. )

    1989-09-01

    Rectangular jets injected from a flat plate into a crossflow at large angles have been studied. Results were obtained as surface pressure distributions, mean velocity vector plots, turbulence intensities, and Reynolds stresses in the jet plume. The length-to-width ratio of the jets was 4, and the jets were aligned streamwise as single and side-by-side dual jets. The jet injection angles were 90 and 60 deg. Surface pressure distribution results were obtained for jet-to-freestream velocity ratios of 2.2, 4, and 8. Mean flow and turbulence flowfield data were obtained for the side-by-side dual jets, mainly for the jet-to-freestream velocity ratio of 4. The jets featured strong negative pressure peaks near the front nozzle corners. The 60-deg jets produced lower magnitude negative pressures, which are distributed over a lesser area when compared to the 90-deg jets. 26 refs.

  7. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  8. Effects of internal yaw-vectoring devices on the static performance of a pitch-vectoring nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.

  9. Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y.

    2007-11-15

    A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors (axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts) of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of {+-}2.3 deg. was measured with the error of {+-}0.2 deg. under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

  10. Finite thrust orbital transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The finite thrust optimal transfer in the presence of the Earth's shadow and oblate planet perturbations is a problem of strong interest in modern telecommunication satellite design with plasmic propulsion. The Maximum Principle cannot be used in its standard form to deal with the Earth's shadow. In this paper, using a regularization of the Hamiltonian which expands the Maximum Principle application domain, we provide for the first time, the necessary conditions in a very general context for the finite thrust optimal transfer with limited power around an oblate planet. The costate in such problems is generally discontinuous. To obtain fast numerical solutions, the averaging of the Hamiltonian is introduced. Two classes of boundary conditions are analyzed and numerically solved: the minimum time and the minimum fuel at a fixed time. These two problems are the basic tools for designing the orbit raising of a satellite after the launcher injection into its separation orbit. Numerical solutions have been calculated for the more important applications of LEO to GEO/MEO missions and the results have been reported and discussed.

  11. Low thrust vehicle concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low thrust chemical (hydrogen-oxygen) propulsion systems configured specifically for low acceleration orbit transfer of large space systems were defined. Results indicate that it is cost effective and least risk to combine the OTV and stowed spacecraft in a single 65 K Shuttle. The study shows that the engine for an optimized low thrust stage (1) does not require very low thrust; (2) 1-3 K thrust range appears optimum; (3) thrust transient is not a concern; (4) throttling probably not worthwhile; and (5) multiple thrusters complicate OTV/LSS design and aggravate LSS loads. Regarding the optimum vehicle for low acceleration missions, the single shuttle launch (LSS and expendable OTV) is most cost effective and least risky. Multiple shuttles increase diameter 20%. The space based radar structure short OTV (which maximizes space available for packaged LSS) favors use of torus tank. Propellant tank pressures/vapor residuals are little affected by engine thrust level or number of burns.

  12. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  13. Ground test of a large scale 'D' vented thrust deflecting nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, E. W.; Christiansen, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Future V/STOL aircraft will require efficient techniques for changing the thrust vector from the vertical direction for VTOL operation to the horizontal direction for conventional flight. Most V/STOL concepts utilize thrust vectoring nozzles to provide this variation in the thrust vector direction. An experimental test program was initiated to demonstrate the capabilities of a large scale 'D' vented thrust deflecting system coupled with a high bypass ratio turbofan engine. Data were obtained for a 'D' vented nozzle mounted behind a YTF-34-F5 turbofan engine. Preliminary data are presented for a variety of test conditions. Attention is given to aspects of 'D' vented nozzle design, the test apparatus, engine-nozzle compatibility, exit area variation, longitudinal vectoring performance, nozzle temperature distribution, and large scale - small scale comparisons.

  14. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  15. Static Thrust of an Annular Nozzle with a Concave Central Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W., Jr.; Mercer, Charles E.

    1960-01-01

    A static test of an annular nozzle with a concave central base, producing a jet in which tangents to the jet streamlines at the exit converged toward a region on the axis of symmetry downstream of the exit, has indicated good thrust performance. A value of nozzle-flow coefficient only slightly less than unity indicates the internal loss to be small. Pressures on the concave central base are relatively large and positive, and a predictable portion of the total thrust of the jet is exerted on the central base.

  16. Swirling-flow jet noise suppressors for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the effects of swirling the jet exhausts of small turbofan and turbojet engines have indicated significant progress towards predicting and attaining substantial jet noise abatement with minimum thrust losses in large aircraft engines. Systematic variations of the important swirl vane and swirling flow parameters were conducted to determine their effects on jet noise reduction and engine performance. Since swirling flow becomes more effective in reducing jet noise as the density and temperature gradients increase, the significant trends in noise reduction and engine performance that were established by these parametric studies could be projected into potentially greater reductions of sound pressure levels with minimum thrust losses by controlled swirling of the jets of high thrust engines. The density and temperature gradients in the jet exhausts of high thrust engines are larger by comparison with gradients in small engines.

  17. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1987-03-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report.

  18. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report. 57 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  20. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    1998-01-01

    A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

  1. Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; Russell, Ryan; Terrile, Richard; Petropoulos, Anastassios; vonAllmen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A paper describes a computationally efficient method of optimizing trajectories of spacecraft driven by propulsion systems that generate low thrusts and, hence, must be operated for long times. A common goal in trajectory-optimization problems is to find minimum-time, minimum-fuel, or Pareto-optimal trajectories (here, Pareto-optimality signifies that no other solutions are superior with respect to both flight time and fuel consumption). The present method utilizes genetic and simulated-annealing algorithms to search for globally Pareto-optimal solutions. These algorithms are implemented in parallel form to reduce computation time. These algorithms are coupled with either of two traditional trajectory- design approaches called "direct" and "indirect." In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. The indirect approach involves the primer-vector theory (introduced in 1963), in which the thrust control problem is transformed into a co-state control problem and the initial values of the co-state vector are optimized. In application to two example orbit-transfer problems, this method was found to generate solutions comparable to those of other state-of-the-art trajectory-optimization methods while requiring much less computation time.

  2. Entrainment and thrust augmentation in pulsatile ejector flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Bui, T.

    1981-01-01

    This study comprised direct thrust measurements, flow visualization by use of a spark shadowgraph technique, and mean and fluctuating velocity measurements with a pitot tube and linearized constant temperature hot-wire anemometry respectively. A gain in thrust of as much as 10 to 15% was observed for the pulsatile ejector flow as compared to the steady flow configuration. From the velocity profile measurements, it is concluded that this enhanced augmentation for pulsatile flow as compared to a nonpulsatile one was accomplished by a corresponding increased entrainment by the primary jet flow. It is also concluded that the augmentation and total entrainment by a constant area ejector critically depends upon the inlet geometry of the ejector. Experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of primary jet to ejector area ratio, ejector length, and presence of a diffuser on pulsatile ejector performance.

  3. Predicted flight characteristics of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An existing deHavilland C-8A airplane has been modified into an augmentor wing flight test vehicle. Research objectives are to verify the augmentor flap concept and to produce data for STOL airworthiness criteria. The Modified C-8A provides the means for jet-STOL flight research down to a 60 knot approach speed. The airplane has a high thrust-to-weight ratio, high-lift flap system, vectored thrust, powerful flight controls, and lateral-directional stability augmentation system. Normal performance and handling qualities are expected to be satisfactory. Analysis and piloted simulator results indicate that stability and control characteristics in conventional flight are rated satisfactory. Handling qualities in the STOL regime are also generally satisfactory, although pilot workload is high about the longitudinal axis.

  4. Measurement of the cross-section of high transverse momentum vector bosons reconstructed as single jets and studies of jet substructure in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-04

    This article presents a measurement of the cross-section for high transverse momentum W and Z bosons produced in pp collisions and decaying to all-hadronic final states. The data used in the analysis were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s}=7\\;{\\rm Te}{\\rm V}$$ and correspond to an integrated luminosity of $$4.6\\;{\\rm f}{{{\\rm b}}^{-1}}$$. The measurement is performed by reconstructing the boosted W or Z bosons in single jets. The reconstructed jet mass is used to identify the W and Z bosons, and a jet substructure method based on energy cluster information in the jet centre-of-mass frame is used to suppress the large multi-jet background. The cross-section for events with a hadronically decaying W or Z boson, with transverse momentum $${{p}_{{\\rm T}}}\\gt 320\\;{\\rm Ge}{\\rm V}$$ and pseudorapidity $$|\\eta |\\lt 1.9$$, is measured to be $${{\\sigma }_{W+Z}}=8.5\\pm 1.7$$ pb and is compared to next-to-leading-order calculations. The selected events are further used to study jet grooming techniques.« less

  5. Measurement of the cross-section of high transverse momentum vector bosons reconstructed as single jets and studies of jet substructure in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-04

    This article presents a measurement of the cross-section for high transverse momentum W and Z bosons produced in pp collisions and decaying to all-hadronic final states. The data used in the analysis were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7\\;{\\rm Te}{\\rm V}$ and correspond to an integrated luminosity of $4.6\\;{\\rm f}{{{\\rm b}}^{-1}}$. The measurement is performed by reconstructing the boosted W or Z bosons in single jets. The reconstructed jet mass is used to identify the W and Z bosons, and a jet substructure method based on energy cluster information in the jet centre-of-mass frame is used to suppress the large multi-jet background. The cross-section for events with a hadronically decaying W or Z boson, with transverse momentum ${{p}_{{\\rm T}}}\\gt 320\\;{\\rm Ge}{\\rm V}$ and pseudorapidity $|\\eta |\\lt 1.9$, is measured to be ${{\\sigma }_{W+Z}}=8.5\\pm 1.7$ pb and is compared to next-to-leading-order calculations. The selected events are further used to study jet grooming techniques.

  6. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, John Scott

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-cooled bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for ascent/ descent engines and reaction control systems on various NASA missions and spacecraft, such as the Mars Sample Return and Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Currently, iridium (Ir)-lined rhenium (Re) combustion chambers are the state of the art for in-space engines. NASA's Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, a 150-lbf Ir-Re chamber produced by Plasma Processes and Aerojet Rocketdyne, recently set a hydrazine specific impulse record of 333.5 seconds. To withstand the high loads during terrestrial launch, Re chambers with improved mechanical properties are needed. Recent electrochemical forming (EL-Form"TM") results have shown considerable promise for improving Re's mechanical properties by producing a multilayered deposit composed of a tailored microstructure (i.e., Engineered Re). The Engineered Re processing techniques were optimized, and detailed characterization and mechanical properties tests were performed. The most promising techniques were selected and used to produce an Engineered Re AMBR-sized combustion chamber for testing at Aerojet Rocketdyne.

  7. Experimental results for a two-dimensional supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Burstadt, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    Nearly all supersonic V/STOL aircraft concepts are dependent on the thrust deflecting capability of a nozzle. In one unique concept, referred to as the reverse flow dual fan, not only is there a thrust deflecting nozzle for the fan and core engine exit flow, but because of the way the propulsion system operates during vertical takeoff and landing, the supersonic inlet is also used as a thrust deflecting nozzle. This paper presents results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of a supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle for this reverse flow dual fan concept. Results are presented in terms of nozzle thrust coefficient and thrust vector angle for a number of inlet/nozzle configurations. Flow visualization and nozzle exit flow survey results are also shown.

  8. A Simple Model of Pulsed Ejector Thrust Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Deloof, Richard L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of thrust augmentation from a pulsed source is described. In the model it is assumed that the flow into the ejector is quasi-steady, and can be calculated using potential flow techniques. The velocity of the flow is related to the speed of the starting vortex ring formed by the jet. The vortex ring properties are obtained from the slug model, knowing the jet diameter, speed and slug length. The model, when combined with experimental results, predicts an optimum ejector radius for thrust augmentation. Data on pulsed ejector performance for comparison with the model was obtained using a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube as the pulsed jet source. A statistical experiment, in which ejector length, diameter, and nose radius were independent parameters, was performed at four different frequencies. These frequencies corresponded to four different slug length to diameter ratios, two below cut-off, and two above. Comparison of the model with the experimental data showed reasonable agreement. Maximum pulsed thrust augmentation is shown to occur for a pulsed source with slug length to diameter ratio equal to the cut-off value.

  9. Aeropropulsive characteristics of twin single-expansion-ramp vectoring nozzles installed with forward-swept wings and canards. [transonic tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, M. L.; Capone, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel was used to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of twin single-expansion-ramp vectoring nozzles installed in a wing-body configuration with forward-swept wings. The configuration was tested with and without fixed canards. The test conditions included free-stream Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The model angle of attack ranged from -2 deg to 14 deg; the nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 1.0 (jet off) to 9.0. The Reynolds number based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord varied from 3.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 4.8 x 10 to the 6th power, depending on Mach number. Aerodynamic characteristics were analyzed to determine the effects of thrust vectoring and the canard effects on the wing-afterbody-nozzle and the wing-afterbody portions of the model. Thrust vectoring had no effect on the angle of attack for the onset of flow separation on the wing but resulted in reduced drag at angle-of-attack values above that required for wing flow separation. The canard was found to have little effect on the thrust-induced lift resulting from vectoring, since canard effects occurred primarily on the wing.

  10. Reduction of Low-Thrust Continuous Controls for Trajectory Dynamics and Orbital Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Jennifer S.

    A novel method to evaluate the trajectory dynamics of low-thrust spacecraft is developed. Using a two-body Newtonian model, the spacecraft thrust vector components are represented by Fourier series in terms of eccentric anomaly, and Gauss's variational equations are averaged over one orbit to obtain a set of secular equations. These secular equations are a function of 14 of the thrust Fourier coefficients, regardless of the order of the original Fourier series, and are sufficient to determine a low-thrust spiral trajectory with significantly reduced computational requirements as compared with integration of the full Newtonian problem. This method is applied to orbital targeting problems. The targeting problems are defined as two-point boundary value problems with fixed endpoint constraints. Average low-thrust controls that solve these problems are found using the averaged variational equations and a cost function represented also as a Fourier series. The resulting fuel costs and dynamic fidelity of the targeting solutions are evaluated. Low-thrust controls with equivalent average trajectory dynamics but different thrust profiles are also studied. Higher-order control coefficients that do not affect the average dynamics are used to reduce fuel costs and transform time-varying controls into controls with constant thrust arcs, which can be implemented more easily by low-thrust propulsion systems. These methods have applications to low-thrust mission design and space situational awareness. Example problems based on past missions and potential future scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods.

  11. Low thrust optimal orbital transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1994-01-01

    For many optimal transfer problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs and thus will require more revolutions. In this research, we considered two approaches for solving this problem: a powered flight guidance algorithm previously developed for higher thrust transfers was modified and an 'averaging technique' was investigated.

  12. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  13. Micro thrust and heat generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to micromachines such as microengines or micromotors. More specifically, the invention is directed to a micro rocket which functions as a source of heat and thrust, and utilizes chemical energy to drive or power micromechanical apparatuses. The invention is adaptable to applications involving defense, bio-medical, manufacturing, consumer product, aviation, automotive, computer, inspection, and safety systems. A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachine techniques (LIGA).

  14. Transverse jet injection into a supersonic turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Jet injection into a supersonic cross-flow is a challenging fluid dynamics problem in the field of aerospace engineering which has applications as part of a rocket thrust vector control system for noise control in cavities and fuel injection in scramjet combustion chambers. Several experimental and theoretical/numerical works have been conducted to explore this flow; however, there is a dearth of literature detailing the instantaneous flow which is vital to improve the efficiency of the mixing of fluids. In this paper, a sonic jet in a Mach 1.6 free-stream is studied using a finite volume Godunov type implicit large eddy simulations technique, which employs fifth-order accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme with modified variable extrapolation and a three-stage second-order strong-stability-preserving Runge-Kutta scheme for temporal advancement. A digital filter based turbulent inflow data generation method is implemented in order to capture the physics of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. This paper details the averaged and instantaneous flow features including vortex structures downstream of the jet injection, along with the jet penetration, jet mixing, pressure distributions, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses in the downstream flow. It demonstrates that Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities in the upper jet shear layer are primarily responsible for mixing of the two fluids. The results are compared to experimental data and recently performed classical large eddy simulations (LES) with the same initial conditions in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical methods and utility of the inflow generation method. Results here show equivalent accuracy for 1/45th of the computational resources used in the classical LES study.

  15. Army (MANTECH) thrust area concept: Optics thrust area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-04-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

  16. Parameters Governing Separation Control with Sweeping Jet Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woszidlo, Rene

    Parameters governing separation control with sweeping jet actuators over a deflected flap are investigated experimentally on a generic "Multiple Flap Airfoil" (MFA). The model enables an extensive variation of geometric and aerodynamic parameters to aid the scaling of this novel flow control method to full-size applications. Sweeping jets exit from discrete, millimeter-scale nozzles distributed along the span and oscillate from side-to-side. The sweeping frequency is almost linearly dependent on the supplied flowrate per actuator. The measured thrust exerted by a row of actuators agrees well with vectored momentum calculations. Frequency and thrust measurements suggest that the jet velocity is limited to subsonic speeds and that any additional increase in flowrate causes internal choking of the flow. Neither the flowrate nor the momentum input is found to be a sole parameter governing the lift for varying distance between adjacent actuators. However, the product of the mass flow coefficient and the square root of the momentum coefficient collapses the lift onto a single curve regardless of the actuator spacing. Contrary to other actuation methods, separation control with sweeping jets does not exhibit any hysteresis with either momentum input or flap deflection. A comparison between sweeping and non-sweeping jets illustrates the superior control authority provided by sweeping jets. Surface flow visualization on the flap suggests the formation of counter-rotating pairs of streamwise vortices caused by the interaction of neighboring jets. The actuation intensity required to attach the flow increases with increasing downstream distance from the main element's trailing edge and increasing flap deflection. No obvious dependence of the ideal actuation location on actuator spacing, flap deflection, angle of attack, or actuation intensity is found within the tested range. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results reveal that the inviscid flow solution appears to be a suitable predictor for the effectively and efficiently obtainable lift of a given airfoil configuration. The flap size affects the achievable lift, the accompanying drag, and the required flap deflection and actuation intensity. By controlling separation, the range of achievable lift coefficients is doubled without significant penalty in drag even when considering a safety margin for the maximum applicable incidence.

  17. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  18. Thrust Optimization in Pulsatile Vortex Generators in Liquid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Mike; Clark, Torin; Mohseni, Kamran

    2006-11-01

    Vortex rings are coherent structures effective at transporting momentum, circulation and energy across long distances through a fluid medium. An array of periodic vortex rings can be created by a series of pulsatile jets. Similar jet propulsion is the primary method of movement for Cephalopod such as squid. Inspired by the propulsion of squid and jellyfish we have designed and built vortex generators for propulsion and low speed maneuvering of small underwater vehicles. The vortex generator consists of a cavity with a moving diaphragm on one side and an exit orifice on the other side. The diaphragm or a plunger is activated by an electric motor. As a result, the amplitude, frequency, and profile of the actuated diaphragm are easily controlled. This investigation is focused on identifying the parameters that control the thrust generation in this mechanism and its optimization. A sensitive load cell is employed to directly measure thrust generation while these parameters are varied. It is found that the formation number, actuation frequency, and plunger profile are among the most relevant parameters that control thrust generation.

  19. The application of parameter estimation to flight measurements to obtain lateral-directional stability derivatives of an augmented jet-flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments with an augmented jet flap STOL aircraft provided data from which the lateral directional stability and control derivatives were calculated by applying a linear regression parameter estimation procedure. The tests, which were conducted with the jet flaps set at a 65 deg deflection, covered a large range of angles of attack and engine power settings. The effect of changing the angle of the jet thrust vector was also investigated. Test results are compared with stability derivatives that had been predicted. The roll damping derived from the tests was significantly larger than had been predicted, whereas the other derivatives were generally in agreement with the predictions. Results obtained using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure are compared with those from the linear regression solutions.

  20. Low thrust propulsion literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Darrel

    1989-01-01

    A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

  1. Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low-thrust NEP subsystem with Brayton cycle power conversion system is preferable in comparison with NEP subsystem with thermoemission power conversion system.

  2. Search for production of vector-like quark pairs and of four top quarks in the lepton-plus-jets final state in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-08-20

    A search for pair production of vector-like quarks, both up-type (T) and down-type (B), as well as for four-top-quark production, is presented. The search is based on pp collisions at \\( \\sqrt{s}=8 \\) TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb–1. Data are analysed in the lepton-plus-jets final state, characterised by an isolated electron or muon with high transverse momentum, large missing transverse momentum and multiple jets. Dedicated analyses are performed targeting three cases: a T quark with significant branching ratio to a W bosonmore » and a b-quark \\( \\left(T\\overline{T}\\to Wb+\\mathrm{X}\\right) \\), and both a T quark and a B quark with significant branching ratio to a Higgs boson and a third-generation quark (\\( T\\overline{T}\\to Ht+X\\;\\mathrm{and}\\;B\\overline{B}\\to Hb+\\mathrm{X} \\) respectively). No significant excess of events above the Standard Model expectation is observed, and 95% CL lower limits are derived on the masses of the vector-like T and B quarks under several branching ratio hypotheses assuming contributions from T → Wb, Zt, Ht and B → Wt, Zb, Hb decays. The 95% CL observed lower limits on the T quark mass range between 715 GeV and 950 GeV for all possible values of the branching ratios into the three decay modes, and are the most stringent constraints to date. In addition, the most restrictive upper bounds on four-top-quark production are set in a number of new physics scenarios.« less

  3. Search for production of vector-like quark pairs and of four top quarks in the lepton-plus-jets final state in pp collisions at TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R. W.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, R. S. B.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kondrashova, N.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; König, S.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kosek, T.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kreiss, S.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Krizka, K.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumnack, N.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kucuk, H.; Kuday, S.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuger, F.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunigo, T.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kurumida, R.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; Kwan, T.; Kyriazopoulos, D.; La Rosa, A.; La Rosa Navarro, J. L.; La Rotonda, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lambourne, L.; Lammers, S.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, J. C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lasagni Manghi, F.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Lazovich, T.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; LeBlanc, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leight, W. A.; Leisos, A.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leone, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lester, C. G.; Levchenko, M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Lewis, A.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Li, S.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.; Liberti, B.; Liblong, A.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. H.; Linde, F.; Lindquist, B. E.; Linnemann, J. T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loginov, A.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, B. A.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Looper, K. A.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lopez Paredes, B.; Lopez Paz, I.; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Lösel, P. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lu, N.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macdonald, C. M.; Machado Miguens, J.; Macina, D.; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeland, S.; Maeno, T.; Maevskiy, A.; Magradze, E.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maier, A. A.; Maier, T.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V. M.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mancini, G.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Manfredini, A.; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mann, A.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mantifel, R.; Mantoani, M.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marjanovic, M.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti, L. F.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martoiu, V. S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massa, L.; Massol, N.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mättig, P.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazza, S. M.; Mazzaferro, L.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meloni, F.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Mönig, K.; Monini, C.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morgenstern, M.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morton, A.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagarkar, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'grady, F.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okamura, W.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pires, S.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-08-01

    A search for pair production of vector-like quarks, both up-type ( T) and down-type ( B), as well as for four-top-quark production, is presented. The search is based on pp collisions at TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. Data are analysed in the lepton-plus-jets final state, characterised by an isolated electron or muon with high transverse momentum, large missing transverse momentum and multiple jets. Dedicated analyses are performed targeting three cases: a T quark with significant branching ratio to a W boson and a b-quark , and both a T quark and a B quark with significant branching ratio to a Higgs boson and a third-generation quark ( respectively). No significant excess of events above the Standard Model expectation is observed, and 95% CL lower limits are derived on the masses of the vector-like T and B quarks under several branching ratio hypotheses assuming contributions from T → Wb, Zt, Ht and B → Wt, Zb, Hb decays. The 95% CL observed lower limits on the T quark mass range between 715 GeV and 950 GeV for all possible values of the branching ratios into the three decay modes, and are the most stringent constraints to date. Additionally, the most restrictive upper bounds on four-top-quark production are set in a number of new physics scenarios. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Search for production of vector-like quark pairs and of four top quarks in the lepton-plus-jets final state in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-08-20

    A search for pair production of vector-like quarks, both up-type (T) and down-type (B), as well as for four-top-quark production, is presented. The search is based on pp collisions at \\( \\sqrt{s}=8 \\) TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb–1. Data are analysed in the lepton-plus-jets final state, characterised by an isolated electron or muon with high transverse momentum, large missing transverse momentum and multiple jets. Dedicated analyses are performed targeting three cases: a T quark with significant branching ratio to a W boson and a b-quark \\( \\left(T\\overline{T}\\to Wb+\\mathrm{X}\\right) \\), and both a T quark and a B quark with significant branching ratio to a Higgs boson and a third-generation quark (\\( T\\overline{T}\\to Ht+X\\;\\mathrm{and}\\;B\\overline{B}\\to Hb+\\mathrm{X} \\) respectively). No significant excess of events above the Standard Model expectation is observed, and 95% CL lower limits are derived on the masses of the vector-like T and B quarks under several branching ratio hypotheses assuming contributions from T → Wb, Zt, Ht and B → Wt, Zb, Hb decays. The 95% CL observed lower limits on the T quark mass range between 715 GeV and 950 GeV for all possible values of the branching ratios into the three decay modes, and are the most stringent constraints to date. In addition, the most restrictive upper bounds on four-top-quark production are set in a number of new physics scenarios.

  5. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  6. Apparatus measures very small thrusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Measurement of very small thrusts of an ion engine are made by mounting the engine on a platform supported by leaf springs which are loaded to have a zero spring constant. Measuring apparatus includes an inductive sensor, servo amplifier, and a counterthrust feedback system.

  7. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of

  8. Twin Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  9. Development and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Rae A.; Cowan, John R.

    1993-01-01

    A road map of milestones toward the goal of a full scale Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor/Flight Support Motor (RSRM/FSM) hot fire test is discussed. These milestones include: component feasibility, full power system demonstration, SSME hot fire tests, and RSRM hot fire tests. The participation of the Marshall Space Flight Center is emphasized.

  10. Translation Optics for 30 cm Ion Engine Thrust Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Data were obtained from a 30 cm xenon ion thruster in which the accelerator grid was translated in the radial plane. The thruster was operated at three different throttle power levels, and the accelerator grid was incrementally translated in the X, Y, and azimuthal directions. Plume data was obtained downstream from the thruster using a Faraday probe mounted to a positioning system. Successive probe sweeps revealed variations in the plume direction. Thruster perveance, electron backstreaming limit, accelerator current, and plume deflection angle were taken at each power level, and for each accelerator grid position. Results showed that the thruster plume could easily be deflected up to six degrees without a prohibitive increase in accelerator impingement current. Results were similar in both X and Y direction.

  11. Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.

  12. The terminology of structures in thrust belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Robert W. H.

    A review of structures and geometric relationships recognized in thrust belts is presented. A thrust is defined as any contractional fault, a corollary being that thrusts must cut up-section in their transport direction. 'Flats' are those portions of a thrust surface which were parallel to an arbitrary datum surface at the time of displacement and 'ramps' are those portions of thrusts which cut across datum surfaces. Ramps are classified on the basis of their orientation relative to the thrust transport direction and whether they are cut offs in the hangingwall or footwall of the thrust. Lateral variations in the form of staircase trajectories are joined by oblique or lateral ramps which have a component of strike-slip movement. An array of thrusts which diverge in their transport direction may form by either of two propagation models. These are termed 'piggy-back' propagation, which is foreland-directed, and 'overstep' propagation which is opposed to the thrust transport direction. An array of thrust surfaces is termed an 'imbricate stack' and should these surfaces anastamose upwards a 'duplex' will result; the fault-bounded blocks are termed 'horses'. A duplex is bounded by a higher, 'roof' thrust and a lower, 'floor' thrust. The intersection of any two thrust planes is termed a 'branch line'. Thrusts can be classified on the basis of their relationship to asymmetric fold limbs which they cut. A further classification arises from whether a particular thrust lies in the hangingwall or footwall of another one. The movement of thrust sheets over corrugated surfaces, or the local development of thrust structures beneath, will fold higher thrust sheets. These folds are termed 'culminations' and their limbs are termed 'culmination walls'. Accommodation of this folding may require movement on surfaces within the hangingwall of the active thrust. These accommodation surfaces are termed 'hangingwall detachments' and they need not root down into the active thrust. This category of detachment includes dip-slip 'hangingwall drop faults' which are developed by differential uplift of duplex roofs, and 'out-of-the-syncline' thrusts which develop from overtightened fold hinges. Back thrusts, as well as forming as hangingwall detachments, may also form due to layer-parallel shortening above a sticking thrust or by rotation of the hangingwall above a ramp.

  13. The Aeroacoustics of Supersonic Coaxial Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    1994-01-01

    Instability waves have been established as the dominant source of mixing noise radiating into the downstream arc of a supersonic jet when the waves have phase velocities that are supersonic relative to ambient conditions. Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used the concepts of growing and decaying linear instability waves for predicting radiated noise. This analysis is extended to the prediction of noise radiation from supersonic coaxial jets. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytic functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The Reynolds averaged, compressible, boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number. Both normal and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. Comparisons with measurements for both single and coaxial jets show good agreement. The results from mean flow and stability calculations are used to predict the noise radiation from coaxial jets with different operating conditions. Comparisons are made between different coaxial jets and a single equivalent jet with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. Results indicate that normal velocity profile jets can have noise reductions compared to the single equivalent jet. No noise reductions are found for inverted velocity profile jets operated at the minimum noise condition compared to the single equivalent jet. However, it is inferred that changes in area ratio may provide noise reduction benefits for inverted velocity profile jets.

  14. Jet maximization, axis minimization, and stable cone finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    Jet finding is a type of optimization problem, where hadrons from a high-energy collision event are grouped into jets based on a clustering criterion. As three interesting examples, one can form a jet cluster that (i) optimizes the overall jet four-vector, (ii) optimizes the jet axis, or (iii) aligns the jet axis with the jet four-vector. In this paper, we show that these three approaches to jet finding, despite being philosophically quite different, can be regarded as descendants of a mother optimization problem. For the special case of finding a single cone jet of fixed opening angle, the three approaches are genuinely identical when defined appropriately, and the result is a stable cone jet with the largest value of a quantity J . This relationship is only approximate for cone jets in the rapidity-azimuth plane, as used at the Large Hadron Collider, though the differences are mild for small radius jets.

  15. Initial three-dimensional low-thrust trajectory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Ehsan; Abdelkhalik, Ossama

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a method for rapid generation of three-dimensional low-thrust trajectories that utilizes Fourier series for shaping the position vector. The generated trajectories are feasible with respect to the given thrust acceleration constraints. An objective function is defined representing the overall mission cost, i.e. minimum ΔV . Four missions from Earth to Mars, the near Earth asteroid 1989ML, comet Tempel 1 and asteroid Dionysus are considered for assessing the performance of the algorithm. The selected missions present a range of various difficulties with different levels of thrust acceleration constraints. The Fourier series technique is flexible in generating various shapes rather than using one global shape. The proposed method is capable of rapid generation of sub-optimal feasible trajectories that are totally different from and comparable to the solutions of the state-of-the-art three-dimensional shape-based methods. This feature is quite favorable at the preliminary stages of low-thrust mission designs where various trajectory alternatives are required. The results also show that the obtained trajectories can be used as initial guesses for high fidelity optimal control tools.

  16. Port geometry effects on thrust reverser static performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Mason, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to provide some insight into the effect of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of thrust reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles using a single port test apparatus. This test apparatus simulates thrust reversal (conceptually) which would occur in the convergent section of the forward flight nozzle or in the constant area duct just upstream. The port opening had an aspect ratio of 6.1 (throat width/throat height) and had constant passage area from the geometric throat to the exit. The geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and flow blocker angle. The apparatus had a single port so that thrust (vector) angle could be obtained from force balance measurements. The tests were conducted in the Static Test Stand of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.5 to 8.0 using high pressure air for propulsion simulation. Port angles (measured forward from a horizontal reference line) investigated were 75, 90, 120 and 135 deg. Sharp and rounded port corners were investigated for each port angle. Discharge coefficient, thrust ratio, and passage static pressures were measured.

  17. Dynamics of gas-thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, A. K.; Tapia, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Computer program calculates load coefficients, up to third harmonic, for hydrostatic gas thrust bearings. Program is useful in identification of industrial situations where gas-thrust bearings have potential applications.

  18. Studies on Thrust Characteristic of High-Thrust Spiral Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominami, Tsutomu; Fujimoto, Yasutaka

    Linear actuators are used in various industrial applications. Connentional linear actuators are a combination of a rotational motor and a ball screw, a hydraulic actuator, or a linear motor. However, these actuators have some demerits. This paper proposes a spiral motor (SPRM) that comprises a spiral stator and a spiral mover. Owing to its spiral structure, the SPRM can be expected to show better performance as compared to the conventional linear actuator. However, it is not easy to manufacture spiral stators and spiral movers. In this paper, thrust and torque equations derived from a magnetic circuit are introduced. A prototype is developed and its specifications are provided. Sixty fan-shaped stator blocks are mounted on the frame and forty-eight fan-shaped mover blocks with flat surfaces are mounted on the axis. These blocks form an approximately spiral structure. The blocks are not difficult to manufacture. The feasibility of the developed SPRM is confirmed by performing basic experiments. First, the SPRM is driven by using synchronous control. Subsequently, the thrust is measured by a load cell and the thrust constant is determined.

  19. Active Control of Supersonic Impinging Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krothapalli, A.; Elavarasan, R.; Alvi, F.; Shih, C.; Wardwell, Doug (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies of supersonic impinging jet flows suggest that they are greatly influenced by the flow-acoustic interactions through a feedback mechanism. The self-sustained oscillations of the jet column observed in these flows result in high velocities in the ambient medium induced by the large-scale coherent vortical structures in the jet shear layers. As a consequence, the suck down force on the surface from which the jet is issuing can reach as high as 60% of the primary jet thrust. In addition, the overall sound pressure levels (OASPL) increase significantly relative to a free jet. To alleviate these undesirable flow and acoustic characteristics, a novel control technique using supersonic microjets is demonstrated. Sixteen supersonic microjets are placed around the circumference of the main jet at the nozzle exit to disrupt the feedback mechanism. As a result, significant lift loss recovery (approximately 50%) and reduced near field OASPL (approximately 7 dB) are observed.

  20. Jet shielding of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

  1. Reversed cowl flap inlet thrust augmentor. [with adjustable airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An adjustable airfoil is described for varying the geometry of a jet inlet and an ejector inlet in a jet engine for providing thrust augmentation and noise reduction. The airfoil comprises essentially a plurality of segments which are extended radially outward and retracted relative to the longitudinal axis of the engine as a function of a change in the pressure differential between the upstream and downstream surfaces of the airfoil. A servo mechanism responsive to the change in the pressure differential is coupled to the airfoil to extend and retract the airfoil segments to maintain the pressure at a maximum on the downstream side of the airfoil relative to the pressure on the upstream side of the airfoil. At low speeds, such as at take-offs and landings, the airfoil is fully extended while at high speeds it is fully retracted.

  2. Ultra-High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.

    1994-01-01

    The jet noise from a 1/15 scale model of a Pratt and Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was measured in the United Technology Research Center anechoic research tunnel (ART) under a range of operating conditions. Conditions were chosen to match engine operating conditions. Data were obtained at static conditions and at wind tunnel Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.27, and 0.35 to simulate inflight effects on jet noise. Due to a temperature dependence of the secondary nozzle area, the model nozzle secondary to primary area ratio varied from 7.12 at 100 percent thrust to 7.39 at 30 percent thrust. The bypass ratio varied from 10.2 to 11.8 respectively. Comparison of the data with predictions using the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Jet Noise Prediction Method showed that the current prediction method overpredicted the ADP jet noise by 6 decibels. The data suggest that a simple method of subtracting 6 decibels from the SAE Coaxial Jet Noise Prediction for the merged and secondary flow source components would result in good agreement between predicted and measured levels. The simulated jet noise flight effects with wind tunnel Mach numbers up to 0.35 produced jet noise inflight noise reductions up to 12 decibels. The reductions in jet noise levels were across the entire jet noise spectra, suggesting that the inflight effects affected all source noise components.

  3. A jet in a crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    In the transition from hover to wingborn flight, V/STOL aircraft rely on the direct thrust of lift jets to supplement wing generated lift. The lifting jets interact with the flow over the aerodynamic surface to produce a complex flow around the aircraft. The simplest configuration which retains the essential characteristics of the jet/aerodynamic-surface interaction problem is a subsonic round jet exhausting perpendicularly through a large flat plate into a uniform crossflow. This configuration was studied extensively, both by experiment and by analysis. As a result, a fairly complete experiment data base exists for comparison with the numerical calculations. Research publications and presentations in this area are included. Each citation is followed by an abstract of the work.

  4. Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Scholl, Harland F.

    1966-01-01

    An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined.

  5. Ram-jet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cervenko, A. J.; Friedman, R.

    1956-01-01

    The ram jet is basically one of the most dimple types of aircraft engine. It consists only of an inlet diffuser, a combustion system, and an exit nozzle. A typical ram-jet configuration is shown in figure 128. The engine operates on the Brayton cycle, and ideal cycle efficiency depends only on the ratio of engine to ambient pressure. The increased, engine pressures are obtained by ram action alone, and for this reason the ram jet has zero thrust at zero speed. Therefore, ram-jet-powered aircraft must be boosted to flight speeds close to a Mach number of 1.0 before appreciable thrust is generated by the engine. Since pressure increases are obtained by ram action alone, combustor-inlet pressures and temperatures are controlled by the flight speed, the ambient atmospheric condition, and by the efficiency of the inlet diffuser. These pressures and temperatures, as functions of flight speed and altitude, are shown in figure 129 for the NACA standard atmosphere and for practical values of diffuser efficiency. It can be seen that very wide ranges of combustor-inlet temperatures and pressures may be encountered over the ranges of flight velocity and altitude at which ram jets may be operated. Combustor-inlet temperatures from 500 degrees to 1500 degrees R and inlet pressures from 5 to 100 pounds per square inch absolute represent the approximate ranges of interest in current combustor development work. Since the ram jet has no moving parts in the combustor outlet, higher exhaust-gas temperatures than those used in current turbojets are permissible. Therefore, fuel-air ratios equivalent to maximum rates of air specific impulse or heat release can be used, and, for hydrocarbon fuels, this weight ratio is about 0.070. Lower fuel-air ratios down to about 0.015 may also be required to permit efficient cruise operation. This fuel-air-ratio range of 0.015 to 0.070 used in ram jets can be compared with the fuel-air ratios up to 0.025 encountered in current turbojets. Ram-jet combustor-inlet velocities range from 150 to 400 feet per second. These high linear velocities combined with the relatively low pressure ratios obtainable in ram jets require that the pressure drop through the combustor be kept low to avoid excessive losses in cycle efficiency. It has been estimated that, for a long-range ram-jet engine, an increase in pressure loss of one dynamic head would require a compensating 1-percent increase in combustion efficiency. Therefore, combustor pressure-loss coefficients (pressure drop/impact pressure) of the order of 1 to 4 are found in most current engines. The operating conditions described impose major problems in the design of stable and efficient ram-jet combustion systems. This chapter presents a survey of ram-jet combustor research and, where possible, points out criteria that may be useful in the design of ram-jet combustion systems.

  6. Low-thrust perturbation guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, T. P.; Caughey, T. K.; Wood, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    Two perturbation guidance schemes, time-to-go guidance and minimum-distance guidance, are reexamined, in the context of a low-thrust orbit transfer problem. The two schemes, which use different techniques for indexing feedback gains, are shown to be comparable in performance. Both schemes are found to produce terminal state errors which are orders of magnitude smaller than those obtained in several previous studies. Various small modifications or enhancements of the algorithms are thought to account for a portion of the dramatic improvement in results. The problem investigated is a hypothetical earth to Mars orbit transfer, with six state variables, two control variables, and six terminal state constraints.

  7. Thrust generator for boring tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, N.B.

    1984-03-13

    The present invention provides an electrically powered system for advancing a rotary boring tool in situations where the inclination of the bore hole is such that the force of gravity does not provide sufficient forward thrust. One or more marine screw propellers are rotated by the motor which itself is restrained from rotation by being fixedly connected to a flexible, twist resistant conduit for conducting the drilling fluid and electric power from the surface. The system may also provide for different rotative speeds for propeller and bit and for counter-rotating propellers to minimize torque forces on the conduit.

  8. Modular multi-engine thrust control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a modular thrust control lever assembly for controling forward/reverse thrust generated by an aircraft engine. It includes an electric/electronic engine thrust control system, an inhibit mechanism for preventing inadverent or premature establishment of at least one of forward and reverse engine thrust. It consists of a (a) housing; (b) a control lever assembly pivotally mounted within the housing for fore and aft pivotal movement in a single vertical plane; (c) movable inhibit mechanism normally mounted in the path of movement of the laterally projecting roller on the control lever assembly between at least one of the maximum thrust limit positions of the assembly and the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (d) a electric/electronic engine thrust control system including an mechanism for reconfiguring the thrust controls of the engine upon movement of the thrust control lever assembly to the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (e) a mechanism responsive to the output signal for shifting the inhibit mechanism out of the path of movement of the control lever assembly.

  9. Search for 3rd Generation Vector Leptoquarks in the Di-tau Di-jet Channel in Proton Antiproton Collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Stanley Scott; /UC, Davis

    2006-12-01

    We search for third generation vector leptoquarks (V LQ3) produced in colliding p{bar p} beams operating at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We use 322 pb{sup -1} of data to search for the V LQ3 signal in the di-tau plus di-jet channel. For the first time, the full matrix element is used in the Monte Carlo simulation of this signal. With no events observed in the signal region, we set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the V LQ3 pair production cross section of {sigma} < 344fb, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(V LQ3 {yields} b{tau}) = 1, and a lower limit on the V LQ3 mass of m{sub V LQ3} > 317 GeV=c{sup 2}. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are applied in the least favorable manner the results are {sigma} < 360fb and m{sub V LQ3} > 294 GeV=c{sup 2}. The Minimal coupling V LQ3 result is an upper limit on the cross section of {sigma} < 493fb ({sigma} < 610fb) and the lower limit on the mass is m{sub V LQ3} > 251 GeV=c{sup 2} (m{sub V LQ3} > 223 GeV=c{sup 2}) for the nominal (1{sigma} varied) theoretical expectation.

  10. Thrust chamber material technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

  11. Thrust chamber material technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

    1989-03-01

    This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

  12. Finite element analysis and performance evaluation of synthetic jet actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Jeng-Jong; Wu, K. C.

    2002-11-01

    The primary objective of active flow control research is to develop a cost-effective technology that has the potential for revolutionary advances in aerodynamic performance and maneuvering compared to conventional approaches. The development of such systems have many implications for aerospace vehicles including: reducing mechanical complexity and hydraulic failure, reducing noise and weight, lowering energy and fuel consumption, lowering downtime and maintenance, enhancing maneuvering and agility with enhanced aerodynamic performance and safety. Interest in active flow control for aerospace applications has stimulated the recent development of innovative actuator designs that create localized disturbances in a flowfield. A novel class of devices, known as synthetic jet actuator, has been demonstrated to exhibit promising flow control capabilities including separation control and thrust vectoring. The basic components of a synthetic jet actuator are made of cavity and oscillating materials. The synthetic jet actuator developed at NASA LaRC has a small housing in which a cylindrical cavity is enclosed by two metal diaphragms, 50 mm in diameter, placed opposite each other. A circular piezoelectric wafer is attached to the center of the outside face of each metal diaphragm. The pair of piezoelectric metal diaphragms is operated with a 180° phase differential at the same sinusoidal voltage and frequency. With actuation, a synthetic jet issues from a 35.5mm long by 0.5mm wide slot on the top of the device. In this study, a finite element model of synthetic jet actuator developed at NASA LaRC is investigated. The developed finite element model can be utilized to design and determine the performance of synthetic jet actuator. The analysis includes the FE model of circular plate, FE model of piezoelectric actuator/circular plate, piezoelectric (electrical field)/circular plate (structural field)/cavity (flow field) coupled system and experimental validation. The phase-average jet center velocity and amplitude of input voltage of piezoelectric actuator are predicted by this finite element model. The theoretical prediction is validated experimentally in this study.

  13. Low Thrust Orbital Maneuvers Using Ion Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Low-thrust maneuver options, such as electric propulsion, offer specific challenges within mission-level Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis (MS&A) tools. This project seeks to transition techniques for simulating low-thrust maneuvers from detailed engineering level simulations such as AGI's Satellite ToolKit (STK) Astrogator to mission level simulations such as the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS). Our project goals are as follows: A) Assess different low-thrust options to achieve various orbital changes; B) Compare such approaches to more conventional, high-thrust profiles; C) Compare computational cost and accuracy of various approaches to calculate and simulate low-thrust maneuvers; D) Recommend methods for implementing low-thrust maneuvers in high-level mission simulations; E) prototype recommended solutions.

  14. Optimal low-thrust trajectories using equinoctial elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Lee, S.

    1991-10-01

    The problem of determining optimal and suboptimal continuous low-thrust trajectories connecting circular, noncoplanar orbits is addressed. The set of nonsingular two-body elements called equinoctial variables is chosen to describe the state of the spacecraft motion. Thrust acceleration, assumed to be continuous, is used as the control vector. A standard fixed-final-time, two-point boundary-value problem is formulated using optimal control theory and a performance index which is the time integral of thrust acceleration squared. Two types of solutions to the two-point boundary-value problem are presented: (1) approximate, closed-form, analytical solutions to linearized state and costate equations which are based on the state defined by an intermediary circular orbit and (2) exact solutions obtained by numerical methods using the initial co-states from solutions to the linearized equations as starting values. Solutions to the linear and nonlinear equations for examples, which include an earth-Mars type transfer, are compared.

  15. Solar electric propulsion thrust beam interactive effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Interactive effects between ion engine thrust beams and an SEP spacecraft and its science payload have been examined. AC electric contamination from thrust beam potential fluctuations of both 'common mode' and 'point-to-point' forms has been evaluated. Quenching of point-to-point E-fields by both thrust ion and charge exchange ion plasmas is expected. Reduction methods for AC electric contamination from common mode thrust beam potential fluctuations have been developed. Charged particle contamination of ambient space and plasma wave contamination may result from density magnitude and spatial extent of charge exchange plasma plumes. Reduction methods for cone of directions of high angle charge exchange ions have been examined.

  16. Thrust control system design of ducted rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Juntao; Li, Bin; Bao, Wen; Niu, Wenyu; Yu, Daren

    2011-07-01

    The investigation of the thrust control system is aroused by the need for propulsion system of ducted rockets. Firstly the dynamic mathematical models of gas flow regulating system, pneumatic servo system and ducted rocket engine were established and analyzed. Then, to conquer the discussed problems of thrust control, the idea of information fusion was proposed to construct a new feedback variable. With this fused feedback variable, the thrust control system was designed. According to the simulation results, the introduction of the new fused feedback variable is valid in eliminating the contradiction between rapid response and stability for the thrust control system of ducted rockets.

  17. Experimental wing and canard jet-flap aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, D. B.; Durston, D. A.; Stewart, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of upper surface blowing on the aerodynamics of a 1/2-span wing/body/canard configuration are shown. The results expand a data base that is limited at high subsonic Mach numbers (M = 0.6-0.9), data that are needed if computational techniques are to be developed for the complex flowfields generated by jet blowing. At lift coefficients greater than about 1.0, the thrust removed drag coefficient was lower with jet blowing than without jet blowing. This favorable effect increased with increasing jet blowing coefficient, and, for a fixed coefficient, simultaneous wing/canard jet blowing was slightly more effective than blowing either surface alone.

  18. A study of variable thrust, variable specific impulse trajectories for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tadashi

    A study has been performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of variable thrust and variable Isp (specific impulse) trajectories for solar system exploration. There have been several numerical research efforts for variable thrust, variable Isp, power-limited trajectory optimization problems. All of these results conclude that variable thrust, variable Isp (variable specific impulse, or VSI) engines are superior to constant thrust, constant Isp (constant specific impulse; or CSI) engines. However, most of these research efforts assume a mission from Earth to Mars, and some of them further assume that these planets are circular and coplanar. Hence they still lack the generality. This research has been conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Is a VSI engine always better than a CSI engine or a high thrust engine for any mission to any planet with any time of flight considering lower propellant mass as the sole criterion? (2) If a planetary swing-by is used for a VSI trajectory, is the fuel savings of a VSI swing-by trajectory better than that of a CSI swing-by or high thrust swing-by trajectory? To support this research, an unique, new computer-based interplanetary trajectory calculation program has been created. This program utilizes a calculus of variations algorithm to perform overall optimization of thrust, Isp, and thrust vector direction along a trajectory that minimizes fuel consumption for interplanetary travel. It is assumed that the propulsion system is power-limited, and thus the compromise between thrust and Isp is a variable to be optimized along the flight path. This program is capable of optimizing not only variable thrust trajectories but also constant thrust trajectories in 3-D space using a planetary ephemeris database. It is also capable of conducting planetary swing-bys. Using this program, various Earth-originating trajectories have been investigated and the optimized results have been compared to traditional CSI and high thrust trajectory solutions. Results show that VSI rocket engines reduce fuel requirements for any mission compared to CSI rocket engines. Fuel can be saved by applying swing-by maneuvers for VSI engines; but the effects of swing-bys due to VSI engines are smaller than that of CSI or high thrust engines.

  19. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  20. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators Thrust-Measurement Methodology Incorporating New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a large diameter, grounded, metal sleeve.

  1. Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Scaled Lunar Module Jet Erosion Experiments. An experimental research program was conducted on the erosion of particulate surfaces by a jet exhaust. These experiments were scaled to represent the lunar module (LM) during landing. A conical cold-gas nozzle simulating the lunar module nozzle was utilized. The investigation was conducted within a large vacuum chamber by using gravel or glass beads as a simulated soil. The effects of thrust, descent speed, nozzle terminal height, particle size on crater size, and visibility during jet erosion were determined. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031010. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  2. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  3. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-08-01

    A technology program aimed at improving the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft onboard applications is reviewed. Navier-Stokes analyses of low Reynolds number rocket flows have been compared with local flow property measurements obtained using Rayleigh and Raman diagnostics in a 100 N gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen rocket. It is indicated that computational domain should include the near injector flow and that the shear layer combustion model needs improvement. The system analyses and technical efforts intended to develop a technology base for higher performance propellants are presented. A LOX/hydrazine engine is demonstrated to have a 95 percent theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1.

  4. Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Lee, Jonathan; Holmes, Richard; Zimmerman, Frank; Effinger, Mike; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has successfully applied new materials and fabrication techniques to create actively cooled thrust chambers that operate 200-400 degrees hotter and weigh 50% lighter than conventional designs. In some vehicles, thrust assemblies account for as much as 20% of the engine weight. So, reducing the weight of these components and increasing their operating range will benefit many engines and vehicle designs, including Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts. Obviously, copper and steel alloys have been used successfully for many years in the chamber components of thrust assemblies. Yet, by replacing the steel alloys with Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) and/or Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials, design weights can be drastically reduced. In addition, replacing the traditional copper alloys with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) or an advanced copper alloy (Cu-8Cr-4Nb, also known as GRCop-84) significantly increases allowable operating temperatures. Several small MMC and PMC demonstration chambers have recently been fabricated with promising results. Each of these designs included GRCop-84 for the cooled chamber liner. These units successfully verified that designs over 50% lighter are feasible. New fabrication processes, including advanced casting technology and a low cost vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process, were also demonstrated with these units. Hot-fire testing at MSFC is currently being conducted on the chambers to verify increased operating temperatures available with the GRCop-84 liner. Unique CMC chamber liners were also successfully fabricated and prepared for hot-fire testing. Yet, early results indicate these CMC liners need significantly more development in order to use them in required chamber designs. Based on the successful efforts with the MMC and PMC concepts, two full size "lightweight" chambers are currently being designed and fabricated for hot-fire testing at MSFC in 2001. These "full size" chambers will be similar in size to those used on the X33 engine (RS2200). One will be fabricated with a MMC structural jacket, while the other uses a PMC jacket. Each will be designed for thrust levels of 15,000 pounds in an oxygen/hydrogen environment with liquid hydrogen coolant. Both chambers will use GRCop-84 for its channel wall liner. Each unit is expected to be at least 60% lighter than a conventional design with traditional materials. Hot-fire testing on the full size units in late 2001 will directly compare performance results between a conventional chamber design and these "lightweight" alternatives. The technology developed and demonstrated by this effort will not only benefit next generation RLV programs, but it can be applied to other existing and future engine programs, as well. Efforts were sponsored by the Advanced Space Transportation Program for RLV Focused Technologies. The task team was led by MSFC with additional members from NASA-Glenn Research Center and the Rocketdyne Division of The Boeing Company. Specific materials development and fabrication processes were provided by Aerojet, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Composite Optics, Inc., Hyper-Therm, Ceramic Composites, Inc., MSE Technology Applications, and Plasma Processes, Inc.

  5. Low thrust rocket test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    A low thrust chemical rocket test facility has recently become operational at the NASA-Lewis. The new facility is used to conduct both long duration and performance tests at altitude over a thruster's operating envelope using hydrogen and oxygen gas for propellants. The facility provides experimental support for a broad range of objectives, including fundamental modeling of fluids and combustion phenomena, the evaluation of thruster components, and life testing of full rocket designs. The major mechanical and electrical systems are described along with aspects of the various optical diagnostics available in the test cell. The electrical and mechanical systems are designed for low down time between tests and low staffing requirements for test operations. Initial results are also presented which illustrate the various capabilities of the cell.

  6. Aeropropulsive characteristics of twin nonaxisymmetric vectoring nozzles installed with forward-swept and aft-swept wings. [in the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) and a two dimensional convergent divergent nozzle (2-D C-D) installed with both an aft swept and a forward swept wing. The SERN was tested in both an upright and an inverted position. The effects of thrust vectoring at nozzle vector angles from -5 deg to 20 deg were studied. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20 and angles of attack from -2.0 deg to 16 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 9.0. Reynolds number based on the wing mean geometric chord varied from about 3 million to 4.8 million, depending upon free stream number.

  7. Experimental investigation of jet-induced loads on a flat plate in hover out-of-ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Warcup, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of varying jet decay rate on jet-induced loads on a flat plate located in the plane of the jet exit perpendicular to the jet axis were investigated using a small-scale laboratory facility. Jet decay rate has been varied through use of two cylindrical centerbodies having either a flat or hemispherical tip, which were submerged various distances below the flat plate jet exit plane. Increased jet decay rate, caused by the presence of a center-body or plug in the jet nozzle, led to an increased jet-induced lift loss on the flat plate. Jet-induced lift losses reached 1 percent of the jet thrust for the quickest jet decay rates for plate areas equal to 100 times the effective jet exit area. The observed lift loss versus jet decay rate trend agreed well with results of previous investigations.

  8. Analytical design and simulation evaluation of an approach flight director system for a jet STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Hofmann, L. G.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    A program was undertaken to develop design criteria and operational procedures for STOL transport aircraft. As part of that program, a series of flight tests shall be performed in an Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Aircraft. In preparation for the flight test programs, an analytical study was conducted to gain an understanding of the characteristics of the vehicle for manual control, to assess the relative merits of the variety of manual control techniques available with attitude and thrust vector controllers, and to determine what improvements can be made over manual control of the bare airframe by providing the pilot with suitable command guidance information and by augmentation of the bare airframe dynamics. The objective of the study is to apply closed-loop pilot/vehicle analysis techniques to the analysis of manual flight control of powered-lift STOL aircraft in the landing approach and to the design and experimental verification of an advanced flight director display.

  9. Resummation of heavy jet mass and comparison to LEP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2010-08-01

    The heavy jet mass distribution in e + e - collisions is computed to next-to-nextto-next-to leading logarithmic (N3LL) and next-to-next-to leading fixed order accuracy (NNLO). The singular terms predicted from the resummed distribution are confirmed by the fixed order distributions allowing a precise extraction of the unknown soft function coefficients. A number of quantitative and qualitative comparisons of heavy jet mass and the related thrust distribution are made. From fitting to ALEPH data, a value of ? s is extracted, ? s ( m Z) = 0 .1220 0 .0031, which is larger than, but not in conflict with, the corresponding value for thrust. A weighted average of the two produces ? s ( m Z ) = 0 .1193 0 .0027, consistent with the world average. A study of the non-perturbative corrections shows that the flat direction observed for thrust between ? s and a simple non-perturbative shape parameter is not lifted in combining with heavy jet mass. The Monte Carlo treatment of hadronization gives qualitatively different results for thrust and heavy jet mass, and we conclude that it cannot be trusted to add power corrections to the event shape distributions at this accuracy. Whether a more sophisticated effective field theory approach to power corrections can reconcile the thrust and heavy jet mass distributions remains an open question.

  10. Solar-electric propulsion breadboard thrust subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A solar-electric propulsion breadboard thrust subsystem has been designed, built, and tested. A 1500-h test was performed to demonstrate the functional capabilities of the subsystem. Described are the subsystem functions and testing process. The results show that the ground work has been established for development of an engineering model of the thrust subsystem.

  11. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  12. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tadolini, Stephen C.; Dolinar, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  13. Wingtip Vortex-Augmented Turbopusher Propeller Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thrust of propeller enhanced by tip vortex. Wingtip-Mounted Nacelle provides turboprop vortex velocity recovery. Thrust of turbopusher propeller increased by flow of lift-induced vortex. As result of weaker vortex, reduction in induced drag of wing afforded by propeller-wake mass injection into core of vortex, causing it to break down.

  14. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  15. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  16. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  17. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (813 Hz) and beta (13?25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance. PMID:26441599

  18. Measurements of scramjet thrust in shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.; Simmons, J. M.; Paull, A.; Mee, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    By using results obtained in tests on supersonic combustion of hydrogen in air, the conditions governing model size and operating pressure levels for shock tunnel experiments on models of flight vehicles with scramjet propulsion are established. It is seen that large models are required. The development of the stress wave force balance is then described, and its use as a method of measuring thrust/drag on such models is discussed. Test results on a simple, fully integrated scramjet model, with intakes, combustion chambers, thrust surfaces and exterior surfaces, using a 13 percent silane 87 percent hydrogen fuel mixture, showed that a steady state with thrust generation could be achieved within the shock tunnel test time, and the thrust could be measured. Results are presented for a range of stagnation enthalpies, and show that the scramjet model produces net positive thrust at velocities up to 2.4 km/sec.

  19. The design of linear aerospike thrust cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, T. E.; Vilja, J. O.; Cap, D. P.; McGill, R. J.

    1993-06-01

    A study was undertaken to establish, quantify, and compare the design and performance of two candidate thrust cell designs for a linear aerospike rocket engine. The two candidate designs were selected based on a qualitative evaluation of a group of possible designs. The preferred design concepts were a two-dimensional planar thrust cell (2D), and a round throat to rectangular exit three dimensional (3D) thrust cell. These designs were defined using optimum nozzle design methods and a computer aided design system with surfacing capabilities. A quantitative aerothermodynamic analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of these two designs. The performance comparison indicated that the optimum two-dimensional thrust cell had slightly higher overall performance than the non-optimum three dimensional design. The results indicate that other factors, such as cooling capability, structural integrity, and fabricability, will be the leading factors in thrust cell configuration selection.

  20. Comparison of three thrust calculation methods using in-flight thrust data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The gross thrust of an experimental airplane was determined by each method using the same flight maneuvers and generally the same data parameters. Coefficients determined from thrust stand calibrations for each of the three methods were then extrapolated to cruise flight conditions. The values of total aircraft gross thrust calculated by the three methods for cruise flight conditions agreed within + or - 3 percent. The disagreement in the values of thrust calculated by the different techniques manifested itself as a bias in the data. There was little scatter (0.5 percent) for the thrust levels examined in flight.

  1. Friction losses in a lubricated thrust-loaded cageless angular-contract bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Allen, C. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA spinning torque apparatus was modified to measure the spinning torque on a cageless ball thrust bearing. Friction torque was measured for thrust loads varying from 44.5 to 403 newtons (10 to 90 lb) at speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm. Tests were conducted with di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil. These tests were run with either oil jet lubrication or with a thin surface film of lubricant only. An analytical model which included rolling resistance was developed and extended from previous models for spinning torque and lubricant rheology. The model was extended by the inclusion of rolling resistance. The computed values were in fair agreement with the experimental results and confirmed previous hypotheses that a thin lubricant film gives minimum bearing torque and an oil jet flow of a viscous lubricant will result in considerable rolling torque in addition to the torque due to ball spin.

  2. An experimental study of a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce Lowell

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements were obtained in a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. The primary nozzle, segmented into twelve slots of aspect ratio 3.0, was tested at a pressure ratio of 1.15. Results are presented on the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress progressions in the mixing chamber of the constant area ejector. The segmented nozzle was found to produce streamwise vortices that may increase the mixing efficiency of the ejector flow field. Compared to free jet results, the jet development is reduced by the presence of the ejector walls. The resulting thrust augmentation ratio of this ejector was also calculated to be 1.34.

  3. Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

  4. Supersonic coaxial jet noise predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    Predictions are made for the noise radiation from supersonic, coaxial jets. These predictions are based on the assumption that the noise radiation in the downstream direction of supersonic jets is dominated by sound generated by instability waves with supersonic phase velocities relative to ambient. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytical functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The compressible, Reynolds averaged, boundary layer equations are solved with a modified mixing length turbulence model. The model has been calibrated to account for compressibility and temperature effects on the rate of mixing. Both normal and inverted velocity profile jets are considered. Predictions are made for the differences between the noise radiated by coaxial jets with difference operating conditions and a single reference jet with the same thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The effects of area ratio changes and simulated enhanced mixing on noise radiation are also considered.

  5. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-11-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher performance propellants were evaluated: Space storable propellants, including liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer with nitrogen hydrides or hydrocarbon as fuels. Specifically, a LOX/hydrazine engine was designed, fabricated, and shown to have a 95 pct theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1. Further performance improvment can be obtained by the use of LOX/hydrogen propellants, especially for manned spacecraft applications, and specific designs must be developed and advanced through flight qualification.

  6. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher performance propellants were evaluated: Space storable propellants, including liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer with nitrogen hydrides or hydrocarbon as fuels. Specifically, a LOX/hydrazine engine was designed, fabricated, and shown to have a 95 pct theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1. Further performance improvment can be obtained by the use of LOX/hydrogen propellants, especially for manned spacecraft applications, and specific designs must be developed and advanced through flight qualification.

  7. Duplex structures in the lewis thrust sheet, crowsnest pass, rocky mountains, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClay, K. R.; Insley, M. W.

    The Lewis thrust sheet of the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains contains many spectacular examples of small-scale duplex structures. This paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of such structures found in the Mississippian carbonates of the Banff Formation at Crowsnest Pass, southwestern Alberta. Foreland dipping, hinterland dipping and antiformal stacked duplexes are found in the hangingwall of the Lewis thrust. Out-of-sequence thrusts, back thrusts and folds that push out of the plane of the cross-section, termed lateral lobes, give rise to complex internal geometries. Dominant slip vectors are towards 080-090° but the complex fault geometries have generated significant variations in slip away from this direction. The duplex structures occur as discrete thrust fault-bounded packages with each package having different slip vectors. The panels above and below the duplex structures show consistent slip vectors towards 080-090° whereas the duplexes exhibit a wide scatter of slip vectors from 350-160°. The stacking of duplexes with many horses can be likened to the stacking of many inverted soup bowls, herein termed turtle back structures, and will involve a wide scatter of slip directions, particularly if the horses are of limited lateral extent. Such a stacking mechanism involving out-of-section movement invalidates the assumption of two-dimensional plane strain in the plane of the cross-section that contains the regional tectonic transport direction. Correctly balanced cross-sections cannot be constructed through such stacked duplex structures as described in this paper.

  8. Extremal Control and Guidance Solutions for Orbital Transfer with Intermediate Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Dilmurat M.; Sanabria, Fernando A.

    2015-09-01

    Mayer's variational problem of determining optimal trajectories of motion with constant exhaust velocity and limited mass-flow rate in a Newtonian field is considered. Analytical solutions for extremal transfers between two coplanar elliptical orbits via one and two intermediate-thrust arcs are presented. It is shown that in the cases of transfers via one and two intermediate-thrust arcs, the orbital parameters have to satisfy respectively two constraints and one constraint imposed by the continuity conditions formed at the junctions. This means that respectively two and one of these orbital parameters must not be arbitrary. Furthermore, by utilizing the analytical solutions for the intermediate-thrust arcs, the corresponding extremal guidance laws for a transfer between two points with arbitrary position vectors and for a transfer between elliptical orbits are presented. The guidance commands are formulated in terms of commanded thrust angle and commanded mass-flow rate. A numerical example illustrating the proposed trajectory and guidance solutions is discussed. The results of the computations are compared to those of similar one- and two- impulsive transfers, and a low-thrust orbit raising maneuver. It is demonstrated that for some eccentricities of the terminal orbits, the fuel consumption for a transfer via an intermediate-thrust arc is comparable to that of the two-impulsive transfers. Analyses show that a maneuver with such an arc may be fuel-efficient with longer duration and higher thrust than that of the low-thrust maneuver. The trajectory computations and guidance performances are illustrated by graphical relationships.

  9. Extremal Control and Guidance Solutions for Orbital Transfer with Intermediate Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Dilmurat M.; Sanabria, Fernando A.

    2015-12-01

    Mayer's variational problem of determining optimal trajectories of motion with constant exhaust velocity and limited mass-flow rate in a Newtonian field is considered. Analytical solutions for extremal transfers between two coplanar elliptical orbits via one and two intermediate-thrust arcs are presented. It is shown that in the cases of transfers via one and two intermediate-thrust arcs, the orbital parameters have to satisfy respectively two constraints and one constraint imposed by the continuity conditions formed at the junctions. This means that respectively two and one of these orbital parameters must not be arbitrary. Furthermore, by utilizing the analytical solutions for the intermediate-thrust arcs, the corresponding extremal guidance laws for a transfer between two points with arbitrary position vectors and for a transfer between elliptical orbits are presented. The guidance commands are formulated in terms of commanded thrust angle and commanded mass-flow rate. A numerical example illustrating the proposed trajectory and guidance solutions is discussed. The results of the computations are compared to those of similar one- and two- impulsive transfers, and a low-thrust orbit raising maneuver. It is demonstrated that for some eccentricities of the terminal orbits, the fuel consumption for a transfer via an intermediate-thrust arc is comparable to that of the two-impulsive transfers. Analyses show that a maneuver with such an arc may be fuel-efficient with longer duration and higher thrust than that of the low-thrust maneuver. The trajectory computations and guidance performances are illustrated by graphical relationships.

  10. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  11. Collar nut and thrust ring

    DOEpatents

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  12. Mixing, Noise and Thrust Benefits Using Corrugated Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1998-01-01

    This project was conducted as a support for effective research, training and teaching of Hampton University students in Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics. Basically, this work is organized and implemented by the new Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM & AL) which was established at Hampton University in the School of Engineering and Technology (E & T) in 1996. In addition, FM & AL in cooperation with NASA LaRC jointly conducts research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TSAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a 2 year Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). This project is also conducted under control of NASA HQ. For fulfillment of the current project, several researchers were involved as was shown in the proposal to NASA in 1996. This work is the development and support for projects solve problems with the goal of reducing jet noise and increasing nozzle thrust.

  13. Industrial jet noise: Coanda nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1985-04-01

    Within the U.K. manufacturing industries noise from industrial jets ranks third as a major contributor to industrial deafness. Noise control is hindered because use is made of the air once it has exuded from the nozzle exit. Important tasks include swarf removal, paint spreading, cooling, etc. Nozzles which employ the Coanda effect appear to offer the possibility of significant noise reduction whilst maintaining high thrust efficiency when compared with the commonly used simple open pipe or ordinary convergent nozzle. In this paper the performance of Coanda-type nozzles is examined in detail and an index rating for nozzle performance is introduced. Results show that far field stagnation pressure distributions are Gaussian and similar in all cases with a dispersion coefficient σ = 0·64. Noise reduction and thrust efficiency are shown to be closely related to the design geometry of the central body of the nozzle. Performance is based on four fundamental characteristics, these being the noise level at 1 m from the exit and at a 90° station to the nozzle axis, and the thrust on a chosen profile, the noise reduction and the thrust efficiency. Physically, performance is attributed to flow near field effects where, although all nozzles are choked, shock cell associated noise is absent.

  14. Improvement of propeller static thrust estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusse, J.; Kettleborough, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of improving the performance estimation of propellers operating in the heavily loaded static thrust condition was studied. The Goldstein theory was assessed as it applies to propellers operating in the static thrust. A review of theoretical considerations is presented along with a summary of the attempts made to obtain a numerical solution. The chordwise pressure distribution was determined during operation at a tip speed of 500 ft/sec. Chordwise integration of the pressures leads to the spanwise load distribution and further integration would give the axial thrust.

  15. Orbital motion under continuous tangential thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, Frederick W.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of continuous tangential thrust on the orbital motion and mass loss of a vehicle initially in a circular orbit is investigated analytically. It is shown that, for a thrust-to-weight ratio of greater than 0.16175, escape speed will eventually be reached along an unwinding spiral trajectory. For lower thrust-to-weight ratios, escape speed is never attained, and the flight path oscillates around a logarithmic spiral trajectory. Formulas are obtained for the approximate orbital motion and time of flight along each type of trajectory and for mass loss due to expenditure of rocket propellant.

  16. Scramjet thrust measurement in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.; Mee, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    This note reports tests in a shock tunnel in which a fully integrated scramjet configuration produced net thrust. The experiments not only showed that impulse facilities can be used for assessing thrust performance, but also were a demonstration of the application of a new technique to the measurement of thrust on scramjet configurations in shock tunnels. These two developments are of significance because scramjets are expected to operate at speeds well in excess of 2 km/sec, and shock tunnels offer a means of generating high Mach number flows at such speeds.

  17. Scramjet thrust measurement in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.; Mee, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    This note reports tests in a shock tunnel in which a fully integrated scamjet configuration produced net thrust. The experiments not only showed that impluse facilities can be used for assessing thrust performance, but also were a demonstration of the application of a new technique to the measurement of thrust on scramjet configurations in shock tunnels. These two developments are of significance because scramjets are expected to operate at speeds well in excess of 2 km/s, and shock tunnels offer a means of generating high Mach number flows at such speeds.

  18. Libby thrust belt and adjacent structures - new factors to consider in thrust tectonics of northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.E.; Cressman, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    About 40 mi (65 km) west of the Rocky Mountain trench and at least 9 mi (15 km) above the sole detachment of the Rocky Mountain thrust belt is a zone of Cretaceous-Tertiary thrust faults up to 25 mi (40 km) wide in middle Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks. This zone (the Libby thrust belt) extends northward from the Lewis and Clark line to the northwest corner of Montana. Within the Libby thrust belt is a series of complex ramps, horsts, splays, and folds that accommodate a tectonic shortening of about 6.2 mi (10 km). Backsliding has occurred on some listric thrust faults, and middle Tertiary(.) extensional horst-and-graben faults offset or join most thrust faults. On the east, the lead thrust ramps up onto the broad open Purcell anticlinorium. On the west, the Libby thrust belt is overridden in the north by the lead thrust of the Yaak plate (whose central part is the broad, open Sylvanite anticline), and in the south, it is overridden by the Moyie thrust (which trends northwest and also overrides the west edge of the Yaak plate). Geologic cross sections suggest that the Belt rocks have overridden the Cambrian at shallow depths only and that Cambrian and younger Phanerozoic strata probably do not occur at greater depths beneath and west of the Purcell anticlinorium. This interpretation differs significantly from interpretations that suggest intercalation of major wedges of Paleozoic and Belt rocks at depth in this same area.

  19. Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

  20. Effect of varying internal geometry on the static performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, Richard J.; Mason, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effects of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Internal geometry was varied with a test apparatus which simulated a forward-flight nozzle with a single, fully deployed reverser port. The test apparatus was designed to simulate thrust reversal (conceptually) either in the convergent section of the nozzle or in the constant-area duct just upstream of the nozzle. The main geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and internal flow blocker angle. For all reverser port geometries, the port opening had an aspect ratio (throat width to throat height) of 6.1 and had a constant passage area from the geometric port throat to the exit. Reverser-port internal performance and thrust-vector angles computed from force-balance measurements are presented.

  1. Thrust and power required in climbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, George

    1923-01-01

    The following article shows that the phenomena of climbing flight can be determined with sufficient accuracy and represented very clearly, for all flight positions, by means of the thrust diagrams. This method has often given good results.

  2. Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

  3. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  4. The NASA low thrust propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA OAST Propulsion, Power, and Energy Division supports a low thrust propulsion program aimed at providing high performance options for a broad range of near-term and far-term mission and vehicles. Low thrust propulsion has a major impact on the mission performance of essentially all spacecraft and vehicles. On-orbit lifetimes, payloads, and trip times are significantly impacted by low thrust propulsion performance and integration features for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles, Earth-orbit and planetary spacecraft, and large platforms in Earth orbit. Major emphases are on low thrust chemical propulsion, both storables and hydrogen/oxygen; low-power (auxiliary) electric arcjects and resistojets; and high-power (primary) electric propulsion, including ion, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), and electrodeless concepts. The major recent accomplishments of the program are presented and their impacts discussed.

  5. Effects of an in-flight thrust reverser on the stability and control characteristics of a single-engine fighter airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Maiden, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The changes in thrust minus drag performance as well as longitudinal and directional stability and control characteristics of a single-engine jet aircraft attributable to an in-flight thrust reverser of the blocker-deflector door type were investigated in a 16-foot transonic wind tunnel. The longitudinal and directional stability data are presented. Test conditions simulated landing approach conditions as well as high speed maneuvering such as may be required for combat or steep descent from high altitude.

  6. NLO Jet Physics with BlackHat

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

    2010-02-15

    We present several results obtained using the BLACKHAT next-to-leading order QCD program library, in conjunction with SHERPA. In particular, we present distributions for vector boson plus 1,2,3-jet production at the Tevatron and at the asymptotic running energy of the Large Hadron Collider, including new Z + 3-jet distributions. The Z + 2-jet predictions for the second-jet P{sub T} distribution are compared to CDF data. We present the jet-emission probability at NLO in W + 2-jet events at the LHC, where the tagging jets are taken to be the ones furthest apart in pseudorapidity. We analyze further the large left-handed W{sup {+-}} polarization, identified in our previous study, for W bosons produced at high P{sub T} at the LHC.

  7. GSFC Technology Thrusts and Partnership Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology thrusts and the opportunities to partner in developing software in support of the technological advances at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). There are thrusts in development of end-to-end software systems for mission data systems in areas of flight software, ground data systems, flight dynamic systems and science data systems. The required technical expertise is reviewed, and the supported missions are shown for the various areas given.

  8. Jet flow in steadily swimming adult squid.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erik J; Grosenbaugh, Mark A

    2005-03-01

    Although various hydrodynamic models have been used in past analyses of squid jet propulsion, no previous investigations have definitively determined the fluid structure of the jets of steadily swimming squid. In addition, few accurate measurements of jet velocity and other jet parameters in squid have been reported. We used digital particle imaging velocimetry (DPIV) to visualize the jet flow of adult long-finned squid Loligo pealei (mantle length, L(m)=27.1+/-3.0 cm, mean +/-S.D.) swimming in a flume over a wide range of speeds (10.1-59.3 cm s(-1), i.e. 0.33-2.06 L(m) s(-1)). Qualitatively, squid jets were periodic, steady, and prolonged emissions of fluid that exhibited an elongated core of high speed flow. The development of a leading vortex ring common to jets emitted from pipes into still water often appeared to be diminished and delayed. We were able to mimic this effect in jets produced by a piston and pipe arrangement aligned with a uniform background flow. As in continuous jets, squid jets showed evidence of the growth of instability waves in the jet shear layer followed by the breakup of the jet into packets of vorticity of varying degrees of coherence. These ranged from apparent chains of short-lived vortex rings to turbulent plumes. There was some evidence of the complete roll-up of a handful of shorter jets into single vortex rings, but steady propulsion by individual vortex ring puffs was never observed. Quantitatively, the length of the jet structure in the visualized field of view, L(j), was observed to be 7.2-25.6 cm, and jet plug lengths, L, were estimated to be 4.4-49.4 cm using average jet velocity and jet period. These lengths and an average jet orifice diameter, D, of 0.8 cm were used to calculate the ratios L(j)/D and L/D, which ranged from 9.0 to 32.0 and 5.5 to 61.8, respectively. Jets emitted from pipes in the presence of a background flow suggested that the ratio between the background flow velocity and the jet velocity was more important than L/D to predict jet structure. Average jet velocities in steadily swimming squid ranged from 19.9 to 85.8 cm s(-1) (0.90-2.98 L(m) s(-1)) and were always greater in magnitude than swimming speed. Maximum instantaneous fluid speeds within squid jets ranged from 25.6 to 136.4 cm s(-1). Average jet thrust determined both from jet velocity and from three-dimensional approximations of momentum change in successive jet visualizations showed some differences and ranged from 0.009 to 0.045 N over the range of swimming speeds observed. The fraction by which the average jet velocity exceeded the swimming speed, or 'slip', decreased with increasing swimming speed, which reveals higher jet propulsive efficiency at higher swimming speeds. Jet angle, subtended from the horizontal, decreased from approximately 29 degrees to 7 degrees with increasing swimming speed. Jet frequency ranged from 0.6 to 1.3 Hz in the majority of swimming sequences, and the data suggest higher frequencies at the lowest and highest speeds. Jet velocity, angle, period and frequency exhibited increased variability at speeds between 0.6 and 1.4 L(m) s(-1). This suggests that at medium speeds squid enjoy an increased flexibility in the locomotive strategies they use to control their dynamic balance. PMID:15767313

  9. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  10. Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

  11. Comparison of gaseous exhaust indices of the F109 turbofan using three different blends of petroleum-based Jet-A and camelina-based Jet-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Brian John

    This research project focused on the collection and comparison of gaseous exhaust emissions of the F109 turbofan engine using petroleum-based Jet-A and two different blends of camelina-based Jet-A. Simulated landing and takeoff cycles were used to collect gaseous exhaust emissions. Unburned hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and carbon moNOxide (CO) exhaust indices (EIm) were calculated using ICAO Annex 16 Volume II formulae. Statistical analyses were performed on the Elm data. There was no significant difference in HC EIm and CO EI m among the three fuels at takeoff thrust. There were significant differences among the fuels for NOx EIm. 50% Jet-A 50% camelina produced the highest NOx EIm, then 75% Jet-A 25% camelina and finally Jet-A. At climb thrust, both blends of camelina fuel produced higher NOx EIm but no difference in CO EIm and HC EIm as Jet-A. At approach thrust, both blends of camelina fuel produced higher NOx EIm, lower CO EIm, and no difference in HC EIm as Jet-A. At idle thrust, there was no significant difference among the fuels for NOx EIm. There were significant differences among the fuels for HC EIm. Jet-A and 50% Jet-A 50% both produced higher HC EIm as 75% Jet-A 25% camelina. There were significant differences among the fuels for CO EI m. Jet-A produced the highest CO EIm, then 75% Jet-A 25% camelina and finally 50% Jet-A 50% camelina.

  12. Gravitomagnetic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2011-03-15

    We present a family of dynamic rotating cylindrically symmetric Ricci-flat gravitational fields whose geodesic motions have the structure of gravitomagnetic jets. These correspond to helical motions of free test particles up and down parallel to the axis of cylindrical symmetry and are reminiscent of the motion of test charges in a magnetic field. The speed of a test particle in a gravitomagnetic jet asymptotically approaches the speed of light. Moreover, numerical evidence suggests that jets are attractors. The possible implications of our results for the role of gravitomagnetism in the formation of astrophysical jets are briefly discussed.

  13. Optimization of low-thrust orbit transfers with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulybyshev, Yu. P.

    2012-09-01

    Approximate numerical methods of optimization are presented for multi-orbit noncoplanar orbit transfers of low-thrust spacecraft. The linear representation of derivatives of boundary parameters is used in the vicinity of a reference trajectory with its discretization into small segments. For each segment a set of pseudo-impulses is introduced, representing possible directions of the thrust vector. In order to solve essentially nonlinear problems, the iterative process of upgrading the reference trajectory is used. At each iteration the linear programming problem of high dimensionality is solved, its boundary conditions being represented in the form of a linear matrix equation. Interval constraints are considered in the form of blocking the propulsion system operation on shadow segments of the orbit, as well as cycling constraints, and constraints on total duration of maneuvers at certain trajectory segments. The results of comparison with solutions obtained by other methods are presented together with examples illustrating the convergence of iterative processes. Optimizations of the trajectories for launching geosynchronous satellites to their orbits and of the trajectories of a noncoplanar transfer from low to high-elliptic Molniya orbit are considered under these constraints.

  14. Business Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Learjet Inc.'s Learjet 31 and Learjet 55C both feature NASA developed winglets, nearly vertical extensions of the wing designed to reduce fuel consumption and generally improve airplane's performance. Winglets are lifting surfaces designed to operate in the vortex or air whirlpool that occurs at an airplanes wingtip. This complex flow of air creates air drag; the winglets job is to reduce the strength of the vortex and thereby substantially reduce drag, additionally the winglet generates its own lift producing forward thrust in the manner of a sailboat's sail. Combination of reduced drag and additional thrust adds up to improvement in fuel efficiency.

  15. Thrusting and sedimentation along an emergent thrust front: an example from the External Sierras of the Southern Pyrenees, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasio, D.J.; De Paor, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Depending on the relative rates of thrusting and erosion, emergent thrusts, like glaciers, may advance or retreat while continually moving forward. The relative rates of thrusting and erosion as a thrust ruptures the land surface also control the mountain front geometry. For listric thrusts, the high angle of intersection with the land surface results in primarily upward rather than horizontal movement. If thrust movement is much faster than the prevailing erosion a large emergent toe will develop as the thrust sheet advances over its synorogenic deposits. Alternatively, if the erosion rates are generally faster than thrusting, synorogenic deposits will progressively onlap onto a receding mountain front. Comparable rates of thrusting and erosion result in steady state uplift and denudation. In the External Sierras the thrust front reached the synorogenic surface during the Paleogene and resulted in the accumulation of thick synorogenic deposits. Relatively slow rates of thrusting (<1mm/a) and uplift (<0.5mm/a) of the External Sierras, coupled with moderate erosion rates resulted in a near stationary mountain front. Despite this, temporal and spatial fluctuations in the thrusting resulted in three different mountain front geometries. In places, the thrust front has been buried by molasse, elsewhere, the emergent thrust sheet has deformed its proximal molasse by bulldozing, producing deposits analogous to push moraines, and in other places the frontal thrust has overridden its molasse. Striated cobbles within the molasse immediately below the frontal thrust may have functioned like ball bearings, reducing the friction with the overriding thrust sheet.

  16. Analysis of a Linear System for Variable-Thrust Control in the Terminal Phase of Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, Richard A.; Durling, Barbara J.

    1961-01-01

    A linear system for applying thrust to a ferry vehicle in the 3 terminal phase of rendezvous with a satellite is analyzed. This system requires that the ferry thrust vector per unit mass be variable and equal to a suitable linear combination of the measured position and velocity vectors of the ferry relative to the satellite. The variations of the ferry position, speed, acceleration, and mass ratio are examined for several combinations of the initial conditions and two basic control parameters analogous to the undamped natural frequency and the fraction of critical damping. Upon making a desirable selection of one control parameter and requiring minimum fuel expenditure for given terminal-phase initial conditions, a simplified analysis in one dimension practically fixes the choice of the remaining control parameter. The system can be implemented by an automatic controller or by a pilot.

  17. Analogue modelling of different angle thrust-wrench fault interference in a brittle medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, F. M.; Duarte, J. C.; Schellart, W. P.; Tomás, R.; Grigorova, V.; Terrinha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Analogue modelling experiments of thrust-wrench fault interference in a brittle medium are presented and discussed. Simultaneous reactivation of confining strike-slip and thrust faults bounding a (corner) zone of interference defined by the angle between the two fault systems is simulated, instead of previously reported discrete (time and space) superposition of alternating thrust and strike-slip events. The influence of different considered interference angles of 60°, 90° and 120° is investigated through comparison between the obtained structural configurations in each case. It is shown that under these conditions a characteristic morpho-structural pattern with a deltoid shape resembling a tie-knot consistently forms in the (corner) zone between the two fault systems. The specific structural configuration of a such tie-knot structure (TKS) varies significantly as a function of the prescribed fault interference angle, which determines the orientation of the displacement vector shear component (ds →) along the main frontal thrust system, and critically controls the geometry and kinematics of the TKS. Comparison with three natural examples shows remarkable geometric and kinematic similarity, confirming model predictions and suggesting the existence of common underlying dynamic processes governing the specific (TKS) structural configuration of different thrust-wrench fault interference corner-zones in nature.

  18. Middle Proterozoic thrusting in central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Grambling, J.A.; Thompson, A.G. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Dallmeyer, R.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Ductile thrust faults truncate contact-metamorphic aureoles surrounding two 1.4 Ga plutons in central New Mexico. The Priest quartz monzonite (1440 Ma) and Sandia granite (1420 Ma) are 50 km apart in the continuous Sandia/Manzano mountain chain. Thermobarometry and phase relations demonstrate that country-rock temperatures rose from 700 C toward the pluton, at pressure near 4 kb. The northern edge of this aureole is cut by the southeast-dipping ductile Monte Largo thrust fault. Prograde, greenschist-facies metamorphism of footwall rocks accompanied local retrogression of hangingwall rocks during thrusting. This second metamorphism took place at P-T conditions of 2-3 kb and 450-475 C. Another contact aureole surrounds the Sandia granite. Mafic rocks near the granite reflect amphibolite-facies conditions, whereas pelites display low-pressure contact assemblages. Quantitative temperatures increase from 500--750 C toward the granite, at pressures of 2.5--3.5 kb. The shallowly southeast-dipping Vincent Moore fault truncates the Sandia granite and the southern portion of its contact aureole. This ductile shear zone emplaced greenschist-facies rocks northwestward above the Sandia contact aureole. Footwall rocks were retrograded to the greenschist facies within 100 m of this fault; the retrograde phases are aligned parallel to the trace of the thrust. Metamorphic temperatures in hangingwall rocks (during thrusting ) were 400-475 C at pressures above 2.75 kb. Additional northwest-vergent ductile thrusts are found elsewhere in the mountain chain. This may represent the age of thrusting and of the related greenschist and the related greenschist-facies metamorphic overprint.

  19. Unconditional jetting.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M

    2008-08-01

    Capillary jetting of a fluid dispersed into another immiscible phase is usually limited by a critical capillary number, a function of the Reynolds number and the fluid property ratios. Critical conditions are set when the minimum spreading velocity of small perturbations v_{-};{*} along the jet (marginal stability velocity) is zero. Here we identify and describe parametric regions of high technological relevance, where v_{-};{*}>0 and the jet flow is always supercritical independently of the dispersed liquid flow rate; within these relatively broad regions, the jet does not undergo the usual dripping-jetting transition, so that either the jet can be made arbitrarily thin (yielding droplets of any imaginably small size), or the issuing flow rate can be made arbitrarily small. In this work, we provide illustrative analytical studies of asymptotic cases for both negligible and dominant inertia forces. In this latter case, requiring a nonzero jet surface velocity, axisymmetric perturbation waves "surf" downstream for all given wave numbers, while the liquid bulk can remain static. In the former case (implying small Reynolds flow) we found that the jet profile small slope is limited by a critical value; different published experiments support our predictions. PMID:18850933

  20. Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived.

  1. Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived. Previously announced in STAR as N84-14147

  2. A thrust balance for low power hollow cathode thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollani, D.; Coletti, M.; Gabriel, S. B.

    2014-06-01

    A hanging thrust balance has been designed, manufactured and tested at the University of Southampton. The current design allows for direct steady thrust measurements ranging from 0.1 to 3 mN but this can be easily extended to measure thrust in a different range. Moreover the chosen balance design and the thrust measurement procedure allow for the cancellation of thermal drifts. The thrust balance was tested with a T6 hollow cathode thruster providing measurements with an uncertainty of about 9.7%. The thrust data were compared to those obtained with another direct thrust balance and they are in quantitative agreement—the maximum difference being only 6%.

  3. Thrust modulation methods for a subsonic V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to four techniques for attaining thrust modulation, namely (1) varying the engine rotational speed; (2) varying the fan nozzle exit area; (3) changing the thrust of the propulsion system by using a variable pitch rotor; and (4) changing the thrust by means of variable inlet guide vanes. The thrust modulation range, thrust level, and blade stresses are examined for each of the thrust modulation systems. Results are shown at the high angles of attack associated with tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft. Finally, the interrelationship between the inlet and the thrust modulation system is illustrated for two inlet types.

  4. Static internal performance of a single-engine onaxisymmetric-nozzle vaned-thrust-reverser design with thrust modulation capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Burley, J. R., II

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at wind-off conditions in the stati-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The tests were conducted on a single-engine reverser configuration with partial and full reverse-thrust modulation capabilities. The reverser design had four ports with equal areas. These ports were angled outboard 30 deg from the vertical impart of a splay angle to the reverse exhaust flow. This splaying of reverser flow was intended to prevent impingement of exhaust flow on empennage surfaces and to help avoid inlet reingestion of exhaust gas when the reverser is integrated into an actual airplane configuration. External vane boxes were located directly over each of the four ports to provide variation of reverser efflux angle from 140 deg to 26 deg (measured forward from the horizontal reference axis). The reverser model was tested with both a butterfly-type inner door and an internal slider door to provide area control for each individual port. In addition, main nozzle throat area and vector angle were varied to examine various methods of modulating thrust levels. Other model variables included vane box configuration (four or six vanes per box), orientation of external vane boxes with respect to internal port walls (splay angle shims), and vane box sideplates. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 approximately 7.0.

  5. Future Jet Technologies. Part B. F-35 Future Risks v. JS-Education of Pilots & Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Design of “Next-Generation” airframes based on supermarket-jet-engine-components is nowadays passé. A novel integration methodology [Gal-Or, “Editorial-Review, Part A”, 2011, Gal-Or, “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft”, Springer Verlag, Gal-Or, Int'l. J. of Thermal and Fluid Sciences 7: 1-6, 1998, “Introduction”, 2011] is nowadays in. For advanced fighter aircraft it begins with JS-based powerplant, which takes up to three times longer to mature vis-à-vis the airframe, unless “committee's design” enforces a dormant catastrophe. Jet Steering (JS) or Thrust Vectoring Flight Control, is a classified, integrated engine-airframe technology aimed at maximizing post-stall-maneuverability, flight safety, efficiency and flight envelopes of manned and unmanned air vehicles, especially in the “impossible-to-fly”, post-stall flight domains where the 100+ years old, stall-spin-limited, Conventional Flight Control fails. Worldwide success in adopting the post-stall, JS-revolution, opens a new era in aviation, with unprecedented design variables identified here for a critical review of F-35 future risks v. future fleets of jet-steered, pilotless vehicles, like the X-47B/C. From the educational point of view, it is also instructive to comprehend the causes of long, intensive opposition to adopt post-stall, JS ideas. A review of such debates may also curb a future opposition to adopt more advanced, JS-based technologies, tests, strategies, tactics and missions within the evolving air, marine and land applications of JS. Most important, re-education of pilots and engineers requires adding post-stall, JS-based studies to curriculum & R&D.

  6. Interim prediction method for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is provided for predicting jet noise for a wide range of nozzle geometries and operating conditions of interest for aircraft engines. Jet noise theory, data and existing prediction methods was reviewed, and based on this information a interim method of jet noise prediction is proposed. Problem areas are idenified where further research is needed to improve the prediction method. This method predicts only the noise generated by the exhaust jets mixing with the surrounding air and does not include other noises emanating from the engine exhaust, such as combustion and machinery noise generated inside the engine (i.e., core noise). It does, however, include thrust reverser noise. Prediction relations are provided for conical nozzles, plug nozzles, coaxial nozzles and slot nozzles.

  7. Control of Jet Noise Through Mixing Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark; Brown, Cliff

    2003-01-01

    The idea of using mixing enhancement to reduce jet noise is not new. Lobed mixers have been around since shortly after jet noise became a problem. However, these designs were often a post-design fix that rarely was worth its weight and thrust loss from a system perspective. Recent advances in CFD and some inspired concepts involving chevrons have shown how mixing enhancement can be successfully employed in noise reduction by subtle manipulation of the nozzle geometry. At NASA Glenn Research Center, this recent success has provided an opportunity to explore our paradigms of jet noise understanding, prediction, and reduction. Recent advances in turbulence measurement technology for hot jets have also greatly aided our ability to explore the cause and effect relationships of nozzle geometry, plume turbulence, and acoustic far field. By studying the flow and sound fields of jets with various degrees of mixing enhancement and subsequent noise manipulation, we are able to explore our intuition regarding how jets make noise, test our prediction codes, and pursue advanced noise reduction concepts. The paper will cover some of the existing paradigms of jet noise as they relate to mixing enhancement for jet noise reduction, and present experimental and analytical observations that support these paradigms.

  8. Annihilation of angular momentum bias during thrusting and spinning-up maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, J. M.; Kia, T.; Breckenridge, W. G.

    1989-01-01

    During spinning-up and thrusting maneuvers of rockets and spacecraft, undesired transverse torques (from error sources such as thruster misalignment, center-of-mass offset and thruster mismatch) perturb the angular momentum vector from its original orientation. In this paper a maneuver scheme is presented which virtually annihilates the angular momentum vector bias, even though the magnitude and direction of the perturbing body-fixed torques are unknown. In the analysis it is assumed that the torques are small and constant and that the spacecraft or rocket can be approximated by a rigid body, which may be asymmetric. Typical maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft are simulated to demonstrate the technique.

  9. Aerodynamics in ground effect and predicted landing ground roll of a fighter configuration with a secondary-nozzle thrust reverser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the in-ground effect aerodynamic characteristics and predicted landing-ground-roll performance of wing-canard fighter configuration with a secondary nozzle thrust reverser was completed. These tests were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel using a model equipped with a pneumatic jet for thrust simulation of nozzle pressure ratios up to 4.0. The model was tested in the landing rollout configuration at approx. wheel touchdown height for a range of decreasing dynamic pressure from 50 psf down to 10 psf. Landing-ground-roll predictions of the configuration were calculated using the wind tunnel results.

  10. Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Jones, J. E.; Cox, M. D.

    2004-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting thrusters with total mass of up to 125 kg and 1 mN to 1 N thrust levels has been developed and tested. The mechanical design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that transforms horizontal motion into amplified vertical motion, with accommodation for variable displacement sensitivity. Unlike conventional hanging pendulum thrust stands, the deflection is independent of the length of the pendulum arm, and no reference structure is required at the end of the pendulum. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer. Mechanical oscillations are attenuated using a passive, eddy current damper. An on-board microprocessor-based level control system, which includes a two axis accelerometer and two linear-displacement stepper motors, continuously maintains the level of the balance mechanism - counteracting mechanical %era drift during thruster testing. A thermal control system, which includes heat exchange panels, thermocouples, and a programmable recirculating water chiller, continuously adjusts to varying thermal loads to maintain the balance mechanism temperature, to counteract thermal drifts. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady state calibration both prior to and during thruster testing. Thrust measurements were carried out on a well-characterized 1 kW Hall thruster; the thrust stand was shown to produce repeatable results consistent with previously published performance data.

  11. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  12. Experimental study on instantaneous thrust and lift of two plunging wings in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wu Qi; Jia, Bo Bo; Xi, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Two tandem wings undergoing a two-dimensional sinusoidal plunging motion are studied in a low Reynolds number water tunnel. The influence of the phase angle and leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the peak value of the instantaneous thrust and lift is studied. The instantaneous lift and thrust are measured by a force sensor; the velocity and vorticity fields are captured by digital particle image velocimetry. For the forewing, noticeable differences at various phase angles are found in the peak value of the instantaneous lift and thrust rather than in their minimum value. The LEV of the hindwing increased the maximum effective angle of attack of the forewing and enhanced the jet-like flow behind the forewing, which accounts for the increase in peak value. For the hindwing, the phase angle determines the sign of the forewing-shed LEV when the hindwing encounters this LEV. If the forewing-shed LEV before the leading edge of the hindwing has the opposite sense of rotation as the LEV of the hindwing, the velocity of the flow on the windward side of the hindwing increases, resulting in high instantaneous thrust and lift. If the two LEVs have the same sense of rotation, the forewing-shed LEV hinders the growth of the hindwing LEV because of the small effective angle of attack, leading to low instantaneous thrust and lift. Non-circulatory forces on the wings are calculated according to a potential flow model. Results show that the non-circulatory force has important effects on the peak value and symmetry of the instantaneous lift and thrust curves.

  13. Jet noise suppressor nozzle development for augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (C-8A Buffalo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkonen, D. L.; Marks, C. C.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Noise and performance test results are presented for a full-scale advanced design rectangular array lobe jet suppressor nozzle (plain wall and corrugated). Flight design and installation considerations are also discussed. Noise data are presented in terms of peak PNLT (perceived noise level, tone corrected) suppression relative to the existing airplane and one-third octave-band spectra. Nozzle performance is presented in terms of velocity coefficient. Estimates of the hot thrust available during emergency (engine out) with the suppressor nozzle installed are compared with the current thrust levels produced by the round convergent nozzles.

  14. A computational investigation of impulsive and pulsed starting annular jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad Mohamed Refaat

    2011-12-01

    A computational study is carried out on low Reynolds number impulsive and pulsating annular jets. This work is inspired by the biological flow of marine life that uses jet propulsion for self maneuver. Marine life such as squids and jellyfish propel themselves by discharging a water jet followed by a refilling phase. The discharging portion is a starting jet, i.e. the releasing of a moving fluid into a quiescent fluid, while the refilling phase can be viewed as an inflow jet. The combined jets will be called fully oscillating jets. Although fully oscillating jets have been indirectly examined experimentally, they have never been studied computationally. This dissertation is divided into three investigations that examine the starting jet, inflow jet, and fully oscillating jet based on the resultant force (i.e. either thrust or suction force) at the annulus exit plane, jet efficiency, and vortex dynamics. Furthermore, each of the following three performance criterion is examined under various velocity imposed boundaries (i.e. impulsive, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed jets), ambient pressure, and blocking ratios. An axisymmetric, incompressible and unsteady Navier Stokes numerical model was used to implement the analysis. The model was validated against theoretical and experimental results, where both result types bounded the computational results of this endeavor. In addition, numerical verification was carried out on each of the three investigations ensuring grid and time independent results. Several substantial outcomes were drawn from the results of the three investigations. The numerical results confirmed previously published experimental data regarding the universal dimensionless time scale (i.e. vortex formation number) of optimal vortex ring development triggered by starting jets. Moreover, the computational results showed evidence that the vortex formation number was not affected by ambient pressure nor blocking ratio. The computational results also confirmed earlier experimental findings that pulsed jet inflows trigger a standing vortex ring. Furthermore, the current study showed that impulsive jet inflows do not trigger vortex ring formation. In addition, unlike the expected net thrust of zero due to mass flux, fully oscillating jets showed evidence of thrust augmentation due to the enhanced entrainment caused by the vortex formation.

  15. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  16. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  17. A flight investigation of the stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomaske, R. F.; Innis, R. C.; Swan, B. E.; Grossmith, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane are presented. The airplane is an extensively modified de Havilland Buffalo military transport. The modified airplane has two fan-jet engines which provide vectorable thrust and compressed air for the augmentor jet flap and Boundary-Layer Control (BLC). The augmentor and BLC air is cross ducted to minimize asymmetric moments produced when one engine is inoperative. The modifications incorporated in the airplane include a Stability Augmentation System (SAS), a powered elevator, and a powered lateral control system. The test gross weight of the airplane was between 165,000 and 209,000 N (37,000 and 47,000 lb). Stability, control, and handling qualities are presented for the airspeed range of 40 to 180 knots. The lateral-directional handling qualities are considered satisfactory for the normal operating range of 65 to 160 knots airspeed when the SAS is functioning. With the SAS inoperative, poor turn coordination and spiral instability are primary deficiencies contributing to marginal handling qualities in the landing approach. The powered elevator control system enhanced the controllability in pitch, particularly in the landing flare and stall recovery.

  18. Metrics That Characterize Nonlinearity in Jet Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, Sally; Downing, Micah; Hobbs, Chris; James, Michael; Hannon, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Analyses of acoustic data recorded during a series of high thrust military jet flyovers indicate that the skewness of the pressure is not well correlated with the sound pressure level, but the skewness of the gradient is. The influence of propagation distance and engine exhaust velocity on the results requires further examination. The results presented here emphasize the need for high bandwidth, high signal to noise ratio measurements. [Work supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.

  19. Earthquake Surface Rupture of the Salt Range Thrust at the Himalayan Thrust Front in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Madden, C.; Yeats, R.; Hussain, A.; Akhtar, S. S.; Latif, A.; Waliullah, A.; Ashraf, M.; Ramzan, S.; Dasti, N.

    2007-12-01

    Considerable evidence from Nepal and India now indicates that the basal detachment of the Himalaya produces great earthquakes that result in large coseismic displacements at the thrust front in India and Nepal (the Main Frontal thrust). In contrast, knowledge of the earthquake potential of the Salt Range thrust in Pakistan (SRT) is virtually absent. It has been clear since the publication of the Salt Range maps of Gee (1989) that the SRT deforms young surficial deposits and is an active fault. What remains uncertain is whether surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, with what frequency those events occur, and what is the size of the associated earthquakes. In a field reconnaissance of the SRT in Spring, 2007, we were able to confirm that this thrust is an active fault, and we discovered numerous localities where the fault nearly reaches the surface, cutting all but the youngest few meters of colluvial deposits. Whereas our observations suggest that surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, a number of characteristics of the Pakistani Himalaya suggests the earthquake behavior of the basal detachment and thrust front may be substantially different than it is in India and Nepal to the southeast. Key differences include an uncertain, but lower, convergence rate at the thrust front (5 to 13 mm/yr), a low tapered thrust wedge, and localization of the basal detachment in a weak evaporite unit. In this sense, the front of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in Iran may be a more appropriate analog for the thrust front in Pakistan than the Himalayan thrust front to the southeast. Future mapping of deformed geomorphic surfaces and paleoseismic trenching along the SRT will provide the first direct evidence of the earthquake potential and recurrence of plate- boundary earthquakes in Pakistan. This knowledge is critical for hazard assessment in north-central Pakistan where more than 7 million people are likely to be affected by a great earthquake on the plate boundary.

  20. Pulsed thrust measurements using electromagnetic calibration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Haibin; Shi Chenbo; Zhang Xin'ai; Zhang Zun; Cheng Jiao

    2011-03-15

    A thrust stand for accurately measuring impulse bits, which ranged from 10-1000 {mu}N s using a noncontact electromagnetic calibration technique is described. In particular, a permanent magnet structure was designed to produce a uniform magnetic field, and a multiturn coil was made to produce a calibration force less than 10 mN. The electromagnetic calibration force for pulsed thrust measurements was linear to the coil current and changed less than 2.5% when the distance between the coil and magnet changed 6 mm. A pulsed plasma thruster was first tested on the thrust stand, and afterward five single impulse bits were measured to give a 310 {mu}N s average impulse bit. Uncertainty of the measured impulse bit was analyzed to evaluate the quality of the measurement and was found to be 10 {mu}N s with 95% credibility.

  1. Status of Low Thrust Work at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.

    2004-01-01

    High performance low thrust (solar electric, nuclear electric, variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket) propulsion offers a significant benefit to NASA missions beyond low Earth orbit. As NASA (e.g., Prometheus Project) endeavors to develop these propulsion systems and associated power supplies, it becomes necessary to develop a refined trajectory design capability that will allow engineers to develop future robotic and human mission designs that take advantage of this new technology. This ongoing work addresses development of a trajectory design and optimization tool for assessing low thrust (and other types) trajectories. This work targets to advance the state of the art, enable future NASA missions, enable science drivers, and enhance education. This presentation provides a summary of the low thrust-related JSC activities under the ISP program and specifically, provides a look at a new release of a multi-gravity, multispacecraft trajectory optimization tool (Copernicus) along with analysis performed using this tool over the past year.

  2. Test plan pressure fed thrust chamber technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Glenn

    1990-01-01

    Aerojet is developing the technology for the design of a reliable, low cost, efficient, and lightweight LOX/RP-1 pressure fed engine. This technology program is a direct result of Aerojet's liquid rocket booster (LRB) study and previous NASA studies that identified liquid engines using high bulk density hydrocarbon fuels as very attractive for a space transportation system (STS). Previous large thrust LOX/RP-1 engine development programs were characterized by costly development problems due to combustion instability damage. The combustion stability solution was typically obtained through trial and error methods of minimizing instability damage by degrading engine performance. The approach to this program was to utilize existing and newly developed combustion analysis models and design methodology to create a thrust chamber design with features having the potential of producing reliable and efficient operation. This process resulted in an engine design with a unique high thrust-per-element OFO triplet injector utilizing a low cost modular approach. Cost efficient ablative materials are baselined for the injector face and chamber. Technology demonstration will be accomplished through a hot fire test program using appropriately sized subscale hardware. This subscale testing will provide a data base to supplement the current industry data bank and to anchor and validate the applied analysis models and design methodology. Once anchored and validated, these analysis models and design methodology can be applied with greatly increased confidence to design and characterize a large scale pressure fed LOX/RP-1 thrust chamber. The objective of this test program is to generate a data base that can be used to anchor and validate existing analysis models and design methodologies and to provide early concept demonstration of a low cost, efficient LOX/RP-1 thrust chamber. Test conditions and hardware instrumentation were defined to provide data sufficient to characterize combustion stability, performance, and thermal operation over a wide thrust chamber throttling range.

  3. Low thrust NTP for manned Mars operations

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.; Madsen, W. ); Redd, L. )

    1993-01-10

    The impact on manned Mars operations of selecting a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) module with a relatively low total thrust, in the 222--445 kN (50--100 klbf) range, is explored. The propulsion module may consist of one or more engines. Selection of a low total thrust is robust across a wide range of payload masses provided perigee kicks are utilized for trans-Mars insertion (TMI). The longer time taken for TMI when using a low total thrust and perigee kicks allows for extensive system evaluation before commitment to Earth escape, but will require fuels with lifetimes of at least a few hours. Longer fuel life could be obtained without using advanced fuels by operating at lower fuel temperatures later in the mission. The additional traversals through the Van Allen belts inherent with using perigee kicks for TMI does not significantly increase the radiation exposure of the crew. Negative reactivity from xenon buildup between perigee kicks can be mitigated by coasting on the intermediate orbits, by altering the selection of the intermediate orbits, by deep throttling, or by building in sufficient excess reactivity. Thrust misalignments of a realistic magnitude do not pose an Earth impact hazard. Engine crosstalk in clusters is a very manageable problem. High propulsion module reliability can be achieved with a propulsion module consisting of a cluster of three or four small engines without dropping the module thrust-to-weight ratio below an acceptable level. A total design thrust in the 222--445 kN range is high enough for Earth return with only one of the engines of the cluster operating.

  4. Equivalent Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  5. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  6. Twin jet shielding. [for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cuffel, R. F.; Massier, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    For an over-the-wing/under-the-wing engine configuration on an airplane, the noise produced by the upper jet flow is partially reflected by the lower jet. An analysis has been performed which can be used to predict the distribution of perceived noise levels along the ground plane at take-off for an airplane which is designed to take advantage of the over/under shielding concept. Typical contours of PNL, the shielding benefit in the shadow zone, and the EPNL values at 3.5 nautical miles from brake release as well as EPNL values at sideline at 0.35 nautical miles have been calculated. This has been done for a range of flow parameters characteristic of engines producing inverted velocity profile jets suitable for use in a supersonic cruise vehicle. Reductions up to 6.0 EPNdB in community noise levels can be realized when the over engines are operated at higher thrust and the lower engines simultaneously operated with reduced thrust keeping the total thrust constant.

  7. Sub-micro-Newton resolution thrust balance.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, G

    2015-10-01

    Herein is described a sensitive vacuum balance for measuring the thrust produced by small (∼0.5 kg) thrusters typically employed in microsat station-keeping. The balance is based on a torsion design but incorporates jewel-pivot bearings instead of the more typical torsion spring bearings. Novel tilt control allows maintenance of true verticality of the bearing axis even while under vacuum. The low moment of inertia design allows it to measure small thrusts from high-voltage devices without direct wire conductor connections. Calibration by several means is described including use of a previously calibrated dielectric barrier discharge thruster. PMID:26520993

  8. Sub-micro-Newton resolution thrust balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, G.

    2015-10-01

    Herein is described a sensitive vacuum balance for measuring the thrust produced by small (˜0.5 kg) thrusters typically employed in microsat station-keeping. The balance is based on a torsion design but incorporates jewel-pivot bearings instead of the more typical torsion spring bearings. Novel tilt control allows maintenance of true verticality of the bearing axis even while under vacuum. The low moment of inertia design allows it to measure small thrusts from high-voltage devices without direct wire conductor connections. Calibration by several means is described including use of a previously calibrated dielectric barrier discharge thruster.

  9. 60K Fastrac Thrust Chamber Assembly Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This double exposure depicts Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Test Stand 116 hosting a 60K Bantam Fastrac thrust chamber assembly test. The lower right exposure shows the engine firing in the test stand while the center exposure reveals workers monitoring the test in the interior block house of the test facility. The thrust chamber assembly is only part of the Fastrac engine project to build a low-cost engine for the X-34, an alternate light-weight unmarned launch vehicle. Both the nozzle and the engine for Fastrac are being manufactured at MSFC.

  10. SEP thrust subsystem performance sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.; Sauer, C. G., Jr.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    This is a two-part report on solar electric propulsion (SEP) performance sensitivity analysis. The first part describes the preliminary analysis of the SEP thrust system performance for an Encke rendezvous mission. A detailed description of thrust subsystem hardware tolerances on mission performance is included together with nominal spacecraft parameters based on these tolerances. The second part describes the method of analysis and graphical techniques used in generating the data for Part 1. Included is a description of both the trajectory program used and the additional software developed for this analysis. Part 2 also includes a comprehensive description of the use of the graphical techniques employed in this performance analysis.

  11. Thrust chamber thermal barrier coating techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for applying thermal barrier coatings to the hot-gas side wall of rocket thrust chambers in order to significantly reduce the heat transfer in high heat flux regions was the focus of technology efforts for many years. This paper describes a successful technique developed by the Lewis Research Center that starts with the coating of a mandrel and then builds the thrust chamber around it by electroforming appropriate materials. This results in a smooth coating with exceptional adherence, demonstrated in hot fire rig tests. The low cycle fatigue life of chambers with coatings applied in this manner was increased dramatically compared to uncoated chambers.

  12. Thrust chamber thermal barrier coating techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for applying thermal barrier coatings to the hot-gas side wall of rocket thrust chambers in order to significantly reduce the heat transfer in high heat flux regions has been the focus of technology efforts for many years. A successful technique developed by NASA-Lewis that starts with the coating on a mandrel and then builds the thrust chamber around it by electroforming appropriate materials is described. This results in a smooth coating with exceptional adherence, as was demonstrated in hot fire rig tests. The low cycle fatigue life of chambers with coatings applied in this manner was increased dramatically compared to uncoated chambers.

  13. The induced thrust effect - A propulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Salvatore C.

    1991-09-01

    The 'induced thrust' (IT) method whose theoretical fundamentals and basic implementation are presented is applicable to both nuclear and chemical rocket-propulsion systems. IT principles are illustrated in the framework of the back-to-back 'joined ship' model, in which the combustion chamber pressure within one vehicle is caused to act as the back pressure of the other vehicle to which it is joined (and vice versa). The IT impulse generated by mutual plume impingement as the vehicles move away from each other constitutes an additional propulsive force which exceeds the individual thrust capacity of the separate powerplants. A unique mathematical algorithm is used to analyze the concept.

  14. A flow visualization study of single-arm sculling movement emulating cephalopod thrust generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakidi, Asimina; Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer P.; Tsakiris, Dimitris P.; Ekaterinaris, John A.

    2014-11-01

    In addition to jet propulsion, octopuses use arm-swimming motion as an effective means of generating bursts of thrust, for hunting, defense, or escape. The individual role of their arms, acting as thrust generators during this motion, is still under investigation, in view of an increasing robotic interest for alternative modes of propulsion, inspired by the octopus. Computational studies have revealed that thrust generation is associated with complex vortical flow patterns in the wake of the moving arm, however further experimental validation is required. Using the hydrogen bubble technique, we studied the flow disturbance around a single octopus-like robotic arm, undergoing two-stroke sculling movements in quiescent fluid. Although simplified, sculling profiles have been found to adequately capture the fundamental kinematics of the octopus arm-swimming behavior. In fact, variation of the sculling parameters alters considerably the generation of forward thrust. Flow visualization revealed the generation of complex vortical structures around both rigid and compliant arms. Increased disturbance was evident near the tip, particularly at the transitional phase between recovery and power strokes. These results are in good qualitative agreement with computational and robotic studies. Work funded by the ESF-GSRT HYDRO-ROB Project PE7(281).

  15. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Research Enhanced by Thrust Bearing Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Steven W.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team is developing aircraft turbine engines that will not require an oil lubrication system. Oil systems are required today to lubricate rolling-element bearings used by the turbine and fan shafts. For the Oil-Free Turbomachinery concept, researchers combined the most advanced foil (air) bearings from industry with NASA-developed high-temperature solid lubricant technology. In 1999, the world s first Oil-Free turbocharger was demonstrated using these technologies. Now we are working with industry to demonstrate Oil-Free turbomachinery technology in a small business jet engine, the EJ-22 produced by Williams International and developed during Glenn s recently concluded General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program. Eliminating the oil system in this engine will make it simpler, lighter (approximately 15 percent), more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain. Propulsion gas turbines will place high demands on foil air bearings, especially the thrust bearings. Up until now, the Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team only had the capability to test radial, journal bearings. This research has resulted in major improvements in the bearings performance, but journal bearings are cylindrical, and can only support radial shaft loads. To counteract axial thrust loads, thrust foil bearings, which are disk shaped, are required. Since relatively little research has been conducted on thrust foil air bearings, their performance lags behind that of journal bearings.

  16. Composite Octet Searches with Jet Substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Shelton, Jessie; /Yale U.

    2012-02-14

    Many new physics models with strongly interacting sectors predict a mass hierarchy between the lightest vector meson and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons. We examine the power of jet substructure tools to extend the 7 TeV LHC sensitivity to these new states for the case of QCD octet mesons, considering both two gluon and two b-jet decay modes for the pseudoscalar mesons. We develop both a simple dijet search using only the jet mass and a more sophisticated jet substructure analysis, both of which can discover the composite octets in a dijet-like signature. The reach depends on the mass hierarchy between the vector and pseudoscalar mesons. We find that for the pseudoscalar-to-vector meson mass ratio below approximately 0.2 the simple jet mass analysis provides the best discovery limit; for a ratio between 0.2 and the QCD-like value of 0.3, the sophisticated jet substructure analysis has the best discovery potential; for a ratio above approximately 0.3, the standard four-jet analysis is more suitable.

  17. A microNewton thrust stand for average thrust measurement of pulsed microthruster.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jing; Hong, Yan-Ji; Chang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A torsional thrust stand has been developed for the study of the average thrust for microNewton pulsed thrusters. The main body of the thrust stand mainly consists of a torsional balance, a pair of flexural pivots, a capacitive displacement sensor, a calibration assembly, and an eddy current damper. The behavior of the stand was thoroughly studied. The principle of thrust measurement was analyzed. The average thrust is determined as a function of the average equilibrium angle displacement of the balance and the spring stiffness. The thrust stand has a load capacity up to 10 kg, and it can theoretically measure the force up to 609.6 μN with a resolution of 24.4 nN. The static calibrations were performed based on the calibration assembly composed of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet. The calibration results demonstrated good repeatability (less than 0.68% FSO) and good linearity (less than 0.88% FSO). The assembly of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet was also used as an exciter to simulate the microthruster to further research the performance of the thrust stand. Three sets of force pulses at 17, 33.5, and 55 Hz with the same amplitude and pulse width were tested. The repeatability error at each frequency was 7.04%, 1.78%, and 5.08%, respectively. PMID:24387476

  18. A microNewton thrust stand for average thrust measurement of pulsed microthruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Jing; Hong, Yan-Ji; Chang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A torsional thrust stand has been developed for the study of the average thrust for microNewton pulsed thrusters. The main body of the thrust stand mainly consists of a torsional balance, a pair of flexural pivots, a capacitive displacement sensor, a calibration assembly, and an eddy current damper. The behavior of the stand was thoroughly studied. The principle of thrust measurement was analyzed. The average thrust is determined as a function of the average equilibrium angle displacement of the balance and the spring stiffness. The thrust stand has a load capacity up to 10 kg, and it can theoretically measure the force up to 609.6 μN with a resolution of 24.4 nN. The static calibrations were performed based on the calibration assembly composed of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet. The calibration results demonstrated good repeatability (less than 0.68% FSO) and good linearity (less than 0.88% FSO). The assembly of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet was also used as an exciter to simulate the microthruster to further research the performance of the thrust stand. Three sets of force pulses at 17, 33.5, and 55 Hz with the same amplitude and pulse width were tested. The repeatability error at each frequency was 7.04%, 1.78%, and 5.08%, respectively.

  19. Static performance of five twin-engine nonaxisymmetric nozzles with vectoring and reversing capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    Transonic tunnel test was performed to determine the static performance of five twin-engine nonaxisymmetric nozzles and a base-line axisymmetric nozzle at three nozzle power settings. Static thrust-vectoring and thrust-reversing performance were also determined. Nonaxisymmetric-nozzle concepts included two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles, wedge nozzles, and a nozzle with a single external-expansion ramp. All nonaxisymmetric nozzles had essentially the same statis performance as the axisymmetric nozzle. Effective thrust vectoring and reversing was also achieved.

  20. Jet Spreading Increase by Passive Control and Associated Performance Penalty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of 'screech', 'asymmetric nozzle shaping', 'tabs' and 'overexpansion' on the spreading of free jets. Corresponding thrust penalty for the tabs and overexpanded condition are also evaluated. The asymmetric shapes include rectangular ones with varying aspect ratio. Tabs investigated are triangular shaped 'delta-tabs' placed at the exit of a convergent circular nozzle. The effect of overexpansion is examined with circular convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles. Tabs and overexpansion are found to yield the largest increase in jet spreading. Each, however, involves a performance penalty, i.e., a loss in thrust coefficient. Variation of the size of four delta-tabs show that there exists an optimum size for which the gain in jet spreading is the maximum per unit loss in thrust coefficient. With the C-D nozzles, the minimum in thrust coefficient is expected near the beginning of the overexpanded regime based on idealized flow calculations. The maximum increase in jet spreading, however, is found to occur at higher pressure ratios well into the overexpanded regime. The optimum benefit with the overexpanded flow, in terms of gain in spreading for unit penalty, is found to be comparable to the optimum tab case.

  1. Synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezer, Ari; Amitay, Michael

    The evolution of a synthetic (zero-net mass flux) jet and the flow mechanisms of its interaction with a cross flow are reviewed. An isolated synthetic jet is produced by the interactions of a train of vortices that are typically formed by alternating momentary ejection and suction of fluid across an orifice such that the net mass flux is zero. A unique feature of these jets is that they are formed entirely from the working fluid of the flow system in which they are deployed and, thus, can transfer linear momentum to the flow system without net mass injection across the flow boundary. Synthetic jets can be produced over a broad range of length and timescale, and their unique attributes make them attractive fluidic actuators for a number of flow control applications. The interaction of synthetic jets with an external cross flow over the surface in which they are mounted can displace the local streamlines and induce an apparent or virtual change in the shape of the surface, thereby effecting flow changes on length scales that are one to two orders of magnitude larger than the characteristic scale of the jets. This control approach emphasizes an actuation frequency that is high enough so that the interaction domain between the actuator and the cross flow is virtually invariant on the global timescale of the flow, and therefore, global effects such as changes in aerodynamic forces are effectively decoupled from the operating frequency of the actuators.

  2. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  3. Investigation of Thrust and Drag Characteristics of a Plug-type Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, Donald P; Gorton, Gerald C

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel on the external and internal characteristics of a plug-type exhaust nozzle. Two positions of the center plug, one simulating a convergent nozzle and the other a convergent-divergent nozzle, were investigated. Data were obtained at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.1, 0.6, 1.6, and 2.0 over a pressure-ratio range of 1 to 20 and angles of attack of zero and 8 degrees. Results of this investigation indicated that the plug nozzle had thrust-minus-drag performance over the entire pressure-ratio range comparable with equivalent conventional nozzles. The effect of the exhaust jet on the external aerodynamics was similar to results observed for conventional nozzles. In addition, the thrust characteristics were generally insensitive to external flow and good agreement was noted with data obtained on comparable plug nozzles in quiescent air.

  4. In-flight thrust determination on a real-time basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Carpenter, T.; Sandlin, T.

    1984-01-01

    A real time computer program was implemented on a F-15 jet fighter to monitor in-flight engine performance of a Digital Electronic Engine Controlled (DEES) F-100 engine. The application of two gas generator methods to calculate in-flight thrust real time is described. A comparison was made between the actual results and those predicted by an engine model simulation. The percent difference between the two methods was compared to the predicted uncertainty based on instrumentation and model uncertainty and agreed closely with the results found during altitude facility testing. Data was obtained from acceleration runs of various altitudes at maximum power settings with and without afterburner. Real time in-flight thrust measurement was a major advancement to flight test productivity and was accomplished with no loss in accuracy over previous post flight methods.

  5. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

  6. Volcanic jet noise: infrasonic source processes and atmospheric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; Ogden, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruption columns are complex flows consisting of (possibly supersonic) injections of ash-gas mixtures into the atmosphere. A volcanic eruption column can be modeled as a lower momentum-driven jet (the gas-thrust region), which transitions with altitude into a thermally buoyant plume. Matoza et al. [2009] proposed that broadband infrasonic signals recorded during this type of volcanic activity represent a low-frequency form of jet noise. Jet noise is produced at higher acoustic frequencies by smaller-scale man-made jet flows (e.g., turbulent jet flow from jet engines and rockets). Jet noise generation processes could operate at larger spatial scales and produce infrasonic frequencies in the lower gas-thrust portion of the eruption column. Jet-noise-like infrasonic signals have been observed at ranges of tens to thousands of kilometers from sustained volcanic explosions at Mount St. Helens, WA; Tungurahua, Ecuador; Redoubt, AK; and Sarychev Peak, Kuril Islands. Over such distances, the atmosphere cannot be considered homogeneous. Long-range infrasound propagation takes place primarily in waveguides formed by vertical gradients in temperature and horizontal winds, and exhibits strong spatiotemporal variability. The timing and location of volcanic explosions can be estimated from remote infrasonic data and could be used with ash cloud dispersion forecasts for hazard mitigation. Source studies of infrasonic volcanic jet noise, coupled with infrasound propagation modeling, hold promise for being able to constrain more detailed eruption jet parameters with remote, ground-based geophysical data. Here we present recent work on the generation and propagation of volcanic jet noise. Matoza, R. S., D. Fee, M. A. Garcés, J. M. Seiner, P. A. Ramón, and M. A. H. Hedlin (2009), Infrasonic jet noise from volcanic eruptions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08303, doi:10.1029/2008GL036486.

  7. Emergency Flight Control Using Only Engine Thrust and Lateral Center-of-Gravity Offset: A First Look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.; Bull, John

    1997-01-01

    Normally, the damage that results in a total loss of the primary flight controls of a jet transport airplane, including all engines on one side, would be catastrophic. In response, NASA Dryden has conceived an emergency flight control system that uses only the thrust of a wing-mounted engine along with a lateral center-of-gravity (CGY) offset from fuel transfer. Initial analysis and simulation studies indicate that such a system works, and recent high-fidelity simulation tests on the MD-11 and B-747 suggest that the system provides enough control for a survivable landing. This paper discusses principles of flight control using only a wing engine thrust and CGY offset, along with the amount of CGY offset capability of some transport airplanes. The paper also presents simulation results of the throttle-only control capability and closed-loop control of ground track using computer-controlled thrust.

  8. Low-thrust transfer to Backflip orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, P.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the work is to design a low-thrust transfer from a Low Earth Orbit to a "useful" periodic orbit in the Earth-Moon Circular Restricted Three Body Model (CR3BP). A useful periodic orbit is here intended as one that moves both in the Earth-Moon plane and out of this plane without any requirements of propellant mass. This is achieved by exploiting a particular class of periodic orbits named Backflip orbits, enabled by the CR3BP. The unique characteristics of this class of periodic solutions allow the design of an almost planar transfer from a geocentric orbit and the use of the Backflip intrinsic characteristics to explore the geospace out of the Earth-Moon plane. The main advantage of this approach is that periodic plane changes can be obtained by performing an almost planar transfer. In order to save propellant mass, so as to increase the scientific payload of the mission, a low-powered transfer is considered. This foresees a thrusting phase to gain energy from a departing circular geocentric orbit and a second thrusting phase to match the state of the target Backflip orbit, separated by an intermediate ballistic phase. This results in a combined application of a low-thrust manoeuvre and of a periodical solution in the CR3BP to realize a new class of missions to explore the Earth-Moon neighbourhoods in a quite inexpensive way. In addition, a low-thrust transit between two different Backflip orbits is analyzed and considered as a possible extension of the proposed mission. Thus, also a Backflip-to-Backflip transfer is addressed where a low-powered probe is able to experience periodic excursions above and below the Earth-Moon plane only performing almost planar and very short transfers.

  9. Thrust stand for electric propulsion performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; DeHoyos, Amado; Spaun, Benjamin

    2006-10-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting testing of thrusters having a total mass of up to 125kg and producing thrust levels between 100?N to 1N has been developed and tested. The design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that converts horizontal deflections produced by the operating thruster into amplified vertical motion of a secondary arm. The level of amplification is changed through adjustment of the location of one of the pivot points linking the system. Response of the system depends on the relative magnitudes of the restoring moments applied by the displaced thruster mass and the twisting torsional pivots connecting the members of the balance mechanism. Displacement is measured using a noncontact, optical linear gap displacement transducer, and balance oscillatory motion is attenuated using a passive, eddy-current damper. The thrust stand employs an automated leveling and thermal control system. Pools of liquid gallium are used to deliver power to the thruster without using solid wire connections, which can exert undesirable time-varying forces on the balance. These systems serve to eliminate sources of "zero drift" that can occur as the stand thermally or mechanically shifts during the course of an experiment. An in situ calibration rig allows for steady-state calibration before, during, and after thruster operation. Thrust measurements were carried out on a cylindrical Hall thruster that produces millinewton-level thrust. The measurements were very repeatable, producing results that compare favorably with previously published performance data, but with considerably smaller uncertainty.

  10. Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; Dehoyos, Amado; Spaun, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting testing of thrusters having a total mass of up to 125 kg and producing thrust levels between 100 microN to 1 N has been developed and tested. The design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that converts horizontal deflections produced by the operating thruster into amplified vertical motion of a secondary arm. The level of amplification is changed through adjustment of the location of one of the pivot points linking the system. Response of the system depends on the relative magnitudes of the restoring moments applied by the displaced thruster mass and the twisting torsional pivots connecting the members of the balance mechanism. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer and balance oscillatory motion is attenuated using a passive, eddy-current damper. The thrust stand employs an automated leveling and thermal control system. Pools of liquid gallium are used to deliver power to the thruster without using solid wire connections, which can exert undesirable time-varying forces on the balance. These systems serve to eliminate sources of zero-drift that can occur as the stand thermally or mechanically shifts during the course of an experiment. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady-state calibration before, during and after thruster operation. Thrust measurements were carried out on a cylindrical Hall thruster that produces mN-level thrust. The measurements were very repeatable, producing results that compare favorably with previously published performance data, but with considerably smaller uncertainty.

  11. Limited variance control in statistical low thrust guidance analysis. [stochastic algorithm for SEP comet Encke flyby mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Difficulties arise in guiding a solar electric propulsion spacecraft due to nongravitational accelerations caused by random fluctuations in the magnitude and direction of the thrust vector. These difficulties may be handled by using a low thrust guidance law based on the linear-quadratic-Gaussian problem of stochastic control theory with a minimum terminal miss performance criterion. Explicit constraints are imposed on the variances of the control parameters, and an algorithm based on the Hilbert space extension of a parameter optimization method is presented for calculation of gains in the guidance law. The terminal navigation of a 1980 flyby mission to the comet Encke is used as an example.

  12. Effect of Target-type Thrust Reverser on Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-engine Fighter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihert, John M

    1958-01-01

    A brief investigation of a target-type thrust reverser on a single-engine fighter model has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.05.At Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.92, and 1.05, a hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was operated with the thrust reverser extended. The angle of attack was varied from 0 degrees to 5 degrees at these Mach numbers. The Reynolds number of the free stream, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, was about 5 x 10(6). It was estimated that reversed jet operations separated the model boundary-layer flow over the upper surface of the horizontal tail and upper part of the afterbody. This resulted in a positive pitch increment due to reversed jet operation. Jet-on operation also tended to stabilize the severe lateral oscillations which occurred with the reverser extended and the jet off. It appeared that these jet-off oscillations were the result of an alternating separation and reattachment of the flow on the rearmost portions of the fuselage afterbody.

  13. A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for a labscale hybrid rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ann M.; Wright, Andrew B.; Born, Traig; Strickland, Ryan

    2013-12-01

    A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor was designed, constructed, calibrated, and tested using the labscale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The system consisted of six independent legs: one parallel to the axis of symmetry of the rocket for main thrust measurement, two vertical legs near the nozzle end of the rocket, one vertical leg near the oxygen input end of the rocket, and two separated horizontal legs near the nozzle end. Each leg was composed of a rotational bearing, a load cell, and a universal joint above and below the load cell. The leg was designed to create point contact along only one direction and minimize the non-axial forces applied to the load cell. With this system, force in each direction and moments for roll, pitch, and yaw can be measured. The system was calibrated and tested using a labscale hybrid rocket using gaseous oxygen and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene solid fuel. The thrust stand proved to be stable during calibration tests. Thrust force vector components and roll, pitch, and yaw moments were calculated for test firings with an oxygen mass flow rate range of 0.0174-0.0348 kg s-1.

  14. Thrust-wrench fault interference in a brittle medium: new insights from analogue modelling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Filipe; Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Tomas, Ricardo; Grigorova, Vili; Terrinha, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    We present analogue modelling experimental results concerning thrust-wrench fault interference in a brittle medium, to try to evaluate the influence exerted by different prescribed interference angles in the formation of morpho-structural interference fault patterns. All the experiments were conceived to simulate simultaneous reactivation of confining strike-slip and thrust faults defining a (corner) zone of interference, contrasting with previously reported discrete (time and space) superposition of alternating thrust and strike-slip events. Different interference angles of 60, 90 and 120 were experimentally investigated by comparing the specific structural configurations obtained in each case. Results show that a deltoid-shaped morpho-structural pattern is consistently formed in the fault interference (corner) zone, exhibiting a specific geometry that is fundamentally determined by the different prescribed fault interference angle. Such angle determines the orientation of the displacement vector shear component along the main frontal thrust direction, determining different fault confinement conditions in each case, and imposing a complying geometry and kinematics of the interference deltoid structure. Model comparison with natural examples worldwide shows good geometric and kinematic similarity, pointing to the existence of matching underlying dynamic process. Acknowledgments This work was sponsored by the Fundao para a Cincia e a Tecnologia (FCT) through project MODELINK EXPL/GEO-GEO/0714/2013.

  15. Fuel-optimal, low-thrust transfers between libration point orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey R.

    Mission design requires the efficient management of spacecraft fuel to reduce mission cost, increase payload mass, and extend mission life. High efficiency, low-thrust propulsion devices potentially offer significant propellant reductions. Periodic orbits that exist in a multi-body regime and low-thrust transfers between these orbits can be applied in many potential mission scenarios, including scientific observation and communications missions as well as cargo transport. In light of the recent discovery of water ice in lunar craters, libration point orbits that support human missions within the Earth-Moon region are of particular interest. This investigation considers orbit transfer trajectories generated by a variable specific impulse, low-thrust engine with a primer-vector-based, fuel-optimizing transfer strategy. A multiple shooting procedure with analytical gradients yields rapid solutions and serves as the basis for an investigation into the trade space between flight time and consumption of fuel mass. Path and performance constraints can be included at node points along any thrust arc. Integration of invariant manifolds into the design strategy may also yield improved performance and greater fuel savings. The resultant transfers offer insight into the performance of the variable specific impulse engine and suggest novel implementations of conventional impulsive thrusters. Transfers incorporating invariant manifolds demonstrate the fuel savings and expand the mission design capabilities that are gained by exploiting system symmetry. A number of design applications are generated.

  16. Thrusting and gravel progradation in foreland basins: A test of post-thrusting gravel dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.W.; Beck, R.A.; Hobbs, R. ); Raynolds, R.G.H. ); Tahirkheli, R.A.K. )

    1988-12-01

    The use of gravels as syntectonic indicators of thrusting has recently been questioned by foreland-basin models that assign gravels to a post-thrusting interval of progradation, except in very proximal areas. On the basis of precise temporal control provided by magnetostratigraphically dated sections, the history of gravel progradation after a major thrusting and uplift event in the northwestern Himalaya is shown to be a virtually syntectonic phenomenon. Despite considerable crustal subsidence driven by a thick-skinned thrust, gravels prograded {approximately} 70 km during a 1.5-m.y.-long thrusting event. By 3 m.y. after the start of thrusting, gravels extended more than 110 km into the basin. Although delayed gravel progradation appears appropriate for many Rocky Mountain foreland basins, it is clearly not valid for the Himalaya. The authors attribute the difference in depositional response between these basins to difference in the quantity of sediment supplied to them (sediment starved vs. overfilled), the availability of resistates in the source area, and the size of the antecedent drainage.

  17. Estimability of thrusting trajectories in 3D from a single passive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ting; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Willett, Peter; Ben-Dov, R.; Pollak, S.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of estimating the state of thrusting/ballistic endoatmospheric projectiles moving in 3-dimensional (3-D) space using 2-dimensional (2-D) measurements from a single passive sensor (stationary or moving with constant velocity) is investigated. The estimability is analyzed based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) of the target parameter vector, comprising the initial launch (azimuth and elevation) angles, drag coefficient and thrust, which determine its trajectory according to a nonlinear motion equation. The initial position is assumed to be obtained from the first line of sight (LoS) measurements intersected with a known-altitude plane. The full-rank FIM ensures that this is an estimable system. The corresponding Craḿer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) quantifies the estimation performance of the estimator that is statistically efficient and can be used for impact point prediction (IPP). Due to the inherent nonlinearity of the problem, the maximum likelihood estimate of the target parameter vector is found by using iterated least squares (ILS) numerical approach. A combined grid and ILS approach searches over the launch angles space is proposed. The drag coefficient-thrust grid-based ILS approach is shown to converge to the global maximum and has reliable estimation performance. This is then used for IPP.

  18. Estimability of thrusting trajectories in 3-D from a single passive sensor with unknown launch point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ting; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Willett, Peter; Ben-Dov, R.; Pollak, S.

    2013-09-01

    The problem of estimating the state of thrusting/ballistic endoatmospheric projectiles moving in 3-dimensional (3-D) space using 2-dimensional (2-D) measurements from a single passive sensor is investigated. The location of projectile's launch point (LP) is unavailable and this could significantly affect the performance of the estimation and the IPP. The LP altitude is then an unknown target parameter. The estimability is analyzed based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) of the target parameter vector, comprising the initial launch (azimuth and elevation) angles, drag coefficient, thrust and the LP altitude, which determine the trajectory according to a nonlinear motion equation. The full rank of the FIM ensures that one has an estimable target parameters. The corresponding Craḿer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) quantifies the estimation performance of the estimator that is statistically efficient and can be used for IPP. In view of the inherent nonlinearity of the problem, the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the target parameter vector is found by using a mixed (partially grid-based) search approach. For a selected grid in the drag-coefficient-thrust-altitude subspace, the proposed parallelizable approach is shown to have reliable estimation performance and further leads to the final IPP of high accuracy.

  19. A control-volume method for analysis of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for predicting transient thrust augmenting ejector characteristics is presented. The analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with a control volume mixing region discretization to solicit transient effects in a new way. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region corresponds with the assumption of viscous-dominated phenomenon in the latter. Inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady analysis, justified by the assumptions that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Details of the theoretical foundation, the solution algorithm, and sample calculations are given.

  20. Supersonic wings with significant leading-edge thrust at cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Carlson, H. W.; Mack, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental/theoretical correlations are presented which show that significant levels of leading-edge thrust are possible at supersonic speeds for certain planforms having the geometry to support the theoretical thrust-distribution potential. The new analytical process employed provides not only the level of leading-edge thrust attainable but also the spanwise distribution of both it and that component of full theoretical thrust which acts as vortex lift. Significantly improved aerodynamic performance in the moderate supersonic speed regime is indicated.

  1. Synthetic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milanovic, Ivana M.

    2003-01-01

    Current investigation of synthetic jets and synthetic jets in cross-flow examined the effects of orifice geometry and dimensions, momentum-flux ratio, cluster of orifices, pitch and yaw angles as well as streamwise development of the flow field. This comprehensive study provided much needed experimental information related to the various control strategies. The results of the current investigation on isolated and clustered synthetic jets with and without cross-flow will be further analyzed and documented in detail. Presentations at national conferences and publication of peer- reviewed journal articles are also expected. Projected publications will present both the mean and turbulent properties of the flow field, comparisons made with the data available in an open literature, as well as recommendations for the future work.

  2. Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is used frequently to treat musculoskeletal complaints. Little is known about the intervention's biomechanical characteristics that determine its clinical benefit. Using an animal preparation, we determined how neural activity from lumbar muscle spindles during a lumbar HVLA-SM is affected by the type of thrust control and by the thrust's amplitude, duration, and rate. A mechanical device was used to apply a linear increase in thrust displacement or force and to control thrust duration. Under displacement control, neural responses during the HVLA-SM increased in a fashion graded with thrust amplitude. Under force control neural responses were similar regardless of the thrust amplitude. Decreasing thrust durations at all thrust amplitudes except the smallest thrust displacement had an overall significant effect on increasing muscle spindle activity during the HVLA-SMs. Under force control, spindle responses specifically and significantly increased between thrust durations of 75 and 150 ms suggesting the presence of a threshold value. Thrust velocities greater than 20–30 mm/s and thrust rates greater than 300 N/s tended to maximize the spindle responses. This study provides a basis for considering biomechanical characteristics of an HVLA-SM that should be measured and reported in clinical efficacy studies to help define effective clinical dosages. PMID:23401713

  3. Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate.

    PubMed

    Reed, William R; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R; Kawchuk, Gregory N; Pickar, Joel G

    2013-01-01

    High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is used frequently to treat musculoskeletal complaints. Little is known about the intervention's biomechanical characteristics that determine its clinical benefit. Using an animal preparation, we determined how neural activity from lumbar muscle spindles during a lumbar HVLA-SM is affected by the type of thrust control and by the thrust's amplitude, duration, and rate. A mechanical device was used to apply a linear increase in thrust displacement or force and to control thrust duration. Under displacement control, neural responses during the HVLA-SM increased in a fashion graded with thrust amplitude. Under force control neural responses were similar regardless of the thrust amplitude. Decreasing thrust durations at all thrust amplitudes except the smallest thrust displacement had an overall significant effect on increasing muscle spindle activity during the HVLA-SMs. Under force control, spindle responses specifically and significantly increased between thrust durations of 75 and 150 ms suggesting the presence of a threshold value. Thrust velocities greater than 20-30 mm/s and thrust rates greater than 300 N/s tended to maximize the spindle responses. This study provides a basis for considering biomechanical characteristics of an HVLA-SM that should be measured and reported in clinical efficacy studies to help define effective clinical dosages. PMID:23401713

  4. Thrust measurements of a hollow-cathode discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, A.; Banks, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Thrust measurements of a hollow cathode mercury discharge were made with a synthetic mica target on a torsion pendulum. Thrust measurements were made for various target angles, tip temperatures, flow rates, keeper discharge powers, and accelerator electrode voltages. The experimental thrust data are compared with theoretical values for the case where no discharge power was employed.

  5. Summary of Scale-Model Thrust-Reverser Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povolny, John H; Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

    1957-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the characteristics of several basic types of thrust-reverser. Models of three types, target, tailpipe cascade, and ring cascade, were tested with unheated air. The effects of design variables on reverse-thrust performance, reversed-flow boundaries, and thrust modulation characteristics were determined.

  6. Effects of Various Arrangements of Slotted and Round Jet Exits on the Lift and Pitching-Moment Characteristics of a Rectangular-Base Model at Zero Forward Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, Raymond D.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine some of the effects of various arrangements of slotted and round jet exits on the lift and pitching-moment characteristics of a rectangular-base model at zero forward speed. Jet-exit slots near the perimeter of the model usually gave larger lift-thrust ratios than slots nearer the center line when the model was near the ground, but away from the ground perimeter jets forming almost a closed jet curtain induced negative pressures on the bottom of the model and resulted in less lift than that obtained with more centrally located jets or jets with large gaps in the jet curtain. Most models with jet slots symmetrical about the pitch axis gave approximately zero pitching moments through the range of ground-board distances, but under some conditions unstable flow direction caused positive or negative pitching moments to occur. With wings attached to the models, the lift close to the ground was 10 to 20 percent less than the lift away from the ground for various configurations. The round jets gave poorer lift-thrust ratios than the slotted jets in the region of ground effect. Out of the region of ground effect the round jets gave the greatest lift-thrust ratio per unit of weight rate of flow of air, for equal jet-exit areas, and the thinnest slotted jet gave the least.

  7. Low-thrust Isp sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the cooling requirements and attainable specific impulse performance of engines in the 445 to 4448N thrust class utilizing LOX/RP-1, LOX/Hydrogen and LOX/Methane propellants is presented. The unique design requirements for the regenerative cooling of low-thrust engines operating at high pressures (up to 6894 kPa) were explored analytically by comparing single cooling with the fuel and the oxidizer, and dual cooling with both the fuel and the oxidizer. The effects of coolant channel geometry, chamber length, and contraction ratio on the ability to provide proper cooling were evaluated, as was the resulting specific impulse. The results show that larger contraction ratios and smaller channels are highly desirable for certain propellant combinations.

  8. MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2005-09-13

    The Yucca Mountain site was recommended by the President to be a geological repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The multi-barrier approach was adopted for assessing and predicting system behavior, including both natural barriers and engineered barriers. A major component of the long-term strategy for safe disposal of nuclear waste is first to completely isolate the radionuclides in waste packages for long times and then to greatly retard the egress and transport of radionuclides from penetrated packages. The goal of the Materials Performance Targeted Thrust program is to further enhance the understanding of the role of engineered barriers in waste isolation. In addition, the Thrust will explore technical enhancements and seek to offer improvements in materials costs and reliability.

  9. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-07-27

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OST&I) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OST&I's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program.

  10. Thrust production by a mechanical swimming lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, M. C.; Smits, A. J.

    2011-05-01

    To develop a comprehensive model of lamprey locomotion, we use a robotic lamprey to investigate the formation of the wake structure, the shedding vorticity from the body, and the relationship between thrust production and pressure on the surface of the robot. The robot mimics the motion of living lamprey in steady swimming by using a programmable microcomputer to actuate 13 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The amplitude of the phase-averaged surface pressure distribution along the centerline of the robot increases toward the tail, which is consistent with previous momentum balance experiments. This indicates that thrust is produced mainly at the tail. The phase relationship between the pressure signal and the vortex shedding from the tail is also examined, showing a clear connection between the location of vortex structures and the fluctuations of the pressure signal.

  11. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  12. High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

  13. Advanced tube-bundle rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced rocket thrust chamber for future space application is described along with an improved method of fabrication. Potential benefits of the concept are improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. Performance improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced heat transfer into the coolant which will enable higher chamber pressure in expander cycle engines. Cyclic life, reusability and reliability improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber with a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes, and the bonding of these tubes by an electroforming operation. Further, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, jackets, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.

  14. Flow structure, performance and scaling of acoustic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Michael Oliver

    Acoustic jets are studied, with an emphasis on their flow structure, performance, and scaling. The ultimate goal is the development of a micromachined acoustic jet for propulsion of a micromachined airborne platform, as well as integrated cooling and pumping applications. Scaling suggests an increase in performance with decreasing size, motivating the use of micro-technology. Experimental studies are conducted at three different orders of magnitude in size, each closely following analytic expectations. The jet creates a periodic vortical structure, the details of which are a function of amplitude. At small actuation amplitude, but still well above the linear acoustic regime, the flow structure consists of individual vortex rings, propagating away from the nozzle, formed during the outstroke of the acoustic cavity. At large amplitude, a trail of vorticity forms between the periodic vortex rings. Approximately corresponding to these two flow regions are two performance regimes. At low amplitude, the jet thrust increases with the fourth power of the amplitude; and at large amplitude, the thrust equals the momentum flux ejected during the output stroke, and increases as the square of the amplitude. Resonance of the cavity, at Reynolds numbers greater than approximately 10, enhances the jet performance beyond the incompressible behavior. Gains of an order of magnitude in the jet velocity occur at Reynolds numbers of approximately 100, and the data suggest further gains with increasing Reynolds number. The smallest geometries tested are micromachined acoustic jets, manufactured using MEMS technology. The throat dimensions are 50 by 200 mum, and the overall device size is approximately 1 mm 2, with eight throats per device. Several jets are manufactured in an array, to suit any given application. The performance is very dependent on frequency, with a sharp peak at the system resonance, occurring at approximately 70 kHz (inaudible). The mean jet velocity of these devices is about 1 m/s, and the thrust is about 1 muN per resonator. The resulting thrust per unit area is about 1 N/m2, with an estimated power to thrust ratio of about 20 W/N.

  15. Low Carbon Propulsion Strategic Thrust Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, Jay

    2014-01-01

    NASA is taking a leadership role with regard to developing new options for low-carbon propulsion. Work related to the characterization of alternative fuels is coordinated with our partners in government and industry, and NASA is close to concluding a TC in this area. Research on alternate propulsion concepts continues to grow and is an important aspect of the ARMD portfolio. Strong partnerships have been a key enabling factor for research on this strategic thrust.

  16. Thrust bolting: Roof-bolt-support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tadolini, S.C.; Dolinar, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for installing a roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation and more specifically to tensioning the unit without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads. The bolt is capable of being placed into tension along the length and the levels of active support can be controlled by varying the length of the grouted portion and the level of thrust applied to the bolt during installation.

  17. Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, S.; Effinger, M.; Holmes, R.; Lee, J.; Jaskowiak, M.

    2000-01-01

    Traditional metals like steel and copper alloys have been used for many years to fabricate injector and chamber components of thruster assemblies. While the materials perform well, reducing engine weights would help existing and future vehicles gain performance and payload capability. It may now be possible to reduce current thruster weights up to 50% by applying composite materials. In this task, these materials are being applied to an existing thrust cell design to demonstrate new fabrication processes and potential weight savings. Two ceramic matrix composite (CMC) designs, three polymer matrix composite (PMC) designs, and two metal matrix composite (MMC) designs are being fabricated as small chamber demonstration units. In addition, a new alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium (Cu-8Cr-4Nb) is being investigated for thrust chamber liners since it offers higher strength and increased cycle life over traditional alloys. This new alloy is being used for the liner in each MMC and PMC demonstration unit. During June-August of 2000, hot-fire testing of each unit is planned to validate designs in an oxygen/hydrogen environment at chamber pressures around 850 psi. Although the weight savings using CMC materials is expected to be high, they have proven to be much harder to incorporate into chamber designs based on current fabrication efforts. However, the PMC & MMC concepts using the Cu-8Cr-4Nb liner are nearly complete and ready for testing. Additional efforts intend to use the PMC & MMC materials to fabricate a full size thrust chamber (60K lb(sub f) thrust class). The fabrication of this full size unit is expected to be complete by October 2000, followed by hot-fire testing in November-December 2000.

  18. CFD Code Survey for Thrust Chamber Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Klaus W.

    1990-01-01

    In the quest fo find analytical reference codes, responses from a questionnaire are presented which portray the current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program status and capability at various organizations, characterizing liquid rocket thrust chamber flow fields. Sample cases are identified to examine the ability, operational condition, and accuracy of the codes. To select the best suited programs for accelerated improvements, evaluation criteria are being proposed.

  19. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, C. J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles is described. A set of orbit elements, known as the equinoctial elements, are selected as the state variables. The uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time nominal trajectory is defined and the equation of motion and the measurement equation are linearized about this nominal trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback guidance law is derived to control the thrusting direction of the engine. Using this guidance law, the vehicle will fly in a trajectory neighboring the nominal trajectory. The extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. Finally a short mission using this system is simulated. The results indicate that this system is very efficient for short missions.

  20. Thrust and power measurements of Olympic swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Wu, Vicki; Hutchison, Sean; Mark, Russell

    2012-11-01

    Elite level swimming is an extremely precise and even choreographed activity. Swimmers not only know the exact number of strokes necessary to take them across the pool, they also plan to be a precise distance from the wall at the end of their last stroke. Too far away and they lose time by drifting into the wall. Too close and their competitor may slide in before their hand comes forward to touch the wall. In this context, it is important to know, in detail, where and how a swimmer propels her/himself through the water. Over the past decade, state-of-the-art flow and thrust measurement diagnostics have been brought to competitive swimming. But the ability to correlate stroke mechanics to thrust production without somehow constraining the swimmer has here-to-fore not been possible. Using high speed video, a simple approach to mapping the swimmer's speed, thrust and net power output in a time resolved manner has been developed. This methodology has been applied to Megan Jendrick, gold medalist in the 100 individual breast stroke and 4 × 100 medley relay events in 2000 and Ariana Kukors, 2009 world champion and continuing world record holder in the 200 individual medley. Implications for training future elite swimmers will be discussed.

  1. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Schmid, T. E.; Torrey, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques and materials were developed and evaluated for the fabrication and coating of advanced, long life, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. Materials were analyzed as fillers for sputter application of OFHC copper as a closeout layer to channeled inner structures; of the materials evaluated, aluminum was found to provide the highest bond strength and to be the most desirable for chamber fabrication. The structures and properties were investigated of thick sputtered OFHC copper, 0.15 Zr-Cu, Al2O3,-Cu, and SiC-Cu. Layered structures of OFHC copper and 0.15 Zr-Cu were investigated as means of improving chamber inner wall fatigue life. The evaluation of sputtered Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, NASA IIb-11, aluminum and Al2O3-Al alloys as high strength chamber outer jackets was performed. Techniques for refurbishing degraded thrust chambers with OFHC copper and coating thrust chambers with protective ZrO2 and graded ZrO2-copper thermal barrier coatings were developed.

  2. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  3. Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaplygin, S.

    1944-01-01

    A brief summary of the contents of this paper is presented here. In part I the differential equations of the problem of a gas flow in two dimensions is derived and the particular integrals by which the problem on jets is solved are given. Use is made of the same independent variables as Molenbroek used, but it is found to be more suitable to consider other functions. The stream function and velocity potential corresponding to the problem are given in the form of series. The investigation on the convergence of these series in connection with certain properties of the functions entering them forms the subject of part II. In part III the problem of the outflow of a gas from an infinite vessel with plane walls is solved. In part IV the impact of a gas jet on a plate is considered and the limiting case where the jet expands to infinity changing into a gas flow is taken up in more detail. This also solved the equivalent problem of the resistance of a gaseous medium to the motion of a plate. Finally, in part V, an approximate method is presented that permits a simpler solution of the problem of jet flows in the case where the velocities of the gas (velocities of the particles in the gas) are not very large.

  4. The effects of the stellar wind and orbital motion on the jets of high-mass microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High-mass microquasar jets propagate under the effect of the wind from the companion star, and the orbital motion of the binary system. The stellar wind and the orbit may be dominant factors determining the jet properties beyond the binary scales. Aims: This is an analytical study, performed to characterise the effects of the stellar wind and the orbital motion on the jet properties. Methods: Accounting for the wind thrust transferred to the jet, we derive analytical estimates to characterise the jet evolution under the impact of the stellar wind. We include the Coriolis force effect, induced by orbital motion and enhanced by the wind's presence. Large-scale evolution of the jet is sketched, accounting for wind-to-jet thrust transfer, total energy conservation, and wind-jet flow mixing. Results: If the angle of the wind-induced jet bending is larger than its half-opening angle, the following is expected: (i) a strong recollimation shock; (ii) bending against orbital motion, caused by Coriolis forces and enhanced by the wind presence; and (iii) non-ballistic helical propagation further away. Even if disrupted, the jet can re-accelerate due to ambient pressure gradients, but wind entrainment can weaken this acceleration. On large scales, the opening angle of the helical structure is determined by the wind-jet thrust relation, and the wind-loaded jet flow can be rather slow. Conclusions: The impact of stellar winds on high-mass microquasar jets can yield non-ballistic helical jet trajectories, jet partial disruption and wind mixing, shocks, and possibly non-thermal emission. Among other observational diagnostics, such as radiation variability at any band, the radio morphology on milliarcsecond scales can be informative on the wind-jet interaction.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of an Exhaust-gas-to-air Heat Exchanger for Use on Jet-stack-equipped Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalder, Jackson R; Spies, Ray J , Jr

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the loss in exhaust-jet thrust and engine power resulting from the insertion of an exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchanger in a jet-type exhaust stack of an aircraft engine. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger was also determined.

  6. A New Paradigm for Flow Analyses and a Novel Technique to Enhance the Thrust from Scarfed Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Shih; Chang, Sin-Chung; Glick, Robert L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Glick, Mailyn P.

    2008-01-01

    A new flow analysis paradigm and a novel technique to enhance scarfed nozzle thrust are presented. The new paradigm, the space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method, a truly unsteady and genuinely multi-dimensional flow solver that provides accurate solutions for Euler and Navier-Stokes flows, is well suited for next generation flow analyses.In this study, the space-time CESE method was applied to solve scarfed nozzles flow-fields. Nozzle scarfing is frequently used for vectoring control of a space propulsion sub-system; it reduces nozzle weight and length and lowers nozzle thrust. A novel technique to enhance scarfed nozzles' thrust is discussed and investigated. Results of 2D and 3D flow analyses are presented.

  7. Ouachita Mountain thrust front: An integrated approach to prospect analysis in thrust belts

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L. ); Keeling, M.A. ); Cassiani, D. )

    1990-05-01

    The thrust front of the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas is defined by the prominent asymmetric Washburn anticline. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburn anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations suggested the presence of the imbrication in the core of the structure, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the backthrust and duplex geometry difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the backthrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Ouachita thrust front as a delta structure has aided in subsurface data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

  8. Comparative jet wake structure and swimming performance of salps.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P

    2010-09-01

    Salps are barrel-shaped marine invertebrates that swim by jet propulsion. Morphological variations among species and life-cycle stages are accompanied by differences in swimming mode. The goal of this investigation was to compare propulsive jet wakes and swimming performance variables among morphologically distinct salp species (Pegea confoederata, Weelia (Salpa) cylindrica, Cyclosalpa sp.) and relate swimming patterns to ecological function. Using a combination of in situ dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, we describe properties of the jet wake and swimming performance variables including thrust, drag and propulsive efficiency. Locomotion by all species investigated was achieved via vortex ring propulsion. The slow-swimming P. confoederata produced the highest weight-specific thrust (T=53 N kg(-1)) and swam with the highest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=55%). The fast-swimming W. cylindrica had the most streamlined body shape but produced an intermediate weight-specific thrust (T=30 N kg(-1)) and swam with an intermediate whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=52%). Weak swimming performance variables in the slow-swimming C. affinis, including the lowest weight-specific thrust (T=25 N kg(-1)) and lowest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=47%), may be compensated by low energetic requirements. Swimming performance variables are considered in the context of ecological roles and evolutionary relationships. PMID:20709925

  9. The Effect on Thrust Minus Base Drag of Exchanging Base Area for Nozzle Expansion in Supersonic Nozzles at Transonic Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocumb, Travis H.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation to determine the effect on thrust minus base drag of exchanging base area for nozzle overexpansion on a cylindrical afterbody with a single supersonic nozzle has been conducted a t Mach numbers from 0.9 t o 1.4. The throat-to-base diameter ratio has been varied from 0.320 to 0.550; the jet-to-base diameter ratio has been varied from 0.320 to 1, resulting in a jet Mach number variation of 1.0 to 3.897. The jet total-pressure ratio ranged from 2 to approximately 22. The results indicated that a proper balance between nozzle over-expansion and base area exists, which will produce the maximum afterbody net-thrust factor over a given operating range. For a given Mach number and throat-to-base diameter ratio, the optimum values of jet-to-base diameter ratio corresponding to the peak values of the net-thrust factor are, in general, larger than the values at the jet design pressure ratio and tend to increase with increasing j e t total-pressure ratio in a manner similar to the design values. Also, for given values of throat-to-base diameter ratio and jet total-pressure ratio, the optimum value of jet-to-base diameter ratio changed as the free-stream Mach number was varied from transonic to low supersonic speeds. The magnitude of the changes varied with jet total-pressure ratio and throat-to-base diameter ratio.

  10. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 2: Baseline thrust system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30- cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high-power missions (60 to 100 kW) such as a Halley's comet rendezvous. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. The baseline thrust system design features modular construction, conventional power processing, and a concentractor solar array concept and is designed to interface with the space shuttle.

  11. Jets, W's, and Z's at radical s = 1. 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, S.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Jet production and electroweak vector boson production have been observed in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The inclusive jet cross section has been measured for jets up to transverse energies of 400 GeV, and is compared to QCD predictions. W and Z particle production has been observed and studies of their masses are described. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Jets in air-jet family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navia, C. E.; Sawayanagi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The A-jet families on Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiments were analyzed by the study of jets which are reconstructed by a grouping procedure. It is demonstrated that large-E sub J R sub J events are characterized by small number of jets and two-jet like asymmetric shape, binocular events and the other type. This type has a larger number of jets and more symmetrical shape in the P sub t plane.

  13. Evaluation and modeling of autonomous attitude thrust control for the Geostation Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forcey, W.; Minnie, C. R.; Defazio, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 experienced a series of orbital perturbations from autonomous attitude control thrusting before perigee raising maneuvers. These perturbations influenced differential correction orbital state solutions determined by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The maneuvers induced significant variations in the converged state vector for solutions using increasingly longer tracking data spans. These solutions were used for planning perigee maneuvers as well as initial estimates for orbit solutions used to evaluate the effectiveness of the perigee raising maneuvers. This paper discusses models for the incorporation of attitude thrust effects into the orbit determination process. Results from definitive attitude solutions are modeled as impulsive thrusts in orbit determination solutions created for GOES-8 mission support. Due to the attitude orientation of GOES-8, analysis results are presented that attempt to absorb the effects of attitude thrusting by including a solution for the coefficient of reflectivity, C(R). Models to represent the attitude maneuvers are tested against orbit determination solutions generated during real-time support of the GOES-8 mission. The modeling techniques discussed in this investigation offer benefits to the remaining missions in the GOES NEXT series. Similar missions with large autonomous attitude control thrusting, such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft and the INTELSAT series, may also benefit from these results.

  14. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  15. Mercury's global fabric of thrust faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury's global tectonic history is thought to have been shaped by two major processes: tidal despinning and global contraction. Each process is expected to have produced a distinctive global stress field and resultant fault pattern. Data from three years of orbital operations by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft reveal thousands of thrust faults that are attributed to global contraction, but no global signature of tidal despinning has been conclusively documented. Global contraction operated throughout an extended portion of Mercury's geologic history, whereas tidal despinning likely operated for a shorter duration. Therefore, any tidal despinning pattern, if not entirely obliterated by the late heavy bombardment, either would have formed together with global contraction, or would have been modified by global contraction after despinning was complete. Here, we reassess global fracture patterns predicted to result from tidal despinning alone, and from a combination of tidal despinning and global contraction. We specifically make use of rock strength and deformability parameters appropriate for Mercury's fractured lithosphere. Our results indicate that a tidal despinning pattern would consist only of a global set of opening-mode fractures (joints) in the upper part of the lithosphere, whereas the combination of tidal despinning and global contraction would have produced a global population of thrust faults, with no preferred orientations in the polar regions but with an increasing preference for north-south orientations toward the equator. If an equatorial bulge from an early state of rapid spin were supported by Mercury's lithosphere, two end-member scenarios for the timing and duration of these two processes can be considered. In one, tidal despinning predated global contraction; in the other, tidal despinning and global contraction temporally overlapped. We test the predictions for both scenarios against the mapped distribution and orientations of Mercury's tectonic landforms. The global pattern of thrust faults is generally consistent with predictions for the scenario under which tidal despinning and global contraction temporally overlapped.

  16. Experimental techniques for evaluating steady-state jet engine performance in an altitude facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Young, C. Y.; Antl, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Jet engine calibration tests were conducted in an altitude facility using a contoured bellmouth inlet duct, four fixed-area water-cooled exhaust nozzles, and an accurately calibrated thrust measuring system. Accurate determination of the airflow measuring station flow coefficient, the flow and thrust coefficients of the exhaust nozzles, and the experimental and theoretical terms in the nozzle gross thrust equation were some of the objectives of the tests. A primary objective was to develop a technique to determine gross thrust for the turbojet engine used in this test that could also be used for future engine and nozzle evaluation tests. The probable error in airflow measurement was found to be approximately 0.6 percent at the bellmouth throat design Mach number of 0.6. The probable error in nozzle gross thrust measurement was approximated 0.6 percent at the load cell full-scale reading.

  17. Annihilation of angular momentum drift during spinning-up and thrusting maneuvers of rigid bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, J. M.; Kia, T.; Breckenridge, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    A very simple, yet accurate, heuristic solution for the spiral path of the angular momentum vector during spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of rigid body spacecraft is presented. A two-burn scheme is proposed consisting of a burn, a coast, and a second burn of the spin thruster. The appropriate burn times are found by a transcendental equation similar to Kepler's equation. Numerical results verify the accuracy of the burn, coast, and burn times given by closed form expressions. The scheme can also be applied to the problem of axial thrusting during constant spin.

  18. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  19. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  20. Entrainment and mixing in thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, L.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector flows has been conducted. Measurements of the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean velocity, turbulent intensities and Reynolds stresses were made in two shroud geometries at various primary nozzle pressure ratios. The effects of shroud geometry and primary nozzle pressure ratio on the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean flow field and turbulent field were determined. From these measurements the evolution of mixing within the shroud of the primary flow and entrained fluid was obtained. The relationship between the mean flow field, the turbulent field and the shroud surface pressure distribution is discussed.

  1. Why are most subduction thrusts weak?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Brown, K. M.; Underwood, M. B.

    2003-04-01

    Many subduction thrusts are dominated by clay phases, with illite being particularly important in the deeper part towards the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. During ongoing work on the impact of fault mineralogy and regional excess fluid pressure on the development of low resolved shear stresses on the plate boundary thrust, we find that illite as well as other clays have low friction coefficients of <0.25 at effective stress levels up to 40 MPa. The latter encompasses much of the expected range of the seismogenic subduction thrust, and clearly these low intrinsic mineral strengths contribute to the extreme weakness of the fault. Here we examine the physico-chemical origins of this weakness as well as the impact of increasing pore pressure transients. We performed a variety of direct shear tests on purified clay mineral standards at different humidity in the shear box (dry [effectively 0%] to 98% humidity) as well as water saturation at a range of salinities (de-ionized to brine [1.5x SW salinity]). For initially dry illite we observe a strong decrease in frictional coefficient from dry to 98% humidity by a factor of ~2. Full saturation results in a further ~2x reduction in frictional strength. Other clays respond similarly although the levels of reduction in strength vary. The origins of the strength reduction most probably lie in the properties of the hydration layer on the variously charged surfaces of the different minerals (double layer effects). Salinity changes causing 2nd order changes in frictional strength support this view. Thus, physico-chemical effects appear important in controlling the frictional properties of the clay silicate phases entering the upper and intermediate regions of the seismogenic zone at subduction zones such as Nankai (at least at shear stresses up to 40 MPa). Expected down dip reductions in excess fluid pressure and progressive clay diagenesis will increase the effective normal stress and frictional resistance as the critical depth of the up-dip limit of the seismogenic zone is approached. However, the general weakness of the clay mineral phases limits the maximum shear strength of the subduction thrust to low levels. Our data do not support the contention that the smectite-to-illite reaction is directly responsible for the onset of seismogenic behavior in any of the studied subduction systems (Nankai, Costa Rica) because both smectite and illite have low friction coefficients and tend to velocity strengthen.

  2. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  3. Thrust Performance of a Low Power Hall Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoji; Ezaki, Toru; Nakashima, Hideki

    For the application of Hall thrusters to small satellites, we have been developing a low power Hall thruster. As an initial test, we evaluated the thrust performance of a 50 W class miniature Hall thruster developed at Kyushu University. The outer diameter and the length of the acceleration channel are 18 mm and 7 mm, respectively. A torsional type thrust stand was developed, since the estimated thrust is 1-3 mN, which is too small to be measured by means of a conventional pendulum type thrust stand for Hall thrusts. The uncertainty of this thrust stand is less than 10% at 2 mN with calibration. The thrust, the discharge current, specific impulse and the thrust efficiency at xenon mass flow rate of 0.30 mg/s and discharge voltage of 125 V were 1.7 mN, 0.35 A, 600 sec and 11.4%, respectively. The thrust increased with an increase in discharge voltage and the thrust became 3.1 mN at discharge voltage of 250 V.

  4. High-power, null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kunning G; Walker, Mitchell L R

    2009-05-01

    This article presents the theory and operation of a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand. The thrust stand design supports thrusters having a total mass up to 250 kg and measures thrust over a range of 1 mN to 5 N. The design uses a conventional inverted pendulum to increase sensitivity, coupled with a null-type feature to eliminate thrust alignment error due to deflection of thrust. The thrust stand position serves as the input to the null-circuit feedback control system and the output is the current to an electromagnetic actuator. Mechanical oscillations are actively damped with an electromagnetic damper. A closed-loop inclination system levels the stand while an active cooling system minimizes thermal effects. The thrust stand incorporates an in situ calibration rig. The thrust of a 3.4 kW Hall thruster is measured for thrust levels up to 230 mN. The uncertainty of the thrust measurements in this experiment is +/-0.6%, determined by examination of the hysteresis, drift of the zero offset and calibration slope variation. PMID:19485530

  5. Propane-Fueled Jet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwell, D. A.; Svenson, A. J.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2001-04-01

    We present our recent efforts to design, construct, and test a gas turbine, or jet, engine. Our design utilizes a turbocharger and ignition system from an automobile, and a flame tube/reaction chamber unit fabricated by hand from stainless steel. Once the engine is running, it is completely self-sustaining as long as there is a fuel supply, which in our case is propane. Air is forced into the intake where it is compressed and then injected into the combustion chamber where it is mixed with propane. The spark plugs ignite the air-propane mixture which burns to produce thrust at the exhaust. We have performed operational tests under different environmental conditions and with several turbochargers. We are currently working on adding a lubrication system to the engine, and will discuss our plan to experiment with the reaction chamber and flame tube design in an effort to improve performance and efficiency. *Corresponding author: rex@uakron.edu

  6. Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 2; Normal Velocity Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, M. D.; Morris, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Instability waves have been established as noise generators in supersonic jets. Recent analysis of these slowly diverging jets has shown that these instability waves radiate noise to the far field when the waves have components with phase velocities that are supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. This instability wave noise generation model has been applied to supersonic jets with a single shear layer and is now applied to supersonic coaxial jets with two initial shear layers. In this paper the case of coaxial jets with normal velocity profiles is considered, where the inner jet stream velocity is higher than the outer jet stream velocity. To provide mean flow profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is used to calculate the mean flow properties. Calculations are made for the stability characteristics in the coaxial jet shear layers and the noise radiated from the instability waves for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow and exit area as a single reference jet. The effects of changes in the velocity ratio, the density ratio and the area ratio are each considered independently.

  7. Multiple Mode Actuation of a Turbulent Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    2001-01-01

    The effects of multiple mode periodic excitation on the evolution of a circular turbulent jet were studied experimentally. A short, wide-angle diffuser was attached to the jet exit. Streamwise and cross-stream excitations were introduced at the junction between the jet exit and the diffuser inlet on opposing sides of the jet. The introduction of high amplitude, periodic excitation in the streamwise direction enhances the mixing and promotes attachment of the jet shear-layer to the diffuser wall. Cross-stream excitation applied over a fraction of the jet circumference can deflect the jet away from the excitation slot. The two modes of excitation were combined using identical frequencies and varying the relative phase between the two actuators in search of an optimal response. It is shown that, for low and moderate periodic momentum input levels, the jet deflection angles depend strongly on the relative phase between the two actuators. Optimum performance is achieved when the phase difference is pi +/- pi/6. The lower effectiveness of the equal phase excitation is attributed to the generation of an azimuthally symmetric mode that does not produce the required non-axisymmetric vectoring. For high excitation levels, identical phase becomes more effective, while phase sensitivity decreases. An important finding was that with proper phase tuning, two unsteady actuators can be combined to obtain a non-linear response greater than the superposition of the individual effects.

  8. Thrust Augmentation of a Turbojet Engine at Simulated Flight Conditions by Introduction of a Water-Alcohol Mixture into the Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W.; Auble, Carmon M.; Harvey, Ray W., Sr.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at simulated high-altitude flight conditions to evaluate the use of compressor evaporative cooling as a means of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation. Comparison of the performance of the engine with water-alcohol injection at the compressor inlet, at the sixth stage of the compressor, and at the sixth and ninth stages was made. From consideration of the thrust increases achieved, the interstage injection of the coolant was considered more desirable preferred over the combined sixth- and ninth-stage injection because of its relative simplicity. A maximum augmented net-thrust ratio of 1.106 and a maximum augmented jet-thrust ratio of 1.062 were obtained at an augmented liquid ratio of 2.98 and an engine-inlet temperature of 80 F. At lower inlet temperatures (-40 to 40 F), the maximum augmented net-thrust ratios ranged from 1.040 to 1.076 and the maximum augmented jet-thrust ratios ranged from 1.027 to 1.048, depending upon the inlet temperature. The relatively small increase in performance at the lower inlet-air temperatures can be partially attributed to the inadequate evaporation of the water-alcohol mixture, but the more significant limitation was believed to be caused by the negative influence of the liquid coolant on engine- component performance. In general, it is concluded that the effectiveness of the injection of a coolant into the compressor as a means of thrust augmentation is considerably influenced by the design characteristics of the components of the engine being used.

  9. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batakis, A. P.; Vogan, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to generate data and develop analytical techniques to predict the performance and reliability of ceramic thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments. A finite element model was used to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of coating systems in rocket thrust chambers. Candidate coating systems (using a copper substrate, NiCrAlY bond coat and ZrO2.8Y2O3 ceramic overcoat) were selected for detailed study based on photomicrographic evaluations of experimental test specimens. The effects of plasma spray application parameters on the material properties of these coatings were measured and the effects on coating performance evaluated using the finite element model. Coating design curves which define acceptable operating envelopes for seleted coating systems were constructed based on temperature and strain limitations. Spray gun power levels was found to have the most significant effect on coating structure. Three coating systems were selected for study using different power levels. Thermal conductivity, strain tolerance, density, and residual stress were measured for these coatings. Analyses indicated that extremely thin coatings ( 0.02 mm) are required to accommodate the high heat flux of a rocket thrust chamber and ensure structural integrity.

  10. Intraplate thrusting near the Easter microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusby, R. I.; Searle, R. C.

    1993-04-01

    GLORIA long-range sidescan sonar images from a region of the Nazca plate immediately to the north of the Easter microplate have revealed a prominent series of anomalous ridges. These extend from lat 22°S, long 114°W, near the East Pacific Rise, to 23°S, 112°W, near Pito, deep at the northeast corner of the microplate. They are 20 to 50 km long and trend east-west, subparallel to the Pacific-Nazca spreading direction. Swath bathymetric data indicate that the ridges dip steeply to the south and gently to the north, and in places reliefs exceed 1 km. Earthquake focal mechanisms and predicted plate motions point to thrust faulting as the most likely mechanism for producing these ridges, and their morphology suggests that the crust to the north has over-ridden that to the south. The Nazca-Easter Euler pole predicts a maximum present-day convergence of about 50 km/m.y. at the western end of the Easter microplate's northern boundary, and we estimate that about one-third of this has been taken up by the intraplate thrusts during the past 2.5 m.y.

  11. Experimental Results of Schlicher's Thrusting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the claims by Rex L. Schlicher, et al., (Patent 5,142,86 1) that a certain antenna geometry produces thrust greatly exceeding radiation reaction, when driven by repetitive, fast rise, and relatively slower decay current pulses. In order to test this hypothesis, the antenna was suspended by strings as a 3 in pendulum. Current pulses were fed to the antenna along the suspension path by a very flexible coaxial line constructed from loudspeaker cable and copper braid sheath. When driving the antenna via this cabling, our pulser was capable of sustaining 1200 A pulses at a rate of 30 per second up to a minute. In this way, bursts of pulses could be delivered in synch with the pendulum period in order to build up any motion. However, when using a laser beam passing through a lens attached to the antenna to amplify linear displacement by a factor of at least 25, no correlated motion of the beam spot could be detected on a distant wall. We conclude, in agreement with the momentum theorem of classical electromagnetic theory, that any thrust produced is far below practically useful levels. Hence, within classical electrodynamics, there is little hope of detecting any low level motion that cannot be explained by interactions with surrounding structural steel and the Earth's magnetic field.

  12. OMV/VTE variable thrust engine analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosillere, Louis; Litchford, Ron; Jeng, San-Mou

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a predictive CFD based analytical tool for the variable thrust engine (VTE) in the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). This objective is being accomplished within the framework of the Los Alamos KIVA computer code for chemically reactive flows with sprays. For the OMV application, the main structure of KIVA is to be retained while reformulating many of the phenomenological submodels, enhancing some of the numerics, and adding more features. The analytical model consists of the general conservation equations for two phase reactive flows and of submodels for turbulence, chemical reactions, and bipropellant sprays. Tailoring this model to the OMV engine brings about the added complexities of combustion and flow processes that occur in a liquid hypergolic propellant rocket chamber. This report exposes the foundation upon which the analytical tool is being constructed and developed. Results from a cursory computational exercise involving the simulation of the flow and combustion processes in a hypothetical N2H4/N2O4 rocket engine thrust chamber is presented and discussed.

  13. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  14. Fluid storage and transport in thrust belts: the Gavarnie Thrust system revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    There has been renewed interest in the pressure and movement of fluids in thrust systems in recent years with the discovery and increasing importance of slow slip earthquakes. Unfortunately the overpressured regime thought to be the source region for both normal and slow-slip earthquakes is inaccessible to direct observation, so information about the actual water content, flow regimes and permeability structure at the time of thrusting can only be obtained in exhumed rocks. The Gavarnie Thrust System in the Pyrenees (including the immediate footwall of the thrust and overlying thrust sheets) is exceptionally well studied in terms of structural and microstructural work, fluid inclusions, and isotopic tracing of fluid flow. Southward thrusting by 12-15 km occurred during the Eocene, and the current geometry of the thrust is a broad dome, allowing sampling at many locations. There is abundant evidence for near-lithostatic fluid pressures at depths of 8-15 km in the crust and temperatures of 300-400 °C, and fluids at these levels are dominated by hypersaline brines with Cl/Br ratios indicating evaporation of seawater. They are inferred to be derived from widespread Triassic evaporates, and stored in underlying redbeds and fractured basement rocks. There is also evidence from fluid inclusions for periodic pressure cycling down to near-hydrostatic values. This is thought to be related to co-seismic fault valve behaviour with release of fluid both into the shallow thrust and into steeply dipping shear zones in the hangingwall. Isotopic studies of carbonate mylonites along the Gavarnie thrust indicate unidirectional southward (structurally upward) flow of fluid , again probably mainly during transient veining events. These relatively slow moving fluids appear to have fed into a hydrostatic regime with topographically driven flow at higher levels. If time averaged permeability was high, most of the fluid would have rapidly escaped, since there is little opportunity to replenish fluid by metamorphic dehydration in the Pyrenees. This does not appear to have occurred, suggesting that any enhanced permeability events were shortlived and perhaps form patches of limited size. Fluid can be stored at various scales: in fluid inclusions in vein minerals and on grain boundaries (eg. pressure shadows in cleaved rocks); in veins and pull-aparts in competent layers such as dolomite within calcite mylonites; and in structural culminations such as the Pic de Port Vieux, where development of fold-thrust structures allowed slow dilation with evidence from fluid inclusions for influx of fluid from both footwall and hangingwall. This latter can be considered a dynamic form of storage generated by deviatoric stress and strain at high fluid pressure (not "hydraulic fracture"), whereas fluid inclusions can be considered passive storage. Stored fluid in such sites can be expelled during seismic events (both slow and fast slip) where the pressure regime in large volumes of crust will change dramatically.

  15. Supersonic Coaxial Jets: Noise Predictions and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Papamoschou, Dimitri; Hixon, Ray

    1998-01-01

    The noise from perfectly expanded coaxial jets was measured in an anechoic chamber for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The shape of the measured noise spectrum at different angles to the jet axis was found to agree with spectral shapes for single, axisymmetric jets. Based on these spectra, the sound was characterized as being generated by large turbulent structures or fine-scale turbulence. Modeling the large scale structures as instability waves, a stability analysis was conducted for the coaxial jets to identify the growing and decaying instability waves in each shear layer and predict their noise radiation pattern outside the jet. When compared to measured directivity, the analysis identified the region downstream of the outer potential core, where the two shear layers were merging, as the source of the peak radiated noise where instability waves, with their origin in the inner shear layer, reach their maximum amplitude. Numerical computations were also performed using a linearized Euler equation solver. Those results were compared to both the results from the instability wave analysis and to measured data.

  16. Reconciling Himalayan midcrustal discontinuities: The Main Central thrust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kyle P.; Ambrose, Tyler K.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Cottle, John M.; Shrestha, Sudip

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of thrust-sense tectonometamorphic discontinuities within the exhumed Himalayan metamorphic core can be explained as part of the Main Central thrust system. This imbricate thrust structure, which significantly thickened the orogenic midcrustal core, comprises a series of thrust-sense faults that all merge into a single detachment. The existence of these various structures, and their potential for complex overprinting along the main detachment, may help explain the contention surrounding the definition, mapping, and interpretation of the Main Central thrust. The unique evolution of specific segments of the Main Central thrust system along the orogen is interpreted to be a reflection of the inherent basement structure and ramp position, and structural level of exposure of the mid-crust. This helps explain the variation in the timing and structural position of tectonometamorphic discontinuities along the length of the mountain belt.

  17. A 3-D Model of Stacked Thrusts in the Sevier Thrust Belt, Eastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Clayton, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Using published and new geologic map data and two exploratory wells for control, we constructed a three-dimensional geological model of the Pine Creek area in the Big Hole Mountains of eastern Idaho, where stacked Sevier thrust sheets are exposed at the surface. In this area, Cretaceous crustal shortening displaced and folded strata from Cambrian to Cretaceous in age. Using geologic map data as a primary input to a 3-D model presents a number of challenges, especially representing fault geometries at depth and maintaining strata thicknesses. The highly variable attitudes measured at the surface are also difficult to represent in a subsurface model because they require extensive extrapolation to depth. To overcome these challenges we EarthVision software, which has tools for model construction with minimal data inputs and uses a minimum tension algorithm to create geologically realistic surfaces. We also constructed two primary cross-sections to constrain strata and fault geometries according to structural principles, and used these to guide construction of fault and horizon surfaces. We then designated horizons with the best control as reference horizons to constrain strata geometries, and built the remaining horizons using isochores to add or subtract from those surfaces. The model shows classic flat-ramp thrust geometries as seen farther southeast in the Wyoming section of the thrust belt. The model also shows uniform southwestward tilting of faults and strata in the north end above younger thrusts, but strong effects from a duplex on a younger thrust fault encountered in the southern well, which rotated the strata and older faults above it.

  18. Applications of Effective Field Theory Techniques to Jet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Simon M.

    In this thesis we study jet production at large energies from leptonic collisions. We use the framework of effective theories of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) to examine the properties of jets and systematically improve calculations. We first develop a new formulation of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the appropriate effective theory for jets. In this formulation, soft and collinear degrees of freedom are described using QCD fields that interact with each other through light-like Wilson lines in external currents. This formulation gives a more intuitive picture of jet processes than the traditional formulation of SCET. In particular, we show how the decoupling of soft and collinear degrees of freedom that occurs at leading order in power counting is explicit to next-to-leading order and likely beyond. We then use this formulation to write the thrust rate in a factorized form at next-to-leading order in the thrust parameter. The rate involves an incomplete sum over final states due to phase space cuts that is enforced by a measurement operator. Subleading corrections require matching onto not only the next-to-next-to leading order SCET operators, but also matching onto subleading measurement operators. We derive the appropriate hard, jet, and soft functions and show they reproduce the expected subleading thrust rate. Next, we renormalize the next-to-leading order dijet operators used for the subleading thrust rate. Constraints on matching coefficients from current conservation and reparametrization invariance are shown. We also discuss the subtleties involved in regulating the infrared divergences of the individual loop diagrams in order to extract the ultraviolet divergences. The results can be used to increase the theoretical precision of the thrust rate. Finally, we study the (exclusive) k_perp and C/A jet algorithms in SCET. Regularizing the virtualites and rapidities of the individual graphs, we are able to write the order(alpha_s) dijet cross section as the product of separate hard, jet, and soft contributions. We show how to reproduce the Sudakov form factor to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy previously calculated by the coherent branching formalism. Our result only depends on the running of the hard function, and we comment that regularizing rapidities is not necessary in this case.

  19. Applications of Effective Field Theory Techniques to Jet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Simon M.

    In this thesis we study jet production at large energies from leptonic collisions. We use the framework of effective theories of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) to examine the properties of jets and systematically improve calculations. We first develop a new formulation of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the appropriate effective theory for jets. In this formulation, soft and collinear degrees of freedom are described using QCD fields that interact with each other through light-like Wilson lines in external currents. This formulation gives a more intuitive picture of jet processes than the traditional formulation of SCET. In particular, we show how the decoupling of soft and collinear degrees of freedom that occurs at leading order in power counting is explicit to next-to-leading order and likely beyond. We then use this formulation to write the thrust rate in a factorized form at next-to-leading order in the thrust parameter. The rate involves an incomplete sum over final states due to phase space cuts that is enforced by a measurement operator. Subleading corrections require matching onto not only the next-to-next-to leading order SCET operators, but also matching onto subleading measurement operators. We derive the appropriate hard, jet, and soft functions and show they reproduce the expected subleading thrust rate. Next, we renormalize the next-to-leading order dijet operators used for the subleading thrust rate. Constraints on matching coefficients from current conservation and reparametrization invariance are shown. We also discuss the subtleties involved in regulating the infrared divergences of the individual loop diagrams in order to extract the ultraviolet divergences. The results can be used to increase the theoretical precision of the thrust rate. Finally, we study the (exclusive) k⊥ and C/A jet algorithms in SCET. Regularizing the virtualities and rapidities of the individual graphs, we are able to write the O(alpha s) dijet cross section as the product of separate hard, jet, and soft contributions. We show how to reproduce the Sudakov form factor to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy previously calculated by the coherent branching formalism. Our result only depends on the running of the hard function, and we comment that regularizing rapidities is not necessary in this case.

  20. Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

  1. Synchronous and velocity-partitioned thrusting and thrust polarity reversal in experimentally produced, doubly-vergent thrust wedges: Implications for natural orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storti, Fabrizio; Salvini, Francesco; McClay, Ken

    2000-04-01

    A sandbox analog modeling research program was used to study the detailed evolution of doubly-vergent thrust wedges. High-resolution multilayers of thin alternating sand and mica layers were used in contractional Coulomb wedge experiments to simulate deformation of anisotropic, brittle upper crustal strata in doubly-vergent orogens. Experiments incorporating syntectonic sedimentation in foreland basins and in piggyback basins were also carried out. Our laboratory models evolved in two main stages: (1) initial high-velocity thrusting in the retrowedge and high-frequency together with low displacement folding and thrusting in the prowedge; and (2) low-frequency, high-displacement synchronous thrusting in the prowedge and low-velocity thrusting in the retrowedge. Transition from stage I to stage II occurred when the growing wedges reached the critical height at which they behaved as a backstop for further prowedge accretion. Addition of syntectonic sediments increased the persistence of stage I and triggered out-of-sequence thrusting in the axial zone of the experimental orogens. Thrust motion was stick-slip. Retrovergent thrusting occurred along a long-lived ramp whose lower tip was located at the subduction slot. Provergent kink bands nucleated at the subduction slot in stage I. In contrast, during the second stage of wedge evolution, kink bands nucleated in a piggyback fashion in the foreland far from the subduction slot and then evolved into high-displacement faults that remained active up until the end of the experiments, at progressively decreasing rates of thrusting. The axial zones of the model wedges were characterized by fast uplift rates during stage I due to backward translation of the belt along the retrovergent, long-lived ramp and due to the localization of deformation close to the subduction slot. Outward migration of the deformation front in the prowedge region during stage II caused the progressive decrease in the rate of the wedge uplift, until it eventually stopped. Analytical models to quantify the Coulomb behavior in the wedges validated the reversal of thrust polarity with increasing shortening, triggered by the buildup of the topographic load during deformation. This thrust polarity reversal highlights problems with the classic concept of back thrusting as a reflection of a significant change in the deformation regime. Our results compare well with the kinematic evolution of natural accretionary prisms and of thrust-and-fold belts such as the Lesser Antilles Arc System, the Mediterranean Ridge, and the Pyrenees.

  2. [Lifting-thrusting and rotating manipulations: a comparison on energy input].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-ming

    2011-01-01

    Through the energy input model of lifting-thrusting and rotating manipulations, using the theory of energy density, energy flux density and sound intensity level in physics, the average energy flux intensity and frequency distributions of average poynting's vector were calculated respectively within the range of infrasound. According to the distribution table, it was discovered that both of the energy flux density and sound intensity level during the process of acupuncture were high. And it was concluded that the essence of meridians was probably fascial tissues which were rich in elastic fibers and collagenous fibers. The heat-producing needling with reinforcing effect (setting the moutain on fire) which focused on forceful thrusting was held to be the result of the action of same position solitary wave. And the coolness-producing needling with reducing effect (thorough heavenly cool) emphasized on the manipulation of forceful lifting was considered as the action of opposite position solitary wave. The energy input of lifting-thrusting manipulation is comparatively larger than the rotating method, however without significant difference. The speed of manipulations applied is regarded to have greater impact on energy transmission. And the energy produced by rotating manipulation can be better transmitted through meridians. PMID:21355164

  3. Thrust Enhancement in Hypervelocity Nozzles by Chemical Catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, D. J.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Drummond, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    In the hypersonic flight regime, the air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) has been shown to be a viable propulsion system. The current designs of scramjet engines provide performance benefits only up to a Mach number of 14. Performance losses increase rapidly as the Mach number increases. To extend the applicability of scram'jets beyond Mach 14, research is being conducted in the area of inlet and wave drag reduction, skin-friction and heat-transfer reduction, nozzle loss minimization, low-loss mixing, and combustion enhancement. For high Mach number applications, hydrogen is the obvious fuel choice because of its high energy content per unit mass in comparison with conventional fuels. These flight conditions require engines to operate at supersonic internal velocities, high combustor temperatures, and low static pressures. The high static temperature condition enhances the production of radicals such as H and OH, and the low-pressure condition slows the reaction rates, particularly the recombination reactions. High-temperature and low-pressure constraints, in combination with a small residence time, result in a radical-rich exhaust gas mixture exiting the combustor. At high Mach number conditions (due to low residence time), H and OH do not have enough time to recombine ; thus, a significant amount of energy is lost as these high-energy free radical are exhausted. The objective of the present study is to conduct a flowfield analysis for a typical nozzle geometry for NASP-type vehicle to assess for thrust enhancement in hypervelocity nozzles by substituting small amount of phosphine for hydrogen.

  4. Transient three-dimensional side-loads analysis of a thrust-optimized parabolic nozzle during staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ruyan; Jiang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this effort is to numerically investigate side-loads and correlative flow physics of a thrust-optimized parabolic nozzle during the fire-in-the-hole staging event. The three-dimension transient flow in nozzle is examined by the time-accurate numerical method with time-varying chamber pressure and separation gap width. The main properties (amplitude, phase position and frequency) of computed side-loads were also analyzed. The ordinary nozzle flow separation patterns, free shock separation (FSS) and restricted shock separation (RSS), were obtained. The transition processes from FSS to RSS and finally full flow during staging event were specially emphasized. As the simulation results presented, two types of asymmetric flow physics incur strong side-loads: random transition between FSS and partial quasi-RSS due to fish tailing effect of the supersonic jet, axial flow oscillation across the nozzle lip due to relative movement between supersonic jet and front edge of the lower stage. Side-loads caused by fish tailing effect and lip oscillation have equivalent maximum amplitudes but almost perpendicular directions, while the frequency of the former is much higher than that of the latter. The side-loads due to asymmetric flow separation in the thrust-optimized parabolic nozzle are significantly intensified by the obstruction of the lower-stage dome during the staging event. Therefore, the side-loads influence should be carefully considered in advanced upper-stage nozzle of thrust-optimized parabolic contour when involving with staging.

  5. Active Dual Thrust Modulation of a Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masafumi; Yokomine, Yasushi

    Based on a combustion characteristic that some propellants cannot burn in an intermediate pressure range while they can burn at lower and higher pressure, an active thrust modulation system was developed. The motor changed its thrust in dual combustion mode. It chose alternately high and low thrusts during combustion. The transitions from the low mode to the high mode were attained by a secondary ignition system, and those from the high mode to the low mode were done by a brief gas release system. Up to three times mode transitions were successfully demonstrated. Required time for the mode transitions and the effects of the thrust modulations on the thrust performance were evaluated. On the present motor scale, the transition time from the low mode to the high mode ranged from 0.12 s to 0.23 s, and that from the high mode to the low mode was from 0.19 s to 0.38 s. The thrust variable range was adjustable by the throat area. The ratio of the low-mode thrust to the high mode thrust was variable from 3 to 5. Specific impulse was decreased from 195 s to 175 s, when the number of thrust modulations was increased.

  6. Some effects of cyclic induced deformation in rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, N. P.; Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A test program to investigate the deformation process observed in the hot gas wall of rocket thrust chambers was conducted using three different liner materials. Five thrust chambers were cycled to failure using hydrogen and oxygen as propellants at a chamber pressure of 4.14 MN/m square (600 psia). The deformation was observed nondestructively at midlife points and destructively after failure occurred. The cyclic life results are presented with an accompanying discussion about the types of failure encountered. Data indicating the deformation of the thrust chamber liner as cycles are accumulated are presented for each of the test thrust chambers.

  7. Unsteady thrust measurement techniques for pulse detonation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Dibesh Dhoj

    Thrust is a critical performance parameter and its correct determination is necessary to characterize an engine. Many conventional thrust measurement techniques prevail. However, further developments are required for correct measurement of thrust in the case of a pulse detonation engine (PDE), since the entire thrust generation process is intermittent. The significant effect of system dynamics in the form of inertial forces, stress wave propagation and reflections initiated in the structure due to detonations and pulse-to-pulse interaction in a fast operating PDE further complicate the thrust measurement process. These complications call for a further, detailed study of the unsteady thrust characteristics. A general approach was first developed to recover actual thrust from the measured thrust generated by the PDE. The developed approach consisted of two steps. The first step incorporated a deconvolution procedure using a pre-established system transfer function and measured input to reconstruct the output yielding the deconvolved thrust. The second step accounted for inertial forces through an acceleration compensation procedure. These two steps allowed the actual thrust to be determined. A small scale PDE operating at 10 and 20 Hz with varied filling fractions and mixture equivalence ratios was used for the experimental application of the general approach. The analytical study of gas dynamics in the PDE while in operation and the measured pressure histories at the exit of the engine allowed the generated thrust during a cycle to be determined semi-empirically. The thrust values determined semi-empirically were compared against the experimental results. A dynamical model of the PDE was created for the study of the unsteady thrust characteristics using finite element analysis. The results from finite element analysis were compared against semi-empirical and experimental results. In addition, finite element analysis also facilitated to numerically determine the unsteady thrust generated by the PDE at higher operating frequencies of 50 and 100 Hz. The actual thrust estimated experimentally, semi-empirically and numerically were expressed in the form of specific impulse for comparison. The results obtained via semi-empirical method and finite element analysis were found to be in good agreement with each other. However, the results obtained experimentally were slightly lower than the other two. Finally, the results obtained in this research work were also compared against the findings reported in literature. The comparison gave satisfying results. The developed general approach used to recover actual thrust generated by a PDE was also used to recover actual aerodynamic drag experienced by a blunt nose cone model in a nominal Mach 8-9 flow. The limited validation against modified Newtonian theory was provided as the results obtained after applying the developed approach matched the predicted values.

  8. Nanonewton thrust measurement of photon pressure propulsion using semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, K.; Akazawa, Taku; Ohtsuka, Tomohiro; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the thrust produced by photon pressure emitted from a 100 W class continuous-wave semiconductor laser, a torsion-balance precise thrust stand is designed and tested. Photon emission propulsion using semiconductor light sources attract interests as a possible candidate for deep-space propellant-less propulsion and attitude control system. However, the thrust produced by photon emission as large as several ten nanonewtons requires precise thrust stand. A resonant method is adopted to enhance the sensitivity of the biflier torsional-spring thrust stand. The torsional spring constant and the resonant of the stand is 1.245 × 10-3 Nm/rad and 0.118 Hz, respectively. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The thrust efficiency for photon propulsion was also defined. A maximum thrust of 499 nN was produced by the laser with 208 W input power (75 W of optical output) corresponding to a thrust efficiency of 36.7%. The minimum detectable thrust of the stand was estimated to be 2.62 nN under oscillation at a frequency close to resonance.

  9. Spreading Characteristics of Compressible Jets from Nozzles of Various Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    The spreading characteristics of jets from several asymmetric nozzles, and a set of rectangular orifices are compared, covering a jet Mach number range of 0.3-2.0. The effect of 'tabs' for a rectangular and a round nozzle is also included in the comparison. Compared to a round jet, the jets from the asymmetric nozzles spread only slightly more at subsonic conditions whereas at supersonic conditions, when 'screech' occurs, they spread much more. The dynamics of the azimuthal vortical structures of the jet, organized and intensified under the screeching condition, are thought to be responsible for the observed effect at supersonic conditions. Curiously, the jet from a 'lobed' nozzle spreads much less at supersonic condition compared to all other cases; this is due to the absence of screech with this nozzle. Screech stages inducing flapping, rather than varicose or helical, flow oscillation cause a more pronounced jet spreading. At subsonic conditions, only a slight increase in jet spreading with the asymmetric nozzles contrasts previous observations by others. The present results show that the spreading of most asymmetric jets is not much different from that of a round jet. This inference is further supported by data from the rectangular orifices. In fact, jets from the orifices with small aspect ratio (AR) exhibit virtually no increase in the spreading. A noticeable increase commences only when AR is larger than about 10. Thus, 'shear layer perimeter stretching', achieved with a larger AR for a given cross-sectional area of the orifice, by itself, proves to be a relatively inefficient mechanism for increasing jet spreading. In contrast, the presence of streamwise vortices or 'natural excitation' can cause a significant increase - effects that might explain the observations in the previous investigations. Thus far, the biggest increase in jet spreading is observed with the tabs. This is true in the subsonic regime, as well as in the supersonic regime, in spite of the fact that screech is eliminated by the tabs. The characteristic spreading of the tabbed jets is explained by the induced motion of the tab-generated streamwise vortex pairs. The tabs, however, incur thrust loss; the flow blockage and loss in thrust coefficient, vis-a-vis the spreading increase, are evaluated for various configurations.

  10. Thrust Removal Scheme for the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model Tested in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

  11. Jet lag

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Jet lag is a syndrome caused by disruption of the 'body clock', and affects most air travellers crossing five or more time zones; it is worse on eastward than on westward flights. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or minimise jet lag? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: hypnotics, lifestyle and environmental adaptations, and melatonin. PMID:24780537

  12. Operating limitations of high speed jet lubricated ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    A parametric study was performed with 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings having a nominal contact angle of 20 degrees. The bearings had either an inner- or an outer-race land riding cage, and lubrication was by recirculating oil jets which had either a single or dual orifice. Thrust load, speed, and lubricant flow rate were varied. Test results were compared with those previously reported and obtained from bearings of the same design which were under-race lubricated but run under the same conditions. Jet lubricated ball bearings were limited to speeds less than 2,500,000 DN, and bearings having inner-race land riding cages produced lower temperatures than bearings with outer-race land riding cages. For a given lubricant flow rate dual orifice jets produced lower bearing temperatures than single orifice jets, but under-race lubrication produced lower bearing temperatures under all conditions of operation with no apparent bearing speed limitation.

  13. Small centrifugal pumps for low thrust rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulbrandsen, N. C.; Furst, R. B.; Burgess, R. M.; Scheer, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a combined analytical and experimental investigation of low specific speed pumps for potential use as components of propellant feed systems for low thrust rocket engines. Shrouded impellers and open face impellers were tested in volute type and vaned diffuser type pumps. Full- and partial-emission diffusers and full- and partial-admission impellers were tested. Axial and radial loads, head and efficiency versus flow, and cavitation tests were conducted. Predicted performance of two pumps are compared when pumping water and liquid hydrogen. Detailed pressure loss and parasitic power values are presented for two pump configurations. Partial-emission diffusers were found to permit use of larger impeller and diffuser passages with a minimal performance penalty. Normal manufacturing tolerances were found to result in substantial power requirement variation with only a small pressure rise change. Impeller wear ring leakage was found to reduce pump pressure rise to an increasing degree as the pump flowrate was decreased.

  14. Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

  15. Thrust Production in a Mechanical Swimming Lamprey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    To develop a comprehensive model of lamprey locomotion, we use a robotic lamprey as a means of investigating the surface pressure and wake structure during swimming. A programmable microcomputer actuates 11 servomotors that produce a traveling wave along the length of the lamprey body. The waveform is based on the motion of the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), as described by Tytell and Lauder (2004) and kinematic studies of living lamprey. The amplitude of the phase-averaged surface pressure distribution along the centerline of the robot increases toward the tail, which is consistent with previous momentum balance experiments indicating that thrust is produced mainly at the tail. The phase relationship between the pressure signal and the vortex shedding from the tail is also examined. The project is supported by NIH CNRS Grant 1R01NS054271.

  16. Analysis of optimal and near-optimal continuous-thrust transfer problems in general circular orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kéchichian, Jean A.

    2009-09-01

    A pair of practical problems in optimal continuous-thrust transfer in general circular orbit is analyzed within the context of analytic averaging for rapid computations leading to near-optimal solutions. The first problem addresses the minimum-time transfer between inclined circular orbits by proposing an analytic solution based on a split-sequence strategy in which the equatorial inclination and node controls are done separately by optimally selecting the intermediate orbit size at the sequence switch point that results in the minimum-time transfer. The consideration of the equatorial inclination and node state variables besides the orbital velocity variable is needed to further account for the important J2 perturbation that precesses the orbit plane during the transfer, unlike the thrust-only case in which it is sufficient to consider the relative inclination and velocity variables thus reducing the dimensionality of the system equations. Further extensions of the split-sequence strategy with analytic J2 effect are thus possible for equal computational ease. The second problem addresses the maximization of the equatorial inclination in fixed time by adopting a particular thrust-averaging scheme that controls only the inclination and velocity variables, leaving the node at the mercy of the J2 precession, providing robust fast-converging codes that lead to efficient near-optimal solutions. Example transfers for both sets of problems are solved showing near-optimal features as far as transfer time is concerned, by directly comparing the solutions to "exact" purely numerical counterparts that rely on precision integration of the raw unaveraged system dynamics with continuously varying thrust vector orientation in three-dimensional space.

  17. Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 3; Inverted Velocity Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    The instability wave noise generation model is used to study the instability waves in the two shear layers of an inverted velocity profile, supersonic, coaxial jet and the noise radiated from the dominant wave. The inverted velocity profile jet has a high speed outer stream surrounding a low speed inner stream and the outer shear layer is always larger than the inner shear layer. The jet mean flows are calculated numerically. The operating conditions are chosen to exemplify the effect of the coaxial jet outer shear layer initial spreading rates. Calculations are made for the stability characteristics in the coaxial jet shear layers and the noise radiated from the instability waves for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow and exit area as a single reference jet. Results for inverted velocity profile jets indicate that relative maximum instability wave amplitudes and far field peak noise levels can be reduced from that of the reference jet by having higher spreading rates for the outer shear layer, low velocity ratios, and outer streams hotter than the inner stream.

  18. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends upon knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined which accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  19. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine's performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  20. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least-squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  1. Biomechanics of swimming in the pufferfish Diodon holocanthus: propulsive momentum enhancement is an adaptation for thrust production in an undulatory median and paired-fin swimmer.

    PubMed

    Blake, R W; Chan, K H S

    2011-12-01

    A form of large-amplitude elongated-body theory appropriate for the analysis of undulatory fins attached to a rigid body of elliptical section suggests a benefit due to momentum enhancement relative to the fins on their own. This theoretical prediction is experimentally confirmed for the first time. Theoretical momentum enhancement factors for Diodon holocanthus (2.2 and 2.7 for the median and pectoral fins, respectively) compared well to inferred thrust values determined from particle-image velocimetry (PIV) wake measurements (2.2-2.4 and 2.7-2.9). Caudal fin mean theoretical thrust was not significantly different from measured (PIV) values (n = 24, P > 0.05), implying no momentum enhancement. Pectoral-fin thrust was half that of the median and caudal fins due to high fin-jet angles, low circulation and momentum. Average total fin thrust and fish drag were not significantly different (n = 24, P > 0.05). Vortex rings generated by the fins were elliptical, with size dependent on fin chord and stroke amplitude. Hydrodynamic advantages (thrust enhancement at no cost to hydrodynamic efficiency, reduction of side forces minimizing energy wasting yawing motions and body drag) are probably common among rigid-bodied organisms propelled by undulatory fins. A trade-off between momentum enhancement and the rate of momentum generation (thrust force) sets a practical limit to the former. For small fins whilst momentum enhancement is high, absolute thrust is low. In addition, previously suggested limitations on thrust enhancement set by reductions in propulsive force associated with progressive reductions in fin wavelength are found to be biologically unrealistic. PMID:22141887

  2. The smallest man-made jet engine.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Samuel; Solovev, Alexander A; Harazim, Stefan M; Deneke, Christoph; Mei, Yong Feng; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2011-12-01

    The design of catalytic engines powered by chemical fuels is an exciting and emerging field in multidisciplinary scientific communities. Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled scientists to shrink the size of macroengines down to microscopic, but yet powerful, engines. Since a couple of years ago, we have reported our progress towards the control and application of catalytic microtubular engines powered by the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide fuel which produces a thrust of oxygen bubbles. Efforts were undertaken in our group to prove whether the fabrication of nanoscale jets is possible. Indeed, the smallest jet engine (600 nm in diameter and 1 picogram of weight) was synthesized based on heteroepitaxially grown layers. These nanojets are able to self-propel in hydrogen peroxide solutions and are promising for the realisation of multiple tasks. PMID:21898776

  3. Radiation from a double layer jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic radiation caused by two acoustic point sources located symmetrically on the sides of a double layer jet which produces a velocity discontinuity was examined, with attention given to the effect on the sound by the stream. Basic equations were defined in terms of wave propagation in the fluid in motion and a Fourier transformation. It was found that the radiation due to a point source on one side of the jet